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February 2018 / Monthly / Vol. I / Issue 14

A Symbroj Media Publication


Future of underground tunneling in India

Tunneling Special

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Main Topics of Conference • • • • • • • • • • •

Urban Mobility Culture, Promises and Challenges Urban Transport Planning and Commuting Integrated Multi-Model Transport Mass Rapid Transit Solutions Electro and Low-Carbon Mobility Intelligent Traffic Management & Safety Smart Parking Solutions IoT – Mobility Standards Supply Chain Logistics Big Data in Mobility Business Legal – Economic Coordination of Mobility Development

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Invitation • We invite nominated smart cities and present urban transport operators to share their mobility challenges and to find solutions. • We invite the private sector and solution providers to present its solutions, ideas and technologies for future urban mobility. • We invite research institutions and think tanks to present their findings and to provide insight on technological mobility services. • We invite citizens’ groups to speak about their needs and requirements for a livable environment. Registration open till 30th September, 2018. Registration will be on ‘first come first, serve’ basis. Limited seats available!

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13 Tunneling in India

18 Tunnel Boring

29 Mumbai

40 How does a train

– The Road Ahead

Machine: All about you must know

Metro: Lifeline of Mumbaikars

operator recover a failed CBTC train?


From the desk of Managing Editor


Editorial Advisory Board


Metro Rail News Editorial Calendar 2018


Status of Metro Rail Projects in India


News Highlights (January 2018)


Exclusive Media Interview: Chairman, Suretech Infrastructure


Exclusive Media Interview: Managing Director, Mandev Tubes


A common mobility card can help planners build a better public transport system


Metro, Mumbai and …The Middle Class


Live Tender Notices (Metro Project)

36 Meet India’s First Woman


Upcoming Industry Events

Geo-Carte Radar Technology Specialist


Metro & Railway Job Openings



Special Edition on Underground Tunneling

From the desk of Managing Editor

Dear Readers & Contributors, Greetings from Metro Rail News ! At present, China has become the largest and the fastest-growing constructor of tunnels in the world. In mid-west traffic construction, tunnel engineering has a great and an unprecedented development opportunity. The characteristics of tunnels include the large scale, complicated technology, wide impact, and high risk, which pose great challenges on the construction of tunnel projects. At the same time, the investigation, design, and construction process of tunnels are in a separating state to a certain degree, resulting in the construction of information that cannot be accessed, transferred, and reacted to timely, thus increasing the construction risk and costs. The insufficient information level of the survey, forecast information, and monitoring measurement data lead to various construction information that cannot be communicated, analyzed, and given feedback on timely and efficiently. Therefore, the comprehensive and efficient integration and the instant feedback of tunnel information have great importance in the high efficiency, safety, and economy of tunnel constructions, which possess different connotations and extensions in different development times. Since the Austrian civil engineer Rabcewice put forward the new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) in the 1940s, the tunnel construction technology, which proposes to make the most out of the self-bearing capacity of surrounding rock and integrated design, construction, and monitoring, has been a widely used theory of tunnel monitoring measurement. Meanwhile, the method of combining numerical simulation with measurement was also widely applied in information-based construction. The highly intelligent TMS (Tunnel Measurement System) was used in the Utley tunnel in Switzerland to maximize the measuring time, and it greatly improved the production efficiency and reduced costs. Tunnel engineering depends heavily on the control of construction information; therefore, it is imperative to improve the tunnel information construction. This issue relies on current tunneling work in various metro rail projects in India for the analysis of geological investigation, forecast, numerical simulation, and monitoring measurement, discussing the position and function of the different information in the tunnel construction, in order to provide a reference for the development of tunnel information construction systems. I would like to express my deepest appreciation to you, our valuable authors, reviewers, and readers, for your contributions, service, and interest. I highly appreciate your support and hope to continue our collaboration further. Mamta Shah Managing Editor E-mail:



EDITORIAL BOARD (February 2018)

Vol. I / Issue 14 | February 2018 Managing Editor Mamta Shah Group Editor Shashi Prabha

IFS (Retd.) Kishor Dudani Advocate, Ex. Dy. Secretary Ministry of External Affairs, Govt. of India New Delhi (India)

Director (Advertising) Narendra Shah

Sunil Srivastava Member Governing Council Institute of Metro & Rail Technology Hyderabad (India)

Editorial In-charge Aradhana Patel Percy Bernard Brooks Project Management Specialist Faiveley Transport Rail Technologies Bengaluru (India)

Circulation In-charge Priyanka Sahu Editorial & Business Office: Metro Rail News Symbroj Media Pvt. Ltd. 32B, J. P. Complex, Patparganj, Mayur Vihar Phase-I, New Delhi – 110091, INDIA Tel: +91 9990454505, 9716454505 E-mail: Web:,

Haru Imam Project Control Engineer Persons Corporation Saudi Arbia (UAE)

Ved Mani Tiwari President & COO Sterlite Power Transmission Ltd. New Delhi (India)

Yogesh Dandekar Sr. Manager – Industrial Design TATA Elxsi Limited Pune (India)

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Ismail Sariman MEP Construction Manager Louise Berger Egis Rail JV Qatar (UAE)

Journalist, Md. Tariq Khan Special Correspondent Hindustan Times Lucknow (India)

The Editorial Board may or may not concur with the views expressed by various authors in this publication. Printed, Published and Edited by Mamta Shah at Friends Digital Color Solutions, G-8, 57, Manjusha Building, Nehru Place, New Delhi-110019 on behalf of Symbroj Media Pvt. Ltd., 32B, Patparganj, Mayur Vihar Phase-I, New Delhi – 110091, INDIA


Yadav Bharanidharan Consultant Riyadh Metro Rail Project Riyadh (UAE)


Sanjay Kumar Agrawal Dy. General Manager Metro One Operations Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai (India)





JAN 2018 FEB 2018 MAR 2018 APR 2018

Delhi Metro Mumbai Metro Noida Metro MEGA Metro

Driverless/UTO Trains in India Tunneling Technology Hydrogen Trains Transport Infrastructure

PPP in Metro Rail Projects Urban Mobility Challenges Urban Transport Planning Integrated Multi-Model Transport

MAY 2018

High Speed Bullet Train

Hyperloop Technology

Mass Rapid Transit Solutions

JUN 2018

Nagpur & Pune Metro

P-ways, Track and Civil Construction

Electro and LowCarbon Mobility

JUL 2018 AUG 2018

Metrino & Pods Kolkata U/W Metro

Lifts, Elevators and Escalators Electrification & Traction System

Traffic Management & Safety Smart Parking Solutions

SEP 2018

Indore & Bhopal Metro

Rolling Stock, Metro Rail Technology

IoT – Mobility Standards

OCT 2018

Smart Cities Projects

Urban Mobility Solutions

Urban Mobility Solutions Conference

NOV 2018

Light Metro Projects

DEC 2018

M&P in Metro Depot & Railway Workshop Rapid Rail Transit System Railway Safety & Disaster

Supply Chain Logistics Big Data in Mobility Business


Operational Projects Total Length (km): 426 Hyderabad Metro (Telangana) Lucknow Metro (Uttar Pradesh) Kochi Motro (Kerala) Chennai Metro (Tamilnadu) Jaipur Metro (Rajasthan) Mumbai Metro (Maharashtra) Gurgaon Metro (Haryana) Bengalore Metro (Karnataka) Delhi Metro (Delhi-NCR) Kolkata Metro (West Bengal)

30.00 8.50 18.30 27.36 9.60 20.40 11.60 42.30 230.55 27.39 0






Length (km)

Under-construction Total Length (km): 517.15 Hyderabad Metro (Telangana) Lucknow Metro (Uttar Pradesh) Kochi Motro (Kerala) Chennai Metro (Tamilnadu) Jaipur Metro (Rajasthan) Ahamadabad Metro (Gujarat) Pune Metro (Maharashtra) Nagpur Metro (Maharshtra) Mumbai Metro (Maharashtra) Gurgaon Metro (Haryana) Bengalore Metro (Karnataka) Delhi Metro (Delhi-NCR) Kolkata Metro (West Bengal)

71.00 14.40 8.00 46.65 2.50 36.00 31.25 38.00 44.50 7.00 72.00 129.35 16.5 0








Under-consideration Projects: 595 km Delhi Metro Phase-IV, Vijayawada, Indore & Bhopal, Kochi Metro Phase-II, Greater Chandigarh, Patna, Coimbatore, Guwahati and Kanpur. * The above data is inclusive of Monorail projects.





Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) to make new magenta line green corridor

JAN 3, 2018

• • •

Noida Metro Rail Corporation (NMRC) begins first trial run of Metro train on Aqua Line Decks cleared for Zero Mile metro rail station of Nagpur Metro Rail project Uttar Pradesh government approves setup of UP Metro Rail Corporation

JAN 4, 2018

• •

Chief secretary seeks report on alternatives for metro in Kanpur and Agra Kochi Metro Rail Limited (KMRL) to open technical bids for Kochi Water Metro project

JAN 5, 2018

Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation (LMRC) plans to extend metro services to the Lucknow satellite cities

JAN 7, 2018

Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) lowers second TBM Vaitarna-3 in Mumbai Metro 3 Underground section.

JAN 9, 2018

• • •

Delhi Government launches common mobility card for Metro & Buses. US based company Trimble launches its Railway Solutions Portfolio in India Hindustan Construction Company wins ₹ 484 crore contract for Pune Metro Rail Project.



JAN 9, 2018

Siemens bags electrification contract of Ahmedabad Metro project of Gujarat Metro Link Express

JAN 11, 2018

• •

Two crude bombs identifies at Mumbai Metro Rail construction site. Light Metro project cost in Kerala goes up by ₹700 crore

JAN 12, 2018

• •

CMRS ready to inspect Nagpur Metro Mihan Depot Kochi Metro Rail Limited invites for meeting for the Petta-Tripunithura stretch alignment changes

JAN 14, 2018

Maha Metro proposes extension of Pune Metro project to Nigdi & Katrajin in phase-I

JAN 15, 2018

Andhra Pradesh Government opts Light Metro Rail for Amaravati & Vijayawada cities Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation (BMRC) seeks increasing more revenue from property and advertising Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation (LMRC) begins tunneling drive from Charbagh towards Hussainganj

• • JAN 16, 2018

• • •

Govt. of India approves separate post & office for Metro Railway Safety Commissioner (CMRS) Residents raises strong exception on the impact of Metro construction in Pune Maharashtra Government to frame an attractive policy for establishing metro coach manufacturing units in state CMRS team visits Maha Metro’s Nagpur Project, inspects facilities in Mihan depot and stations

JAN 17, 2018

Experts express concern over approval to Monorail fare hike

JAN 18, 2018

Uttar Pradesh Govt. approves DPR for Agra, Kanpur and Meerut Metro project

JAN 21, 2018

Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) designs a comprehensive plan to dig in Metro-3 corridor

JAN 22, 2018

CISF recovers 20 live cartridges from a woman at Delhi Metro’s Adarsh Nagar metro station

JAN 24, 2018

Hyderabad Metro Rail Limited (HMRL) in preparation of detailed project report for Hyderabad metro phase II Kochi Metro Rail Limited (KMRL) sign agreement with auto drivers of the city

• JAN 25, 2018

• •

JAN 27, 2018


Mumbai Metro MD Ashwani Bhide becomes a victim of DoS attack by Aarey activists Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) to open first section between Majlis Park & South Campus of Pink line-7 soon Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) to prepare DPR for Phase II of Hyderabad metro rail project


JAN 29, 2018

• •

Commuters face problems to cross the GST road near Chennai Metro’s Alandur Metro train station MMRDA prevents Malaysian firm to bid for Mumbai monorail operations

Maharashtra Metro Rail Corporation (Maha-Metro) focus on completion of second stretch of the Nagpur Metro Rail Project

JAN 01, 2018

Brandenburg Transport Authority (VBB) issues tender for the operation of two regional lines comprising the Prignitz network. (BERLIN)

JAN 02, 2018

BAVARIAN Railway Company (BEG) has issued calls for tender for the operation of two networks in the Augsburg area.

JAN 03, 2018

• •

US government denies funding commitment for Gateway project. Israel Railways orders more double-deck coaches from Bombardier Transportation

JAN 04, 2018

BEIJING Metro opened its first maglev and light rail lines along with its first fully automated driverless metro line

JAN 05, 2018

• •

ALSTOM bags award of two contracts worth a total of €64m from CHENGDU Railway Corporation Shanghai Metro expands metro network to 637km

JAN 08, 2018

• •

China opens three high-speed rail lines nearly 700 km Construction begins on Manila commuter rail project.

JAN 09, 2018

AECOM bags worth USD 20.7m contract to provide site supervision services for Malaysia’s East Coast Rail Link.

JAN 16, 2018

Singapore and Malaysia sign accord on cross-border metro line

JAN 17, 2018

MPK Krakow and Solaris-Stadler sign contract for 50 LRVs

JAN 19, 2018

Seoul Metro signs MoU to support Da Nang urban rail project

JAN 22, 2018

Chinese urban rail reaches 5000km

JAN 23, 2018

Rio de Janeiro starts construction of LRT Line 3

JAN 30, 2018

Spain draws up €2bn rolling stock investment plan

JAN 30, 2018





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Tunnelling in India – The Road Ahead


hese are exciting times for infrastructure growth in India. With a new government in place and focus on development, good governance and stability, we in the infrastructure sector are hoping for a great future, and tunneling is one of the most promising areas. It is pertinent to reproduce, in the following paragraphs, excerpts from my recent Editorial from Journal of Rock Mechanics & Tunnelling Technology.

Dr. Manoj Verman Tunnelling & Rock Engineering Expert and President, International Commission on Hard Rock Excavation

Tunnelling has come of age in India. In past one decade or so, it has well and truly spread its tentacles much beyond the water sector it was largely confined to till not so long ago. As the infrastructure juggernaut continues to roll on in India, it was only a matter of time before tunnelling was accorded a greater attention in the country than it ever got earlier. It is important to look ahead and focus firmly on the direction tunnelling is expected to take in the country and the role that rock mechanics will play. But first, let us dwell upon, albeit briefly, on the current infrastructure scenario in the country.

In the current 5-year plan, the government has planned to almost double the investments in infrastructure to over 1000 billion dollars. However, as the experience during the previous 5-year plans has shown, there are serious barriers in achieving these aggressive investment targets. The situation is further compounded by some sluggishness in our economy and global economic slowdown. But, on the positive side, this kind of investment in infrastructure has the potential to transform the economy and put India’s once famous growth story firmly back on track. The numbers pertaining to the projected



investments are startling and enough to pop world’s eyes out. The world is eying India for her impressive growth plans across sectors – power, railways, highways, ports, airports, water, oil & gas, telecom and storage. One can go on and on to eulogize India’s potential for growth and staggering investment plans in infrastructure but the ground reality is that the physical achievements may not match these impressive investment targets due to a multiplicity of roadblocks. We all have to play a role in trying to remove these roadblocks. Tunnelling is a small but significant part of the infrastructure growth plan and, with over 3000 km of tunnelling being planned across various sectors, we are looking at a substantial involvement of all of us in the tunnelling projects. It is here that we can contribute our mite to mitigation of some significant barriers that confront the growth of tunnelling in the country. Let us then first briefly examine these barriers before going on to discuss the trends in tunnelling and the direction this sector is expected to take. Despite decades of experience of tunnelling and some technological advancement, the approach and mindset towards tunnelling remains essentially static except within a few progressive organizations. This gap in application of best practises thus continues to create problems across all stages of projects – right from investigations, through design, construction and into operation. Barriers to tunnelling exist both in technical and non-


Photo: Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)

Technical domains. Some of the significant barriers on the technical front are lack of well-planned geological investigations, lack of attention to monitoring by field instrumentation and probing ahead of the tunnel face, lack of confidence in some quarters in the use of Tunnel Boring Machines especially in the Himalayas, reluctance to use modern technology, lack of freedom to the designers to ask better and more inputs from investigation and to interact more closely with construction people during implementation of design, sheer dearth of skilled technical persons etc. Some of the non-technical barriers are disputed risk ownership, lack of timely and effective decision making, lack of flexibility in contractual arrangements, practice of “bait-&switch”, award of contract to the lowest bidder, inadequate attention to employing suitable equipment, lack of “up-front” work by owner as preparation for the project, and long permitting processes.


