Metaplas: 3D-Printed Multi-Polymers

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METAPLAS RC8 / 3D Printed Multi-Polymers

Tutors Kostas Grigoriadis Martina Rosati

Students Betty Chavez Angeles Marwah Osama Prapatsorn Lertluechachai Wisnu Hardiansyah



METAPLAS 3D Printed Multi-Polymers By

ID :12039900 Marwah Osama 19069906 Wisnu Hardiansyah 19162945 Betty Chavez 18090655 Prapatsorn Lertluechachai

DESIGN PROJECT PORTFOLIO Research Cluster 8 (RC 8) Tutors:

Kostas Grigoriadis Martina Rosati

14 of September of 2020

MArch - Architectural Design Barttlet School of Architecture University Collegue London




CONTENTS


1

2

3

4

5

6

7

INTRODUCTION

9

1.1

THE BRIEF : MULTI-MATERIALITY + EUSTON STATION DESIGN

10

1.2

DESIGN THESIS : DECENTRALISED MULTI-MATERIAL SYSTEM

12

1.2.1 MULTI-MATERIALITY : MULTI-PLASTIC

20

1.2.2 STRUCTURAL STRATEGY : GEOMETRIC FOLDS

28

1.2.3 LIGHTING STRATEGY : COLOUR & PATTERN

34

MULTI-MATERIAL FOLDABLE PANEL

43

2.1

MULTI-MATERIAL 3D-PRINTED PANEL

44

2.2

LARGE SCALE FOLDABLE PANEL

70

2.3

FOLDING CONTROL

92

SPATIAL APPROACH

101

3.1

FOLDED STRUCTURE

112

3.2

STRUCTURAL IMPROVEMENT

124

3.3

MESH VARIABILITY

142

3.4

FORCES MANAGMENT

150

3.5

GROUND CONNECTION

166

COLOUR, PATTERN & LIGHTING

177

4.1

COLOUR STRATEGY: BALANCING THE SPECTRUM

178

4.2

PATTERN GENERATION AND PROTOTYPING

190

4.3

MICROPATTERN APPLICATION ON THE FOLDED MESH

220

4.4

SEMIOTIC LIGHTING

234

FABRICATION & ASSEMBLY

257

5.1

FABRICATION STRATEGY

258

5.2

FABRICATION PROCESS

262

5.3

ASSEMBLING DETAILS

274

5.4

DECENTRALISED PRODUCTION

286

EUSTON STATION DESIGN

309

6.1

EUSTON STATION RESEARCH

310

6.2

EUSTON STATION DESIGN PROCESS

322

APPENDIX

383


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

1

INTRODUCTION 1.1

THE BRIEF

1.2

DESIGN THESIS 1.2.1

MATERIAL SELECTION

1.2.2

FOLDING STRATEGY

1.2.3

LIGHTING STRATEGY

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

1.1

THE BRIEF : MULTI-MATERIALITY + EUSTON STATION DESIGN

MULTI-MATERIALITY Multi-material design, which has been utilised with great success for a long time, for example in vehicle manufacturing or aerospace engineering, could also open up completely new possibilities in architecture. Significant amounts of energy, resources, and material could be saved and the use of multi-material 3D printers could revolutionise the design process and bring forth a new aesthetic. This year, Research Cluster 8 will continue to explore new procedures for designing and building with material gradients, eschewing component-based assembly and the standard paradigm of 20th century mechanical connectivity. We will first explore the manufacturing of multi-material samples consisting of two or more fused sub-materials. The assimilation of graded information digitally and the simulation of material fusion will feed into, as well as be informed by, the physical material studies. We will then draw from these initial studies to design large-scale building envelopes, rethinking this quintessentially component-based building element through the use of continuous materiality.

EUSTON STATION DESIGN Euston Station is currently undergoing a massive, complex expansion with a new 11-platform HS2 station being built on the western side of the existing station. The overcrowded station along with significant passenger growth lead to the need for the station redevelopment. In this occasion, we will take Euston station as an architectural scenario to design the building envelope and apply the results of multi-materiality studies to the new design.

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

1.2

DESIGN THESIS : DECENTRALISED MULTI-MATERIAL SYSTEM

DECENTRALISED MULTI-MATERIAL SYSTEM 1. Ecology is targeting through sourcing recycled/re-cyclable materials and considering their embedded energy 2. Materials can be the source of potential health haz-ards in the manufacturing process and also through its lifespan. Ensuring the materials used are not compro-mising on the wellbeing of the workers and those in contact with the material in the future is necessary for an equitable future. Equity can also be addressed in terms of the ecosystem and our environment. We must ensuring that the material does not further damage our already precarious environmnt 3. Higher demand of mass customised design can be satisfied through AM technology thereby boosting the economy

1. ECOLOGY

MANUFACTURING

2. EQUITY

3. ECONOMY Diagram inspired and adapted from the book, Cradle to Cradle by William Mcdonoug & Michael Braungart, (2002, p. 150).

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

DECENTRALISED MULTI-MATERIAL SYSTEM Metaplas is a project based on the three following strategies to achieve the ideal “Ecological” , “Equitable” and “Economical” diagram previously presented. Those strategies are concrete actions to be taken in architecture and architectural design, directly related to the materiality of the building, the structure and atmospherical conditions through light. This project presents itself as an attempt to question and transform current established modus operandum of the building and design industry under an ecological, equitable and economical perspective.

1.1 MULTI-MATERIALITY : MULTI-PLASTIC Continuity in architecture through the gradient of materials could improve the structural integrity of the building by eliminating conventional mechanical joints and optimise material use.

1.2 FOLDING STRATEGY : GEOMETRIC FOLDS By using geometric folds, we can create continuous and flexible spaces and improve the structural performance of building enclosure without having substructure.

1.3 LIGHTING STRATEGY : PATTERN & COLOR By controlling the light through the pattern and colour of the building enclosure, we can achieve the desired lighting quality for interior spaces with a passive mechanism which saves energy and interacts with the local environmental conditions.

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

A GLOBAL CENTRALISED PRODUCTION

Centralized Network : Traditional Supply Chain

A centralized network is built around a single production facility that handles all the significant steps in the fabrication process. In a centralized system, a singular authority or administrator retains total control over all aspects of the network. This scenario triggers a worldwide chain of movement and transportation of the product from the unique production facility to several final destinations. The products are moved long distances from the production centre to the final destinations wasting massive amounts of energy and resourcWes, which increases the rates of contamination. Finally, the degree of connection of the elements with the places to be applicable is minimum.

MATERIAL RESOURCES EXTRACTED FROM SEVERAL LOCATIONS ARROUND THE WORLD

prime material shipped long distances to factories to be process

GLOBAL CENTRALISED FACTORIES OPERATED BY THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE Economic impact doesn’t reach the extraction sites or the final project area.

products shipped long distances to building sites

Centralised network diagram from Paul Baran’s research, titled ‘On Distributed Communications: Introduction to Distributed Communications Networks’ (1964, p.2)

14

SHIPPED TO CONSTRUCTION SITE FOR ASSEMBLY


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Diagram inspired and adapted from the book, Cradle to Cradle by William Mc-

donoug & Michael Braungart, (2002, p. 150).

ECOLOGY High embedded energy as a result of the manufacturing and shipping of the parts involve a large carbon footprint contributing to air pollution and global warming.

EQUITY Factories are often associates with poor /unregulated working conditions as well as health hazards such as toxic gas emissions from materials and a lack of fire safety.

LOCAL ECONOMY A reliance on globalisation can lead to a lack of investments into local industries, resulting in economic displacements and polarization.

ASSEMBLY & PARTS MANUFACTURING The complex assembly of parts associated with this production method can lead to errors and inefficiencies such as water leakage or unwanted exterior air penetration resulting in cost and energy increases.

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

A LOCAL DECENTRALISED PRODUCTION

Decentralised Network: File-To-Factory Decentralised Supply Chain

A decentralised network distributes workloads among several production facilities, instead of relying on a single central production facility. A decentralised network offers a wide range of benefits over the more conventional centralised network, including increased system reliability, scale, and capacity. This type of network is more related to local communities. It allows the project to affect the economic dynamics of the area, potentiating its impact on the people and the surroundings.

LOCAL MATERIAL RESOURCES.

shipping short distances to the processing sites.

DECENTRALISED FACTORIES OPERATED BY REDUCED AMOUNT OF OPERATORS Economic impact affects the inmediate locality

3D PRINTING

SHIPPED TO CONSTRUCTION SITE FOR ASSEMBLY

Decentralised network diagram from Paul Baran’s research, titled ‘On Distributed Communications: Introduction to Distributed Communications Networks’ (1964, p.2)

16


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Diagram inspired and adapted from the book, Cradle to Cradle by William Mc-

donoug & Michael Braungart, (2002, p. 150).

ECOLOGY Lowered embedded eneregy as transportation is minimised, thereby also reducing cost. Thinking in a holistic way, towards a circular economy, begins by considering the material ecology through the sourcing of recycled/recyclable materials. Ecology can also be targeted through adaptive and mass-customised solutions where ecological parameters such as climate and site conditions are integrated.

EQUITY A fairer market for smaller factories is encouraged. Equity can also be addressed in terms of the ecosystem and our environment by ensuring that the material does not further damage our already precarious environment.

LOCAL ECONOMY The local economy is boosted and the over reliance on global markets is reduced; thus, availing the economic displacement and polarisaiton.

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING Continuous systems can be achieved through gradients, thereby eliminating weak transitions. Uninterrupted material distributions can also lead to a more perfomative form where rigidity /flexibility, opacity/translucency can be carefully distributed for added structure and overall efficiency.

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Recycling

3D Printing

Assembling Pulp Faction

Decentralised strategy for the design project

Microworkshops 3D Printing Ninjas

Islington Household Reuse & Recycling Centre

iMakr Recycle For London Collection Point Green Tech

Euston Station

Unio Labs

Powerday Recycling PLC Recycle 2 Trade Fabberz

Printing Portal

iMakr Traid Bin Plastic Economy Ltd.

3D Printer Hub

The Color Company

Prodpoint 3D Consultancy

Giraffe Recycling E C a P Ltd

Prodpoint

MakersCAFE

Scale &


Metplast Plastics Recycling Ltd

Global Plastics

Recycling Bins

Hobs 3D

Fixie 3D

FabPub Tesco Recycling Center

Veolia Dagenham 3D People East London Pallets

E Klein & Co Westminster Waste Ltd

Models Metal & Waste Recycling

Champion 3D


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

1.2.1

MULTI-MATERIALITY : MULTI-PLASTIC

COMPLEX ASSEMBLY The complex assembly of parts, particularly as they relate to window and opening details, often result in many errors found on site as the parts are put together. This can result to a costly addition to the budget.

WATER LEAKAGE AND ENERGY LOSS The complex assembly of parts forming openings such as windows can lead to inefficiencies such as water leakage or unwanted exterior air penetration which can result in more heating usage thereby increasing our overall energy consumption.

STRUCTURAL WEAKNESS ASSEMBLED PARTS

Structural failure can happen when materials are stressed beyond their capacity, thus causing a fracture. This is particulary relevant to structures which require multiple parts to be assembled as the joints are often considered weak points, prone to breaking.

MATERIAL GRADIENT Material gradients allows for the elemination of transitions between materials which is often a weak point. This new form of transition, created by the material gradient, offers unique architectural affects yet to be fully taken advantage of.

STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY The uninterrupted and specific material distribution based on methods of structural analysis eliminated weak points and creates an overall more performative form.

OPTIMISED MATERIAL USE MULTI-MATERIALITY

20

Optimising material according to criteria such as structure and material qualities related to opacity or translucency can reduce material usage and overall cost. This is because material is specifically distributed where required according to its specific quality/property.


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

ECOLOGY Multi-materiality avoids increasing the environmental impact by using material properties to reduce the number of materials involved in construction. This project aims for recyclable multi-plastics as a primary sources of materials, giving them a long term usage and preventing them from ending in the landfill.

LOCAL ECONOMY Plastics are widely used around the world and are involved with many local industries. Their implementation in the construction can boost the local economic activities around recycling, processing and manufacturing near the construction sites in most locations around the world.

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING Due to the nature of plastics, the manufacturing process allows additive manufacturing in various scales. As additive manufacturing is becoming more common, this favours the concept of decentralised production, being able to produce in different scales of industries, from small-scale to large-scale facilities.

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

MATERIAL COMPARISON

Carbon Footprint (g/kg)

Recycle Rate %

METAL Recycled 464

CLAY BRICK

New 510

WOOD New 400

GLASS Recycled 713

New 1,230

PLASTIC Recycled 750

Un limited

86%

x1 time

28%

x4 times

16%

Un limited

26%

x7 times-

20%

New 1,350

New 1,500

(Ruuska, 2013)

World Production Million Ton (Mt)

METAL

(Steel Recycling Institute, 2017; The Concrete Center, 2019; Auckland Council, 2016; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2019; Ritchie, 2018)

Strength (MPA)

1,691 Mt

Compression

250

Tension

Compression

CLAY BRICK 4,100 Mt

WOOD

400

257 Mt

40

Tension 1.4

Compression

50

Tension 4

GLASS

153 Mt

Compression Tension

PLASTIC

348 Mt

50 -

Compression

90

Tension (World Steel Association, 2018; Statisica, 2019; Forestry Commission, 2018; Glass Magazine, 2019; Plastic Europe, 2018)

22

74 (MatWeb, 2020)


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

MATERIAL APPLICATIONS

METAL

CLAY

WOOD

GLASS

PLASTIC

Construction

Construction

Construction

Construction

Construction

Packaging

Transportation

Packaging

Packaging

Packaging

Transportation

Consumer Product

Transportation

Transportation

Transportation

Consumer Product

Consumer Product

Consumer Product

Consumer Product

Textiles

Textiles

Electrical/Electronic

Textiles

Electrical/Electronic

Electrical/Electonic

Industrial Machinery

Industrial Machinery

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

10,000

MATERIAL STRENGTH/COST

1,000

Metal

Brick

100 10

Plastic

1

Strength (MPa)

Glass

0.1

Wood

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Cost (ÂŁ/kg) (Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 2002)

This graph , according to Department of Engineering, Unversity of Cambridge, shows strength/costs of different construction materials. Glass and brick have high strength, but brick has lower cost compared to glass. While plastic and wood have a lower range of strength, their costs are also significantly lower in comparison to brick and glass. On the other hand, metal has a wide range on both strength and cost, depending to the metal types. Construction metal materials are in the upper part of the range.

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

MATERIAL RECYCLING SITES IN LONDON

Metal Recycling Sites 15

05 02

17

14 13 12 06 04 03

01 Hutchins Smith Metal Recycling LTD 02 EMR London Brentford 03 Capital Metal Recycling Ltd 04 EMR Willesden 05 Scrap Metal Recycling 06 EMR Neasden 07 EMR Wandsworth 08 Zibao Metals Recycling Holdings Plc 09 Bermondsey Metals Recycling Ltd 10 Metal & Waste Recycling

16

11 08 09 10

01 07

11 City Metals Recycling Ltd 12 T & C Metal Recycling 13 Argall Metal Recycling Ltd 14 London Scrap Metal Recycling Ltd 15 Trans Metal 16 London Scrap Metal Recycling Ltd 17 NRM METAL RECYCLING LTD

Clay Brick Recycling Sites -

Wood Recycling Sites

01 02

13

05 06 07

04

03

01 Powerday Recycling PLC 02 Recycle For London Collection Point 03 Marylebone Waste Management Ltd 04 Surrey Recycling Ltd 05 City Wood Services 06 East London Pallets 07 Docklands Waste Recycling Ltd 08 Metal & Waste Recycling 09 Powerday Brixton 10 Solo Wood Recycling

12

08 09

11

10

11 Morrisons (Petts Wood) recycling site 12 Greenwich Reuse And Recycling Centre 13 Connect Waste Management Ltd.

Glass Recycling Sites 07

02

06

01

08

03 04

12

11

13

09 10

05

15 14

16

17

01 Glassbusters Ltd 02 Glassbusters 03 Recycle For London Collection Point 04 Compactors Direct Ltd 05 Giraffe Recycling 06 Islington Household Reuse and Recycling Centre 07 Pulse Environmental 08 Greener Than Green Recycling Ltd 09 Tower Hamlets Re-use & Recycling Centre 10 Nicholls & Pearce Ltd

11 Lucy & Martin Recycling 12 Tesco Recycling Center 13 May Glass Recycling Ltd 14 St Georges Road (Beckenham) recycling site 15 Recycling centre 16 Baths Road (Bromley) recycling site 17 Carlton Parade (Orpington) recycling site

Plastic Recycling Sites 16 17 18 06 05 07 15 03 13 01 12 02 08 04

09 10

11

14

19 20

01 Powerday Recycling PLC 02 Traid Bin 03 Recycle For London Collection Point 04 Green Tech 05 SquareBox Recycling 06 Islington Council Textile and Small Electrical Recycling site 07 Recycle 2 Trade 08 Plastic Economy Ltd. 09 E C a P Ltd 10 Giraffe Recycling

11 Metal & Waste Recycling 12 E Klein & Co 13 East London Pallets 14 Westminster Waste Ltd 15 Recycling Bins 16 Pulp Faction 17 Metplast Plastics Recycling Ltd 18 Global Plastics 19 Veolia Dagenham 20 Tesco Recycling Center

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

MATERIAL ANALYSIS

Carbon Footprint

Recycling Site

Carbon Footprint

Recyclability

Accessibility

Strength/Cost

Strength

Application

Recycling Site

Accessibility

Strength/Cost

Clay Brick

Carbon Footprint

Carbon Footprint

Recyclability

Accessibility

Strength/Cost

Strength

Application

Strength

Application

Metal

Recycling Site

Recyclability

Recyclability

Recycling Site

Accessibility

Strength/Cost

Strength

Application

Glass

Wood

Carbon Footprint

Result & Discussion

When comparing different aspects of metal, clay brick, wood, glass and plastic, the result shows that plastic has the most potential in general. Despite of many applications, low cost, and available recycling sites, the most significant drawback of plastic is carbon footprint. This can be improved through the selection of plastic types as there are recycled plastics and biodegradable plastics which have lower carbon footprint comparing to new produced plastics.

Recycling Site

Recyclability

Accessibility

Strength/Cost

Strength

Application

Plastic

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PLASTIC

PETE

Starch-based

HDPE

Cellulose-based

PVC

Protein-based

LDPE

Aliphatic Biopolyesters

PP

Polyhydroxyalkanoates

PS

Polyamide 11

PA

Bio-derived PE

ABS

Polyhydroxyurethanes

Bioplastic

PC

Recyclable Plastic

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

1.2.2

STRUCTURAL STRATEGY : GEOMETRIC FOLDS

Substructures Traditional building methods use different elements and material to solve the enclosure. Substructures are required to hold the facade elements which represents a significant effort and cost in building industry.

