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Volume 8 Issue 4 March 2019




Munnar Hills Shrouded In Mist


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Foreword Dear Reader Munnar has been a major contributor to the growth of Kerala’s popularity among local and foreign tourists. Three rivers merge at an elevation of 1600 m above sea level. Munnar is known for its extensive tea gardens, colonial bungalows, waterfalls and winter conditions. In this edition, we have included the article on Munnar. A talent management system is often used by many companies as a means of optimizing the performance of each employee and the organization. The talent management process concept is not restricted to recruiting the right candidate at the right time. It extends to explore the hidden and unusual qualities of your employees. The Indian hotel sector’s occupancies are inched closer to the 70% mark in 2017-18 according to a study report. Factors like ever-expanding domestic tourism, increasing foreign tourist arrivals, growth in forex earnings, high airline passenger numbers and muted supply growth have put the Indian hotel’s industry on an upswing. The recent trends and statistics of the industry as well as improving domestic macroeconomic data suggest the road ahead will bring higher room revenues and profit margins for the hotel industry in the country. Hope these articles are good for our readers.


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March 2019


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Volume 8 Issue 4 March 2019


Hari Shanker

Managing Editor & Director Siji Nair Executive Editor N. Vijayagopalan Editor

V. Viswanath

Editorial Assistant Ampili Nair Projects Head Raj Nijith Business Development Manager Ratheesh Kumar Asst Manager - Sales & Marketing Jayaprakash RP



Munnar Hills Shrouded In Mist

Creative Head Kiran Mohan Manager - Administration Sabu C.N. Manager - Accounts Sindhu R. Corporate Office:Metromart Thiruvananthapuram MERA 44, Eanthivila Lane, Murinjapalam, Medical College P.O. Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 011 Tel: 0471 4015593 M: 0091 9995139933 / 9947733339

Published, Edited and Printed by Hari Shanker A.G. and Owned by Haritha Media Pvt Ltd and Printed by him at SB Press Private Limited, Statue, Trivandrum 695 001 and Published from Tharangam, Kodunganoor Post, Trivandrum 695 013

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Pune | Kolkata | Bangalore | Kochi


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Metro Mart is a monthly journal published from Trivandrum, Views and opinions expressed in the journal are not necessarily those of the Publishers.

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RNI No: KERENG/2011/40037

Contents 24




08 Shravanabelagola A Passage in Time 14

Kerala Orphaned by Dr. Babu Paul’s Demise Hospitality Industry36 Indian EMERGING TRENDS

42 The Picture Page 16


Hills Shrouded In Mist

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Shravanabelagola A


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Passage in Time


mindful year-long penance that culminated in the omniscience intrinsic to human souls, revealed only to those who renounce all worldly desires is manifested in the imposing statue of Gommateshwara that overlooks and protects the town of Shravanabelagola near Channarayapatna in Hassan District, Karnataka in South India. According to legend Gommateshwara or Bahubali was one of the hundred sons born to Rishabhanatha or Adinatha, the first among the 24 Tirthankaras or spiritual leaders of Jainism. When Rishabhanatha decided to renounce the world and embrace an ascetic life, he divided his kingdom among his sons. The eldest, Bharata was crowned king of Ayodhya, while Bahubali was deemed heir apparent to the kingdom of Asmaka in the South with its capital at Paudanapura. The brothers eventually squabbled for control of their father’s vast land. 98 of the brothers bowed down to Bharata, giving up their territories for a life of penance and meditation. Bahubali, on the other hand, was ambitious, much to his brother’s annoyance. The two brothers eventually came face-to-face in a series of conflicts won by Bahubali. Bahubali’s victory brought him immense shame and grief. Overcome with disgust at the world, he renounced his kingdom to his brother and retreated to a life of penance. It is here that he adopted the standing position while meditating, also known as kayotsarga, for a period of one year. During this period, he meditated relentlessly, despite the vines, ants, and dust that enveloped his frame. It is believed that on the last day, his brother Bharata came to Paudanapura to venerate him. Having finally overcome the pain and regret caused by the conflict with Bharata, Bahubali attained supreme enlightement. In honour of his omniscience, Bharata erected a statue in Paudanapura. Over time, this statue came to be covered in anthills and mounds of mud, visible only to chosen devouts. Subsequently, the legend of the statue of Bahubali intrigued Chavundaraya, the general of the ruler of the Western Ganga dynasty in South India. Having narrated the same to his mother, he set out with her on a long pilgrimage to the site of the statue. On route, he dreamed of a Yakshini, a nature spirit, directing him to erect a statue of Lord Bahubali in the erstwhile Paudanapura. The next morning as he reached the top of the Chandragiri hill, he shot an arrow at the first rays of the sun to the top of the Vindhyagiri hill on the opposite side where an image of Gommateshwara appeared in a flash. The March 2019


devout Chavundaraya resolved to erect a statue of Bahubali at the place where the arrow landed. A 57-foot tall monolithic image of Bahubali in the kayotsarga position was carved skillfully from granite by artisans under the supervision of the sage Arishtanemi in 983 A.D. Alternately, scriptures at the base of the statue place its origins to 981 A.D. Gommateshwara or Bahubali is a revered figure in Jainism, an ancient Indian religion that guides people to overcome their cycle of rebirths to attain liberation. Lord Bahubali is believed to have achieved liberation at the sacred Mount Kailash in India. His impressive features carved in stone in Shravanabelagola mark the town as a site of pilgrimage for the Jain community in Karnataka and in India. Nestled between the hills of Vindhyagiri and Chandragiri, Shravanabelagola which is about 144 kilometres away from the city of Bangalore literally translates into “White Pond of the Monk�, an allusion to the beautiful pond built in the center of the town. Studded with an impressive array of temples, the town is steeped in history and occupies