Tunnelling is a small but significant part of the infrastructure growth plan and, with over 3000 km of tunnelling being planned across various sectors, we are looking at a substantial involvement of all of us in the tunnelling projects. It is here that we can contribute our mite to mitigation of some significant barriers that confront the growth of tunnelling in the country. __________________

07 - 10 March , 2018 . The Lalit , New Delhi

“South Asia’s premium tunnelling course is back again! This is the most comprehensive short course on tunnelling in the region and is aimed at bridging the huge skill gap that currently exists. Topics listed in the course brochure (available on request) and on the course website ( are meant to cover as wide a scope as is possible within the available time, but every attempt will be made to include any additional topics if specifically requested.” The programme is designed to address the needs of professionals dealing with design and construction of tunnels in highway, railway, metro, hydropower, storage and defense projects Also, students and other professionals seeking to explore the exciting world of tunneling are encouraged to participate.

Organized by:



Dr Manoj Verman Tunnelling & Rock Engineering Expert President, International Commission on Hard Rock Excavation Ex-Vice President, International Society for Rock Mechanics President, Indian National Group of ISRM

Media Partners Delegate Partner

Oration Partner

To Register: Email Id: Ph: +91 7042170505/ +91 9986833099

Dr Manoj Verman

As we look ahead at an exciting future for tunnelling in the country, these barriers need to be addressed in order to be able to translate the huge growth plans into actual physical achievements and, as mentioned earlier, the tunnelling and rock mechanics community has to play a greater role in removal of these barriers. Obviously, there are significant gaps evident between Indian and international practices for various stages of a tunnelling project – both technical and non-technical. These gaps have to be identified and lessons need to be learnt from the best practices and implemented in the country. Fortunately, a start has been made towards better tunnelling practices, although not in a coherent way, as indicated by recent adoption of some new technologies which also point towards the direction that tunnelling can take in this country in coming years. One of the most significant developments has been the use of Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM). While the TBMs have been used in India with success in Metro projects (Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai), their applicability in the long & deep tunnels in the Himalayas was always riddled with doubts, owing to their failures at almost all projects in the Himalayas in recent past. This perception is changing now with impressive TBM performance being reported from an ongoing tunnel project and with plans to deploy TBMs for some other projects in the Himalayas. Apart from the increased use of TBMs for deep rock tunnels, some other significant tunnelling practices have been adopted that


are here to stay. Largely driven by the modern railway and highway tunnels, the industry is moving towards improvements in tunnel liners and water proofing systems. Modern support systems, such as, pre-cast segmental liners, special dowels, fibre reinforced shotcrete, new types of rock bolts, lattice girders etc. are being used more regularly than before. Same is the case with the more frequent adoption of techniques for face and roof stability in poor grounds, such as fibre glass elements, pipe roof umbrella etc. To a large extent, this change has been driven by the modern tunnel design approach brought in by international design consultants, especially in the transportation sector. A stricter adherence to NATM approach and, therefore, to regular tunnel monitoring regime is also seen, again as a result of the effect of globalization. As the coming years are likely to see growth in number, scale and difficulty of tunnel projects, the trends mentioned above can only gain further ground. It is also expected that some newer technologies will also see more application, such as, electronic detonator for blasting to facilitate larger round lengths while reducing vibration and overbreaks, mechanized shaft sinking for faster construction, robotic segment erectors for installing segmental lining, real-time profile control for excavators and shotcrete application. Besides these, it is expected that the use of TBMs, specially tailored to meet with the challenges of the difficult Himalayan ground conditions, will increase.


Thus, while significant shortcomings exist and will continue to exist in our current approach to tunnelling, the future is still exciting if the trends are any indication. Those of us from the rock mechanics fraternity who are associated with tunnelling will have a greater role to play, especially in the areas related to excavation and support systems, both in the design and construction stages, if the real benefits of the huge planned investments in tunnel projects are to be realized on ground. ***

About the author: Dr. Manoj Verman is a Tunnelling & Rock Engineering Expert. He is a specialist in tunnelling & rock caverns, rock mechanics, field instrumentation and non-destructive testing. He has a career spanning more than 34 years. Dr. Verman has published over 75 papers in refereed journals and conference proceedings. He has served on Technical Committees of RILEM and of Bureau of Indian Standards. He has been on Executive Committee of Indian Geotechnical Society. He is currently President of Indian National Group of ISRM and has been the Vice President of Indian Society of Engineering Geology.




Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM): All about you must know

A tunnel boring machine (TBM) also known as a “mole“, is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. They can bore through hard rock, sand, and almost anything in between. Tunnel diameters can range from a meter (done with micro-TBMs) to almost 16 meters to date. Tunnels of less than a meter or so in diameter are typically done using trenchless construction methods or horizontal directional drilling rather than TBMs.


[Photo Credit: The Robbins Company]

Tunnel boring machines are used as an alternative to drilling and blasting (D&B) methods in rock and conventional ‘hand mining’ in soil. TBMs have the advantages of limiting the disturbance to the surrounding ground and producing a smooth tunnel wall. This significantly reduces the cost of lining the tunnel, and makes them suitable to use in heavily urbanized areas. The major disadvantage is the upfront cost. TBMs are expensive to construct, and can be difficult to transport. However, as modern tunnels become longer, the cost of tunnel boring machines versus drill and blast is actually less—this is because tunnelling with TBMs is much more efficient and results in a


shorter project. The largest diameter TBM, at 15.43 m, was built by Herrenknecht AG for a recent project in Shanghai, China. The machine was built to bore through soft ground including sand and clay. The largest diameter hard rock TBM, at 14.4 m, was manufactured by The Robbins Company for Canada’s Niagara Tunnel Project. The machine is currently boring a hydroelectric tunnel beneath Niagara Falls, the machine has been named “Big Becky” in reference to the Sir Adam Beck hydroelectric dams to which it is tunneling to provide an additional hydroelectric tunnel.

Hard rock TBMs

walls of the tunnel. The machine can be continuously steered while gripper In hard rock, either shielded or open- shoes push on the side-walls to react type TBMs can be used. All types of the machine’s forward thrust. At the hard rock TBMs excavate rock using end of a stroke, the rear legs of the disc cutters mounted in the cutter machine are lowered, the grippers head. The disc cutters create and propel cylinders are retracted. compressive stress fractures in the The retraction of the propel cylinders rock, causing it to chip away from the repositions the gripper assembly for rock in front of the machine, called the next boring cycle. The grippers the tunnel face. The excavated rock, are extended, the rear legs lifted, and known as muck, is transferred boring begins again. The open-type, through openings in the cutter head or Main Beam, TBM does not install to a belt conveyor, where it runs concrete segments behind it as other through the machine to a system of machines do. Instead, the rock is held conveyors or muck cars for removal up using ground support methods from the tunnel. such as ring beams, rock bolts, shotcrete, steel straps, and wire mesh Open-type TBMs have no shield, (Stack, 1995). leaving the area behind the cutter In fractured rock, shielded hard rock head open for rock support. To TBMs can be used, which erect advance, the machine uses a gripper concrete segments to support system that pushes against the side unstable tunnel walls behind the

machine. Double Shield TBMs are so called because they have two modes; in stable ground they can grip against the tunnel walls to advance forward. In unstable, fractured ground, the thrust is shifted to thrust cylinders that push off against the tunnel segments behind the machine. This keeps the significant thrust forces from impacting fragile tunnel walls. Single Shield TBMs operate in the same way, but are used only in fractured ground, as they can only push off against the concrete segments (Stack, 1995). Soft ground TBMs In soft ground, there are two main types of TBMs: Earth Pressure Balance Machines (EPB) and Slurry Shield (SS). Both types of machines operate like Single Shield TBMs, using



thrust cylinders to advance forward by pushing off against concrete segments. Earth Pressure Balance Machines are used in soft ground with less than 7 bar of pressure. The cutter head does not use disc cutters only, but instead a combination of tungsten carbide cutting bits, carbide disc cutters, and/or hard rock disc cutters. The EPB gets its name because it is capable of holding up soft ground by maintaining a balance between earth and pressure. The TBM operator and automated systems keep the rate of soil removal equal to the rate of machine advance. Thus, a stable environment is maintained. In addition, additives such as bentonite, polymers and foam are injected into the ground to further stabilize it. In soft ground with very high water pressure and large amounts of ground water, Slurry Shield TBMs are needed. These machines offer a completely enclosed working environment. Soils are mixed with bentonite slurry, which must be removed from the tunnel through a system of slurry tubes that exit the tunnel. Large slurry separation plants are needed on the surface for this process, which separate the dirt from the slurry so it can be recycled back into the tunnel. While the use of TBMs relieves the need for large numbers of workers at high pressures, a caisson system is sometimes formed at the cutting head for slurry shield TBMs. Workers entering this space for inspection, maintenance and repair need to be medically cleared as “fit to dive” and trained in the operation of the locks.