Discontinuity The dissociated enclosure comprised of the facade and the roof creates discontinuity despite sharing the same function of providing enclosure. This often leads to a problematic transition.

Lack of Adaptability ASSEMBLED PARTS

Discrete traditional models to build enclosure and structure presents limitations in shapes. Industrial discrete elements reduce the capability to adapt over time.

A Lightweight Flat-to-Form Geometry Foldability implicates the use of one single 2-D element that can be structured and made into a 3-D form through the folding pattern.

Continuous Space Foldability allows the material to create a continuity between roof and facade thereby limiting connection and material joints.

Flexibility of Space MULTI-MATERIALITY

28

Foldability gives a surface the capability to adapt to several options of shapes without loosing the base structure.


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

ECOLOGY A system that embodies the most amount of demands of a building reduces the incorporation of diverse materials that generate waste of energy and resources. In addition, further contamination is caused in their production and transportation.

LOCAL ECONOMY The folding technique does not demand specialised working labour for its manufacture and construction. It can be printed in flat elements using simple 3d printers in different scales, and its intuitive folding process characterises the assembly. This technique would allow builders to fabricate on the local scale and create employment in the immediate area of intervention.

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING The geometrical base of the structure allows dividing the manufacturing process into segments which later can be joined by a sharing row of faces which a precise overlap and merge between pieces. This characteristic is possible due to the 3D printing method, which can fabricate every element with specific predetermined geometry.

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Applications of Folds as a Structural Strategy

NATURE ELEMENTS Geologic formations

ANIMAL KINGDOM Animal Skin

TEXTILE INDUSTRY Fabric Tailoring

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Space Technology 30


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Goals to Achieve Through Folding Technique: Aims and Goals.

Following the intentions of implementing multiple building demands into a particular element, the project intends, through the incorporation of a folding technique, to provide a continuous surface with structural characteristics. This technique reduces the amount of mass conventionally required into a building structure, making it more efficient in terms of resources. Finally, the foldability of the surface implies high degrees of flexibility, permitting easier management of the pieces in fabrication, transportation and construction stages. A contemporary architectural example of the application of folds in architecture is The Xile instalation (2008), which is easily installed and removed. Its lightweight features allows a fast and non-specialised manipulation of the pieces without the necessity of any independent structure beyond the surface itself.

Thin

Flexible

Structural

Xile Installation (Mats Karlsson, 2008) ize: 180 sqm Program: Connecting tunnel at furniture fair Location: Kortrijk Status: Finished Source: http://arklab.se/project/xile/

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

References of Digital Simulations The usage of creases and folds to get fluent and organic results, being able to adapt and be customised for particular circumstances. Based on singular cells multiplied, the surfaces acquire topological conditions that permits it transformation and deformation without losing its structural bases.

32


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Current Development in Continuous Foldable Surfaces Multi-Material 3D printed elements.

Fig. Examples of Foldable Sheet Left: 4D-Printed Self-Folding Multi-Polymer Sheet Right: 4D-Printed “Self-Folding Protein� (Self-Assembly Lab MIT, 2013)

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

1.2.3

LIGHTING STRATEGY : COLOUR & PATTERN

Limited Natural Light The current design of Euston station has narrow strips of openings and a solid roof which limit the amount of natural light into the building.

Extensive Use of Artificial Light With limited openings and solid enclosure, the interior spaces rely mainly on the artificial lights. This results in high energy consumption and high maintenance.

CONVENTIONAL OPENINGS

Pattern Patterns in architecture have the ability to create a rational system guided by structural and shading properties and requirements. In addition, the repetitive nature of the pattern can calso ease the fabrication.

Colour Colour plays a crucial role as we exprience our daily life particularly as it relates to our circadian rhythm, which is our body clock.

LIGHT FILTERING THROUGH PATTERN & COLOUR

34


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

ECOLOGY The project proposes a passive low emission strategy to illuminate interiors using a mixture of the coloration of the enclosure and natural environmental light. This strategy prevents the unnecessary usage of artificial light and incorporates particular climatic characteristics of the site into the final project results.

LOCAL ECONOMY The different colorations needed to achieve the desired results can be easily found in the market allowing for local industries to produce the panels with the desired colours and pattern.

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING One of the significant advantages of additive manufacturing is the ability to embed channels in a single printed element. This technology is well suited to our approach to colour and pattern as they can be easily embedded through the layering process of 3D printing.

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Light and Circadian Rhythm

Circadian rhythm is the 24-hour internal clock programmed in our brains which is responsible for our sleep/ wake cycles and for regulating hormone secretion. A major factor impacting our cycle is light as we spend less time outdoor where the natural rhythm of light and darkness promotes healthy cycles. The artificial lighting we are too often exposed to, especially late at night, disrupts our natural patterns and can result in Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders (CRSWD).

Sleep

Wake

Sleep

Wake

Natural sleep/wake circadian cycle Disrupted sleep/wake circadian cycle

00

02

04

06

08

10 12 14 16 18

20

22

00

02

04

06

08 10 12 14

Phsychological and Physiological Effects on Body 1. Reduced Brain Glucose Disposal & Increased Central Nervous System (CNS) Activity 2. Pancreatic Function Impairment 3. Reduced Satiety & Increased Eating Propensity 4. Gut Microbrobiota Dysregulation

36

1

2

3

4

16 20


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Seasonal Affective Disorder

Research has shown that the delay in Circadian Rhythms brought by winter can lead to SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) syndrome, characterised by depressive symptoms as the exposure to bright, warm light in the winter months is considerably reduced especially for people people living in the far North or South of the equator. One of the treatments offered for SAD is light therapy which requires sitting next to a ‘llight box’ for a specified amount of time everyday. This is meant to regulate our seratonin, responsible for feelings of happiness, and melatonin, responsible for feeling of lethargy.

04:00 06:00 08:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 00:00

2000 K

Kelvin Temparature of London Summer

06:00

Kelvin Temparature of London Winter

08:00

2000 K

7000 K

09:00

11:00

13:00

3 0K 300

4120 K 41

15:00

16:00

18:00

20:00

41 120 K

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Fig. Homeostatic Facade System (Yeadon, 2011)

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Fig. Stained Glass, Doumo di Milano, Italy (Lertluechachai, 2020)

Fig. The Color Effect of Stained Glass on Column, Doumo di Milano, Italy (Lertluechachai, 2020)

39


Fig. Your Rainbow Panorama (Olafur Eliasson Aarhus, 2011)



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

42


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

2

MULTI-MATERIAL FOLDABLE PANEL 2.1

MULTI-MATERIAL 3D-PRINTED PANEL

2.2

LARGE SCALE FOLDABLE PANEL

2.3

FOLDING CONTROL

43


2.1

MULTI-MATERIAL 3D-PRINTED PANEL In this section, we explore the foldable panel regarding the multi-material and geometric folds aspects. In terms of multi-materiality, we explore different polymer-based materials for both rigid and flexible properties in order to achieve the foldability while maintaining structural performance. For the geometric folds, we apply the selected folding pattern to the multimaterial foldable panel and explore different techniques to keep the panel in the folded shape. This section includes the exploration of 3D-printing techniques based on different 3D-printed models. The documentation contains the successful and non-successful prototypes of the experimentation process.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

With current 3D-printing technology, it is possible to achieve multi-material printing. Objet Connex 500 is one of the 3D-printers available in the market which can print resin-based materials and achieve rigid-flexible gradient (rigidity 30 shore to 95 shore).

Multi-Polymer 3D-Printing

Fig. Objet Connex 500 (stratasys.com, 2020)

Fig. Printed Sample of Objet Connex 500 (B-made, UCL, 2020)

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

3D-Printed Foldable Sheet

This multi-polymer sample was achieved by using the Objet Connex 500 which uses different ratios of the VeroClear (rigid and translucent) and the TangoBlack (flexible and opque) to achieve a 14-step gradient. The composition of these are resin bases which require a contained environment.

Transpareant-Rigid

Opaque-Flexible

Detail Section of Gradient Steps

14-Steps Gradient

3D-Printed Multi-Polymer Sheet

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Colour and Flexibility Gradation of the Material

London average temperatures

Rigid

Flexible

Flexible parts related to the steel frames allow dilatation and contractions according weather temperatures.

100% transluscent

75% transluscent

50% transluscent

75% opaque

100% opaque

Metal structure

Darkest colour near the structure and transparency to the center of every panel to allow light to go through.

48


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Reconfiguration of 3D-Printed : Multi-Polymer Sheet

490mm

320mm

ÂŁ

Limited Size

Extreme Cost

The panel size is limited by the size of the printer which is 490mm x 190mm x 320mm.

Another limitation is the extreme cost which makes it not practical in large scale.

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

SILICONE CASTING SHEET

Sample 01 Silcones Shore A13 + Silcones Shore A40 + Siliglass

Gradients were achieved in a manual casting process to emulate the results obtained in the previous multipolymer 3D print. An opaque/translucent gradient was achieved through varying the pigment concentration. The flexible/ rigid gradient was achieved through different Shore A hardnesses of silicones. We found that we cannot achieve very rigid structures unless we use polyurethane (resins).

Type 03 Siliglass

Type 01 Shore A13

Type 02 Shore A40

Shore Durometer Hardness Scale Shore A 0

Flexible

10

20

30 40 50 60

70

80

90

100

Rigid

Shore D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Flexible Sillicone Type A

Sample 02 Silcones Shore A13 + Silcones Shore A40 + Siliglass

Rigid

Sillicone Type C Sillicone Type B

We also experimented with layered samples to see if the different silicone types would chemically bond to each other and reinforce each other. Because the viscocity of Type 2 and 3 was quite similar, they merged together well. However the 3rd type is much more watery and didn’t bond well to the other laters. Type 3, which is supposed to be the most rigid proved to be quite weak and prone to tears.

Type 03 Siliglass

Type 01 Shore A13

Type 02 Shore A40

Shore Durometer Hardness Scale Shore A Flexible Type 03 (Siliglass) tears easily upon bending

0

10

30 40 50 60

70

80

90

100

Rigid

Shore D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Flexible Siliglass Sillicone Type A

50

20

Sillicone Type C Sillicone Type B

Rigid


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Tear Strength Type 01 Low

High

Type 02 Low

High

Type 02 Low

High

To conclude, silicones could allow us to achieve a wide range of flexibility but a limited amount of rigidity. If we were to experiment with higher shore hardnesses, then we will have to transition into polyurethane based polymers, which are resins. The most rigid one that we tested proved to have a very low tear strength and crumbled the minute tension was applied to it. However, the tear strengths of the other two silicones was quite high.

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Alternative Materials

Recyclable Plastic

Bioplastic

PETE

Starch-based

HDPE

Cellulose-based

PVC

Protein-based

LDPE

Aliphatic Biopolyesters

PP

Environmentally Friendly Plastics Polyhydroxyalkanoates

PS

Polyamide 11

PA

Bio-derived PE

ABS

Polyhydroxyurethanes

PC

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Polylactide (PLA) PLA is a thermoplastic polyester obtained from renewable and natural raw materials such as corn. It is the most widely used plastic filament material in 3D printing as it does not emit toxic emissions. Moreover, PLA is biodegradable and recyclable.

Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) TPU is any of a class of polyurethane plastics with many properties, including elasticity, transparency, and resistance to oil, grease and abrasion. It is recyclable and biodegradable in 3 – 5 years in soil.

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Material Mixing Test

1

PLA Natural Clear

2

PLA Light Blue

3

1. Sample 04: PLA Natural Clear 2. Sample 05: PLA Natural Clear + PLA Light Blue 3. Sample 06: PLA Natural Clear + PLA Light Blue 4. Sample 07: PLA Light Blue

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4


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

TPU White

5

8

6

9

PLA Natural Clear

7

5. Sample 08: TPU 100% + PLA 0% 6. Sample 09: TPU 75% + PLA 25% 7. Sample 10: TPU 50% + PLA 50% 7. Sample 11: TPU 25% + PLA 75% 9. Sample 12: TPU 0% + PLA 100%

In order to find another alternative material which can substitue the 3D-printed polymer sheet and silicone casting sheet, we found the potential lies in the mixture of rigid and and flexible 3D-printing filaments which are PLA and TPU. The PLA and TPU filaments are cut and mixed in the silicone mold, then baked in the oven at 210°C for 20 minutes. The result show that PLA and TPU could be mixed and the bound between two materials are quite strong.

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Bending Test

Sample 05 TPU 100% + PLA 0%

Sample 06 TPU 75% + PLA 25%

Sample 07 TPU 50% + PLA 50%

Sample 08 TPU 25% + PLA 75%

Sample 09 TPU 0% + PLA 100%

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Multi-Material 3D-Printing on ULTIMAKER 2+

In order to achieve foldable panel which is affordable and evironmentally friendly,we shifted our approach to a 3D printer accessible on a consumer level. With Ultimaker2+, there is a limitation to gradient printing, but it is still possible to achieve multi-material foldable panel by printing each material separately for serveral times in one layer. However, this technique is not feasible in terms of time and management.

Ultimaker2+ 3D-printer with single nozzle and single extrudere

Filament

Nozzle Nozzle detail of Ultimaker2+

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Multi-Material Foldable Panel Through ULTIMAKER 2+ These images showcase the experiment on a 3D-printing technique to achieve multi-material 3D-printing on Ultimaker 2+ which has a single nozzle and single extruder. The sample is printed multiple times in one layer.

TPU Flexible

PLA Blue

PLA Clear 58


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Multi-Material 3D-Printing On GEEETECH A10M

As 3D printing techonology advances, 3D printers for are now avialable in the market as consumer product. This A10M model by Geeetech allows gradient printing by controlling the feeding speed of filament extruder through gcode. Thus, it was purchased as a tool in order to achieve 3D-printed foldble panel based on the mixture between PLA and TPU.

Extruders

Geeetech A10M 3D-printer with single nozzle and dual extruders

Filament 1: E0

Filament 1: E0

Nozzle Nozzle detail of Geeetech A10M 3D-printer

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Material Mixing Through G-CODE

Panel model with five gradient steps

Mixing ratio of each gradient step

G-code assigning the mixing ratio

PLA 100% TPU 0%

PLA 75% TPU 25%

PLA 50% TPU 50%

PLA 25% TPU 75%

PLA 0% TPU 100%

M163 S0 P1.0 M163 S1 P0.0 M614 S0

M163 S0 P0.25 M163 S1 P0.75 M614 S0

M163 S0 P0.5 M163 S1 P0.5 M614 S0

M163 S0 P0.25 M163 S1 P0.75 M614 S0

M163 S0 P0.0 M163 S1 P1.0 M614 S0

Mixing Code

Default start and end code

G28 ; Home position G1 Z15 F100 ; Linear move M107 ; Turn off fan G90 ; Absolute positioning M82 ; Extruder in absolute mode M190 S50 ; Set bed temperature M104 T0 S210 ; Set extruder temperature G92 E0 ; Reset extruder position

Start Code

M107 ; Turn off fan G91 ; Relative positioning T0 ; Select tool G1 E-1 ; Reduce filament pressure M104 T0 S0; Reduce nozzle temperature G90 ; Absolute positioning G92 E0 ; Reset extruder position M140 S0 ; Reduce bed temperature M84 ; Turn steppers off

End Code

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Gradient Printed Samples

Sample 13 PLA Claer + TPU White

Sample 14 PLA Claer + PLA Blue

Inaccuracy Gradient Printing The inaccuracy of gradient occurs because the filaments of previous ratio setting stuck at the tip of nozzle. This can be solved by generating wipe tower to clean up the nozzle tip before start printing the next ratio.

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

3D Printing Quality Improvement Through Heat

Sample 15 Heated TPU and PLA Gradient Panel

Before applying heat, the print path appeared as micro pattern and parts with different mix ratio were not fully integrated.

After applying heat of 210°C for 15 minutes, the micro pattern of print path disappeared and parts with different ratios were merged.

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Gradient Printed Samples

Sample 16 TPU and PLA Gradient Printing

Sample 17 PLA Clear-Color Gradient Printing

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Gradient Printing Process Through G-CODE

This image shows the process of gradient 3D-printing through gcode and how the mixing command is applied.

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3D-PRINTED FOLDABLE PANEL

Valley Fold Mountain Fold

Sample 18 Folding Test on TPU and PLA Gradient Printed Panel

66

Thickness 0.7 mm Layer Hight 0.1 mm Gap Width 1.2 mm


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

- Sample 19 Origianl surface area 100%

- Sample 19 Folded surface covering 50% of original flat surface

- Sample 19 Fully folded surface covering 20% of original flat surface

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Maximum translucency ratio 38396A

47476A

MIXING RATIO 100% PLA 85.7% PLA + 14.3% TPU

656085 71.4% PLA + 28.6% TPU 775387 57.2% PLA + 42.8% TPU 9B6389 42.8% PLA + 57.2% TPU D8CFD5 28.6% PLA + 71.4% TPU FCFDFD 14.3% PLA + 85.7% TPU

100% TPU Maximum opacity ratio

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2.2

LARGE SCALE FOLDABLE PANEL In this section, the research aims to produce a large-scale prototype of foldable panel based on multi-material 3D printers available in consumer market. Due to the limitation of the printer sizes, the prototyping was thought to be done by parts consisting of binders with flexiblerigid gradient and rigid pieces with colour gradient. The binders are designed to overlap with the rigid pieces and will be merged through laminating technique explored previously. The primary purpose of the prototype was to observe the folding system in a habitable scale and all its demands to maintain the desired shape. Unfortunately, due to the COVID-19 outbreak at the moment of the research, the prototype couldn’t be assembled



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

In order to 3D print 900mm x 900mm foldable panel, a large scale 3D printer is required. However, the maximum size allowed by 3D printer available in the market is 400mm x 400mm. Thus, the large scale panel could be achieved through building a customised 3D printer of aggregating smaller 3D printed parts. Buidling large scale 3D printer requires specific engineering knowledge while aggregation of smaller parts is more efficient. Nevertheless, it is important to first test the foldability of a large scale panel. Thus, we decided to cast a large scale foldable panel using liquid silicone for flexible part and acrylic sheet for rigid part.

Large Scale Foldable Panel

900mm

180mm 180mm

900mm

1700mm 1200mm Size of 3D-printer required for printing 900mm x 900mm panel

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

900mm 900mm

Flexible Part

Rigid Parts

Liquid Silicone

Acrylic Sheet

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

1

2

3

These are the steps of large scale foldable panel fabrication. 1) Cast the liquid silicon inbetween the acrylic sheets arranged according to the folding pattern and let sit. 2) Demold the caseted panel. 3) Fold the panel.