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a place of importance on the religious map of India. It is not only home to the massive free-standing image of Lord Bahubali, but also to numerous Jain temples or basadis dedicated to the various Tirthankaras of Jainism. The town is a landmark in ancient Indian history and Jain legacy, with the various temples and caves dotting the hills serving as reference points to important historical events. It is the resting place of Bhadrabahu, a disciple of Mahaveera Jaina, the last Tirthankara, who passed away in a cave on Chandragiri hill while leading a migration of followers from Ujjain to South India to escape a prolonged 12-year famine that he had predicted, marking the beginning of the spread of Jainism to South India. Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Mauryan Empire in India is said to have meditated and venerated the feet of Bhadrabahu when he embraced a life of asceticism. The name of the hill is an ode to the Emperor who is said to have died here in 298 B.C. The Chandragupta Basadi is the smallest of the temples, yet one of the most beautiful in terms of workmanship dating back to the

The temples of Vindhyagiri offer a stiff competition to the beauty and impressiveness of their counterparts on the opposite hill. Among these, the Gommateshwara statue of Bahubali stands out impressively and is a distinguishing marker of the town.

9th – 12th Century A.D. Chavundaraya also commissioned a basadi dedicated to Neminatha Swamy, the 22nd Tirthankara. Numerous other temples constructed to venerate the Tirthankaras and monks who meditated on Chandragiri dot the expanse of the hill such as the Shantinatha Basadi, and the Parshwanatha Basadi. These are exemplars of the beautiful architecture of the Ganga and Hoysala dynasties in South India, their skill and craftsmanship are among some of the best the country has to offer. The temples of Vindhyagiri offer a stiff competition to the beauty and impressiveness of their counterparts on the opposite hill. Among these, the Gommateshwara statue of Bahubali stands out impressively and is a distinguishing marker of the town. It is one of the largest free standing monolithic statues in the world, proportionate, elegant and finely detailed with attention paid to his physical features and facial expressions that reveal his worldly detachment, inner peace, and calm vitality. An anthill is carved in the background, symbolic of Bahubali’s incessant penance, from

which a snake and a vine emerge to twine around his legs and arms and culminate in clusters of flowers and berries carved elegantly on the upper arms. The statue is nude, the lack of attire representing his victory over earthly desires and material needs that hinder the attainment of absolute knowledge. The entire figure of Bahubali stands on top of an open lotus and is flanked by intricately ornamented and beautiful nature spirits on either side bearing traditional fans. The statue is enclosed in a pillared hall depicting 43 images of the Tirthankaras. Once in 12 years, the statue of Gommateshwara is anointed in offerings of purified water, sandalwood paste, saffron paste, milk, sugarcane juice, turmeric and vermillion powders, flower petals, gold and silver coins and precious stones in a festive ceremony known as the Mahamastakabhisheka or the Grand Consecration. The festival attracts thousands of devotees from all across the country as well as tourists who throng the town to catch a glimpse of the ceremonial grandeur. The Mahamastakabhisheka continues for weeks and begins when devotees

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carry 1,008 specially prepared kalashes or vessels that contain the offerings. Consecrated water is sprinkled on the participants and devotees followed by the anointment of the Gommateshwara statue from scaffolding erected for this precise purpose. In recent times, the consecration ends with a spectacular shower of flower petals from a hovering helicopter above. Simultaneous consecrations of Bahubali statues and images are held in temples across southern Karnataka. This year the ceremony was held between 17th and 25th February 2018. This visually spectacular event is a continuation of a historic Jain tradition. According to local legend, in later years the general Chavundaraya was filled with pride over his achievement of the impressive statue of Bahubali. As he set out to perform the Mahamastakabhisheka, the anointing liquids refused to flow down the navel of the statue. At that moment an old woman called Gullikayajji arrived with milk in the shell of a white Gullikai fruit (eggplant). Ridiculed by the participants, the old woman was encouraged by Chavundaraya’s guru to anoint the head of the statue. As she began to pour the milk, it ran down the length of the statue to its feet and covered the surrounding hill! Humbled and chastened, Chavundaraya called for the Mahamastakabhisheka to be commemorated every 12 years. Since then the ceremony has been observed without fail. Gullikayajji’s ornamented figure is sculpted in the pillared hall within which Bahubali stands tall. The Vindhyagiri hill offers a breath taking view of the verdant expanse below and the town of


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Shravanabelagola. As with the Chandragiri hill, rock-cut steps lead up to the Gommateshwara statue at the top. The temples here are equally impressive. One such example is the Odegal Basadi, a fine example of Hoysala architecture of the 14th Century. The temple derives its name from the odegal or stone props against the basement walls characteristic of its structure. The interior ceiling is supported by lathe-turned pillars while the ceiling itself is intricately carved with a detailed lotus bud motif. Dedicated to the worship of the Tirthankaras, their images in the sanctum are carved in schist with unparalleled skill. Shravanabelagola offers a fantastic opportunity to visitors to gain insights into Jain mythology, art and architecture through its numerous temples, vivid paintings depicting social life and nature on the walls of the Sri Jain Matha and the magnificent temple complexes characteristic of Western Ganga and Hoysala sculpture. The town is an absolute visual delight. Shravanabelagola is easily accessible by air, road, and rail. The nearest airport is 157 kilometres away in Bangalore. The town is a railway station well connected by trains from Mysore via Hassan. One can also get here by road from Bangalore, Mysore or Hassan. While at Shravanabelagola, experience the local warmth and hospitality of the townspeople, immerse in the sights and sounds of the local market and savour the cuisine of southern Karnataka. A visit to Shravanabelagola is an undeniably enriching spiritual experience, a pilgrimage that takes you back through the passages of time!