machines, inside the finished part of the tunnel, are trailing support decks known as the back-up system. Support mechanisms located on the back-up can include: conveyors or other systems for muck removal, slurry pipelines if applicable, control rooms, electrical systems, dust removal, ventilation and mechanisms for transport of pre-cast segments. Urban tunnelling and near surface tunneling Urban tunnelling has the special challenge of requiring that the ground surface be undisturbed. This means that ground subsidence must be avoided. The normal method of doing this in soft ground is to maintain the soil pressures during and after the tunnel construction. There is some difficulty in doing this, particularly in varied strata (e.g., boring through a region where the upper portion of the tunnel face is wet sand and the lower portion is hard rock). TBMs with positive face control, such as EPB and SS, are used in such situations. Both types (EPB and SS) are capable of reducing the risk of surface subsidence and voids if operated properly and if the ground conditions are well documented. When tunnelling in urban environments, other tunnels, existing

utility lines and deep foundations need to be addressed in the early planning stages. The project must accommodate measures to mitigate any detrimental effects to other infrastructure. 1. Slurry Pressure Balance (SPB) TBM The basic principle of this TBM is to maintain the face pressure during the excavation phase by filling the working chamber, located behind the cutter head, with slurry. Advantages a. Allows soft, wet, or unstable ground to be tunnelled with a speed and safety not previously possible b. Suitable for ground with high water pressures (below water table) c. Limits ground settlement and produces a smooth tunnel wall. This significantly reduces the cost of lining the tunnel, and makes it suitable to use in heavily urbanized areas. Disadvantages a.


The major disadvantage is the upfront capital cost. TBMs are expensive to construct, difficult to transport, require significant backup systems and power. Drive can be hindered by large stones and boulders

Back-up systems Behind all types of tunnel boring



Head Office: 50-60 Fairfield Street, Fairfield East, NSW 2165 Ph: 1300 566 287

Main characteristics a. Tunnel Lining – Precast Concrete Segments b. Typical Performance – 5m to 30m per day. Actual performance and costs will depend on ground conditions and tunnel diameter. 2. Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) TBM cutter head suitable for hard rock.

This is a mechanised tunnelling method in which spoil is admitted into the tunnel boring machine (TBM) via a screw conveyor arrangement which allows the pressure at the face of the TBM to remain balanced without the use of slurry. Advantages a. Allows soft, wet, or unstable ground to be tunnelled with a speed and safety not previously possible. b. Limits ground settlement and produces a smooth tunnel wall. c. This significantly reduces the cost of lining the tunnel, and makes it suitable to use in heavily urbanized areas

Advantages They offer a continuous and controlled means of tunnelling capable of high rates of advance under favourable conditions. Disadvantages a. The major disadvantage is the upfront capital cost. TBMs are expensive to construct, difficult to transport, require significant backup systems and power.


Their applicability is limited to long tunnels where the high rates of advance and tunnel quality can offset their high capital cost.

Main characteristics a. Tunnel Lining – Precast Concrete Segments / Sprayed Concrete / No lining b. Typical Performance – 12m to 67m per day. Actual performance and costs will depend on ground conditions and tunnel diameter.

Disadvantages The major disadvantage is the upfront Stages of TBM Construction capital cost. TBMs are expensive to construct, difficult to transport, require significant backup systems and power. Main characteristics a. Tunnel Lining – Precast Concrete Segments. b. Typical Performance – 9m to 35m per day. Actual performance and costs will depend on ground conditions and tunnel diameter. 3. Hard Rock TBM This method involves the use of a Tunnelling machine with a shield and




Pioneering breakthrough technology in India Exclusive Interview with: Mr. Sunil Newatia, Chairman SureTech Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. SureTech is a leading distributor of construction equipment in India. With experience of over 27 years in the Industry, SureTech has been a pioneer in bringing several breakthrough technologies to India. Our primary focus has been in Foundation engineering solutions. We are also a specializing in Earthwork machineries including excavators, Motor graders and excavator attachments.

Sunil Newatia Chairman SureTech Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai, India

Please could you give us some background as to your own career and what attracted you towards incorporation of Suretech Infrastructure? I am a management graduate from JBIMS and started this company in 1990 with foray into distribution of auto consumables like lubes, tyres and batteries. Navi Mumbai was being developed in those days and we sensed an opportunity in construction equipment business. We started our career in this industry with dealership of Telcon and subsequently Ingersoll Rand and other international brands Tell us a little bit more about your company and how it would typically be better for projects than more traditional methods?


We have always focused on hitech and latest technologies and niche markets. Labour is getting more expensive and more difficult to get, and hence if you want to execute projects fast and efficient, you have to go foe mechanization. Pursuing this philosophy, we pioneered mechanization in OFC laying way back in 1998 by bringing in a trencher attachment for an excavator. Project implementation speed quadrupled using the trencher in place of manual labour being traditionally used to cut trenches.


As we know that your company offers specialized infrastructure and foundation engineering services to infrastructure and construction industry, please enlighten our readers more about your specialized product & services and their salient features. We are today controlling 80%+ market share in driven piles technology which includes Vibratory Hammers, Impact Hammers, Vibro Floats etc. We are also leading in reverse circulation drilling technology. Besides these we have pioneered

several excavator attachments like Milling Planers, Drum cutters, Tree handlers, tetrapod grabs, crusher buckets, screening buckets. Last year we brought in Spider excavators which can reach areas which no other equipment can. Currently one such equipment is working in Sikkim on a ropeway project.

of equipment under breakdown. What are the measures you take with regards to quality control?

Basically quality control falls under the domain of equipment manufacturers and companies we represent. On our part, we have selected only the leading How were projects undertaken manufacturers to work with. As a before Suretech Infrastructure policy we do not associate with became so prominent and what Chinese companies as they are not changes have been made? consistent in quality and policy. Proper selection of companies to Traditionally projects were being work with ensures that we associate executed using labour and mechanical with only ethical companies who equipment. When we entered this believe in providing the best to their industry hydraulically operated customers. machinery were already getting popular. Our role was to speedily bring the latest technology into the country. However, reluctance of large construction companies in modernizing and changing gear was a major impediment in speedy embrace of the new methodologies. For e.g. we have been trying to bring in screw piling technology into the country which is now very popular in USA, Europe and Australia. This method of piling reduces project implementation time by 75-80% and cuts ground contamination to zero. However, the project authorities have been playing truant and blocking introduction of this technology into our country What are the other kinds of players and how do you differentiate yourselves from them?

will also provide that is worth only that much. We have never compromised on quality and thus do not sell purely on price. What do you think about metro railway, rapid rail transit and highspeed rail revolution in the major metropolitan cities in the India? Burgeoning population and growing traffic in metros as well as tier 2 and tier 3 cities, rapid transit and metro projects have become extremely necessary. We are already decades late in planning and due to political stupor. To speedily implement such projects we need to embrace technology. Using conventional methods is not going to help now.

Tell us about major infra projects What are your predictions for the undertaken by you and what are the construction and infrastructure challenges you face when it comes to industry in 2018? catering to the Indian market? Our focus has always been of product We are expecting huge opportunities support. This is the reason of our We have worked on Mumbai Pune in infra as govt. has realized that we success and this is what differentiates Expressway, DMRC, Mumbai need to implement in 10 years what us from others. For us the job starts Ahmedabad 4 laning, several port the western world achieved in 50! after we sell and for others it ends projects across the country. The Several huge projects are already there. We have become a supplier of major challenge is convincing the lined up and in pipeline. Why only choice due to our efficient service, customer that you get what you pay 2018, we are upbeat that this shall troubleshooting and quick restoration for! Someone who is selling for less continue for at least next 5 years.