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

This image shows the result large scale foldability test. It is possible to fold a large panel. However, the folding control needs to be developed in order to keep the folded panel in the desired form.

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Large Scale Foldable Panel Through Laminating Technique

The laminating technique could be applied to large scale panel fabrication. n order to achieve a large foldable panel, we needed to print small pieces of panel subdivision and binders, then laminate them using 210°C temperature.

Joint for Valley Fold

Quad Panel

Triangle Panel

Printing Area 220mm x 220mm

Joint for Mountain Fold

Foldable Sheet 900mm x 900mm

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Flexible Layer for Valley Fold

Solid Layer

Flexible Layer for Mountain Fold

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Laminating Technique

Binder

Tesselations 1

2

3

Laminating Process 1. 3D printed Parts 2. Assemble 3. Cover from Direct Heat 4. Laminate

4 78


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Binder with Gradient of PLA-TPU-PLA

Binder with TPU-PLA gradient shows the best binding result.

TPU Binder

TPU Binder

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Binder Types for Large Scale Foldable Panel

Panel Front View

Binder Types: 1. Triangle intersection type 2. Quad intersection type 3. Diagonal type

Panel Back View

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1

2

3


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Foldable Panel Using Laminating Technique

Foldable panel achieved by laminating small 3D-printed pieces of quads, triangles, and binders.

Updated panel with edited joint thickness for better bonding when laminated. The bonding between the gradient joints and tesselated parts worked much better in this iteration.

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Silicone Binding Foldable Panel

1

2

1. 3D-Printed Panel 600x600 mm 2. Folded 3D-Printed Panel 450x450 mm 3. Fully-Folded 3D-Printed Panel 300x300 mm

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3


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Origianl surface area 100%

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Folded surface covering 50% of original flat surface

Fully folded surface covering 20% of original flat surface

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Arch Fabrication Using the Foldable Panel System

Our end of term intention was to complete this arch using our panel system in order to test the connection between the panels and also better understand the spatial, structural and architectural implications.

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

900 mm

200 mm

900 mm

200 mm

1

2

3

1. 900x900 mm Printed Pattern on Paper with 200x200 mm Quads 2. Folding Process 3. 1:1 Paper Prototype of 1/3 of the Panels 4. Folded Arch Collage

4

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Arch Fabrication with 3 Overlapping Panels

The arch is comprised of three panels with the central panel having two additional rows in order to overlap with the lateral panels. The connection is secured through heat welding.

88


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

1

2

3

1. Left Panel 2. Top Panel 3. Right Panel

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Arch Fabrication Process

2

1. Left Panel 2. Top Panel

x96

3. Right Panel 4. 3D-Printed Parts

3 x76

1 x76 x12 x10

x10 x9 x7

x7 x36 x28

x28

x38

x48

x38

90


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

4. Assembly of 4 quads through lamination technique. 5. Pieces printed to built the projeted arch.

4

5

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2.3

FOLDING CONTROL After achieving the multi-material foldable panels through 3D printing, the prototypes showed the necessity of constraints in order to maintain the folds against the panel’s nature to return to the original flat position according to material properties. To this multi-material characteristic, this section explored several strategies to maintain and control the position of the fold. These techniques range from fixed edges, shape manipulation through heat, to external tension elements such as adjustable cables.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Folding Control through Heat

Self-Folding Method

Rigid Plastic

(“Multi-crease Self-folding by Global Heating� research paper by

Flexible Plastic

Miyashita et al.)

100 % Rigid Plastic (RP) 50 % RP 50% FP 100 % Flexible Plastic (FP)

Concept Adapted to Gradient Printing System

a)

d)

b)

e)

c)

f)

3D-Printing Tests with Different Gap Types and Sectional/Longitudinal Flexilble to Rigid Plastic Gradients

94

Sectional Gradient

Longitudinal Gradient


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

250° C applied for 10 seconds to each sample while pinned.

250° C applied for 10 seconds to each sample. Pinned afterwards for a few seconds

a)

d)

b)

e)

c)

f)

The images show the results of fodling control throuhg heat test. The sectional gradients show better result that the longitudinal gradients.

Sectional S ti l Gradient G di t

Longitudinal Gradient 95


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Folding Control through Fixed Edges

Controlled Edges

Fold Lines

The foldable panel could be shaped by controlling the edges. This method requires sub-structure which could be 3-dimensional bended to hold the edges. Thus, it would be difficult to fabricate and assemble on site.

Folding Control through Grip-lock at Intersection Points

Through using grip-lock system at the intersection of the fold lines, we can achieve the desired angles between each segment. However, this method is not feasible for the fabrication process as it requires customised elements for every intersection.

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Folding Control through Hinges

1

2

3

Hinges Control Details 1. Fold line 2. Hinge 3. Controlled Edges

Bending at panel

Tearing at hinge

Tearing at hinge

This method can cause damages to the panel as the thickness of hinges creates extra amount of stretching and compressing length.

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Folding Control through Distance between Points

Folding between four quads requires eight units of triangles and four control points. The control points are illustrated in red dots.

When reducing the distance between control points, the quads are pulled closer with each other and the overall panel begins to fold.

To control the folds, we can use the distance between the four control points to determine how close from one quad to the other.

This diagram shows when the control points are closest with each other. This results in a fully folded panel.

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

This image shows the result of folding control through distance between points by using cable and crimps.

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3

SPATIAL APPROACH 3.1 3.2

3.3

FOLDED STRUCTURE STRUCTURAL IMPROVEMENT 3.2.1

SINUSOIDAL DEFORMATION

3.2.2

QUAD MANIPULATION

MESH VARIABILITY

3.3

FORCES MANAGMENT

3.4

GROUND CONNECTION

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

As a strategy, the application of geometric patterns to confront structural requirements has been used widely in human history. This is seen in Gothic Architecture, in which the strategical employment of geometrical nerves allowed to transmit the loads properly from the roof to the ground despite the monumental heights of their buildings.

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103


choir st. bridget’s church gdansk, poland, ca.1500

author: david stephenson publisher: princeton architectural press year: 2009 language: english features: 192 pages, 28 x 29 cm ISBN: 978-1-56898-840-5



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Sulphur Extraction Facility by Renzo Piano (1966) Fiber Glass Reinforced panels (FRP) 14 Kg per Panel. The usage of a geometric division and assembly of the panels allowd a thin, light and continuous structure and cover.

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Studies in Discrete and Continuum Mechanics Wei, Zhiyan Mahadevan, L. (advisor) ; Aizenberg, Joanna (committee member) ; Hutchinson, John (committee member) ; Suo, Zhigang (committee member) ProQuest Dissertations Publishing: 2014 ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

The usage of patterns guided by a singular cell repeated along a surface can provide the element with uniform mechanical characteristics independently to its material composition. The strategy achieves to distribute forces homogeneously along the folded area. This characteristic is possible due to the geometrical base of the initial cell.

3. Curved surface

2. Compressed Surface

1. Folded Surface following periodical cell

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

As a beginning for the space definition, we started with the creation of a plain envelope that covers all the necessities of an architectonical functional space. The following steps guarantee a design based on a circulation path, it defines an interior and exterior space, the envelope provides a sense of total enclosure while creating a unique and continuous element.

Definition of an Initial Basic Space

1. simulate a path that connects two given points and determine the height of the space and set it as the radius of the envelope around the circulation.

2. Move the circle following the path to create a pipie arround it.

3. Divide the pipe in half to add the ground below the top half and create an enclosed space.

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4. Basic envelope based on a circulation that creates an enclosed space, define inside and outside, and is continuous .

BASIC MESH STRUCTURE Quad-Based mesh distribution of control points in 10 rows and 20 columns

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE by regions

COLOR MAPPING 5 regions of colors

BASE FOR ANALYSIS determine anchor edges / points

110

+ high

medium/high

ED7463

CE847C


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

In the next step, we run the shape on the structural analysis component of “Grasshopper� to observe the regions that stand more structural stress. This differentiation followed by a gradient of colours that goes from red to blue, representing the high and the low-stress region, respectively. The parameters for this calculation are the material (PLA-TPU) and a base that sets the anchor lines of the surface.

medium

medium/low

low -

A39E9E

9ABBBD

99CFD0

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3.1

FOLDED STRUCTURE For the application of the folding technique did several physical models to understand the behaviour of the folds and identify the moments where it presents a better response to external forces. We tested the samples in tension, compression, bending and torsion to find the best application according to the structural analysis. After analysing the best pattern and its behaviour under forces, these characteristics would be strategically employed according to the structural analysis colours previously obtained. This approach relates the topological configuration of the pattern directly with structural parameters of the shape. The final objective is to be able to scale the simulated spaces to be built and used, thus, the structural requirements pertaining to the general design needs to correlate to the foldability. Another measure to improve the forces acting on the surface was achieved through deformation.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

FOLDING TEST MATERIAL EXPERIMENTATION

1. COMPRESSION TEST Apply force from the edges to the inside

2. TENSION TEST Apply force from the edges to the outside

3. TORSION TEST Rotate the edges in oposited directions.

4. BENDING TEST / CONCAVE Move the edges up while push the center down.

5. BENDING TEST / CONVEX Move the edges down while push the center up.

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

GEOMETRIC FOLDS Type A: Triangular Grid

Foldability

Tension

Torsion

Triangular grid is the most structural pattern, but it has limited foldability.

Type B: Rectangular Grid

Foldability

Tension

Torsion

Rectangular grid is the most foldable pattern, but the weakest in strength.

Type C: Quad Grid

Foldability

Tension

Torsion

Quad grid pattern has the most potential in terms of foldability and strength. Thus, this pattern will be used in this design project.

Type D: Hexagonal Grid

Foldability

Tension

Torsion

Hexagonal grid has the least potential for foldability and strength.

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Observation of the behaviour of the folding system in a physical test. One team member applies forces creating a convex deformation on the surface. We observe that the structure is highly rigid and presents resistance to any deformation when it reaches the minimum distance between the quads. The folds are in maximum depth.

Convex Position

1.

2.

1. Minimum distance between quad faces. 2. Maximun depth of fold. IMAGE OBS. High resistance to bending and torsion.

CONCAVE POSSITION

1.

2.

1. Maximum distance between quad faces. 2. Minimum depth of fold.

IMAGE OBS. Low resistance to bending and torsion.

116

Observation of the behaviour of the folding system in a physical test. One team member applies forces creating a concave deformation on the surface. We observe that the structure is doesn’t present rigidity. Any force easily deforms it. In this position, the quads present a considerable distance between each other, and the fold is in a minimum depth.


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Digital application of the folding logic

Following the observed characteristics according to the structural behaviour, we decided to apply the concave and convex deformation to respond to the structural analysis logics. Starting with a deformation of the original mesh in a concave and convex direction and build a relationship between the distance of the faces and the projection of the vertex in between.

quad vertex

1. BASE MESH Convex and Concave deformation

quad vertex qu ad fac e

e fac ad qu

2. QUAD OFFSET Determine a distance between faces based on stress colors and curvature

vertex depth

3. FOLD DEPTH Project vertex between faces a determinated distance according face offset

vertex depth

fold

4. CREATE FOLDS Build connections between vertex and faces to create a continuous surface

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ESSAYS CATALOGUE Catalogue with multiple essays with the application of the folding technique, color association, and concave-convex deformation.

BASE MESH

TOP VIEW

ISOMETRIC VIEW

SIDE VIEW

118

RED MESH DEFORMATION

0

0

BLUE MESH DEFORMATION

0

0

FACE OFFSET

0

0

%

20

VERTEX DEPTH

0

0

cm

40


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

0

0 to -40

0 to -40

0

0

0 to +40

5

%

20

5

%

20

5

%

20

0

cm

40

0

cm

40

0

cm

40

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Based on the primary space built according to the simulated circulation and its structural analysis, we applied the CONCAVE-CONVEX deformation to correspond to the folding technique with the structural behaviour. The objective is to create the conditions to add rigidity in the more stressed areas when the folds are applied.

Concave and Convex Deformation

1. Base Mesh

1. Structural Analysis

3. Mesh Deformation CONCAVE-CONVEX

ge or ed anch

STEPS 1. Map the amount of red in each vertex 2. Select the reddest vertex in the mesh. 3. Remap the color values according deformation desired 4. move the original point according new values.

120

for

c stru

na al a tur

l ys

is


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

HIGH DEFORMATION

MEDIUM DEFORMATION

LOW / NON DEFORMATION

BASE

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

In a second step, we applied an offset in each quad of the mesh that is related to the range of colours of the structural analysis creating more offset in the bluest parts and less offset in the reddest parts. The goal is to develop different sizes of gaps between faces according to it structural performance.

Offset of the quads

STEPS 1. Average of red between vertex in each face. 2. Remap amount of red according a offset range. 3. Move each vertex to the center according remapped value 4. Rebuild the mesh

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

In a second step, we applied an offset in each quad of the mesh that is related to the range of colours of the structural analysis creating more offset in the bluest parts and less offset in the reddest parts. The goal is to develop different sizes of gaps between faces according to its structural performance.

Building the folded mesh

vertex depth

2

3

2

1

4

1

2

3

2

1

4

1

3

4

vertex depth

fold

3

4

1. projection of the intersection vertex

2. connect the vertex with the quads

STEPS 1. Map amount of red in each vertex. 2. Remap value according desired movement. 3. Move each vertex according normal with the remapped value 4. Build connection with the colliding faces.

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3.2

STRUCTURAL IMPROVEMENT In this chapter, we explored two techniques to improve the response of the original mesh to the structural analysis. The experimentation also aims to explore the spatial variations that the mesh and the folding technique could reach without losing the continuous lecture of the folded element. The first technique explored, based on the observation of nature, employes a sinusoidal function to improve the structural performance in the reddest areas. The second technique manipulates the mesh vertex distribution to densify the most compromised areas and get more rigidity in the selected spots. Due to the high resolution needed for the sinusoidal deformation, which reduces the faces areas and the depth of the folds drastically, the first technique isn’t considered for further development. However, the second strategy achieved the desired results in terms of structure and continuity.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

STRUCTURAL DEFORMATION BASED ON SINE CURVE

BASIC MESH Structural analysis . Original Quad - based mesh. Plain surface without any deformation

DEFORMED MESH Structural analysis .Quad -based mesh. Sinusoidal Deformation creates ribs on the surface of the original mesh. In this example the ribs have been applied on the reddest spots of the mesh.

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Metaplas M Me eta et apla llas as as - 3D 3D Printed Priin Pr Prin inte nte ntte n ted M Mu Multi-polymers ulti lltti-p po olyymers merrss me

ALGEE IMAGE We observed this behaviour in several elements of nature; the incorporation of sinusoidal deformation to improve the structural behaviour along its growth. 127


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Application of a sine curve to deform the surface according to the structural effort color mapping

max deformation

amplitude of wave

max estructural effort

min estructural effort

place a point according to RED concentration to start the wave

BASIC SHAPE no deformation 0% amplitude of wave

128

TRANSITION medium deformation 5 amplitude of wave

SINUSOIDAL DEFORMATION medium deformation 10 max amplitude of wave


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

1. Original shape Irregular distribution of the structural effort through the surface

low structural performance

high structural performance

2. Deformed shape Uniformisation of the the structural effort

50% ‘50% distribution of structural performance

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Sinusoidal Deformation Catalogue. Sinusoidal deformation in diferent directions and intensities according to structural color mapping.

17.82 % BASIC SHAPE structural analysis

Percentage of bluest points

Longitudinal Deformation 10.32 %

Longitudinal on Reddest Spots 5.05 %

Transversal Deformation 6.92 %

Transversal on Reddest Spots

18.42 %

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percentage of points with more than 60% of blue shade

SINUSOIDAL DEFORMATION

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Sinusoidal Deformation Catalogue. Variations on the best option of the previous catalogue. Modifications Z edge and amplitude of wave

BASIC SHAPE Transversal on Reddest Spots

18.42 % percentage of points with more than 60% of blue shade

structural analysis

Percentage of bluest points

SINUSOIDAL DEFORMATION

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Deformation in Z Axis 16.89 %

Deformation On Z Axis Only on Reddest Spots

23.81 %

Cuadratic Deformation on Z Axis / Reddest Spots 20.44 %

Conclutions / Results

A small improvemet on the structural behaviour is achieved when a sinusoidal deformation is applied on the transversal direction of the shape. This improvement can be increased if the deformation is progressively reduced when the Z value of the points increase. The higher the point is on the shape, the less deformation it should present. This deformation increased the amount of points valued with more than 60% of blue shade in a 7% from the original shape.

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COLOUR REMAP for the application of the folding logic

TEST 1 Transversal On Reddest Spots 3 Colors Remap

TEST 2 Transversal On Reddest Spots Deformation variation on the reddest spots 3 Colors Remap

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GEOMETRIC FOLDS final overall appereance of the space with the folding logic CONCLUTIONS. The deformation improves the structural behaviour of the mesh but it demands an exponential increase of the amount of quads to show the deformation. The deformation doesn’t contribute to create different spatial qualities on the original shape. The differentiation of the structural behaviour on the folds are less evident . The ribs hide the fold effect.

TEST 1 Transversal On Reddest Spots Folding logic

TEST 2 Transversal On Reddest Spots Deformation varation on the reddest spots Folding logic

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STRUCTURAL IMPROVEMENT : QUADS MANIPULATION

1. Structural Analysis

2. Mesh Quads

3. Quad Manipulation

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BASIC MESH Structural analysis Quad -based mesh, edges and control points Regular mesh divided en UV directions.

DEFORMED MESH Structural analysis Quad -based mesh, edges and control points Control points moved according red values of the mesh. Creates smaller quads in the reddest spots and bigger quads in the bluest spots.

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QUAD MANIPULATION CATHALOGUE Diverse tests of parameters to achieve a clear but smooth transition between the diferent color regions. The catalogue shows different range of colour mapping to generate the three structural regions

STRUCTURAL REMAP 3 colors

CONCAVE / CONVEX deformation

FOLD APLICATION

STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE red average

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base element : FACES

base element : VERTEX

HIGH :90-100% MEDIUM :65- 90% LOW :00- 65%

HIGH :90-100% MEDIUM :70- 90% LOW :00- 70%


base element : VERTEX

base element : VERTEX

HIGH :87-100% MEDIUM :70- 87% LOW :00- 70%

HIGH :87-100% MEDIUM : average LOW :00- 70% 137


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Final results

The best result presents a continuous mesh with smooth transitions between regions but a clear identification of all the different structural behaviours of the original mesh. It also presents a small deformation of the original pipe but this is not a remarkable quality.

1. Base Mesh

LOW STRESSED AREA Presents the biggest quads of all the mesh. Maximum offset between faces. Minimum depth of the fold.

2. Convex/Concave

HIGHLY STRESSED AREA The smallest size of quads in all the mesh. Minimum offset between faces. Maximum depth of the fold.