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Dr.Babu Paul former Additional Chief Secretary to Government of Kerala who died on April 13, 2019 was a great source of inspiration and guiding force for Executive Knowledge Lines. Sri.T.P.Sreenivasan, former Indian Ambassador and renowned Diplomat reminisces about this multi faceted and towering personality.

Kerala Orphaned by Dr. Babu Paul’s



T.P. Sreenivasan IFS (Retd.)

erala is reeling under the shock of the unexpected and sudden demise of Dr. Babu Paul. It is a huge personal loss for me. Babu Paul strode the bureaucratic scholarly, literary and cultural and moral scene of Kerala like a colossus and there was no one to equal or excel him. He was the last word not only on the Bible, but also on all the holy books of all religions. God was his guide in all matters including life and death. He once told me that he felt safe during his travels as he trusted that the drivers and


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pilots were the agents of God. As for death, he said that according to his belief, the world after death would be more attractive. Even if death meant the end of everything, he would not complain either. He prepared himself for death several years ago by keeping a coffin ready for him and detailing what should happen at his funeral such as the people who should chant the scriptures. He is reported to have also recorded a message to be played at the funeral. In Kerala administration, there was nothing he did not touch and

nothing he did not embellish. His dedication to Kerala was absolute and he did not discriminate between political parties and politicians when he criticised their actions or praised them. He had become the conscience of Kerala and the arbiter of Kerala’s interests. As an orator, very few like Sukumar Azhikode could match Babu Paul. While Azhikode played around with words and ideas, Babu Paul was erudite, deep and humorous. As a political and social commentator, he was matchless. He criticised political leaders of all hues, but he had no enemies in any party. Most recently, he extended support to Kummanom Rajasekharan because of his conviction that India needed the leadership of Narendra Modi for five more years. When Babu Paul took such a position, other political parties did not attack him. Such was his credibility. Babu Paul was a prolific and excellent writer mostly in Malayalam, but also proficient in English. He was never dogmatic about religion and politics and so his views were always respected. His speeches, writings and conversations are a gold mine of quotable quotes on any occasion. Babu Paul recently expressed satisfaction over his autobiography having had 8 reprints so far. The popularity of the book springs from its objectivity and accuracy of details of the various issues he dealt with in his long career beginning as a junior engineer and ending as the Ombudsman. It remains the height of irony that this bureaucrat of bureaucrats did not become the

In Kerala administration, there was nothing he did not touch and nothing he did not embellish. Chief Secretary of the state or did not occupy high positions in the centre. This did not detract from the major contribution he has made as a master administrator. Babu Paul will be remembered differently by different people. His biggest contribution may wellbe his monumental work on the Bible for which he spent a decade of his life. He undertook this and other tasks as ordained by God. He accepted success and defeat as God’s will and so remained unaffected by bouquets and brickbats. He was also indebted to his father for the guidance he received. Babu Paul was a very humble person, Every Sunday he used to participate in church’s altar during holy Qurbana. He received the noblest title a non-priest can receive from Patriarch of Antioch. In his time he was the First Rank holder in Secondary School Exam in entire Kerala after studying in an ordinary Malayalam medium school. He was Rank No.10 in all India Civil Service Exam in his very first attempt. Kerala without Babu Paul is poorer as it will not have the benefit of his advice, warnings and guidance. The Civil Service aspirants will miss a great mentor and well wisher. Kerala is orphaned by his demise. March 2019




Hills Shrouded In Mist


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he Queen of the Hills is not a moniker that is given out lightly, but Munnar claimed it seamlessly like a pureblood monarch. This hill destination is today atop every global traveller’s bucket list, standing as the ultimate culmination of natural beauty being gently shaped into an international tourist hotbed. The hills, meadows and plantations stretch out in all directions, and the moment your car begins the upward climb to its dreamy peaks, the realization that you are mere miles away from the very doorway to Paradise becomes rather clear. March 2019



rare flora and fauna on display here. There are a large number of locations in and around the place that provide holiday-goers with a perfect backdrop to let off some steam and unwind to their heart’s content. Location and Attractions

Munnar’s Allure Munnar was supposed to be a place known primarily for its tea plantations, but it has evolved over the decades in a magnificent way. The visuals still remain, and at 1,500 m to 2,695 m above sea level, they leave a permanent mark on all who visit this majestic place. Travellers can constantly be seen raving about its hills, the mist, the valleys, the streams, the waterfalls, tea plantations and the 18

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Located in the legendary South Western Ghats of India, it got its name due to its standing at the confluence of three rivers – Muthirapuzha, Nallathanni and Kundala Rivers (Moonu means 3 and aru is a river). Once the summer capital for the British, its tea plantation days are what earned it fame. Some of the most loved sites here include Eravikulam National Park, Anamudi Peak, Mattupetty, Top Station and the Tea Museum. The events, packages and activities are immense, and one never runs out of fun and invigorating things to do in these parts.

Once you reach Munnar, take the road to Rajamala and Eravikulam will soon be in sight. The National Park is a protected area and is divided into three regions - the core area, the buffer area and the tourism area.