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Mumbai Metro: Life line of Mumbaikars


umbai Metro is a mass rapid transit system serving The city of Mumbai, Maharashtra, and the wider MMR urban agglomeration. The system is designed to reduce traffic congestion in the city, and supplement the overcrowded Mumbai Mumbai Suburban Railway(colloquially called local trains) network. It is being built in three phases over a 15-year period, with overall completion expected in 2025. When completed, the core system will comprise eight high-capacity metro railway lines, spanning a total of 235 kilometers+ (24% underground, the rest elevated, with a minuscule portion built atgrade), and serviced by 200 stations.

This is the most difficult, most challenging and technically the most complex metro project the country has undertaken. One should consider lucky to be associated with this project. - Dr. E. Sreedharan



Overview Kolkata Metro Rail was first metro rail in India, with first operation commencing in October 1984. Mumbai Metro is a Metro system designed to reduce traffic congestion in Mumbai, and supplement the existing, but severely overcrowded Mumbai Suburban Railway network. Built in three phases over a 15-year period, with overall completion expected in 2021. When complete, the core system will comprise three high-capacity metro railway lines, spanning a total of 63 kilometres. Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro is operated by Mumbai Metro One Pvt


Ltd (MMOPL), a joint venture company formed by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). In June 2006, the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, inaugurated the first phase of the Mumbai Metro project. Construction work began in February 2008 and the system's first line entered operation on 8 June 2014. The system is designed to address both present and future needs of public transportation. The project was implemented under Built, Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT) method


and has been India’s first PPP metro project in which all three phases (construction, operation and maintenance) were given to private players. Key dates Jun 2006: PM Manmohan Singh laid down foundation of phase-I metro project Feb 2008: Construction work began May 2013: First trial run conducted 8 Jun 2014: Operation on first line began


6th largest and the densest city in the world Commercial and financial capital of India 5% share in India’s GDP Contributes over 1/3rd of India’s tax revenues The two ports in Mumbai handle 1/3rd of the country’s total foreign trade Shares about 38% and 26% of international and domestic air traffic respectively Accounts for 25% of Industrial Output.

• •

Metro Lines Line

Name of Corridor

Length (km)

Estimated cost





₹4,321 crores

In operation




₹17396 crores

Under Construction


Dahisar-DN Nagar


₹6,410 crores

Under Construction


DN Nagar-Mankhurd


₹10,986 crores

Under Construction


Colaba - Bandra – SEEPZ


₹24,430 crore

Under Construction


Wadala–Ghatkopar-Mulund–Teen Hath Naka– Kasarvadavali







₹8,416 crores





₹6,672 crores



Dahisar East-Andheri (East)


₹6,208 crores

Under Construction


Wadala – Mumbai GPO


₹2,400 crores



Andheri (East) – Bandra East





Dahisar – Meera Road - Bhayandar


₹3,908 crores


Major Contract Winners: • • •

Reliance Infrastructure and L&T bagged two packages each. Reliance Infra participated in the bidding in joint venture with Italy-based Rizzani de Eccher S.p.A (RdE). According to knowledgeable sources, the contracts won by each company is in the range of ₹1,200 - 1,400 crore. The remaining five packages were won by NCC Infra, Simplex Infrastructures, JMC Projects, TPL-CHEC (a joint venture between Tata Projects and China Harbour Engineering Company), and Mumbai-based J Kumar Infra-projects.

Metro Line-1: This line is operated by the Metro One Operation Pvt Ltd (MOOPL) on a 5-year contract. The MOOPL is a joint venture company owned by Reliance Infrastructure (30%) and RATP Dev Transdev Asia (70%).




A promise for beautiful tomorrow‌ Exclusive Interview with: Mr. Ramesh R. Munot, Managing Director of Mandev Tubes Pvt. Ltd.


ANDEV TUBES, an integrated manufacturing unit based in Umbergaon (Gujarat) and having it's administrative office in Mumbai(Maharashtra), commenced it's operation in 1964. Over 50 years of committed service towards the copper tube industry, has earned global recognition for MANDEV TUBES and trust of it's customers by retaining today as one of the reputed brand in Copper Tubing Industry. Metro Rail News team approached Mr. Ramesh R. Manot, Managing Director of Mandev Tubes Pvt. Ltd. Here are some excerpts from his interview:

Metro Rail News: Mr. Ramesh, before starting tell us about Mandev Tubes and its history in brief.

MANDEV TUBES is an ISO 9001 2008, ISO 14001 - 2004 and ISO 18001 - 2007 certified by URS, India (UK Agency), this certification is an another step in our ongoing efforts to deliver the finest Grade Copper Tubes for Air Conditioning application, Finest Medical Grade Copper Tubes for Medical Gas Pipeline Systems and finest plumbing grade copper tubes along with third party certification.

This commitment to superior product quality, has led to development of MANDEVs smooth- walled copper tubes which has earned us the reputation as a world class supplier from India. Where are copper tubes used in the metro & rail industries? Copper Tubes are used for air conditioning applications in metro & railway administrative buildings, metro depots, support buildings and metro stations (underground and above ground) for VRF air-conditioning machines to connect the indoor and outdoor units across the building structure.

Ramesh R. Munot MD, Mandev Tubes

The future does not belong to those who are content with today. Rather, it will belong to those who can blend vision, mission and courage in a personal commitment.



Name a few metro projects where your copper pipes are used? We have catered our copper tubes for various metro projects across India starting from the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation being the first and oldest institution in the country, Hyderabad Metro, Nagpur Metro, Ahmedabad Metro etc. What is the scope of business for air-conditioning in India with respect to metro & rail industry? With the rapid urbanization taking place across all major cities in various states of India and the growth in infrastructure and transportation, the scope of airconditioning business is abundant as today air-conditioning has become a necessity rather than a luxury considering the climatic conditions we face due to Global Warming and its anticipated effects on climate and weather. The need is for a temperature controlled environment across the work and public places for better comfort of human beings.

CONNECT PLUS+ & MT MEDI SELF CONNECT PLUS+ which helps eliminate the usage of coupling to join two tubes and a brazing along with it for Air conditioning applications (VRF, Package & Ductable) for various types of building projects and Medical grade Copper Tubes for Medical gas pipeline systems (MGPS) for Hospitals & Medical Colleges. What are the measures you take with regard to quality control? We are an ISO 9001-2008, 140012004 and 18001-2007 company certified by URS. As per the Statistical Process Control & quality manual system implemented by the company our primary and only focus has been delivering quality without compromise.

How do you differentiate yourselves from your competition (USP)? We agree that the day to day competition is increasing but our primary focus is on the improvement & enhancement of product quality as well as reducing cost. So we offer a unique product, which helps reduce the no of Brazing Joints which is cost effective in installation and reduces installation time, which leads to superior and stronger airconditioning piping circuit. Our Design registered Product –“One End Expanded Copper Tube” also known as MT ECO SELF CONNECT PLUS+ & MT MEDI SELF CONNECT PLUS+ is different as follows:-


Brief us on the some of the new types of tubes to have emerged from Mandev Tubes last couple of years. The copper tube industry in India has been traditionally working with tube joining methods of soldering and brazing. We at Mandev are constantly trying to innovate products which reduce brazing and soldering and minimize the no of joints. To help overcome this we are the only one who offer our design registered product – MT ECO SELF

Our products go through various quality checks and parameters Statistical Process Control before leaving the factory shop floor for dispatch such as chemical composition, carbon content test, free from defects test(eddy current) cleanliness and residue test, tensile test, hardness test, climatic test, abrasion test to name a few. We maintain complete statistical test records for the processes involved.

Who are your customers? We are manufacturing & supplying copper tubes to OEMs like Blue Star, Daikin, ETA General, LG, Samsung, Voltas, Toshiba for their factory’s and ancillaries as well as project’s requirements. ***




Meet India’s First Woman Geo-Carte Radar Technology Specialist


ilky Agrawal who studied Master in Technology in Civil Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar graduated in 2015 and launched her start-up GeoCarte Radar Technology Private Limited and incubated at IIT Gandhinagar. Since 2015, Silky has worked on number of prestigious projects using IIT Gandhinagar’s network that includes working for Shree Somnath Trust, railway station in Gandhinagar and CST in Mumbai along with Ahmedabad Metro Rail project. Here are some excerpts from his interview with Metro Rail News:

Can you please introduce yourself and also explain more about GeoCarte Radar Technology Pvt. Ltd. presence in Metro and Railway construction industry in India? I am a former master’s student of Civil engineering at IIT Gandhinagar. With the soul of an engineer and heart of an entrepreneur, I have initiated a start-up "GeoCarte Radar Technology Private Limited", working in the field of non-destructive geoexploration using Ground Penetrating Radar. We are currently incubated at IIT Gandhinagar under the mentorship of Prof. Amit Prashant and Prof. Sudhir K. Jain, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Gandhinagar.