3. Quad Manipulation MEDIUM STRESSED AREA Presents an intermediate size of quads. Average offset between faces. Average depth of the fold.

3. Colour Remap

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1.

2.

3.

initial mesh

deformations

folding process


Despite the local variations made in regards to the structural information given by the specific shape, the resulting mesh remains homogeneous and doesn’t show particular customisation. Tthe UV directionality of the initial form overpowers the deformation.


3.3

MESH VARIABILITY In the following chapter, the mesh variates its pattern in an attempt to break the regularity found in the previous steps. The objective is to find singularities related to the morphology of the mesh to rebuild the pattern without losing the topology. The natural diagonalisation of the faces dictated by their orientation acted as an indicator to rebuild the mesh in multidirectional quads, breaking the original UV nature of the mesh creation. This step, in contrast to the previous ones, isn’t related to the structural colour mapping but, in the chain of actions, comes after the deformations and mesh manipulation.



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Mesh Directionality

144

Following the mesh triangulation logics, it is visible how the diagonals inform about the mesh directionality. The usage of the diagonals could provide the mesh constitution individual local variabilities and customisations.


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Quad Remesh

Considering the diagonals previously detected, the mesh takes the centre of each triangle to build lines with the quad corners. This process creates new quads deformed according to the direction of the triangulation.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Triangulation of the mesh

Extract the centers of the triangles

Connect the vetex of the triangles with the center

Remove the original lines

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Remap Quads

Rebuild the mesh according to the desired minimum and maximum sizes of quads. These dimensions could be provided by the availability of printer sizes in the market or the local providers.

1. Minimum size of panels

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2. Maximum size of panels


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Folded Mesh After Re-configuration of Quads

Breaks the regularity of the initial mesh without losing the smoothness and continuity. The structural regions are evident compared to the non-compromised areas. The quads show the local variabilities and differentiation per areas. The variability of the quads increased between structural areas, which sharpens the contrast as shown in the final result below. Besides, the variability of the depth of the fold generates shadows in a diverse intensity, contributing to the easy identification of the selected areas. The combination of all the folding strategies respond and show the structural behaviour of the form, similar to the gothic references.

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The interior perspective of the mesh has lost the regularity and homogeneity. The quads are multidirectional responding to the directionality of the mesh and the inherent diagonals of the form. This characteristic helps to create variability in a continuous pattern inside and through the circulation.



3.4

FORCES MANAGMENT As mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, the aim to build the digitally simulated spaces generated in the previous part needs to be constrained by real world variables, including the rules of physics for it to be build. In this section, the project presents its strategy to confront two vital forces that need to be considered. The first is the collapsing force which corresponds to gravity and is directly related to the material’s weight. The second is the opening force, which corresponds to elasticity values. This is a characteristic of the material of the project. This behaviour was observed during the physical test done in the previous chapter. Using a strategical position of the valleys and creases of the folding pattern and employing tension elements, the project aims to contrast these two forces between each other. This strategy requires to be proven in physical samples to test the theory. The material selfweight must be measured around the opening force of the folds to calculate the amount of tension needed. Further experimentation couldn’t take place due to the particular Covid situation that interfered with the ability to produce physical tests.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Balancing the Forces

The projected mesh, under a realistic environment, will be confronted with two different and opposite type of forces. The first is the gravity, which will pull the mesh permanently to the ground. The second one is the opening force, which is a characteristic of the material due to its elasticity. The folds are placed to the inside keeping the balance, maintaining the shape andand avoiding deforming the space. With this strategy, the opening force is directed to the outside, creating a vector in the valley vertex which will push out, contrasting the gravity. This strategy must be tested and balanced according to the particular needs of the mesh.

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COLLAPSING FORCE material weight & gravity (cF)

pulls the structure down making it lose the fold deepness and the general arc shape

OPENING FORCE material weight & gravity (cF)

cF + oF = balance

pulls the folds out creating an opposite vector to the direction of the fold

(oF)

face

face

Valley Vertex

TENSION FORCE ON THE FOLD to mantain the opening force vector (oF) According to the amount of direction colliding in one space, several cases of multiple faces crashing in one vertex could appear

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Self-Adaptive Membrane Utilizes Kinetic Joints Responsive to Solar Radiation

images: courtesy of institute for advanced architecture of catalonia, spain director of MAA & senior faculty: areti markopoulou assistant faculty: alexandre dubor computational expert: carlos bausa team: nohelia gonzalez, shreyas more

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1. CONTOUR RELIEF

min. dist.

ED7463

CE847C

AF7E7D

A39E9E

max. dist.

9ABBBD

images: courtesy of institute for advanced architecture of catalonia, spain director of MAA & senior faculty: areti markopoulou assistant faculty: alexandre dubor computational expert: carlos bausa team: nohelia gonzalez, shreyas more

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Edge Constrain (A) Fixed position of faces and folds between each other

INTERMEDIATE REGION

Edge Constrain (B) Fixed position of faces and folds between each other

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1. Maximum depth of the folds

2. Minimum depth of the folds

To maintain the desired distances between the folds, it is fundamental to differentiate the regions according to the depth of the folds. The selected areas must be constrained to maintain the folds in place inside the delimitated area. According to the structural logics implemented for the mesh creation, which includes three differentiated regions by colours, the delimitation faces must match with the structural colours delimitations. The constrain dispositive could contribute to increasing the level of customisation achieved in each section of the mesh in an intermediate level, making the structural regions more evident with a surrounding network.

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Cable-Network Regions

Taking the base colour of the remapped regions of colours on the mesh, extract the contour and select the faces that collide with the limits. Those faces will enclose the structural regions and constrain the desired distance between them.

General structural analysis colours

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Delimitation of structural regions


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Cable-Network

To increase the presence of the cable network and show it’s level of customisation, all the system will be differentiated by a single colour similar to the steel colour of the cables. The thickness of the face relief is increased to be visible from the inside.

Evident through thickness / connected through colour

Inside view of the cable network

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OUTSIDE DETAIL AND TEXTURES

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INSIDE DETAIL AND TEXTURES

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3.5

GROUND CONNECTION This section explores the ground connection of the previously developed mesh by continuing with the theme of continuity. The connection is achieved through an independent 3D printed piece that transitions from the folded geometry of the mesh to a flat surface. It is rigid but made of PLA to create a proper transition. The continuity is achieved through the smooth curvature that levels all the vertex of the mesh edges into a continuous smooth line that touches the ground. The piece is composed of two identical parts that overlap and sandwiches the mesh in between, holding it by pressure. To achieve this, the rigid part includes the first row of faces of the mesh to match and overlap. This last step provides an attractive branching of the rigid piece to the mesh, making the transition smoother and more connected.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

1. Project the folded mesh naked vertex in to a parallel edge projected 80 cm below and with a proportional offset oriented to the inside of the space.

2. Build a continuous element that transitions smoothly from the sharp folded edges to a continuous curved line that follows the circulation path.

3. Include on the top of the piece the shape given by the first row of faces on the folded mesh to create an overlap.

4. Duplicate the piece in order to contain and sandwich the mesh between both pieces and connect with the ground.

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Flat Floor

Sloped Floor and Sitting Step

Sitting Step

Sloped Floor

Raised Bar

Raised Bar and Sitting Step 169


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INITIAL EDGE The final edge of the folded mesh

INTERMEDIATE EDGE Reduced projection of the initial edge

INSIDE RESULTING AREA The resultant after applying the offset to the limit line of the mesh to the inside

BOUNDARIES Following a bezier line creates a smooth curve reducing the distance of the plinth offset until the minimum.

FINAL EDGE Smooth continuous line that follows the principal circulation path

Folded Mesh level 0.00 Outside level -0.50 Inside level 170


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

The corner returns reduced the offset distance smoothly, creating a vertical connection with the initial edge.

The ground connection piece branches into the translucent mesh, blending both elements.

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4

COLOUR, PATTERN & LIGHTING 4.1

COLOUR STRATEGY

4.2

PATTERN GENERATION AND PROTOTYPING

4.3

MIRCOPATTERN APPLICATION ON DIGITAL MESH

4.4

SEMIOTIC LIGHTING

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4.1

COLOUR STRATEGY: BALANCING THE SPECTRUM In the following section we will begin by exploring the health problems associated with our modern lifestyles constant exposure to certain Kelvin temperatures. Particularly relevant here is the effect of blue light and a lack of the warmer temperatures throughout the day, month and year, contradicting to what our natural circadian rhythm requires. In order to tackle this overall wellbeing and health issue within the built environment, we must consider the role that lighting can play beyond illumination, to offer a more balanced distribution of kelvin temperatures. As a result, we explore how the interaction between diffused light, thermochromic PLA, which are colour changing filaments responding to heat as a stimulus, translucent PLA and patterns could result in shadows with specific Kelvin temperatures. This is particularly useful as certain temperatures are associated with specific programmes, thus providing occupiers and passers by a chance to regulate their circadian rhythms.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

LIGHT AND WELLBEING

Lighting is an imperative feature in our built environment, but rarely do we consider it as a vital part of the design process. In fact, lighting can have a major role in our psychological and physical health. Aside from light intensity, which is measured in lux, light also has a colour temperature which is measured in Kelvin (K); the brighter/bluer the light the higher the Kelvin temperature (Lumens, 2020).

As our lifestyle rely heavily on laptop screens, phone screens and artificial light, one becomes overly exposed to bright/blue light which can have particularly damaging effects to one’s health. As seen from the diagram on the right, our environments, particularly the office/work one, involves many of those features. As the light rays penetrate our eyes, through the retina and optic nerve, an imbalance in our natural circadian rhythm, which is our natural, biological clock, is created (Bretrust, 2019). this is because the retina has iprGCs which are cells that control our circadian rhythm (Bretrust, 2019). These are particularly sensitive to blue light, thus, impacting our circadian rhytm. Blue/bright light is what we are exposed to the most as they increase alertness resulting in better performance. However they can also lead to negative effects which include reduced brain glucose disposal & increased central nervous system (CNS) activity, reduced satiety & increased eating propensity, gut microbrobiota dysregulation and pancreatic function impairment (Brainard et al, 2015). These can potentially result in diabetes and/or obesity amongst other health issues. Furthermore, a disrupted circadian rhythm can also negatively affect the body’s sleep-wake cycle, which can result in insomnia, depression, irritability and loss of focus (Walker et al, 2020). As a result, we are proposing to integrate colour strategically in our system to offset the effects of the blue light we are often exposed to, offering a dynamic solution which adapts to the programme requirement and seasonal changes. Below is a diagram showing our circadian rhythm, which is our body’s natural clock, responsible for our sleepwake cycles, body temperature and the release of various hormones (Bretrust, 2019). Our circadian rhythm is an embedded part of our DNA which is directly linked to our natural environment. As a result, for an optimum circadian rhythm, we must follow the environment’s natural lighting system. Disruptions occur when we are exposed to bright light at night or for long hours which supresses our melatonin (the hormone which causes sleepiness) (Bretrust, 2015).

Circadian peaks in body function (data from www.bio.tamu.edu/ USERS/bell-pedersen/index.html).

An office layout composed ot typical bright ceiling lights and countless computers constantly emitting blue light (image from http://www.apss.co.uk/news/british-offices-are-cold-ugly/).

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10,000 K

1,000 K

Lig ht R

ay s

Pupil Retina Lens

Optic Nerve

Ph sy ch ol o Eff gic ec al ts & P on h Bo ysio dy lo gi ca l

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disrup ted sle ep -w ak e

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Reduced Brain Glucose Disposal & Increased Central Nervous System (CNS) Activity

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Natural Sleep-Wake Cycle Disrupted Sleep-Wake Cycle Pancreatic Function Impairment

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HUMAN CENTRIC COLOUR DISTRIBUTION: ACTIVITY BASED KELVIN TEMPERATURE

1,000 K

10,000 K

Based on our research, we found that certain activities are associated with particular kelvin temperatures to enhance our performance/ and overall level of comfort in the space. These can be defined as ‘extreme relax’ which is 3500 K, 5800K for ‘concentrate’ and 11000K for ‘activate’ (Bretrust, 2019). As a result, we are using this strategy in order to distribute colour according to the required programme and the level of alertness it requires.

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LEAST ‘ACTIVE’ PROGRAMME

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MOST ‘ACTIVE’ PROGRAMME

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THERMOCHROMIC PLA: MITIGATING WINTER-SUMMER VARIATIONS

Colour Change from Orange to Yellow ~ 31°C

Colour Change from Blue to White ~ 31°C

10,000 K

1,000 K In order to create particular lighting qualtities which directly relate to the kelvin temperature scale, we must be able to create a gradient through the combination of two filaments. However, as our panels will interact wiith natural light in order to create the desired environment, we must account for the lighting difference in summer vs. winter in London. The natural, warm, light in summer requires less saturated filament colours contrasting to the diffused, monotone tones of winter which requires a more intense colour. As a result, we are using thermochromic PLA, which changes colour as it increases in temperature, in order to account for this seasonal difference.

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London Summer Solstice : June 21st

As seen from this diagram, a day in summer has long hours of sun exposure with warm kelvin temperatures. Consequently, the thermochromic PLA selected will have a more subdued tone of yellow and white in the summer.

04:00 06:00 08:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 00:00

Warm Natural Light

London Winter Solstice: December 21st

On the other hand, a day in winter has short hours of sun exposure with bluer kelvin temperatures. Consequently, the thermochromic PLA selected will have a more intense tone of orange and blue in the winter.

06:00

08:00

09:00

11:00

13:00

15:00

16:00

18:00

20:00

Diffused Light

2000 K

30 0 K 300

412 120 K

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> 31°C

< 31°C 186


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> 31°C

< 31°C 187


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3D Printed Samples Corresponding To Kelvin Temperature Scale

The lighting effect of the panel samples, which were tested using artifical light at 1,200 lux, were mapped onto the kelvin scale showing a direct correlation between the panel colour and the resulting kelvin temperature as it interacts with light.

12 11 10 9 8 7 1,000 K

6 5 4

28 3 27 2 26 1 25 15 16 17 10,000 K

18 19 20 21 22 24

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1. Control Setting Light Source: Artificial Illuminance: 1,200 lux 2. PLA Clear 100% PLA Thermochromic Orange 0% 3. PLA Clear 90% PLA Thermochromic Orange 10% 4. PLA Clear 80% PLA Thermochromic Orange 20%

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5. PLA Clear 70% PLA Thermochromic Orange 30% 6. PLA Clear 60% PLA Thermochromic Orange 40% 7. PLA Clear 50% PLA Thermochromic Orange 50% 8. PLA Clear 40% PLA Thermochromic Orange 60% 9. PLA Clear 30% PLA Thermochromic Orange 70% 10. PLA Clear 20% PLA Thermochromic Orange 80% 11. PLA Clear 10% PLA Thermochromic Orange 90% 12. PLA Clear 0% PLA Thermochromic Orange 100%

13. Control Setting Light Source: Artificial Illuminance: 1,200 lux 14. PLA Clear 100% PLA Thermochromic Orange 0% 15. PLA Clear 90% PLA Thermochromic Blue 10% 16. PLA Clear 80% PLA Thermochromic Blue 20% 17. PLA Clear 70% PLA Thermochromic Blue 30% 18. PLA Clear 60% PLA Thermochromic Blue 40% 19. PLA Clear 50% PLA Thermochromic Blue 50% 20. PLA Clear 40% PLA Thermochromic Blue 60% 21. PLA Clear 30% PLA Thermochromic Blue 70% 22. PLA Clear 20% PLA Thermochromic Blue 80% 23. PLA Clear 10% PLA Thermochromic Blue 90% 24. PLA Clear 0% PLA Thermochromic Blue 100%

25. PLA Clear 50% PLA Thermochromic Orange 10% PLA Thermochromic Blue 40% Color Temperature 3,139 K 26. PLA Clear 50% PLA Thermochromic Orange 20% PLA Thermochromic Blue 30% Color Temperature 2,832 K 27. PLA Clear 50% PLA Thermochromic Orange 30% PLA Thermochromic Blue 20% Color Temperature 3,189 K 28. PLA Clear 50% PLA Thermochromic Orange 40% PLA Thermochromic Blue 10% Color Temperature 3,470 K

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4.2

PATTERN GENERATION AND PROTOTYPING In the following section, different pattern generation methods were explored with the intention of applying it as a micropattern in between the layers of the folded mesh. Firstly explored are 3D printed samples with embedded continuous patterns, which served as the infill of the print while providing visual qualities. Further digital methods were investigated such as topological optimisation and 2D and 3D pinching patterns. The potential of the patterns generated provided structural and shading opportunities. However, the main goal was to employ patterns in order to merge the orange and blue thermochromic PLA to have blended shadows which would correspond to the desired Kelvin temperature.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

As seen from the precedents below, material articulation through patterning is used in facades for particular effects. In some instances, patterning can be used to provide areas with gradual transitions between opaque and translucent zones. For instance in the Maison de Verre in Paris, the translucency of the lens is completely reliant upon the textures, whch results in he the refraction of transmitted light ( Murray, 2013). On the other hand, at the Utrecht University Library, the pattern printed facade is used to control the sunlight entering the building (Wielaretsarchitect, 2004). In the case of the St Pius Church, in Meggen, the natural pattern and the resulting colour from the stone envelope, filters light softly while making use of borrowed light to provide a feeling of awe (Murray, 2003).

Architectural Precedents

Utrecht University Library by Wiel Arets Architects, the Netherlands, 2004

St Pius Church by Franz Frued, Meggen, Switzerland 1966

Typical glass lens, Maison de Verre by Pierre Chareau and Bernard Bijvoet, Paris, France,1932

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PATTERN EXPLORATION AND PROTOTYPING

The following prototypes explore the potential of continuous and integrated patterns through 3D printed samples. The patterns are embedded in a flat, translucent panel, creating the opportunity for various levels of opacities and visual effects. In addition, the patterns represent the infill pattern of the 3D print, thereby giving it the multidimensional role of strucure and visual effect.

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1. PLA Clear 145x145x5 mm Nozzle: 0.8 mm Gyroid Infill Density: 5% Line Distance: 16mm 2. PLA Clear & PLA Thermochromic (Orange): 145x145 x3mm Nozzle: 0.8 mm Rectangular Grid Gradient

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3.PLA Clear 145x145x5 mm Nozzle: 0.8 mm Gyroid Infill Density: 10% Line Distance: 8mm 4.PLA Clear & PLA Thermochromic (Orange): 145x145 x3mm Nozzle: 0.8 mm Rectangular Grid

5. PLA Clear & PLA Thermochromic (Orange): 145x145 x5 mm Nozzle: 0.8 mm Gyroid Infill Density: 20% Line Distance: 3mm 6. PLA Clear & PLA Thermochromic (Orange&Blue): 145x145 x3mm Nozzle: 0.8 mm Diagonal Grid

7. PLA Clear & PLA Thermochromic (Orange): 145x145 x3mm Nozzle: 0.8 mm Diagonal Grid 8. PLA Clear & PLA Thermochromic (Orange): 145x145 x5 mm Nozzle: 0.8 mm Gyroid Infill Density: 20% Line Distance: 3mm

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9. PLA Clear: 145x145x5 mm Nozzle: 0.8 mm Gyroid Infill Density: 5% + freeform pattern Line Distance: 16mm

9

Close up of (8), showing the gyroid infill and the thermochromic colour changes as it is cooling downs.