Eravikulam National Park The grandest and mostvisited site in all of Munnar, Eravikulam National Park is home to some of the most mystical species in all of Kerala, be it the majestic Nilgiri Tahr or the blue gem that blooms only once every 12 years, the Neelakurinji (Strobilanthes kunthianus). Spread out over an area of 97 sq. km, it is located Devikulam Taluk of Idukki district. Once you reach Munnar, take the road to Rajamala and Eravikulam will soon be in sight. The National Park is a protected area and is divided into three regions - the core area, the buffer area and the tourism area. Visitors are allowed only to the tourism March 2019



area that is in Rajamala, the region lying beyond the road entry into Eravikulam. Eravikulam is also famous for being the natural habitat of the endangered Nilgiri Tahr, the endangered mountain goat and this park was built with the aim of protecting and conserving them. Mathikettan Shola Declared a National Park in 2008, Mathikettan Shola gets a lot of traction among our visitors due to it being among the most prominent elephant strips in the 20

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area. Spread out over 12.82 sq km, it is also home to some of the rarest floral and faunal species in all of Idukki. Fed by Uchillkuthi Puzha, Mathikettan Puzha, and Njandar, three water bodies that emanate from the Panniyar, its highest point is the Kattumala, which borders neighbouring Tamil Nadu. Hillocks cover its terrain, with their uneven heights adding to the visual appeal of the place. Mostly evergreen forests, moist deciduous forests, shola grasslands and semi-evergreens adorn the landscape in this area. The

medicinal herbs here are precious to many. A Muthavan tribal colony at Aduvilanthankudy is situated about its northeastern borders. Located in Poopara village of Udumbanchola taluk in Idukki district, it is about 2 km from the National Highway and 10 km from Munnar. Ananmudi Shola Ananmudi Shola represents one of Idukki’s finest jewels, with the protected park containing some of the finest vantage points in the entire area, along with

being a hotbed for sightings of endemic species. Bound on all sides by Eravikulam National Park, Pampadum Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and Mathikettan Shola Park, its 7.5 sq km area is every trekker’s paradise. Anamudi Peak, lying in the core area, is famous for being the tallest peak in South India. It boasts of high mountains, vast stretches of grassland, thick shola cover and waterfalls. Trekkers will find paths emanating from random corners that lead to even more March 2019


beautiful sites during their hikes. Its biodiversity is among the most varied in the district and all of Kerala, with this area being home to around 174 species of herbs and shrubs, 62 species of trees and around 40 species of climbers. Tea plantations surround you, with tea factories visits being right atop


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most visitors’ itineraries. Elephant, Nilgiri Tahr and tiger sightings are the other wildlife attractions in this pristine park. The National Park can be accessed from Kochi, which is only 160 km. The nearest town is Munnar, which is only 53 kilometres away.

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Talent Management



alent management is an organization’s ability to recruit, retain, and produce the most talented employees available in the job market. Talent management process helps companies to hire right person for the right job as per their job requirement and description. Talent management process is not only restricted to hiring best talent but it also helps companies to find out hidden qualities of employees to get desired outputs. Talent consistently uncovers benefits in critical economic areas such as revenue maximisation, customer satisfaction, quality enhancement, productivity improvement, cost reduction, cycle time optimisation, and market capitalization. The term talent management was coined by McKinsey & Company following a 1997 study. The profession that supports talent


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management became increasingly formalized in the early 2000s. Through talent management, modern companies use strategic human resource planning to improve business value and to reach their goals. Everything done to recruit, retain, develop, reward and make people perform forms a part of talent management as well as strategic workforce planning. An effective talent-management strategy is one which is linked to business strategy. A talent management system is suggested to be used in business strategy and implemented in daily processes throughout the company as a whole. It cannot be left solely to the human resources department to attract and retain employees, but rather be practiced in all levels of an organization. The business strategy must include responsibilities for line managers to develop the skills of their immediate subordinates.

People connected to an organization being its main resource, sourcing the best people from the market for the organization has become top priority today. The talent management process is becoming a key strategy to identify and fill skill gap in the company. Divisions within the company should be openly sharing information with other departments in order for employees to gain knowledge of the overall organizational objectives. The issue with many employers today is that they put tremendous efforts into attracting employees, but spend little time into retaining and developing talent. A talent management system is often used by many companies as a means of optimizing the performance of each employee and the organization. The talent management process concept is not restricted to recruiting the right candidate at the right time. It extends to explore hidden and unusual qualities of your employees. It helps companies to improve employee’s abilities and nurturing them to get desired results. For organizations hiring the best talent may be a big concern today. But

retaining them and transitioning them according to your culture is most important and difficult. For this purpose talent management process is the proper solution to get best out of your employees for the benefit of your organization. Professional talent management process takes care of all activities from understanding the job requirements, sourcing the best talent from the industry, attracting the talent, recruiting the talent, training and development, retention, promotion, reward systems, competency mapping, permance appraisal, career planning, succession planning and exit of employees. The talent management process gives lot of benefits to an organization. 1. Right Person in the right Job Proper ascertainment of people skill and strength and people decisions, gain a strategic agenda. March 2019