We at Geo-Carte provide comprehensive professional services for all kind of non-destructive geoexplorations ranging from utility mapping to archaeological investigations and in many more domains using GPR. With our advanced technology we can map the underground utility services without digging and hence it can be of great use to several agencies in optimising the need of the new network, preventing the damage to the preexisting utilities while installing the new ones, detecting leaks in existing pipes and in preparing the database of the same. This can save huge amount of money and time and can considerably reduce the undesirable


delays in the projects. Adding to it, we have successfully completed several projects for utility mapping, road inspection, railway ballast investigation and archaeological investigation. We have worked with Larsen & Toubro on Ahmedabad Metro Rail Project to map the underground utilities to plan utility shifting at the location of proposed underground station and area besides where probably the utilities can be shifted. We have also worked with Indian Railways to explore the application of GPR for ballast investigation to improve the output efficiency of Ballast Cleaning Machine during the maintenance work. We have worked with many such

esteemed clients on prestigious projects including Chennai Smart City Project. Please could you give us some background as to your own career and what attracted you towards incorporation of GeoCarte Radar Technology Pvt. Ltd.?

new project execution efficiently and reduces the chances of undesired delays in the projects due to scarcity of knowledge about subsurface features. What is GeoCarte Radar Technology and how it works?

During my master’s, I was working on a project, Archaeological Investigation using GPR at Dholavira. During initial stages, while calibrating the machine, we realised the machine is not good to work in all situations and there are few limitations to its performance, like poor quality data in high moisture soil content. Therefore, we tried several other methods to develop a tool which can analyse this weak signal data. After so many trials and error methods, we developed the advance analysis tool which can provide satisfactory solution in all soil conditions. Also, coming from business background family, never wanted to go for job, and my mentor Prof. Amit Prashant motivated to for start-up and supported me. And that’s how i ended up initiating GeoCarte.

GeoCarte is a consulting organisation providing comprehensive professional consultancy services for all kind of geo-explorations ranging from archaeological investigations to utility mapping, ground water table investigation and assessing the condition or health monitoring of concrete structures. We at GeoCarte intends to serve our clients with our best approach to deliver outputs on time and guarantees that our services will exceed our fees. We provide services right from data collection on site, to data analysis, data interpretation and report preparation. We provide the output results in form of plan and sectional view which can be easily used and implemented in further processing

As we know that your company use Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technology, Utility Mapping and Transportation Inspection services to infrastructure and construction industry. Please enlighten our readers more about your specialized product, technology & services and their salient features. We have developed an advance analysis tool which can be used in difficult site conditions where the conventional tools fail to perform. We can provide satisfactory output result even in high moisture condition, high clayey content soil where GPR data contains weak signal and conventional methods cannot provide efficient output results. Moreover, we provide tailored and customised solutions to our customers for their specific requirements and purposes. How were projects undertaken before GeoCarte Radar Technology Pvt. Ltd. became so prominent and what changes have been made?

Tell us a little bit more about your company and how it would typically be better for projects than more traditional methods? GeoCarte is company fully focus for underground infrastructure mapping. Traditionally people go for trenching to get an idea about underground utilities or any features, however, it leads to damage of the pre-existing assets, its dis-continuous data, very time consuming, inconvenient and costly method. GeoCarte’s services provides the map of all the underground assets just by scanning and enables a company to plan any

by any engineer at site.

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

Mostly people are unaware of these available technology and therefore they use traditional and conventional methods like, trenching, excavations, etc. which leads to damage of underground assets and cause undesired delays in the project leading to loss of time and resources. There are couple of companies in India providing services for subsurface utility mapping, however, they use conventional method which is



not good enough for all site conditions. What are the other kinds of players and how do you differentiate yourselves from them? There are very few companies who provide similar services, however, the conventional commercial available technology alone is not good enough to perform in all site conditions. With our advanced analysis tool, we can provide enhanced subsurface profile. Also, we do provide services in different domains other than utility mapping and exploring new avenues of its application. We have worked on several archaeological projects, Indian railway project and many such challenging projects. We intend to provide superior quality services with more efficient technology and approach. 8. What are the measures you take with regards to quality control? With regards to quality control, specially for underground utility mapping we follow American standard codes ASCE-38-02 to maintain the quality of our output drawings. Tell us about major metro & railway and infra projects undertaken by you and what are the challenges you face when it comes to catering to the Indian market? We have successfully completed the underground utility mapping for a proposed underground metro station for Ahmedabad Metro Rail Project with L&T for the purpose of planning of pre-existing underground utilities. We are currently working on Chennai Smart City Project with Tamil Nadu Water Investment Company. We are going

to execute several metro and smart city projects in coming months in several cities of India. The biggest challenge we face is to convince the government officials to adopt new technology. Also, Government corporations outsource everything to contractors, though they need to understand that the main client has the responsibility to know at first place about the existing assets before proposing or awarding any new project to the contractors. What do you think about metro railway, rapid rail transit and highspeed rail revolution in the major metropolitan cities in the India? It is the must required things in the big cities with very high population for convenience. Now a days it has become a great issue, by road due to heavy traffic, it is very difficult to reach to your places on time. And therefore, having public transport, like metros, rapid rail transits is a need of the hour. Any other information, you want to share with us in respect to technology development in metro & railway, infrastructure and construction industries and how your company is well placed to capitalize on this or has capitalized on it. Currently, in India during the smart city mission, there is a boom in infrastructure domain, and its a very good opportunity for any upcoming new technology in the country. Our technology bring the revolution in this smart city projects where, the existing cities are getting updated to smart cities, and there is so much unrecorded underground infrastructure unknown to anybody. Thus we have a great opportunity to work.

Mostly people are unaware of these available technology and therefore they use traditional and conventional methods like, trenching, excavations, etc. which leads to damage of underground assets and cause undesired delays in the project leading to loss of time and resources. ____________________




How does a Transit Operator recover a failed CBTC Train? (Continued…from last article)


rain recovery is a critical function because it defines how the Operator will recover a failed train under a worstcase failure; defined as a Vehicle Controller (VC) unable to communicate the train’s position to the Wayside (the Wayside cannot track the train). If a CBTC design can handle the worst-case scenario, then all other train recovery scenarios are taken care of automatically.


In my last article, I introduced the concept of recovering a failed train in a CBTC application and listed three possible recovery options. The first option (TPR) was discussed in the last article, the next two options (train coupling and fallback mode) are discussed here.


Naeem Ali, P. Eng, Director & Principal Consultant CBTC Solutions Inc., Toronto, Canada,

Option 2: Train Coupling What is train coupling? Two components to coupling CBTC trains include the physical act of coupling and the logical process of coupling. Coupled trains are tracked as single trains and are protected as such. During the act of coupling with an NCV (Non-Communicating Vehicle), the VC (Vehicle Controller) on the CV (Communicating Vehicle) train must extend its position envelop to include the extra cars introduced by the NCV (Figure 1). In the above example, the communicating vehicle (CV) extended its position envelope by moving the rear reported position a full car length to include the non-communicating vehicle (NCV). The wayside will receive the new position report allowing it to protect the train.