Close up of (2), showing the gradient in each cell, created by a careful ratio distribution of clear and thermochromic PLA.

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TOPOLOGICALLY OPTIMISED PATTERN

Topological optimisation was explored in this section as a tool to derive patterns for added local structure. Through a catalogue of patterns derived by adding loads to the setup, a gradient of patterns, able to sustain different loads, was created. Through this strategy, the gradient of pattern can then be distributed into the form according to structural analysis values; areas requiring the least local structure will have the simplest pattern, while areas requiring the most local structure will have the denser pattern.

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Case: 03 Load: 3

Case: 10 Load: 5

Case: 20 Load: 8

Case: 26 Load: 9

Case: 48 Load: 21

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Case: 01 Load: 1

Case: 09 Load: 5

Case: 17 Load: 8

Case: 02 Load: 2

Case: 10 Load: 5

Case: 18 Load: 8

Case: 03 Load: 3

Case: 11 Load: 6

Case: 19 Load: 8

Case: 04 Load: 3

Case: 12 Load: 6

Case: 20 Load: 8

Case: 05 Load: 4

Case: 15 Load: 7

Case: 21 Load: 8

Case: 06 Load: 4

Case: 14 Load: 7

Case: 22 Load: 8

Case: 07 Load: 4

Case: 13 Load: 6

Case: 23 Load: 9

Case: 08 Load: 5

Case: 16 Load: 7

Case: 24 Load: 9


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Case: 25 Load: 9

Case: 33 Load: 13

Case: 41 Load: 16

Case: 26 Load: 9

Case: 34 Load: 13

Case: 42 Load: 17

Case: 27 Load: 9

Case: 35 Load: 14

Case: 43 Load: 17

Case: 28 Load: 9

Case: 36 Load: 14

Case: 44 Load: 17

Case: 29 Load: 10

Case: 37 Load: 15

Case: 45 Load: 18

Case: 30 Load: 11

Case: 38 Load: 15

Case: 46 Load: 19

Case: 31 Load: 12

Case: 39 Load: 16

Case: 47 Load: 20

Case: 32 Load: 12

Case: 40 Load: 16

Case: 48 Load: 21

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Drawings were generated to explore the material distribution of the rigid PLA and flexible TPU alongside the added thermochromic colour. The edges of the quad correspons to the flexible TPU, which transitions to the rigid PLA, composed of translucent and thermochromic PLA.

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Pattern Prototyping

Some fabrication challenges that were faced while prototyping the quad with the single nozzle, dual filament, 3D printer related to the (a) nozzle, (b) the extruder, and (c) the infill.

A.Nozzle When printing flexible filaments, the nozzle could be easily blocked which we found can be improved by increasing the size of nozzle and reducing the printing speed.

B.Extruder The speed of filament feeding needs to be increased in correlation to the size of the nozzle. In addition, if the nozzle size is too big, it can cause considerable stress to the gear and spring, leading to mechanical problems involving the extruder.

C.Flat Surface and Infill When printing flat surface, especially with small nozzle, the amount of infill generated by the slicer software needs to be increased, otherwise the filament of the upper layer will not stick to the infill of the lower layer.

200


6

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Gradient 2: Thermochromic

die

nt 1

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Gradient 1: Flexible-Rigid Gradient

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PLA Thermochromic 25%

8. TPU 100%

4. PLA Clear100%

Gr ad

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1. PLA Color 100%

PLA Clear 50%

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4. PLA Clear100%

1. PLA Clear 150x150 mm Nozzle: 0.4 mm Thickness: 1 mm Printing time: 5 hr 30 min 2. PLA Clear + PLA Thermochromic Color 150x150 mm Nozzle: 0.8 mm Thickness: 3.5 mm Printing time: 2 hr 40 min

1

2

3. PLA Clear and PLA Thermochromic Color 150x150 mm Nozzle: 0.4 mm Thickness: 1 mm Printing time: 5 hr 30 min 4. PLA Clear + PLA Thermochromic Color Nozzle: 0.8 mm Thickness: 3.5 mm Printing time: 2 hr 40 min

3

4

5

6

5. PLA Thermochromic Color 150x150 mm Nozzle: 0.4 mm Thickness: 1 mm Printing time: 5 hr 30 min

6. PLA Thermochromic Color Nozzle: 0.8 mm Thickness: 3.5 mm Printing time: 2 hr 40 min

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Colour Gradient Mapped Onto Topologically Optimised Pattern

Type 01

1,000 K

2,000 K

3,000 K

4,000 K

6,000 K

10,000 K

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Type 02

Type 03

Type 04

Type 05


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1

1. Panel type 01 with white-to-blue thermochromic PLA & translucent PLA, corresponding to 10,000 K.

2

2. Panel type 01 with yellow-to-orange thermochromic PLA & translucent PLA, corresponding to 2,000 K .

3. Panel type 01 with mixed white-to-blue & yellow-to-orange thermochromic PLA & translucent PLA for potential visual affects .

3

3

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2D PINCHING PATTERN

The pinching technique can be adapted to both the structural and shading strategy; parts where more structure is required can be reinforced locally with the dense parts of the pattern. In parallel, the pattern can be strategically applied in correlation to solar analysis to maximise on natural light.

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1

2

3

1. Pinching 2. Zones of Influence of Points 3. 2D Line System with Scattered Point Distribution 4. Lofting

4 205


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The experiment below investigates the use of the pinching technique on a surface. The effect is similar to a relief as a depth is given. Softer pinchings are achieved with less point distribution and lower strength values while sharper pinchings are achieved with more points and higher strength values

Surface-Based Pinching

1. Point that Pinch: 5 Depth (z): 30 Radius of Influence: 187 mm Strength: 0.3

2. Point that Pinch: 5 Depth (z): 30 Radius of Influence: 387mm Strength: 0.6

1

4

2

5

3

6

3. Point that Pinch: 5 Depth (z): 30 Radius of Influence: 267mm Strength: 0.5

4. Point that Pinch: 10 Depth (z): 30 Radius of Influence: 267mm Strength: 0.5

5. Point that Pinch: 10 Depth (z): 30 Radius of Influence: 187 mm Strength: 0.3

6. Point that Pinch: 10 Depth (z): 30 Radius of Influence: 387mm Strength: 0.6

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Line-Based Pinching

Another pinching exploration was achieved by adding a further secondary pattern network in between the primary pinching pattern.

The negative space of the primary pattern is filled with a medium density, secondary pattern.

The negative space of the primary pattern is filled with a high density, secondary pattern. 207


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Volume-Based Pinching

1 Layered Grid with Scattered Point Distribution

2 Zones of Influence of Points

3 Pinching

4 Piping

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To achieve further 3-dimensional results of the pattern, a layered grid system was employed where points were distributed in a volume and pinched accordingly. The result is an intricate pattern able of having structural and shading properties.


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

1. Point to Spread Count: 5 Point that Pinch: 5 Radius of Influence: 1395 mm Strength: 0.7

4. Point to Spread Count: 18 Point that Pinch: 78 Radius of Influence: 1395 mm Strength: 0.3

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2. Point to Spread Count: 20 Point that Pinch: 20 Radius of Influence: 1395 mm Strength: 0.7 5. Point to Spread Count: 18 Point that Pinch: 78 Radius of Influence: 1395 mm Strength: 0.5

3. Point to Spread Count: 20 Point that Pinch: 40 Radius of Influence: 1395 mm Strength: 0.7 6. Point to Spread Count: 18 Point that Pinch: 78 Radius of Influence: 1395 mm Strength: 0.8

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Based on the results achieved with the layered 3-dimensional pinching, a quad was prototyped in order to explore how colour, related to Kelvin temperatures, can be distributed in a single print to observe the shadows it can create.

Pattern Prototyping

PLA Clear&PLA Thermochromic (Orange & Blue): 145x145 x25 mm Nozzle 0.8 mm Image Showing Orange Facing Side

PLA Clear&PLA Thermochromic (Orange & Blue): 145x145 x25 mm Nozzle 0.8 mm Image Showing Blue Facing Side

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The interaction between the natural/diffused light, thermochromic PLA’s and the pattern would result in shadows with particular kelvin temperatures according to the ratio and filament distribution.

NATURAL LIGHT

Colour Change from Orange to

Colour Change from Blue to

Yellow

White

~ 31°C

~ 31°C

12:00 PM

4:00 PM

7:00 PM

12:00 PM

4:00 PM

7:00 PM

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Due to the generative nature of the pinching pattern, a procedural loop system was put into place where each following iteration results in a decrease in density. This has two implications which we considered; firstly, the variety in density was used as a tool to control interior shadows and resulting colour distributions, secondly, the density-sparsity spectrum of the patterns can also be used as a tool for shading strategies.

Procedural Loop System

Loop: 00 Blue Grid U: 100 Blue Grid V:1 Orange Grid U: 1 Orange Grid V: 100 Blue Points: 5000 Orange Points: 4000

Loop: 00 Blue Grid U: 91 Blue Grid V: 50 Orange Grid U: 10 Orange Grid V: 50 Blue Points: 5000 Orange Points: 4000

Loop: 00 Blue Grid U: 91 Blue Grid V: 45 Orange Grid U: 23 Orange Grid V: 45 Blue Points: 5000 Orange Points: 4000

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Loop: 01 Blue Grid U: 83 Blue Grid V:1 Orange Grid U: 1 Orange Grid V: 83 Blue Points: 2500 Orange Points: 1600

Loop: 02 Blue Grid U: 75 Blue Grid V: 1 Orange Grid U: Orange Grid V: Blue Points: 125 Orange Points:

Loop: 06 Blue Grid U: 51 Blue Grid V: 1 Orange Grid U: 1 Orange Grid V: 51 Blue Points: 78 Orange Points: 16

Loop: 07 Blue Grid U: 47 Blue Grid V: 1 Orange Grid U: Orange Grid V: 4 Blue Points: 39 Orange Points:

Loop: 01 Blue Grid U: 83 Blue Grid V: 41 Orange Grid U: 21 Orange Grid V: 41 Blue Points: 2500 Orange Points: 1600

Loop: 02 Blue Grid U: 75 Blue Grid V: 38 Orange Grid U: Orange Grid V: 3 Blue Points: 125 Orange Points: 6

Loop: 06 Blue Grid U: 51 Blue Grid V:10 Orange Grid U: 10 Orange Grid V: 26 Blue Points: 78 Orange Points: 16

Loop: 07 Blue Grid U: 47 Blue Grid V:10 Orange Grid U: Orange Grid V: Blue Points: 39 Orange Points:

Loop: 01 Blue Grid U: 83 Blue Grid V: 10 Orange Grid U: 10 Orange Grid V: 41 Blue Points: 2500 Orange Points: 1600

Loop: 02 Blue Grid U: 75 Blue Grid V: 10 Orange Grid U: Orange Grid V: Blue Points: 125 Orange Points:

Loop: 06 Blue Grid U: 51 Blue Grid V: 26 Orange Grid U: 13 Orange Grid V: 26 Blue Points: 78 Orange Points: 16

Loop: 07 Blue Grid U: 47 Blue Grid V: 23 Orange Grid U: Orange Grid V: Blue Points: 39 Orange Points:


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Loop: 03 Blue Grid U: 68 Blue Grid V: 1 Orange Grid U: 1 Orange Grid V: 68 Blue Points: 625 Orange Points: 256

Loop: 04 Blue Grid U: 62 Blue Grid V: 1 Orange Grid U: 1 Orange Grid V: 62 Blue Points: 313 Orange Points: 102

7

Loop: 08 Blue Grid U: 42 Blue Grid V: 1 Orange Grid U: 1 Orange Grid V: 42 Blue Points: 20 Orange Points: 3

Loop: 09 Blue Grid U: 39 Blue Grid V: 1 Orange Grid U: 1 Orange Grid V: 39 Blue Points: 10 Orange Points: 0

19 38 50 640

Loop: 03 Blue Grid U: 68 Blue Grid V: 10 Orange Grid U: 10 Orange Grid V: 34 Blue Points: 625 Orange Points: 256

Loop: 04 Blue Grid U: 62 Blue Grid V: 10 Orange Grid U: 10 Orange Grid V: 31 Blue Points: 313 Orange Points: 102

Loop: 05 Blue Grid U: 56 Blue Grid V: 10 Orange Grid U: 10 Orange Grid V: 28 Blue Points: 156 Orange Points: 41

Loop: 08 Blue Grid U: 42 Blue Grid V: 10 Orange Grid U: 10 Orange Grid V: 21 Blue Points: 20 Orange Points: 3

Loop: 09 Blue Grid U: 39 Blue Grid V: 10 Orange Grid U: 10 Orange Grid V: 19 Blue Points: 10 Orange Points: 0

Loop: 10 Blue Grid U: 35 Blue Grid V: 10 Orange Grid U: 10 Orange Grid V: 18 Blue Points: 5 Orange Points: 0

1 75 50 640

1 47

10 23 7

10 38 50 640

12 23 7

Loop: 05 Blue Grid U: 56 Blue Grid V: 1 Orange Grid U: 1 Orange Grid V: 56 Blue Points: 156 Orange Points: 41

Loop: 10 Blue Grid U: 35 Blue Grid V: 1 Orange Grid U: 1 Orange Grid V: 35 Blue Points: 5 Orange Points: 0

Loop: 03 Blue Grid U: 68 Blue Grid V: 34 Orange Grid U: 17 Orange Grid V: 34 Blue Points: 625 Orange Points: 256

Loop: 04 Blue Grid U: 62 Blue Grid V: 31 Orange Grid U: 16 Orange Grid V: 31 Blue Points: 313 Orange Points: 102

Loop: 05 Blue Grid U: 56 Blue Grid V: 28 Orange Grid U: 14 Orange Grid V: 28 Blue Points: 156 Orange Points: 41

Loop: 08 Blue Grid U: 42 Blue Grid V: 21 Orange Grid U: 11 Orange Grid V: 21 Blue Points: 20 Orange Points: 3

Loop: 09 Blue Grid U: 39 Blue Grid V: 19 Orange Grid U: 10 Orange Grid V: 19 Blue Points: 10 Orange Points: 0

Loop: 10 Blue Grid U: 35 Blue Grid V: 18 Orange Grid U: 9 Orange Grid V: 18 Blue Points: 5 Orange Points: 0

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Shadow Studies

The density-sparsity spectrum obtained from the procedural loop was used for shadow studies. The goal was to achieve a blended shadow that is able to capture the colour gradients corresponding to the Kelvin temperature scale. The denser the pattern, the closer this goal was achieved. However, It was through the gradient strategy that the most blended shadow was obtained.

DENSITY 1

Loop: 00

Loop: 02

Loop: 04

Loop: 06

Loop: 08

DENSITY 2

0:4

214

1:3

2:2

3:1

4:0


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DENSITY 3

0:4

1:3

2:2

3:1

4:0

GRADIENT STRATEGY

Loop: 00

Loop: 02

Loop: 04

Loop: 06

Loop: 08

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Gradient Strategy

The gradient strategy allows for the most controlled and blended interior shadow, while also having aesthetic opportunities as colours are blended across a surface, based on the input pattern.

PLA Clear 0% Thermochromic Blue 100%

PLA Clear 30% Thermochromic Blue 70%

PLA Clear 50% Thermochromic Blue 50%

PLA Clear 80% Thermochromic Blue 20%

Uniform Shadow Results in a More Controlled Interior Kelvin Temp. Environment

Initial Grid

Mesh

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Pixelisation of Pattern Through Colour Gradient Strategy

Zones of Influence of Points

Pixelisation of Pattern through Colour Gradient Strategy

Pinching

Layered Coloured Mesh


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4.3

MICROPATTERN APPLICATION ON THE FOLDED MESH In the following section, the pattern and gradient strategy were developed in order to be applied to the folded mesh. Due to the unique folding features and the variabilities in the mesh, a more subtle micropattern was adapted in order supplement the mesh without distracting from the geometric logic of the fold. Colour gradients were applied to the form to control interior shadows according to their respective required Kelvin temperatures, while also offering a visually stimulating and dynamic result. The micropattern also contributes to the filtering of light, creating diffused and pleasant interior spaces.



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Pattern as a Shading Strategy

Least Sun Exposure

222

The micropattern developped using the procedural loop was also used to explore the potential of applying a density-sparsity spectrum related to solar analysis values. Areas most exposed to solar rays would have a denser pattern while areas with less solar rays exposure would have a sparser pattern.

Most Sun Exposure


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

One-Directional Stength: 0.7

One-Directional Stength: 0.5

One-Directional Stength: 0.3

One-Directional Only in Quads Stength: 0.3

Two-Directional Only in Quads Stength: 0.3

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A Layered Panel Composition

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Blue Thermochromic PLA: 100%, Translucent PLA: 0% Blue Thermochromic PLA: 70%, Translucent PLA: 30% Blue Thermochromic PLA: 30%, Translucent PLA: 70% Orange Thermochromic PLA: 100%, Translucent PLA: 0% Orange Thermochromic PLA: 70%, Translucent PLA: 30% Orange Thermochromic PLA: 30%, Translucent PLA: 70%

Translucent PLA: 100 %, White TPU: 0% Translucent PLA: 85.7 %, White TPU: 14.3% Translucent PLA: 71.4 %, White TPU: 28.6% Translucent PLA: 57.2%, White TPU: 42.8% Translucent PLA: 42.8 %, White TPU: 57.2% Translucent PLA: 28.6 %, White TPU: 71.4% Translucent PLA: 14.3 %, White TPU: 85.7% Translucent PLA: 0%, White TPU: 100%

Flat Panel

Folded Panel

Blue Thermochromic PLA: 30% Translucent PLA: 70%

Blue Thermochromic PLA: 70% Translucent PLA: 30%

Blue Thermochromic PLA: 100% Translucent PLA: 0%

Orange Thermochromic PLA: 100% Translucent PLA: 0%

Orange Thermochromic PLA: 70% Translucent PLA: 30%

Orange Thermochromic PLA: 30% Translucent PLA: 70%

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Final Pattern Strategy on Form

TYPE 01 In this senario, the pattern is twofold, with a primary and secondary pattern each disposing of a curated colour gradient.