This phenomenon is important for organizations because the right person for the right position increased productivity. 2. Retaining the top talent Retaining the top talent for your organization is the most important factor to compete in market with others. To keep employees for long time companies must reward employees on the basis of individual performances with bonuses and promotions. 3. Better Hiring - The talent management process helps companies to hire better workforce. The quality of an organization depend on the quality of workforce it possesses. No wonder talent management process software has become an integral part of HR (Human Resource) processes nowadays. 4. Understanding Employees Better - The talent management process software allows HR (Human Resource) department better assessment of each 26 March 2019

employee individually. You can easily guess what motivates whom and their development needs, career aspirations, strengths and weaknesses, abilities, likes and dislikes. 5. Better professional development decisions - When an organization find out who is its high potential, it becomes much easier for the organization to invest in their professional developments. Talent management process provide ease to organizations in decision making, learning, training, development, etc. And help the organizations where to invest. People connected to an organization being its main resource, sourcing the best people from the market for the organization has become top priority today. The talent management process is becoming a key strategy to identify and fill skill gap in the company by recruiting high skill individual employees from the industry. Hiring new employees as per company requirements is never ending process. To sustain and stay in the market with your competitors, the talent management process cannot be ignored. Talent management is not just a simple human resource key term one will come across. It is also committed to hire, manage, develop, and retain the most talented and excellent employees in the industry. In fact, talent management plays an important role in the business strategy since it manages one of the important assets of the company—its people. Modern companies make it a point to help their employees develop their skills and capabilities in order to retain them.

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pheresis refers to the process of taking the blood outside the body (extracorporeal) and separating one or more than one component of blood and returning the remaining blood into an individual using a machine called cell separator. The term Apheresis is derived from the Greek word “aphaeresis”, which means “taking away”.

History of Apheresis

Plasmapheresis was originally described by John Abel and Leonard Rowntree of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1913. Apheresis technique was first developed by Dr José A. Grifols Lucas during 1950-51. He found that this technique allowed donors to donate more frequently without compromising their health. Michael Rubinstein was the first person to use plasmapheresis for therapeutic purpose to treat an immune-related


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disorder at the old Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Los Angeles in 1959. The apheresis machine was invented by American medical technologist Herb Cullis in 1972.

Principle of Apheresis:

The cellular constituents of blood are separated on the principle of centrifugation based on the difference in the specific gravity of the components. Within the centrifugation process, three variables can be adjusted to selectively remove the desired component. This includes the centrifugation speed, time and the bowl diameter. Separation factor is the combination of centrifugal acceleration (g) and centrifugation time (dwelling time) which determines the degree of cell separation. It is also called the Packing Factor. The centrifugation method can be divided into two basic categories:

Continuous flow centrifugation:

refers to the continuous nature of centrifugation, which was historically enabled by requiring two venipunctures, so that one port is for inflow and the other for return of blood after separation of the needed component. Newer systems use a double lumen system enabling single venipuncture. The main advantage of this system is the low extracorporeal volume (blood volume outside the body during the procedure). This is particularly beneficial in young and elderly patients.

Intermittent flow centrifugation:

in this, the centrifugation works in cycles, taking blood, centrifuging it, separating out the needed component and returning the unused parts to the donor in a bolus. This type of procedure requires only a single venipuncture site, but the

extracorporeal volume is very high. Other methods involve Filtration and combination of centrifugation and filtration. In filtration, the blood is pumped through a membrane with pores which allows plasma and low molecular weight substances to pass through while retaining the larger blood cellular elements. Pore diameter for plasma separation is 0.2 to 0.6 m. Apheresis machine based on membrane filtration are Prisma Flex (Gambro – Baxter), NxStage and BBraun Third principle is based on cell size. This process is called Elutriation, which uses centrifugal force against a continuously increasing fluid flow to separate cells based on size and to a lesser extent on density. It is used primarily to isolate monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear concentrates. Elutra system from Terumo BCT is an automated closed system based on the principle of elutriation.

Table 1: Comparison between continuous and intermittent flow centrifugation system

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Table 2: Comparison between filtration and centrifugation-based apheresis

What are the different applications (types) of Apheresis?

The procedure may be done on the patient, when it is called therapeutic apheresis or on the healthy donor (donor apheresis) to obtain individual components (red cells, platelets or plasma) to treat or meet transfusion requirement of patients.

Therapeutic apheresis:

used to remove the pathological (disease causing) constituent in blood. The procedure may require to be done frequently to bring the implicated constituent below the pathological levels.

1) Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE): used for

removal of pathological largemolecular- weight substances such as harmful antibodies from the plasma. Femoral or jugular access is used to allow adequate blood flow. Typically, 30–40 mL/kg of plasma (1–1.5 plasma volumes) is removed at each procedure and replaced either with isotonic 4.5 or 5.0% human albumin solution or 25–50% of replacement volume with 0.9% saline. Exchange with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is reserved 30

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for the replacement of ADAMTS13 in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or to replace clotting factors. A one plasma volume exchange removes about 66% of an intravascular constituent and a two-plasma volume exchange approximately 85%. The frequency of the procedure and the volume removed at each procedure depends upon the indication, patient characteristics and laboratory values. TPE is normally combined with disease modifying treatment, such as immunosuppressive drugs, for the underlying condition. The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) publishes evidence-based guidelines for therapeutic apheresis.

2) Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis – removal of LDL

cholesterol in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. This is done using Double Filtration or Cascade Plasmapheresis. First filter separates plasma from whole blood and second filter removes the specific plasma component. Heparin-induced Extracorporeal LDL Precipitation (HELP): Plasma is removed by membrane filtration. Acidified Heparin is added to plasma, causing a selective

precipitation of LDL cholesterol. This is removed by filtration and plasma is returned to the patient after being ultra-filtered and dialyzed. 3) Photopheresis – used to treat graftversus- host disease, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and rejection in heart transplantation. The whole blood is centrifuged to remove selectively the buffy coat, which is treated with Methoxsalen and exposed to UVA light and the treated buffy coat is returned back to the patient. 4) Immunoadsorption: with Staphylococcal protein A-agarose column for removal of allo- and autoantibodies (in autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, hemophilia) by directing the collected plasma through protein A-agarose columns. Protein A is a cell wall component of Staphylococcus aureus which binds to the Fc region of immunoglobulins. 5) Leukocytapheresis–removal of malignant white blood cells in leukemic patients with hyperleucocytosis causing stasis and ischemic damage. 6) Erythrocytapheresis–removal of diseased erythrocytes in sickle cell crisis or plasmodium falciparum malaria with very high parasitemia. 7) Thrombocytapheresis– removal of platelets in patients with severe symptomatic thrombocytosis. Donor Apheresis: Blood is collected from a healthy donor, separated into its components, needed component removed and the remaining blood returned to the donor. Advantage includes more frequent collections and reduced

donor exposure for the recipient.