Figure 1: Coupling Trains

The logical coupling process is critical because the safety distance between trains is based on the rear of the CV (Figure 2). If the CV does not extend the rear position to include the NCV, the NCV is not protected. How to Recover Using Train Coupling? Train recovery involves a CV coupling with the NCV and towing it back to the yard under protection of the CV train (Figure 3). Figure 2 - Extending the CV's position envelope



The advantage of coupling is that Service can begin immediately after the CV starts to tow the NCV. There is no need to wait for the train to reach its destination as is the case with the TPR. The disadvantage is the complicated design. The CBTC system must consider characteristics of the new train (e.g., length of the coupled train, Emergency Brake Rate (EB) rate, service brake rate, jerk rate, acceleration) which is not an easy task. Sending a rescue train to recover an NCV during rush hour is also a difficult task. If the number of train types is kept to a bare minimum, preferably one, the number of coupled train combinations the design must consider is reduced; simplifying the solution. Figure 3 - Using coupling to recover a failed train

The design may be the purview of the Supplier but complicating the design does not serve the Operator. If the Supplier is not able to produce a stable design, the function may never stabilize or mature and it is the Operator who suffers in the end. Option 3 - Fallback Mode Fallback mode of operation is the third and most expensive option. This option allows a failed train to travel, unaided unlike the previous two options, using conventional signalling rules to its final destination. Under normal operating conditions, all trains will operate under CBTC signalling rules. If a train fails, that train will operate under conventional signalling rules (Figure 4).

Figure 4 - Switching to fallback mode under a train failure

Since the NCV is not communicating its position, the wayside will use secondary detection devices (SDD) to track the NCV. The following CV trains will operate under CBTC signalling rules while maintaining a one block separation from the NCV in front (Figure 5).



The advantage of fallback mode is that Service recovery is faster over the previous two methods. Instead of waiting for a TPR to clear or a rescue train to arrive to couple, the fallback mode allows the train to move as soon as the signal is permissive. The operational impact is limited to: • The time it takes to recognize the problem and change to manual mode (non CBTC mode) and start moving. • Speed limitations imposed on non CBTC trains by the Operator. Figure 5 - Fallback mode to track a NCV train • Greater separation between trains imposed by the fallback mode (conventional signalling). instance when a train is stranded, the • Operator must have a train recovery Its disadvantage is its complicated strategy otherwise the impact to design, increased capital cost, greater operations is severe. maintenance requirements and reduced reliability due to extra The Operator has three options: trackside equipment (signals, track • The TPR is a basic train recovery circuits or axle counters, trip stops). tool that will serve the majority of The decision to implement a fallback Operators in the event of a failure. mode must be weighed carefully The disadvantage is that other • between the operational trains cannot travel within this requirement and the cost to area until the NCV reaches its implement and maintain the solution. destination. • Train coupling solves the problem Conclusion of a long one-train-only corridor; however, trying to get a rescue A stranded train is a rare event due to train in the middle of rush hour to the built-in redundancy all CBTC a failed train would be a solutions provide: redundant network challenge. Coupling requires a design, redundant radios on the limited number of train types and trains, overlapping radio coverage the complicated design costs and hot standby VCs. But in the rare more to implement.

Fallback mode is operationally the preferred method because the impact to operations is lower when compared to the first two options but from a capital and maintenance cost perspective, it is very expensive and not recommended. The train recovery requirement must be based on a firm understanding of the operational need; otherwise an over-engineered and expensive solution such as fallback mode will be implemented.

About the Author Naeem Ali is CBTC specialist working with CBTC technologies for 15+ years. He has deployed 7 CBTC projects around world including Jacksonville Monorail, Newark Airport People Mover, Las Vegas Monorail, Busan Gimhae Monorail in South Korea, Makkah Metro in Saudi Arabia, Singapore NSEW and he is currently providing CBTC consulting services to Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) YUS line. Naeem works as an independent consultant providing CBTC expertise. You can follow his blog at




A common mobility card can help planners build a better public transport system • •

Persis Taraporevala Ryan Christopher Sequeira


ransportation lies at the heart of the unwieldy beast that is the modern city and public transportation, particularly in populous cities such as Delhi and Mumbai with millions of users of these networks. In a bid to simplify the lives of daily commuters, the Delhi Government recently launched a ‘Common Mobility Card’. The card is a prepaid mechanism allowing users to move seamlessly between the Delhi Metro and the city bus networks and it has a deep, direct utility for users. Its real power, however, lies in its potential to create a unique product for the city: real-time big data on transportation usage.

Data is a critical component of transportation planning. The last comprehensive citywide report on transportation in Delhi was the Travel Demand Forecast Study conducted in 2007-08 by RITES; it demonstrated that 30% of the population utilised public transportation to get around (27% used buses, and 3% the metro). Given that the city had a population of under 17 million according to the 2011 census data, the numbers are striking and would likely be higher today. Beyond the quantum of numbers, these numbers are also no longer accurate. Since the report was published in 2010, the general population has increased substantially and the extent of the Delhi metro has increased as well. Therein lies the primary problem in transport planning in Delhi -- the lack of holistic up-to-date data on transportation choices that are essential for planners to create systems that are responsive to the needs of the people. The data collected through the card will help inform decision-makers in three critical areas: 1) the user mode choice (bus and/or metro), 2) the segmentation (bus-metro-bus, bus-bus…etc.) and, 3) the density of population using particular routes.



A similar card that was launched in 2011, however did not go far beyond a trial period. It stands to reason that this card could succeed where the last one failed because the concepts of big data and planning have come a long way since 2011 and other missions like the Smart City Mission and Digital India could support the processes of the IT-based technology. The data collected through the cards is anonymised and could be kept open to allow for the public and specialists outside the government to analyse and give solutions as is common practice across the globe. The Netherlands is known for its focus on creating better bicycle paths using data from existing cyclists. Singapore is tracking movement within the city and using that data to improve efficiency by reducing crowding and waiting times. Such technology is sorely needed to deal with and complexities of Indian cities. The only aspect better than the actual ability to collect the data, is that it is available in real-time. This is a gold mine for being responsive to the needs of the city and opens possibilities for transit authorities to deploy increased frequencies, alternative routing or dynamic pricing to deal with exigencies.

Delhi CM Arvind Kejriwal and Transport Minister Kailash Gahlot at the launch of Delhi Common Mobility Card (Photo: PTI)

of this technology could enable such single-charge trips even with modal interchanges, thereby reducing the cost of such segmental trips. In such a system, transit operators would be able to provide complementary, rather than competitive services. If transport can be thought of in such an integrated manner, it would be a game changer for commuting in the city.

Public transportation is an economic enabler and, if kept affordable, allows for greater equity and access. While the importance of infrastructure cannot be overemphasised, there is often one Finally, the card is advertised as gaping hole while planning it for enabling seamless travel. Its full cities – data. Planners are routinely potential will only be realised, provided patchy and unreliable data however, with fare integration of to extrapolate from, and plan for the various modes where chaining millions of users. Furthermore, as multiple modes for a single journey cities grow and change, transport would be possible with lower user routes and needs also alter. One of charges. Today, while switching the most robust measures of any from one Metro line to another, one planning mechanism is its flexibility is charged for the total distance in dealing with change. The travelled, the per kilometre rate of Common Mobility Card will allow which reduces telescopically in a people to use one instrument as longer journey. Similarly, the future they travel between modes, and



analysts can utilse this data towards creating systems that are accurate and curated to the needs and economics of the city. ***

Persis Taraporevala is a PhD candidate at King’s College London, and has worked on intermediate public transportation in Kolkata with the Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi. Ryan Christopher Sequeira is an architect-urbanist and is currently Deputy Manager of Transport Planning at DIMTS Ltd




he buildout of a new Metro system in Mumbai is many things to many people. To the government at the Centre, it is the modernisation of India and a strategic partnership with infrastructure funder Japan. For the city, it is an urgent and modern transportation line. For projectaffected residents and environmentalists mourning the loss of trees, congestion, road closures and increased noise and air pollution, it is a nuisance and an unnecessary enterprise. For Mumbai’s youth, it is the symbol of a city catching up with the rest of the world.

- Manjit Kripalani Executive Director & Co Founder At Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relations

However, the most meaningful value of the Metro is an invisible, social one: the first-time active participation of the city’s middle class with the government. How has an infrastructure project revived an urban social compact that had been absent for 30 years? The last time the middle class participated in Mumbai’s welfare was in 1991 when the mill lands were allowed to be developed and the city’s professionals dreamed of a new, equal urban space. Builders’ greed took over and that vision was shattered.



Now, there is another big move: an underground metro which is the city’s first massive mobility project since independence. Unlike the mill lands located in working-class Mumbai, the Metro runs through the heart of middleclass neighborhoods and commercial areas of south Mumbai, through Girgaum, Dadar, Santa Cruz, Bandra, Kurla, Andheri and Aarey. It is disrupting normal life and neighborhoods, forcing residents to step out and become citizens for the first time in decades.