TYPE 02 In this senario, the pattern is a diagrid with the negative space filled with the colour gradient while the pattern itself remains white.

228

In order take advantage of the variability of the folded mesh, the following studies showcase the potential of using linear micropatterns which follow the general folds. This results in a series of patterns which complement our structural folding strategy while also serving the purpose of controlling interior colour distribution.


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TYPE 03 In this senario, the pattern and the resulting negative space is coloured with the colour gradients.

TYPE 04 In this senario, only the pattern is coloured with the colour gradients while the negative space remains translucent.

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TYPE 05 In this senario, the diagrid pattern is coloured with the colour gradients while the resulting negative space remains translucent.

TYPE 06 In this senario, which is the selected pattern to be applied to the folded mesh, the pattern is twofold, composed and coloured of type 04 and 05, while the negative space remains translucent.

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4.4

SEMIOTIC LIGHTING Lighting is a powerful aspect of the built environment, contributing to not only the visibility factor, but also to the particular feeling the space emanates. In this section, semiotic lighting was explored by understanding the value that this visual tool can have in the architectural context. Lighting can, indeed, be used a sign, able to showcase underlying concepts while also having a pragmatic approach. By taking the Beijing Daxing International Airport by Zaha Hadid Architects as a precedent, we considered lighting by ‘erasing’ some of the quads with the thermochromic coloured patterns and replacing them with a clear panel with embedded artificial lighting, activated at night. This results in a network of linear quads that can guide passers-by while also being used as a strategy to allow for an abundance of natural light. The clear quads were selected by defining the line of directionality and selecting the quads in the form nearest to the curve. In order to visually continue the pattern on the rest of the mesh, and to also consider this navigation tool at night, LED lights, which follow the patterns of the mesh, are embedded in the quad.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Existing Research on Lighting Semiotics

Light in architecture is often used to convey certain feelings and atmospheres of spaces as well as to satisfy the functional requirement of illuminance (Schielke, 2019). As light passes through a material, the light rays are either fully transmitted, refracted, or absorbed by the material, which results respectively in translucency, transparency and opacity (Murray,2013) depending on the type of material. These effects which determine the light intensity, brightness and darkness through a space can be used to convey either atmospheres of night or day, carrying their own set of connotations (Schielke, 2019). While darkness often carries a mysterious feeling, bright light is used to carry feelings of openess and transparency (Schielke, 2019) The Institut du Monde Arabe by Jean Nouvel in Paris, France, illsutrates how the ethereal lighting quality is achieved through the filtered light. Through a mechanical aperture the facade responds to sun rays by narrowing and dilating to allow for beautiful moments which celebrate diurnal changes.

Semiotics, which is definied as the study of signs, has been discussed in the context of architecture in the research titled: The Language of Lighting: Applying Semiotics in the Evaluation of Lighting Design by Thomas Schielke (2019) The logic of semiotics relies heavily on the communication between sender, in this case the lighting, and the receiver, in this case the passerby. The interaction between the two results in a behaviour. Semiotics is seen as a language disposing of three dimensions: syntax, which is the grammar, semantics, which is the relationship between signs and their meaning, and pragmatics as the language within the socal context, in this case light (Schielke, 2019). Architectural semiotics can be considered as a form of visual communication relying on the interaction between aesthetics, objects and space (Schielke, 2019). When refering to light as a semiotic language it is also important to refer once more to Kelvin temperatures and their associated sign. Low colour temperatures, which verge on redder tones, have a comforting atmosphere while cooler tones convey alertness. Kelvin colour are also closely related to the colours of the environment from sunrise, midday to sunset which can also be conveyed in indoor atmospheres through the use of specific Kelvin temperations (Schielke, 2019). Material

Inside

Transparency: Transmitted Light

Diagram adapted from the book titled: Translucent Building Skins by Scott Murray (1), 2013.

Outside

Translucency: Refracted Transmitted Light

Opacity: Absorbed Light

Semiotics

Sign

Diagrams from Thomas Schielke research titled: The Language of Lighting: Applying Semiotics in the Evaluation of Lighting Design (228-230), 2019.

Institut du Monde Arabe by Jean Nouvel, Paris, France, 1987.

236

Pragmatic level

Lighting design strategy

Semantic level

User perception

Syntactic level

Lighting design configuration

Behaviour


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Navigation and Semiotics

Aside from conveying certain atmospheres and feelings, light can also be used as a navigation tool. This is seen in the Beijing Daxing International Airport by Zaha Hadid Architects. Here, natural light is used as a tool to guide passengers to and from their gates trough a directional system of skylights (AD, 2019). In this instance, light is used as a sign to influence the intuitive behaviour of the passengers. This results in not only ample light penetration through the strucuture, thus giving an open and welcoming atmosphere, but it also eases the navigation of people, often rushing to reach their required gates. This technique of using lighting as a tool for navigation is one that influenced our treatment of lighting in our folded mesh, seen in the following pages.

Top view of the Beijing Daxing International Airport, Zaha Hadid Architects, Beijing, China, 2019.

Diagrammed here is the Beijing Daxing International Airport, highlighting the translucent panels, used as a tool for semiotic lighting.

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Semiotic Lighting Strategy on Folded Mesh

The following diagrams depict the process used for applying the semiotic lighting on the form which begins with extracting the quads and drawing the line of directionality. Based on the centre points of the quads and their proximity to the points on the curve, the quads in the centre were selected for the semiotic lighting.

Pipe

Line of Directionality

Clear Quads

Semiotic Lighting

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Pattern, Lighting, Relief & Cables

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6

5

4

3

2

1

1. PLA and TPU-Bottom Layer 2. Micropattern 01 3. Micropattern 02 4. Semiotic Lighting 5.PLA anf TPU-Top Layer 6. Relief and Cables

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5

6

3

4

1

2

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The result is an intricate folded mesh, with a layered composition, which serves both the structural and material requirements and the colour, pattern and lighting intentions.

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5

FABRICATION & ASSEMBLY 5.1

FABRICATION STRATEGY

5.2

FABRICATION PROCESS

5.3

ASSEMBLING DETAILS

5.4

DECENTRALISED PRODUCTION

257


5.1

FABRICATION STRATEGY Being a project based on additive manufacturing as the fabrication method, the production system based on multi-material foldable panels could be on the construction site or, due to the capability of the product to be printed flat, it could be printed in different locations within a specified radius before being transported to the site. This section analyses and compares both options for fabrication methods, taking in account the decentralised system which is aiming to achieve better ecology, equity and local economy as explained in chapter 1.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Comparison of “On-Site” & “Off-Site” Fabrication

OFF-SITE FABRICATION Better Quality Control Smaller Site Storage Better Waste Control Simplified Work Flow Increased Transportation Cost Limited Production Size

ON-SITE FABRICATION Poor Quality Control Larger Site Storage Poor Waste Control Complicated Work Flow Less Transportation Cost Unlimited Production Size

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When comparing off-site and on-site fabrication, we can see that the off-site fabrication has more advantages in terms of quality control, waste control while offering a simpler assembly workflow on site. The off-site fabrication also encourages a decentralized network by distributing the manufacturing of parts to local factories, resulting in increased economic activies around the construction site.


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

DECENTRALISED PRODUCTION

As stated in chapter 1, we are aiming for a decentralised production system as it can encourage local industries to gain higher earnings. This can be supported by off-site fabrication strategy and the assembly system described in the following section of this chapter.

Centralised, decentralised, and distributed network diagram from Paul Baran’s research, titled ‘On Distributed Communications: Introduction to Distributed Communications Networks’ (1964, p.2)

To be more specific, we will illustrate how a decentralised production works through the case study of Euston Station. As we are targeting for 3D-printed foldable panels based on recyclable plastics for building enclosure, recycling centres and 3D printing facilities around the site will be integrated in the decentralised network as shown in the map below.

Site

Construction Site & Production Facilities

261


5.2

FABRICATION PROCESS The following section disaggregates all the manufacturing steps to achieve the printed panels on an architectural scale. It relates a sequence of events, from the acquisition of the recyclable wastes from several industries, the processing from wastes to materials for 3D printing, and the types of 3D printers available in the current market. This last step is essential to understand the limits of the dimensions of the panel that are possible to achieve with the current technology, and consider it into the design process.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Max.

Plastic Waste Collecting

Plastic Waste Transporting

Sorting

Washing

Shredding

Bundling

Melting & Forming

3D-Printing Filaments

Panel 3D-Printing

Off-Site Process The foldable panels are printed off-site using recycled materials collected from local waste.

264

Panel Tran

Transpo

The printed panels are fla


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2.20 m

ortation

transported to the site at.

Max. 5.70 m

nsporting

Clip-Lock Assembling

Panel Folding

Assembling

Final Design

On-Site Process The printed panels are folded and assembled on site using a clip-lock system.

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According to the market trend of PLA and TPU, we can see the growing demand for these plastics. This results in the increased production of PLA and TPU. After the life cycle of PLA and TPU products end,there will be more waste generated, requiring management and recycling processes.

Market Trend of PLA & TPU

USD Million 700 600 500 400 300 200 100

PLA Market Trend (Global Market Insights, 2020)

0 2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

USD Million 12

10

8

6

4

2 TPU Market Trend (Kindle, 2012)

0 2010

266

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018


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PLA & TPU Market Volume

These diagrams show the market volume of PLA and TPU in different industries. As the demand for PLA and TPU are raising, we can collect the wastes from these different industries and send them to the recycling centres. There we can recycle these wastes and turn them into plastic filaments or pellets for 3D-printing in later state of panel fabrication process.

Packaging

Automotive

Medical 32% 22% PLA Market Volume (Mordor Intelligence, 2020)

16% 14%

Electronics

7% 6% 3% Agriculture

Textile

Other End-User Industries

Footware

Automotive

Others

25% 18% 13% TPU Market Volume (ebary.net, 2020)

Hose & Tube

11% 11% 10%

Film & Sheet

6% 6% Belts, Seal, Wheels

Wire & Cable

Medical

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Aside from PLA and TPU, there are also other types of plastics which can be used for the foldable panels such as PETG (rigid) and Hytrel (flexible). These plastics are proven compatible for rigid-flexible gradient achieved through 3D printing by Titan Robotic Ltd. These plastics are more common and could be alternatives to PLA and TPU.

Alternative Materials

Hytrel Recyclable Flexible Flexible

PETG Recyclable Rigid Rigid

Prototype of Flexible-Rigid Gradient 3D-Printing (Titan Robotic Ltd., 2017)

Left: PETG Products Rigth: Hytrel Products

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Problem of PLA & TPU Recycling

The main problems why PLA and TPU are not widely recycled are the lack of proper labeling and sorting system. Without proper labelling and sorting systems, PLA and TUP will end up being used for landfill together with residual waste despite their recyclability. The problem with landfill is that plastics will decompose into microplastics, which can easily enter other natural systems such as rivers and oceans. However, if we can provide sorting and recycling systems specifically designed for PLA and TPU, then contamination of micro-plastics can be reduced considerably while generating revenue from the plastic waste.

PLA & TPU Sorting The current sorting system based on plastic indentification code does not include PLA and TPU though they can be recycled.

?

Landfill

Recycling Process

Despite the attempt to reduce environmental impact, the vast majority of plastics still end up in landfill. resulting in contamination of microplastics in nature.

By promoting the use of recycled PLA and TPU, this can help reducing the amount of plastics ending up in the landfill.

Fig. Powerday Recycling Facilities (powerday.co.uk, 2020)

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PLA (rigid) and TPU (flexible) are 3D-printing materials available in the market. Based on the previous test, combinations between different mixing ratios of PLA and TPU can perform different degrees of foldability.Thus, the mixture between PLA and TPU has the potential of providing an alternative material for foldable panels in the market. However, there are some properties which have to be improved in order to meet the requirements of building enclousure.

Durability Improvement

3D-Printing Material Properties PLA

TPU

Elasticity Compression Set Abrasion Tear Strength Shrinkage Water Resistance Durability Fire Resistance Biodegradablity

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Biodegradable Waterproofing Coat

Organic Flame Retardant / Intumescent coating

Biodegradable Grade TPU

Biodegradable lignin based water proofing coatings from natural (plant sources) can be applied. Lignin is a natural water repellent.

The polymer company, Lubrizol has released a flame-retardant TPU grade (V-2 Flammability). Flame retardant PLA grade is also available. However, organic types of flame retardants added to polymers are controversial (potential health hazards).

TPU is typically not biodegradable. However, biodegradable TPU is available in the market with organic blocks added to the chain. This results in TPU being able to decompose in 3-5 years under soil.


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Large Format 3D-PRINTER

m

2000 m

500

0m

1000 mm

m

Pulsar Pellet Extruder Max temperature: 500 °C Nozzle sizes: 1.00, 3.00, 5.00 mm Max flow: 500 mm3/s, 2.5 kg/h Heating power: 750 W

Advancement of 3D-Printing Technology As additive manufacturing is becoming more favorable, many companies are competing in developing larger, cheaper, and faster 3D printers as it is required more often in the professional market.

Bigger Printing Volume The maximum size of an object depends on the printing volume; larger printing volumes can accommodate larger printed objects.

Improved Printing Speed By developing the pellet extruder, it is possible to obtain faster printing time as the flow rate of materials increases.

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Gradient Printing Through Pellet Extruder

Step Motor

Hopper

Material Inlet

TPU 100%

TPU 75% PLA 25%

TPU 25% PLA 75%

TPU 50% PLA 50%

PLA 100%

Extrusion Screw Heating Zone

Pulsar Pellet Extruder Pulsar pellet extruder, one of the fastest portable pellet extruder on the market, can output up to 500 mmÂł/s (2.5kg/h). With high output flow, the printing speed increases and the time spent on printed pieces decreases. The triple heat zone design ensures the polymer is at a constant temperature. The top section receives cold pellets and generates more heat to melt them. Then, the middle zone stabalises the polymer at a precise temperature. Finally, the nozzle heater ensures an even flow. The nozzles are varied from 1.00mm up to 5.00mm.

Nozzle Connector

Moreover, the feeding system allows the gradient printing through the mix of pellets delivered from a bulk source.

Nozzle

Pulsar Pellet Extruder Design (Dyze Design, 2019)

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Maximum Panel Size

Truk FUSO

Truk Wingbox

Truk Tronton

Kontainer (20 feet)

Dimension: 25 CBM Size: 5.7m x 2.3m x 2.4m Maximum Capacity: 7 ton

Dimension: 45 CBM Size: 9.3m x 2.5m x 2.5m Maximum Capacity: 18 ton

Dimension: 30 CBM Size: 6.3m x 2.2m x 2.3m Maximum Capacity: 18 ton

Dimension: 32 CBM Size: 6.1m x 2.3m x 2.3m Maximum Capacity: 18 ton

2.3

2.5

5.7

2.2

9.3

2.3

6.3

6.1 2.3

2.3

2.5

2.4

Max. 2.20 m

Max. 5.70 m Based on decentralised production, the logistics between resources, production facilities, and construction site depends on roads as it is the main transportation for local industries. There are various sizes of trucks available in the logistic market. According to the truck sizes, the size of printed panels should not exceed 2.20 m x 5.70 m in order to fit in various truck models.

273


5.3

ASSEMBLING DETAILS Taking in count the off-site fabrication method and the current technology advancement of additive manufacturing to achieve determined formats on the building printing process, this section incorporates snap-lock strategy to assemble the different parts of the project and obtain the desired final result. The snap-lock system is considered an advantageous method for the disassembling of the building for general maintenance, replacement of damaged pieces or spatial reconfiguration on the site. This characteristic reinforces the ecological friendliness through reusing the building elements and recycling the materials at the end of building life cycle.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

PANEL DIVISION

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

PARTS & ASSEMBLY

Upper Panels

Lower Panels

Inner Ground Support Outer Ground Support

Final Assembly

278


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

AREA PER PANEL

3.35 sq.m.

A

8.15 sq.m.

F

15.43 sq.m.

K 4.08 sq.m.

B

P

7.43 sq.m.

G

9.02 sq.m.

C

13.81 sq.m.

L

11.24 sq.m.

H

Q

19.94 sq.m.

21.29 sq.m.

D 11.42 sq.m.

M

13.40 sq.m.

I

R

S 17.98 sq.m.

10.88 sq.m. 7.45 sq.m.

N

26.31 sq.m.

20.65 sq.m.

4.80 sq.m.

J 9.96 sq.m.

O E

T

4.23 sq.m.

279


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Upper Panels The overlapping rows of the upper pannels have half the thickness of the clip-lock groove profile.

280


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Lower Panels The lower panels have creases profile which can interlock with the grooves in the upper panels.

281


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Assembly When assembling upper and lower panels, the overlapping row will have full thickness. The overall enclosure will be continuous.

282


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Parts This shows the detail where the upper and lower panels intersect. The overlapping rows have half the total thickness while the rest of the panels have full thickness.

283


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Rigid Boundary Rigid boundary is composed of inner and outer ground support which can interlock with each other using snap-lock system, similarly to the pannel assembly.

284


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Foldable Panel 3D-printed panel composed by different ratios of PLA and TPU

Interior Floor Level -0.50m The inside ground is carved to build the connection between the mesh and the floor

Rigid Boundary To support and transmit the loads from the mesh to the ground

Casted Concrete To support and transmit the loads from the mesh to the ground

Ground Connection The foldable panel is supported by the rigid boundary which provides a smooth connection to the interior ground. The exterior side of the rigid boundary is supported by casted concrete which also fixes the boundary position and transmits the loads to the ground. 285


5.4

DECENTRALISED PRODUCTION The size variation of the 3D-printed foldable panels allows the project to involve, in the manufacturing process multiple scales of printing facilities. The panels with larger areas can be distributed to industrial factories of 3D printing which have enough space and the right technology to produce the large-scale panels. On the other hand, the small panels could be allocated to smaller and more localized 3D printing laboratories. This part of the study explains the capability of the project to activate multiple scales of economic activities around the construction site, making the building have an impact in its surroundings beyond the built part, transcending to a social and economic dimensions.



MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

LIST OF PANELS

A F K

P

B G C

L H

Q

D

M I

R N

S

E

J O T

288


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

A 3.35 sq.m.

B 4.08 sq.m.

C 9.02 sq.m.

D 19.94 sq.m.

E 26.31 sq.m.

F 8.15 sq.m.

G 7.43 sq.m.

H 11.24 sq.m.

I 13.14 sq.m.

J 17.98 sq.m.

K 15.43 sq.m.

L 13.81 sq.m.

M 11.42 sq.m.

N 7.45 sq.m.

O 9.96 sq.m.

P 20.65 sq.m.

Q 21.29 sq.m.

S 4.80 sq.m.

R 10.88 sq.m.