1) Plasmapheresis-similar

to the plasma exchange done in patients, here the plasma is separated and removed without the use of replacement solution by restricting the removed volume to 15% of total plasma volume. Standards for donating plasma are set by national regulatory agencies such as U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Union, and by the Plasma Protein Therapeutics Association (or PPTA) which audits and accredits collection facilities. The collected plasma is promptly frozen at lower than -20 °C and is shipped for fractionation to obtain specific products like albumin and immunoglobulins, to be used as medications for human use. Sometimes the plasma so obtained may be used in patients undergoing liver transplantation to reduce the donor exposure. 2) Erythrocytapheresis– individuals undergoing double volume RBC collection are required to have a higher haematocrit and a higher weight and height as compared to whole blood donations. 3) Plateletpheresis–one unit of platelet collected by apheresis is equivalent to six to ten units of random donor platelet concentrates. The interval between two consecutive platelet apheresis should be at least 2 days, with no more than two apheresis in a week and not more than 24 times in a rolling 12-month period. If the remaining blood cannot be

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transfused back to the donor due to any reason, he should undergo apheresis only after 90 days. Between a whole blood donation and plateletpheresis, a minimum interval of 28 days should be followed. The donor should have a minimum weight of 50 kg (Indian guidelines) and should not be on any anti platelet drugs. 4) Leukapheresis–is the removal of leucocytes for transfusion into patients with severe neutropenia with sepsis not responding to treatment. There is limited data to suggest the benefit of granulocyte infusion. Collected granulocytes should be irradiated and transfused within 24 hours at 20 to 24 °C. In addition to single components, FDA has laid guidelines for multicomponent


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collection as well (single unit RBC and plasma or single unit RBC and platelet, or single unit RBC, plasma and platelet)

5) Peripheral blood stem cell collection-Stem cells may be

collected from the bone marrow, cord blood or peripheral blood. Advantage of peripheral blood stem cell collection is it is easy to perform and multiple collections if needed can be performed. For this, the stem cells are mobilised into peripheral circulation with the help of growth factors, which causes a transient bone pain in the donor, due to marrow expansion. The CD34 marker is used to quantify the stem cells collected. The optimum dose of CD34 positive cells is 2-5X106/kg body weight of the recipient.

How is apheresis performed?

Venous access: to support sustained flow rates of 50-100 ml/min requires insertion of large bore venous catheters. The catheter may be placed in peripheral circulation such as antecubital fossa or central circulation such as femoral/ subclavian or jugular (femoral line carries risk of infection if inserted for long duration) or in Arteriovenous shunt/fistula. Number of lines: intermittent flow devices requires only a single line for draw and return, while continuous flow devices required separate lines for draw and return, but now possible using a single venous access with double lumen catheter. Replacement Fluid: The primary function of the replacement fluid is to maintain intravascular volume in case of large extracorporeal volume or in patients with low blood volume. In addition, it helps in restoration of important plasma proteins such as ADAMTS- 13 (in case of TTP), maintenance of colloid osmotic pressure with albumin and maintenance of electrolyte balance with 0.9% normal saline. Replacement fluid is used in therapeutic apheresis. Anticoagulation: anticoagulant of choice is acid citrate dextrose (ACD). It acts by chelating ionized calcium and blocks calciumdependent coagulation cascade. Liver metabolises citrate almost immediately. Individuals can experience transient hypocalcemia during the return phase of the apheresis procedure.

What are the complications of Apheresis procedure? Complications are rare due to apheresis, but can occur in therapeutic or donor apheresis. 1) Hypotension - light-headedness and tachycardia, rare in donor apheresis. Corrected by foot end elevation, improving the fluid balance and bolus infusion of colloid and crystalloids in severe situations. 2) Vasovagal reactions- bradycardia with feeling of apprehension, nausea, pallor, sweating. Can be managed with reassurance and foot end elevation. 3) Citrate toxicity -perioral tingling, numbness, paraesthesia, tetany. Preevaluate the liver function status. Usually self-resolving; calcium infusion can be started. 4) Allergic reactions to the replacement fluids used. 5) Thrombocytopenia and loss of clotting factors associated with plasma exchange. 6) Complications related to vascular access such as hematoma, infection. Conclusion: The field of apheresis technology continues to evolve at such a rate that future transfusion requirement of patients requiring multiple transfusions may solely be collected by apheresis, and newer innovations in apheresis techniques will revolutionize the future transfusion and therapeutic practices. (The author is Assistant Professor, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences & Technology, Trivandrum.)

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PMI Kerala Chapter successfully hosted the 5th PMI India Project Management Regional Conference 2019


MI Kerala Chapter successfully hosted the fifth PMI India Project Management Regional Conference at The Sports Hub Convention Centre, Thiruvananthapuram. The conference was attended by more than 250 delegates, making it yet another successful event of the region for project management professionals. It was inaugurated by Padmashri, Dr. M. R. Rajagopal, Pioneer in Palliative Medicine in India and Founder Chairman of Pallium India, S. Somanath, Distinguished Scientist & Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, ISRO and Tejas Sura, Member - Board of Directors, PMI amongst other dignitaries.