All to the good. India lags behind many countries because its cities and towns have stayed stunted. Successive governments focused on societal and political mobility rather than livability. Over time, as socialism wore off and the private sector began to thrive, the middle class bought its way out of any dependence on government. It turned to the private sector for everything. Only in the city’s administration, roads and public transport did the government intrude — though rudely with shoddy delivery.

for business licenses and political funding, and the poor, who are completely dependent on the government. The middle class floated somewhere around, looking after its privatized, bourgeois self. What the government forgot was that the middle class was an articulate accumulation of skills and knowledge. Infrastructure in particular is the domain of the engineer, lawyer, architect, financier — the same professionals who build and purpose a modern city and its transport. The initial reaction of the government — in the case of Mumbai Metro it was Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (MMRCL) — was to ignore the residents. Metro 3 was a particular case in point. Starting from Colaba Woods garden in Cuffe Parade and running 33.5 km through to the export zone in Bandra, it planned a rail car shed in Aarey Colony, one of Mumbai’s last remaining green sprawls.

That changed in 2014 with the Devendra Fadnavis government’s determination to thrust modern infrastructure on Mumbai and its future generations. The middle class, which rhapsodised over Singapore-style streets and subways at nukkads and dinner parties, was shocked to find that having the same would cost them their slumber and their apathy. The government, too, was in for a shock. The Indian state is accustomed to interacting with only two types of citizens: the very rich


When the middle class started protesting against destruction of green spaces and environment, the state was caught off guard, unable


to believe the ‘mombatti march manoos’ could activate and sustain. An early meeting to explain the wonders of Metro’s engineering was called in 2015 by MMRDA. Residents of Cuffe Parade, JN Tata Road, PM Road, Kalbadevi and Aarey were unimpressed. They were more worried about the green cover. What a very middle class concern! But the same concern resonated with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), which is providing substantial funding for the Metro — Rs 13,235 crore (57 per cent of the total cost).

India lags behind many countries because its cities and towns have stayed stunted. Successive governments focused on societal and political mobility rather than livability. Over time, as socialism wore off and the private sector began to thrive, the middle class bought its way out of any dependence on government. It turned to the private sector for everything. ___________________

Understanding the importance of environment to the Japanese and distressed by the state’s disregard for it, residents formed informal associations to discuss issues and file RTI petitions. Structural engineers in the groups drew diagrams showing soil delicacy and dangers of erosion; greens showed environmental disruption; activists showed how students, especially from slums, benefitted from studying in a verdant setting; lawyers provided legal support; youths used social media to amplify the message. All this was addressed directly to JICA. It worked. In September 2015, appraisers at JICA objected to MMRCL’s plan of using Colaba Woods as an equipment-storing site. A month earlier, the National Green Tribunal in Pune had asked the government to maintain status quo on Aarey and not build a car shed. The state agreed and Aarey and some gardens were spared at the time. It was a moment of joy for Mumbaikars — but also a realisation that their participation cannot be

just this once, that it must be a longterm effort if our metropolis is to develop with sensitivity, care and beauty. The state also understood it cannot railroad through its projects. That middle class is a determined force, whose many talents can be helpful if not treated as disruptive. Over the past one year, the Metro work has started in earnest across Mumbai. Congestion, noise and pollution are at extreme levels, but there is less grumbling from residents and government, and more adjust-maari, more alignment. Ironically, the current citizen-project adversity is the private contractors of the Metro — companies which are known for completing projects in authoritarian countries, but which are less experienced in working in India’s vocal communities. Resident groups are again in ‘orientation’ role for these contractors, reminding them that for every structural engineer at a construction site, there are six of star quality in the nearby buildings. For every shoddy environmental study conducted by consultants, there are five good ones done by residents. For every rule flouted or ignored, there are watchful citizens to take them to task. Life as Mumbai’s middle class knew it for 30 years is over. But they are hopeful that a new era is beginning, one where the government and citizens can be equal partners, pooling in their talent and ambition to make Mumbai not Singapore, Shanghai or Dubai, but a developing metropolis with a mindful middle class matrix. ***



LIVE TENDER NOTICES Company Name & Location

Description of Work

Tender Cost (INR)

Closing Date

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for “Contract: OEW-159: Design, Detail Engineering & SITC of Electrical, Ventilation, Fire Alarm & Detection work at 3rd Floor, D21 Depot building of Airport Express Line.

364.31 Lakh


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

Invitation for Expression of Interest (EOI) for providing static frequency converter (SFC) on lease basis for line- 3 & 4.



Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

Invitation for Expression of Interest (EOI) for providing lifts and escalators on lease basis for Phase-IV of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation.



Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for mechanized cleaning & Housekeeping works from Mundka Industrial Area to City Park Metro station at Line-5 Extension.

16.79 Crore


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for mechanized cleaning & Housekeeping works from Munirka to Nehru Enclave Metro station at Line- 8

20.29 Crore


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for mechanized cleaning & Housekeeping works from Janakpuri West to Vasant Vihar Metro station at Line- 8

22.60 Crore


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for mechanized cleaning & Housekeeping works from Krishna Nagar to Shiv Vihar Metro station at Line-7

18.21 Crore




Company Name & Location

Description of Work

Tender Cost (INR)

Closing Date

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd, New Delhi, India

NIT for design, manufacture, supply, testing, commissioning and training of 36 nos. Standard Gauge cars for Airport Metro Express Line

396.00 Crore


Pune Metro Rail Corporation, Pune, India

NIT for design, manufacture, supply, installation, testing and commissioning of Signalling and train control system at Pune Metro Rail project.



Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd., Bengaluru, India

NIT for engineering, supply, erection, testing and commissioning of 33kv distribution, 750 v DC third rail traction electrification including traction sub stations, auxiliary substations and SCADA system for four extensions and integration with the existing system of Phase-I



Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation Ltd., Bengaluru, India

Providing Security, House Keeping, and other allied Manpower services to the Corporate Office and other site offices of BMRCL Bangalore

6.33 Crore


Kochi Metro Rail Ltd., Kochi, India

RFP for Semi- Naming Rights in 13 Metro Stations



Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation Ltd., Lucknow, India

NIT for construction of elevated viaduct and 9 Nos. elevated station including special span on Priority Section of Corridor-1, Phase-I of Kanpur Metro at Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.

734.00 Crore



Event Name


Mar. 01, 2018

Light Rail: Transforming Our Cities

Sydney, Australia

Mar. 06-08, 2018

IT Trans

Rheinstetten, Germany

Mar. 12-13, 2018

Middle East Rail 2018

Dubai, UAE

Mar. 15, 2018

Accelerate Rail 2018

London, UK

Mar. 20-21, 2018

Asia Pacific Rail 2018

Hong Kong, China

Mar. 20-22, 2018

Myanmar Infrastructure Summit 2018

Yangon, Myanmar

Mar. 20-22, 2018

Railway Tech Indonesia

Jakarta, Indonesia

Apr. 11-12, 2018

Istanbul Rail Tech

Istanbul, Turkey

Apr. 17-19, 2018

Smart Rail

Amsterdam, Netherlands

Apr. 18-19, 2018

Metro and Light Rail

Bilbao, Spain

Apr. 18-21, 2018

Joint Rail Conference (JRC)

Pittsburgh, PA, USA



Metro & Railway Job Openings Organization & Location

Position Name

Last Date

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, New Delhi, India

• • • • • •

Assistant Managers Junior Engineers Office/Accounts Assistants/Stenographers/Librarian Station Controllers Train Operators Maintenance Technicians


Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, New Delhi, India

Director (Operations)


National Capital Region Transport Corporation Ltd., New Delhi, India

• • • •

Design Expert (Civil) Planning Expert (Civil) Architect HR Manager


Railway Energy Management Company Limited, Gurgaon, India

• •

Dy. General Manager (Electrical) Engineer (Electrical)


Indian Railways, New Delhi, India

• •

Asst. Loco Pilot Technicians


Indian Railways, New Delhi, India

• •

Track Maintainer/Trackman/Pointsman Helpers/Porters





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Metro Rail News Magazine | February 2018

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Metro Rail News February 2018  

In February issue we focus on tunneling technology and Mumbai Metro Rail Project.

Metro Rail News February 2018  

In February issue we focus on tunneling technology and Mumbai Metro Rail Project.