T 4.23 sq.m.

289


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Decentralised Production Scenario 1

Panel production is distributed based on the panel area. Panels with area less than 10 sq.m. will be printed at small-scale facilities while panels with area between 10-20 sq.m. will be printed at medium-scale facilities and panels with area more than 20 sq.m. will be printed at large-scale facilities. In this case, the total production capacity is different for each facility. Small-scale facilities will have the least production of 58.47 sq.m. while medium-scale facilities will have the most production of 114.10 sq.m. and large-scale facilities will have production of 68.25 sq.m.

A F

K

B

P G

C

L H Q D M I R N S J O Panel Size ≤ 10 sq.m. > 10 sq.m. and ≤ 20 sq.m. > 20 sq.m.

E

T

Site

Decentralised Production Map Facility 1: Small-Scale Production Facility 2: Medium-Scale Production Facility 3: Large-Scale Production

290


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

A 3.35 sq.m.

B 4.08 sq.m. R 10.88 sq.m.

H 11.24 sq.m.

P 20.65 sq.m. T 4.23 sq.m.

S 4.80 sq.m.

M 11.42 sq.m.

I 13.14 sq.m.

N 7.45 sq.m.

G 7.43 sq.m.

Q 21.29 sq.m.

F 8.15 sq.m.

L 13.81 sq.m.

K 15.43 sq.m.

J 17.98 sq.m.

D 19.94 sq.m.

C 9.02 sq.m.

O 9.96 sq.m.

E 26.31 sq.m.

1. Small-Scale Production

2. Medium-Scale Production

3. Large-Scale Production

Panel Size ≤ 10 sq.m. Total Production = 58.47 sq.m.

Panel Size ≤ 20 sq.m. Total Production = 114.10 sq.m.

Panel Size > 20 sq.m. Total Production = 68.25 sq.m.

291


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Panel production is distributed equally based on total area of panels. This case will be applicable when different production facilities have similar capacity but different scale of 3D printers. For example, medium-scale facilities can produce 119.22 sq.m. of panels with two medium printers while large-scale facilities can produce 121.60 sq.m. of panels with one large printer.

Decentralised Production Scenario 2

A F

K

B

P G

C

L H Q D M I R N S J O E

T

Panel Size ≤ 20 sq.m. > 20 sq.m.

Site

Decentralised Production Map Facility 1: Medium-Scale Production Facility 2: Large-Scale Production

292


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

A 3.35 sq.m.

T 4.23 sq.m.

B 4.08 sq.m.

S 4.80 sq.m.

G 7.43 sq.m.

N 7.45 sq.m.

F 8.15 sq.m.

C 9.02 sq.m.

O 9.96 sq.m.

R 10.88 sq.m.

I 13.14 sq.m.

H 11.24 sq.m.

K 15.43 sq.m.

J 17.98 sq.m.

D 19.94 sq.m.

P 20.65 sq.m.

Q 21.29 sq.m.

E 26.31 sq.m.

M 11.42 sq.m.

L 13.81 sq.m.

1. Medium-Scale Production

2. Large-Scale Production

Panel Size ≤ 20 sq.m. Total Production = 119.22 sq.m.

Panel Size > 20 sq.m. Total Production = 121.60 sq.m.

293


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Panel production is based on panel size and distributed equally for each production facility. In this case, each facility will have similar capacity but will have a difference in printer sizes. Similarly to scenario 2, the panels can be distributed to medium-scale/large-scales facilities. However, instead of two facilities, we can distribute the panels to four facilities in order to aid the economic displacement of local area.

Decentraliced Production Scenario 3

A F

K

B

P G

C

L H Q D M I R N S J Panel Size ≤ 20 sq.m. > 20 sq.m. > 20 sq.m. ≤ 20 sq.m.

O E

T

Site

Decentralised Production Map Facility 1: Medium-Scale Production Facility 2: Large-Scale Production Facility 3: Large-Scale Production Facility 4: Medium-Scale Production

294


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

T 4.23 sq.m. A 3.35 sq.m. C 9.02 sq.m.

R 10.88 sq.m.

S 4.80 sq.m. B 4.08 sq.m. H 11.24 sq.m. G 7.43 sq.m.

O 9.96 sq.m.

K 15.43 sq.m.

M 11.42 sq.m. N 7.45 sq.m.

P 20.65 sq.m. J 17.98 sq.m.

D 19.94 sq.m.

F 8.15 sq.m.

E 8.15 sq.m.

I 13.40 sq.m.

Q 21.29 sq.m.

L 13.81 sq.m.

1. Medium-Scale Production

2. Large-Scale Production

3. Large-Scale Production

4. Medium-Scale Production

Panel Size ≤ 20 sq.m. Total Production = 60.78 sq.m.

Panel Size > 20 sq.m. Total Production = 58.37 sq.m.

Panel Size > 20 sq.m. Total Production = 60.92 sq.m.

Panel Size ≤ 20 sq.m. Total Production = 60.75 sq.m.

295


Recycling

3D Printing

In this map, the red dots represent recycling centres which have potential to extend the existing facilities for large-scale/medium scale 3D-printing while the green dots represent the existing 3D-printing facilities in small scale.

Microworkshops 3D Printing Ninjas

Islington Household Reuse & Recycling Centre

iMakr

Euston Station

Unio Labs

Powerday Recycling PLC Printing Portal

Fabberz iMakr 3D Printer Hub

The Color Company

Prodpoint 3D Consultancy

Scale &

Prodpoint

MakersCAFE


Metplast Plastics Recycling Ltd

Hobs 3D

Fixie 3D

FabPub

Veolia Dagenham 3D People

E Klein & Co

Westminster Waste Ltd

Models

Champion 3D


Small-Scale Production

Medium-Scale Production

Large-Scale Production

Euston Station



Collecting Point

Recycling Centre

Recycling Pulp Faction

This map shows the transportation routes of plastic wastes from collecting points around the site to nearby recycling centres. At the recycling centres, plastic wastes will be sorted and recycled into materials for 3D-printing. Metplast Plastics Recycling Ltd

Islington Household Reuse & Recycling Centre

Recycle For London Collection Point

Powerday Recycling PLC Green Tech

Euston Station Recycle 2 Trade

Traid Bin Plastic Economy Ltd.

Giraffe Recycling E C a P Ltd


Global Plastics

Recycling Bins

Veolia Dagenham

Tesco Recycling Center

East London Pallets

E Klein & Co Westminster Waste Ltd Metal & Waste Recycling


Recycling

3D Printing

3D-printing materials will be transported to the 3D-printing facilities around the site to be used for panel production according to their production capacity and the panel sizes.

Microworkshops 3D Printing Ninjas

Islington Household Reuse & Recycling Centre

iMakr

Euston Station

Unio Labs

Powerday Recycling PLC Printing Portal

Fabberz iMakr 3D Printer Hub

The Color Company

Prodpoint 3D Consultancy

Scale &

Prodpoint

MakersCAFE


Metplast Plastics Recycling Ltd

Hobs 3D

Fixie 3D

FabPub

Veolia Dagenham 3D People

E Klein & Co Westminster Waste Ltd Models

Champion 3D


3D Printing

Assembling

After the panels are printed, they will be transported flat to the site. The panels will be folded on-site using the cable systems as described in chapter 3, then assembled by using the clip-lock system as described in chapter 5.

Microworkshops 3D Printing Ninjas

iMakr

FabPub

Euston Station

Unio Labs

Printing Portal

Fabberz iMakr

3D Printer Hub The Color Company

Prodpoint

3D Consultancy

Scale &

Prodpoint

MakersCAFE


Hobs 3D

Fixie 3D

3D People

Models

Champion 3D


Recycling

3D Printing

Assembling Pulp Faction

This map shows the overall economic activites around the site based on distributed and decentralised networks enabled by additive manufacturing and a multi-material system.

Microworkshops 3D Printing Ninjas

Islington Household Reuse & Recycling Centre

iMakr Recycle For London Collection Point Green Tech

Euston Station

Unio Labs

Powerday Recycling PLC Recycle 2 Trade Fabberz

Printing Portal

iMakr Traid Bin Plastic Economy Ltd.

3D Printer Hub

The Color Company

Prodpoint 3D Consultancy

Giraffe Recycling E C a P Ltd

Prodpoint

MakersCAFE

Scale &


Metplast Plastics Recycling Ltd

Global Plastics

Recycling Bins

Hobs 3D

Fixie 3D

FabPub Tesco Recycling Center

Veolia Dagenham 3D People East London Pallets

E Klein & Co Westminster Waste Ltd

Models Metal & Waste Recycling

Champion 3D


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

308


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

6

EUSTON STATION DESIGN 6.1

EUSTON STATION RESEARCH

6.2

EUSTON STATION DESIGN PROCESS

309


6.1

EUSTON STATION RESEARCH Euston station is a multimodal interchange station located in Euston Road, Camden Borough, London. It serves as a connection between City of London and its surrounding suburban region such as Northampton, Watford, and Milton Keynes as well as longer distance regions such as Birmingham, Manchester, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. Ranked as fifth busiest train station across UK (Office of Rail and Road, 2020), Euston serves up to 46.146 million annual entry and exit and 3.776 million interchange, recorded in 2018-2019. There are sixteen over ground suburban and long-distance train platform which are integrated with six lines of London underground services, taxi rank, bus stop, and bike parking facilities. The building sits in ¹10 hectares land containing various facilities including main concourse, train platforms, offices, cafe and restaurants, taxi rank, bus station, plaza, and park in an integrated mixeduse block. Its surrounding neighborhood consists of offices, residential area, parks, public services, and amenities. The sure to be redesigned is the station’s main concourse situated between office blocks and central plaza. The two-storey building primarily serves passenger needs before they start their journey. There are many supporting facilities for passenger including large waiting areas with time schedules for trains, platform gates, ticket offices as well as secondary supporting facilities such as restaurants, pubs, cafes, shops, etc. Although various facilities for passengers have been provided, the building itself received many criticisms, specifically for its architectural approach and lack of accessibility for people with physical disabilities.



MArch/Architectural MAr M MArc MA Arc Arch/A A h/Ar h h/ /A /Ar /A Arrcchit ch chi hit hi h it itectu tectu ecttu ura ral all Desi a D De Design esig gn n - RC 8

312


Metaplas Met Me Meta M eettaplas eta aplas plas pl pla las - 3D la 3D Printed P Pr Printe rinte nte ted MultiM Mu Multi-polymers ulti ltittiti ii-p pol poly po oly ollyym meer mer mers ers

313


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

1

2

Photographs of existing exterior situation of Euston Station: From Euston Street (1), bus stop (2), and atrium (3) Source:Hardiansyah,Wisnu.”Euston Station Exterior”.2020.JPEG File

314

3


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

4

5

Photographs of existing interior situation of Euston Station: Main waiting area (4), underground connection (5), and platform connections (6) Source: Hardiansyah,Wisnu.�Euston Station Exterior�.2020.JPEG File

6 315


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Total Critical Load and Forecast of Suburban and Long Distance Train Lines Arriving and Departing From London Euston Station on Typical Autumn Weekdays 2013

55

50 45

40

50

35

11

15

10

5

30

25

20

5

55

12 50

45

40

35

50

45

40

35

55

5

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

30

25

35

40

45

50

30

35

55

40

45

50

5

1

55

10 15

5

55

20

10

25

15

45

20

30

40

20

25 15

10

15

50 55

50

10

45

5

45

40

20

35

5

55

50

50 45

40 35

25

30

500

500

20

15

5

5

10

10

15

40

40

20

35

35

25

30

30

25

30

25

20

35

20

15

40

15

10

45

10

5

55

2

5

3

55

50

50

45

45 25

25

15

10 5

55

4

50

5

45

35

35

25

40

30

20

45

15

50 50

20

5 5

5

55

25

10

55

45

10

55

15

20

25

5

30

10 20

25

35

30

35

40 40

45 45

50 50

55

5

55

20

15

10

25

20

15

10

5

25

30

40

35

30

35

10 5

55

50

45

40

AM

Pe

Pe a 17 k D .00 ep 0/ art hr ure

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50

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15

R 3H

6

40

7

35

30

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35

30

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30

25

40

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20

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45

5

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10

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45

15

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20

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35

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40

15

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ival k Arr 1HR AM Pea 00/hr up to 20.0

ak

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9

Ar riv al

PM to R p 1H u

re rtu epa eak D 3HR PM P

5 55

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10 55

50

45 40

35 20

45 50

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10

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5

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55

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5

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15

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ea 3HR PM P

10

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55

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e tur par k De

Pe a 17 k D .00 ep 0/ art hr ure

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316

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30

Station on Typical Autumn Weekdays 2013 Suburban Train (Including Underground) (2) and Long Distance Train (3)

5

15

25

7

Total Critical Load and Forecast of Subur Suburban and Long Distance Train Lines Arriving and Departing From London Euston

15

20

Ar riv al

4

10

15

ea k

P

25%

AM

75%

R 3H

Long Distance

10

8

5

al rriv eak A 1HR AM P .000/hr up to 20

Urban

5

50 55

9

PM to R p 1H u

3H RP M Pe ak Depa rture

3H RA M Pe ak Arrival

10

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3H RP MP eak D eparture

3H RA M Pe ak Arrival

10

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Euston Station Travel Percentage and Pedestrian Flow

As a hub of transportation, it is important to understand the passenger as the main user of Euston Station concourse. Based on travel modes of arriva and departure in Euston, most of the passengers access the station through London Underground service or walking. Both travel modes comprises more than 75% amount of daily passenger, leaving only 25% that depend on other transportation modes such as bus, taxi, or bike. Since the station serves national and suburban rail services, the flow of passenger is also affected by working hours. Diagram 2 and 3 show the dynamic between both services throughout the day. Suburban train services show a more steady number of passengers, specifically during working hours. In contrast, long distance train services show more steady number of passengers during the day. Prediction diagrams of passengers shows the flow between each facility linked to the concourse. In the morning, most passengers will interchange between National Rail services to London Underground, High Speed 2 to Euston Square, London Underground to High Speed 2, and the opposite. In the evening, most flow will be dominated by passengers from London Underground to National Rail, High Speed 2, or from Euston Square to High Speed 2.

3 HS2 <1

%

8% 3%

<1

%

7%

7%

4% 4%

1%

6%

Euston Square

CR2

NR 3%

4%

4% 5%

<1

%

2%

<1 %

%

10

LU

4 HS2 <1

%

Other 5%

7%

4%

Bus 10%

Walk 36%

2%

3%

<1% Underground 40%

%

4% 4%

Euston Station Concourse

<1

9%

7%

Euston Square

CR2

NR 5%

<1%

6%

Rail 9%

7% 1%

Station Percentage Breakdown by Travel Mode Share of Arrivals and Departures to Euston Station Troughout the Day

11 %

2%

4%

2%

LU Predicted Pedestrian Flow Origin and Destination During Morning Peak (3) Predicted Pedestrian Flow Origin and Destination During Evening Peak (4)

317


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Program and Adjacency Analysis

Euston Station concourse occupies about 11.206 sqm area or account for 11% of total station’s land use. It consists of three main group of facilities: passenger services, waiting areas, platforms and circulation, and shops and food tenants. More than half of spaces are being used for waiting area, platform, and circulation facilities that serves the main activity of people’s movement. This was integrated with sixteen train platforms, encompassing twelve suburban and ten long distance train lanes. The rest of spaces are provisioned for passenger service facilities, shops and food tenants with 25% land use each. There are thirteen passenger services available and 31 restaurants, shops and cafes placed around circulation and waiting area. Such space arrangement emphasises the necessity of putting movement activities as primary key design for the station. Understanding and accommodating this behavior could potentially lead to better permeability for people coming in and out from the surrounding neighbourhood while offering easier interchangeability with other transportation nodes. Each facility can also be classified according to its colour temperature requirement

Suburban Long Distance

1

Suburban Long Distance

2

Long Distance

3

Suburban Long Distance

4

Passenger Services 1924 sqm

British Transport Police (69.86 sqm) Station Concierge (160.39 sqm) Photo Booth (17.16 sqm)

Ticket Office 1 (595.29 sqm) Ticket Office 2 (78.89 sqm) Mobility Assistance Reception (148.39 sqm) Cash Point (46.57 sqm) Information (21.66 sqm) Currency Exchange (24.30 sqm) Visitor Centre (111.46 sqm) Toilet and Baby Change 1 (214.56 sqm) Toilet and Baby Change 2 (120.98 sqm)

Long Distance

5

Suburban

7

Suburban

8

Suburban

9

Suburban

10

Suburban

11

Suburban Long Distance

12

Long Distance

13

Suburban

14

Long Distance

15

Suburban Long Distance

16

Shop and Food Tenants 2832 sqm

6

Waiting Area, Platform and Circulation 6450 sqm

Virgin Lounge (314.15 sqm) Suburban Long Distance

Prime Burger (123.44 sqm) Caffee Nero (91.69 sqm) Mi Casa Burritos (48.61 sqm) Beany Green (23.65 sqm) Pastry Shop (37.58 sqm) Camden Food .co (36.71 sqm) Starbucks Coffee (127.20 sqm) Upper Crust (26.09 sqm) The Rib Man (23.65 sqm) The Body Shop (46.70 sqm) Delice de France (26.09 sqm) Costa Coffee (70.62 sqm) Leon (186.56 sqm) Gino's My Restaurant (221.99sqm) Itsu (99.73 sqm) WHSmith 1 (107.49 sqm) Big Apple Hot Dogs (23.65 sqm) WHSmith 2 (158.30 sqm) AMT Coffee (41.31 sqm) Patisserie Valerie (32.20 sqm) Whistleshop (58.25 sqm) Fat Face (83.17 sqm) Accessorize (65.31 sqm)

M&S Simply Food 2 (421.78 sqm)

Boots (262.32 sqm) M&S Simply Food 1 (112.26 sqm) Burger King (26.09 sqm) Timpsons (24.88 sqm) Paperchase (46.70 sqm) Journey's Friend (42.98 sqm) Sainsbury's (135.19 sqm)

Fig. Diagram of Program for Euston Station Main Concourse showing area for passenger services, shop and food tenants and waiting area, platform, and circulation. All connected to sixteen different train platform placed in adjacent to the waiting areas.

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Fig. Diagram of adjacency between each program showing relationship between passenger service facilities and shop and

from warm-yellowish colour to cool-blue. These colours requirements can be accommodated to help enhancing the spatial quality inside the station.

food tenants

Another key to understand behavior of movement is trough the analysis of space adjacency. The diagram shows relationship between each facilities and others, including circulation spaces. Based on diagram, we can see that most of the passenger service facilities were placed adjacently to main circulation area. The reason of this is to provide easy access for passenger requiring support in their journey. Some of the services also directly connected each other to ensure the flow of services running smoothly. Different logic of placement can be seen in shops and food tenants, where most of them are not necessarily connected. Placement of these facilities are more arbitrary, some known tenants placed in spaces with high exposure to traffic while the others placed in less exposure to traffic. These facilities also support passenger’s journey while providing necessary income for the train facilities to continue to be operated.