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The one day conference themed, Transformation Made Possible By A Project Manager, emphasized on how skilled project managers can transform organizations to the next level by being future-ready and help to ensure sustainability and deliver better business results for higher impact on the region and eventually country’s economy. Commenting on the conference, Dr. Krishnakumar T I, President, PMI Kerala Chapter, said, “We are delighted to have hosted the 5th PMI India Project Management Regional Conference 2019. The conference put the focus on the vital role that project leaders will play in achieving the vision of their

organization, state, and also of the nation. In this age of disruption, it is imperative to create awareness and build an understanding on the future role of project managers. With that in background, the event provided a great opportunity for project practitioners to listen to valuable insights from industry leaders catering to aerospace, healthcare, start-up, education, soft skills, and social sector.” “Organisations the world over – from public and private businesses to non-profits and government agencies – are grappling with the effects of disruptive technologies. Not surprisingly, we are also seeing the role of the project leader expand to be one of an innovator, a strategic advisor, communicator, big thinker, and versatile manager. In this new professional reality, project leaders — regardless of their title — must continue to demonstrate the competencies that form PMI’s Talent Triangle® viz. technical project management, leadership, and strategic and business management skills. At the same time, organisations also need project leaders with an ability to learn and

keep pace with technology.” said Mr. Tejas Sura, Member - Board of Directors, PMI. Visionary speakers from different sectors attended the conference, shared their views on the changing trends across diverse industries and the necessary skills to be adopted in order to counter digital disruption. Some of the keynote speakers of the conference included Sohan Roy, Award Winning Hollywood Film Director, CEO & Founder of Aries Group of Companies, Prakash Ramachandran, CTO of Think and Learn Pvt. Ltd. (Byju’s), Tathagat Varma, Ex-Defense Scientist, Antarctic Researcher, Software Executive, Product Leader and Technologist, Commander S Sanooj, Indian Navy, Chief Inspector of Naval Armament(CINA), Nanda Kishore N. Vice President and Global Delivery Head - Wipro Technologies Limited, Tiffany Brar, Social activist, Inclusion, Disability rights and Advocacy, Val Gray, Expert in Defining, Assessing and Managing Behaviours, Subramanian Narayanan, Road safety evangelist and a transformer and Ms. Anita Peter, CEO and Principal Facilitator - Persona Script.

March 2019



Indian Hospitality IndustryEmerging Trends N.Vijayagopalan


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he hospitality industry in India has undoubtedly been a consistent and reliable source of revenue and capital for the country adding to its overall economic growth. A vast array of factors including businesses, modern technology and hotel marketing trends have been impacting the industry for the past few years. In India, hospitality activities have been increasing by leaps and bounds over the recent few years. Hospitality is now considered one of the most competitive industries of our time. It has been growing at an exponential rate since 2008. The Indian hotel sector’s occupancies are inched closer to the 70% mark in 2017-18 according to a study report. Factors like ever expanding domestic tourism, increasing foreign tourist arrivals, growth in forex earnings, high airline passenger numbers and muted supply growth have put the Indian hotels industry on an upswing. The recent trends and statistics of the industry as well as improving

domestic macroeconomic data suggest the road ahead will bring higher room revenues and profit margins for the hotel industry in the country. According to the market reports, Indian hotel industry was able to overthrow the 65% occupancy rates threshold last year (2017). The yearly report titled ‘Hotels in India Trends & Opportunities’, by the global hospitality consulting firm HVS, suggests that branded hotels in India touched the occupancy rate of 65.6 per cent in financial year 2017, as against 63.3 per cent in the previous year. It is after a decade that the Indian hotel industry has crossed the 65 per cent occupancy rate. The last time it happened was in financial year 2008. The increase in the occupancy rate of the hotels was further complimented with an increase in weighted average rate by 2.4 per cent to INR 5,658 in the financial year 2017. This growth in occupancy of hotels and average rate caused the nationwide RevPAR to go up by 6 per cent to be at INR March 2019




The emerging dynamism of the hospitality industry calls for investment by hotel organizations in solutions that create indelible personalized guest experiences and enhance guest loyalty.

For decades, India’s hospitality entities had been doing business following a tried-and-tested pattern, restricting themselves in their comfort zones. They have been rather hesitant to risk any innovation or change. But thanks to the onset of the digital era, the rules of the game have drastically changed. The power of innovation is so tremendous that upstarts have started challenging the reputed companies. Globally, technology has emerged as the biggest business disruptor of all time transforming innumerable businesses and taking them to higher orbits. Hospitality is no exception as it has also witnessed the swift rise of innovators. The emerging dynamism of the hospitality industry calls for investment by hotel organizations in solutions that create indelible personalized guest experiences


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and enhance guest loyalty. The needs, desires and tastes of guests are fast changing in many areas like authenticity of destination experiences, eco-conscious facilities, and increasing demand for adventure. The giant strides in technology continue to transform the preferences and habits of guests in terms of choices and reservations, inevitably leading to the emergence of innovations to improve guest relationships and increasing the competitive edge. The hotel industry today is engrossed in meeting the rapidly changing guest expectations. The hotels are pushing boundaries, broadening boundaries, augmenting services and aiming to provide unique guest care. There is an increasing realization among hotel brands about the yearning of their clients for a unique experience rather than a great service. The outlook of the guests have also been undergoing a sea change and it is not an exaggeration to state that the leisure guest as well as the corporate traveler now has the same outlook. The changing scenario is prompting hotel owners to take control over their operations with an eye on creating the best-in class customer experiences.

Key Trends

A close look at India’s hospitality sector shows a set of key trends that have emerged in the industry in the recent years. Whether it is a massive hotel chain or a single boutique hotel, hoteliers cannot ignore the latest trends that are emerging in

the hospitality industry. In the recent times, the assetlight model has gained significant importance with both international as well domestic brands in the hotel industry opting for it. The trend was started in India by the major global hotel groups like Marriott and Accor and soon the domestic players like Taj, Oberoi, ITC and Leela started following suit. In February 2018 Taj (from the Indian Hotels Company Ltd.) announced its five-year strategy revealing that by the year 2022, 60% of its assets will not be owned by the company. The strategy announced was a three pronged one – by Restructuring, Reengineering and Reimagining their portfolio to achieve 8% point EBIDTA margin improvement. The strategy was marked by a deep commitment to service excellence by putting customer as the focal point as well as implementation of revenue and profit-driving initiatives. Even budget hotels like LemonTree which started with solely owned properties have started adapting to this new model. The guest profiles of our hospitality sector are changing by the day, bringing in more millennials that experience the hotel services. Their demand for inclusion of technology at all service touch points is one of the major forces in changing trends in the industry. This tech-savviness results in their opting to post online pictures, sharing content of experiences and reviews digitally. Being empowered with more knowledge and social media, these new guests are compelling hotels to improve the quality of products March 2019


and services. Smart hoteliers are ensuring that their website is userfriendly and updated. They capitalize on technology and ensure their presence across various social media platforms and deliver genuine and pro-active responses to retain customers/guests. Another emerging trend is the mid-market boom, which refers to hotels falling under two/three/ four-star properties categorized as business hotels, resorts, boutiques, havelis, and full-service or limitedservice hotels with average pricing being INR 4,000 or less for a night. An upsurge in travel of the middle class, increase in business and leisure travel, growing urbanization, strengthened economic growth and the doubling of air travel over the past few years have given a boost to the mid-market brands in the hotel industry in India. The mid-market of the Indian hotel industry mainly caters to the domestic business and leisure travelers of the country. The spurge in travels of upper-middle class and middle-class has given the budget hotels a key role to play in the growth of this sector in the times ahead. Hotels exist in a shared economy of membership clubs, home-stays, and emerging lifestyle brands. With new hospitality services like Airbnb, continuing to gain a major share in the segment, hotels are creating sub-brands to respond to the needs of customization and make guest experience unique, meaningful and experiential. Guests now opt for ‘dining’ experiences beyond the hotel’s food and beverage outlets. 40

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We are now seeing the trend of modern travelers including the millennials, seeking more and more to connect with the local people, culture and food while travelling. Many hotels are adopting strategies to weave in the destination and culture by building guest experiences around local cuisine, art, architecture, and rituals. ITC Hotels’ Food Sherpa programme - where the hotel chef takes guests on a culinary tour of the city – is a case in point. Industry experts say it is no more about a room - creating unique experiences will be key to win the guests. Travellers want to mingle with locals, and hotels are trying to facilitate this through activities such as yoga sessions and art classes to make their hotels more sociable places for locals and visitors alike. There are also initiatives to create shared workspaces and invite

domestic travelers point towards a bright and shiny future for Indian hotel industry. The Indian Credit Rating Agency (ICRA) estimates improvement in average room rates across most markets in India in the financial year 2019. It has also predicted the corporate request for proposal rates for the current year to grow up by about 5 per cent.

local entrepreneurs into hotels to work and socialize. The year 2019 is expected to make the “guest experience� with hotels more exciting in new ways, whether it is through wild food safaris or oncein-a-lifetime activities. Travelers are increasingly seeking out memories and Instagram-worthy moments over traditional souvenirs and this could trigger more partnerships between hotels and local restaurants and excursion providers. With more hoteliers realising that embracing all-encompassing technology is not just unavoidable but hugely beneficial for their businesses, it will be an integral part of operations, marketing and distribution everywhere in the hospitality industry. Factors like a steadily growing economy and a stable inflow of investments coupled with fast growing foreign and

We have been seeing the international hotel chains significantly increasing their footmark in India and it is estimated that this segment will account for 47 per cent share in the Tourism & Hospitality sector of India by 2020 and 50 per cent by 2022. And inevitably, some tough international competition is in sight in the times to come for the local champions. Competition is intense in metros and fast picking up in tier-2 and tier-3 cities. Competition has picked up mainly due to the entry of foreign hotel chains. Also, there is an increasing competition from the startups/online industry due to the increasing penetration of the internet. According to the Indian Hotel Industry Survey 2016-17, compiled by Hotelivate in association with the Federation of Hotel & Restaurant Associations of India (FHRAI), the Indian hotel industry is estimated to expand to 13 billion U.S. dollars by 2020. Certainly, the future shows good weather sign for the industry. And the future of the hospitality industry is firmly linked with technology and its application on one side and active engagement with personalization on the other. March 2019




Photographed by Ananthu P Nair Location: Veli, Trivandrum


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Profile for Metro Mart Magazine

Metro Mart May 2019  

Metro Mart within the last Six years were able to make its presence felt in the city and now a utility readers look upon. Our readers are th...

Metro Mart May 2019  

Metro Mart within the last Six years were able to make its presence felt in the city and now a utility readers look upon. Our readers are th...

Profile for metromart