Passenger Service Facilities

Station Concierge Photo Booth Ticket Office 1

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Mobility Assistance Reception

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Waiting Room

No Adjacency

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High Exposure to Traffic

Information Currency Exchange Visitor Centre Virgin Lounge Toilet and Baby Change 1 Toilet and Baby Change 2 Traffic Caffee Nero Sainsbury's AMT Coffee Boots Timpsons Patisserie Valerie Journey's Friend WHSmith 1

Shop and Food Tenants

WHSmith 2 Paperchase The Body Shop Delice de France Upper Crust Burger King Pastry Shop Camde Food .co Starbucks Coffee Whistleshop Fat Face Accessorize Mi Casa Burritos Itsu Big Apple Hot Dogs Beany Green The Rib Man Gino's Mu Restaurant Prime Burger Leon

Legend: Primay Adjacency Secondary Adjacency No Adjacency High Exposure to Traffic

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PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

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Photographs of existing entrance of the concourse from North East side (1) and South West side (2) Existing waiting area in busy hour (3) and separated entrance for underground service (4) Source: Google Steet View (2020)

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One of major problem in Euston Station Main Concourse is the lack of permeability between the concourse and its surrounding neighborhood or facilities. The location of concourse entrances were unclear. The main entrance is located behind the podium making it harder to access intuitively. Side entrance is more accessible from the main road but has more distance to reach. Besides, all entrances were placed in significantly higher levels than road level. The user needs to step through stairs to reach the concourse without any other option. No ramps or elevator available, rendering those with physical disabilities unable to access it independently. Other problem with current Euston Station’s main concourse is the lack of integration between facilities. Congestion often happens during busy hours in both waiting areas and platform gates because of a lack of integration between facilities for people that are heading to train, waiting for it, or who have just arrived. Connectivity with multimode transportation is available but requires the user to pass through complicated waypoints. Signage for primary passenger services such as ticket offices and concierges can hardly be found by users while supporting amenities such as shops, cafes and restaurants are placed in less strategic area. Internal lighting mostly relies on artificial light source caused by a lack of open spaces inside the concourse. In order to improve both permeability and integration in Euston Station concourse, the redesign paradigm will be built upon passenger’s circulation as the main design driver. Other supporting facilities will be determined based on analysis result from circulation. With the help of computation, user’s movement behavior inside the space can be simulated and predicted to match real context and more arrangement options of facilities can possibly be generated.

LACK OF PERMEABILITY Current design of Euston Station’s main concourse lacks user friendly features as high level differences between the road and the station are present as well as separated entrance positions.

DISINTEGRATION Disintegrated connectivity between each transportation nodes creates problems during peak hours as the congested spaces prevent ease of access between different transportation modes.

CONVENTIONAL DESIGN

BETTER PERMEABILITY Better accessibility of people as well as surrounding neighbourhood by determining optimum number, position, and design of entrances.

Better Integration Creating better integration between train service to underground as well as passenger service facilities and tenants based on user’s circulation.

CIRCULATION-BASED DESIGN

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EUSTON STATION DESIGN PROCESS To achieve the goal of improving permeability and interchangeability, the researcher defines four step strategies. All implemented based on the idea of utilizing circulation as primary functional driver for design. Each step will be analyzed based on evolutionary algorithm and space syntax to generate optimum result based on predefined goals.



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Firstly as seen in fig.1, we began by outlining the areas that will be kept as they are during analysis and generative design. The south podium and train platforms were two contraint areas that remained unchanged. The area available for redesigning is defined by the given available land limited to the perimeter of the generative area. Secondly, after the generative and constraint area have been fixed, the process moved towards analysis of external connections as seen in fig.2. The external connections were divided into two groups of entities, namely, entrance and platform access. These entities are symbolized as red triangles and nodes which represent generative variable seeds of gate locations that can be moved into different position along the perimeter during analysis. The goal of improving permeability translated into analysis to define shortest walk between source of crowd towards closest gate location. Smaller total walking distance equates to better permeability. Thirdly, the result of this external connection analysis will be used to define internal connection analysis where each gate connection will be minimized to achieve better permeability and interchangeability shown in fig.3. Analysis will be done using several methods such as shortest walk, minimized detour system, and edge bundling method. Result of this method then used to define internal ‘islands’. These islands will be used as base for space syntax analysis to simulate crowd movement. Better distribution of crowd means better permeability and interchangeability. The best result is then picked and passed through program arrangement analysis. Defined islands will be separated into three main categories, namely passenger service facilities, shop and food tenants, and open spaces. Passenger service facilities need to be placed as close as possible to crowded areas, while shops and food tenants can be placed arbitrarily on unassigned spaces. Open spaces will occupy any space left and need to be placed further from each other. Better design according to space requirements, lower proximity of passenger service facilities with crowded areas, and evenly distributed open spaces were the keys to better permeability and interchangeability. Lastly, the initial enclosure will be generated based on result from circulation and program analysis fig.4. This initial enclosure which defined using similar pipe-based approach will be deformed into the final enclosure through structural analysis, quad manipulation, folding application, colour and pattern application, and ground assembly aas explained in the previous chapters. The initial mesh will also be tested against several scenarios of the current Euston Station design, using agent based analysis in order to confirm design intentions and find potential problems.

Fig 1. Diagram of design goal, showing the two main aspects to improve: permeability and interchangeability

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PERMEABILITY AND INTERCHANGEABILITY IMPROVEMENT STRATEGY

Legend: Generative Area Constraint Area

1 Legend: Generative Area Constraint Area Platform Access Entrance Access Allowed Entrance Position

2 Legend: Generative Area Constraint Area Entrance Access Platform Access Generated Path L

Spaces for Program

3 Legend: Generative Area Constraint Area Entrance Access Platform Access Enclosure Open Spaces

Diagram of Permeability and Interchangeability Improvement Strategies showing four steps of analysis, (1) Defining constraints and generative area, (2) External connection analysis, (3) Internal connection and programme arrangement analysis, (4) Enclosure Generation

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Design Boundary and Constraints

Primary site to be redesigned is the station’s main concourse, including adjacent train platforms and canopies. The West tower is demolished to allow for the expansion. Other buildings and objects including The Podium, East Tower, taxi rank, bus stop, and park will remain the same, without any intervention.

TRAIN PLATFORM Sixteen separated train platforms for suburban and long distance train services

MAIN CONCOURSE Current Euston Station’s main concourse where passengers waiting for train

W

SITE TO BE

UNDERGROUND ENTRANCE Connection with London underground train services

SOUTH WEST ENTRANCE

S FORMER WEST TOWER Demolished for Expansion

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SOUTH EAST ENTRANCE N

PODIUM AND EAST TOWER Euston Station’s office facilities

REDESIGNED

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BUS STATION Bus facilities connected to Euston Station

S TAXI STOP Connection with London underground train services

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External Connection Analysis

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(1) Setup of External Connection Analysis with predefined boundaries, constraint, and generative variable seed (2 and 3) Manual arrangement of entrances and platform gate

The second step of analysis is to define external connection analysis. The term ‘external’ refers to surrounding neighbourhood and other regions connected with the station by train services. The aims is to improve permeability and interchangeability trough optimum use of these connections. Analysis achieved through evolutionary solvers defined closeness by changing the variable values. To achieve the goal, we began by defining the setup. Several nodes (shown as black crosses) represent the source of crowds and train platforms based on data gathered from existing situation. Movable seeds (shown as black crosses) represent entrances, exits and platforms also placed along boundary of the generative area. These seeds can be moved along prediefined boundaries. The shortest walk is then generated based on the shortest connection between each... to the nearest seeds (shown in red dashed lines). The wall distance is measured and averaged to define each closeness value. Final closeness is determined based on the addition of neighbourhood closeness and train platform closeness. Initially, manual arrangement tests of entrances and platform connections were used as seen in fig1 . However, due to the lack of efficiency in this method, computational methods were soon adopted to create design alternatives. The evolutionary algorithm was selected as it allows for rapid explorations of various design options while offering many options and alternatives. The algorithm works by modifying the position and number of seeds variable that affect closeness,and pics the minimum closeness as seen in Figure 2-9. An unlimited amount of design alternatives can be generated. Finally, the optimum result generated was five entrances/ exit gates and four platform connections, with positions seen in fig.10

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(4)-(11) Iteration catalogue of external connection analysis using evolutionary algorithm showing multiple variations of input values

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The image below shows the optimum result from the analysis where seeds of entrance/exits and platform gates has been placed. the result shows the unique positions of five entrances/exits and four platform gates located in the perimeter of generative boundary area. This optimum configuration allows for shortest average of walking distance between source of crowds and entrances/platform gates respectively, hence allowing for better permeability and interchangeability from building to its external area.

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(12) and (13) Iteration catalogue of external connection analysis using evolutionary algorithm showing multiple variations of input values (14) Optimum result of analysis showing arrangement of five entrance/exits and four platform gates located in generative area perimeter

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Internal Connection Analysis

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(1)Setup of Internal connection analysis based on result from external connection analysis. (2)Shortest path method; (3) and (4) Wet wool thread method

Defined external connection seeds from the previous analysis is brough into the third phase where each seed is connected to each other as the initial direct connection approach. However, such direct connection results in redundant circulation path that could potentially be simplified by merging one or more paths together to achieve better permeability and interchangeability. The researcher uses several methods to simplify these circulations: shortest path, minimized detour system, and edge bundling.

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Shortest Path In shortest path method, the algorithm will try to seek for minimum connection distance while avoiding obstacles based on predefined connection nodes, resulting in path merging. Wet Wool Thread Using wet wool thread, the algorithm will try to divide connections into segments to create global attractions which merge the nearest collection of points. This algorithm based on wet thread model by Frei Otto.

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SHORTEST PATH

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WET WOOL THREAD 2

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Catalogue of path merging process using shortest path method (5-7), and wet wool thread method (8-16) “Island� generated between minimised path from previous analysis shortest path (17), and wet wool thread (18-20) Global seed randomisation on shortest path method (21-28) and smoothing of wet wool thread method (29 - 31)

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Simplification process was done iteratively (Figure 5-16), until a stable connection between each path was achieved. On shortest path method (Figure 5-7), global random seed of circulation can be generated, resulting in various arrangements of circulation simplification (see Figure 21-24). On wet wool approach (Figure 8-16) different values of attraction and repulsion were used to represent hierarchy of path importance. Manual post treatment of smoothing merged path was also tested as seen in Figure 25 and 26 although, during the process, this additional process were not used to maintain original result from analysis.

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Space syntax’s visibility analysis based on generated “island” from several path merging method, showing gradient color which represent area visibility (15,16,17)

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High Hig ig gh Visibility Visi Visi s bili iity ty ty

Low w Vi Visibility isib sibiili ill ty

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After being simplified, regions along circulation can be defined. In order to compare functional performance on each approach, space syntax analysis was used. Formerly the analysis was done by measuring visibility level of each approach as seen in Figure 27-29. However, since this approach cannot be used to compare each other’s position, we moved towards another methodology, namely, integration analysis. In this approach, visibility values on each location were compared, giving more accurate analysis approach. The result of the analysis shows the heat map gradient from highly integrated areas, in red, to low integrated areas, in blue. This measurement can also be quantified to decide which approach performs better. In the end we picked the result from the shortest path (Figure 18) method who performs better.

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Space syntax analysis based on generated “island� from several path merging method, showing gradient color which represent integration between areas. Analysis from shortest path method (30), and wet wool thread (31-33)

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Programme Arrangement Analysis

After the internal circulation is analysed, the next step is to determine arrangement of programmes and facilities. These facilities will be placed on ‘islands’ where the boundary is created between the circulation, resulted from previous analysis. There are two main space allocations based on programme analysis, namely, passenger services and shop and food tenants. However, as the amount of available space is higher than the requirement, it is decided that some islands will be used as open spaces. This strategy is defined on the paradigm of achieving better permeability and interchangeability within the main concourse, through evolutionary algorithms. To achieve the goal, we define several steps. Firstly, we begin by defining the seeds which represent the passenger services and facilities that would occupy islands. These seeds are initiated randomly. As the analysis proceeds, they will move as close as possible to the most integrated areas based on space syntax analysis. These seeds also need to maintain their space area defined by requirements. Lower distance to integrated area means better permeability and interchangeability. Secondly, the remaining spaces can be used as food shops and tenants. The placement of these facilities is similar to passenger services which uses seeds to represent spaces. However, these seeds can be placed randomly, and only need to match defined space requirements. Finally, unoccupied islands will be used as open spaces that provide better light and air penetration to the internal spaces.

(1)Setup of program arrangement analysis showing initial random seed of passenger services and open spaces.

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Programme Arrangement Analysis Iterations

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Selected program arrangement (10) and its lighting temperature mapping (11)

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After several stages of iterations, result from the analysis is collected and arranged. Although optimum result based on the criteria can directly be selected, we also considered functional and visual implications when choosing the result. In order to have a balance between functional criteria and visual implications, we picked the arrangement as seen in fig.10. This result can also be used to define colour temperature mapping of each program as seen in Figure 11.


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Enclosure Generation

Pipe-based approach on enclosure generation (1) and its application to follow circulation path (2-5) Meta-ball based approach on enclosure generation (6) and its application to circulation and facility areas (7-8)

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Based on the pipe-based type of form mentioned in previous chapters, the initial enclosure was generated following circulation lines. Different radius of enclosure pipes was applied to understand the quality of spaces it can achieve. In conclusion, this type of enclosure can facilitate area with active movements of the user. However, this type of form is limiting in accommodating other enclosure requirements for areas of facilities which generally do not have this linear approach. As a result, other approaches to create enclosure were also explored, namely using meta-balls. In this approach, each area for facilities and circulation were populated using meta-balls with different radius and merged together into a single enclosure. This approach could facilitate both circulation and facilities better compared to pipe-based shape.However, with this shape, the identity of circulation-based design reflected by the enclosure was lost.

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Train Platform

Open

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(9)Initial enclosure based on analysis (10) Applying folded panels on the generated enclosure (11)Section of final building enclosure, showing quality of space achieveable trough such method

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Underground Line

Overground Line

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In the next iteration of enclosure creation, we used combination of both pipe and meta-ball shape. Each circulation lines were assigned to pipe-based enclosure while the enclosure for facilities uses a meta-balllike enclosure. This approach proved to be able to facilitate enclosure requirements better. However, direct translation of shape language resulted in a rather monotonous enclosure.

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Existing Tower

Folded Enclosure

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Secondary Circulation

Facilities

Pipe Enclosure

Meta-ball Enclosure

Buffer Area Meta-ball Enclosure

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Pipe Enclosure

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Result of enclosure modification to create more dynamic visual (12) Agent based analysis to test initial enclosure performance (14) with various scenario of crowdness (13) Resulting heatmap show potential congestion area which needs to be treated (15)

To create a more dynamic appearance of the enclosure, explorations were done by modifying circulation enclosure. As seen in Figure 12, varying pipe radius for circulation were reintroduced to createhierarchy of circulation, namely though primary and secondary paths. Other part of the circulation enclosure was also made to be removable to create more open spaces between facilities. Buffer areas were also brought in the form of meta-ball-based form which were deformed to create larger buffer zones for passengers. This initial enclosure is then test to understand its performance. Agent-based particles were released into the enclosure to mimic common user’s behavior inside space (Figure 14). Various custom crowd scenarios were used (Figure 13). The result of this analysis shows the heatmap areas with more congestion potential, hence requiring the deformation (Figure 15).

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Crowd Arriving from Train Platform

Crowd Arriving from Entrances

Crowd Arriving from Entrances

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High Crowd Potential Passenger boarding

High Crowd Potential Passenger waiting

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18 Further exploration of enclosure based on agent-based behaviour (16,17, and 18) Final selected enclosure design (19) and retest of agent-based analysis on adjusted progra arrangement (20)

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Further exploration of enclosure deformation was done based on agent-based analysis and visual requirements. The sequence in Figure 16, 17 and 18 show the transformation process of enclosure using a combination of pipebased enclosure and the meta-ball behaviour. Some spaces for facilities need to be adjusted and/or combined to other facilities to allow for more open spaces between the enclosure. The final selected enclosure can be seen in fig.19 which was retested against the agent-based analysis in order to confirm its functional performance (fig.20).


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Deformed Programme

Crowd Concentration

Deformed Open Space Deformed Open Space

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Platform D

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Ground Pattern Detail

1. Final result of ground pattern generation 2. Interior boundary and directional lines 3. Points on boundary projected from panel pattern 4. Inner boundary offset and projected points 5. Connecting lines between projected points and dividing directional lines 6. Populating random points within inner boundary 7. Creating lines by connecting all the points

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Structural Analysis and Quad Manipulation

The final generated enclosure then passes through a structural analysis to adjust its form according to load systems working within. Areas with higher stress will be deformed by modifying size of its mesh-quad into smaller, and hence stronger, quad face (fig.21). The result is converted into a diamond-based quad as baseline for folding process (fig.22). The folded enclosure is generated based on the diamond tiling of the enclosure (fig.23). Areas with tighter diamonds will also have a cable and relief network to improve its structural strength while maintaining the folds.

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Structural analysis on final generated enclosure (21) Changing quad type of mesh to diamond (22) Fold, crease, and cable connection application based on diamond mesh (23)

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0. INITIAL MESH General building enclosure for Euston Station Concourse

1. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS COLOURS Forces distributed on the surface shown in a red-blue scale of colours

2. COLOUR REMAP - MANIPULATE QUADS Reduction of the colour gradient to 3 and manipulation of the mesh to achieve denser areas of quads in the reddest spots.

3. REMESH-MULTIDIRECTIONAL QUADS Reconfiguration of the mesh through the diagonalisation of it’s quads.

4. FINAL FOLDED MESH Application of the folding technique, ground connection and cables and relief network.

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Ground Connection

Cable and Relief Network

3D-Printed Foldable Mesh

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Micropattern and Semiotic Lighting Application

After the folded enclosure is obtained, the process is continued with micropattern application on each quad and fold. The colour mapping requirement on each facility as seen in fig.24 translated into certain panel colours correlating to the natural lighting requirement. The semiotic lighting application is also achieved by applying transparent panels along primary circulation routes, allowing for natural light to infiltrate inside the spaces and become centre of orientation for the user (fig.25). The result is a final enclosure with additional variability and well-being parameters.

Transparent quad along primary circulation route (24) Adjusted lighting colour requirement on new enclosure (25) Colourised enclosure of Euston Station (26)

Panels with Micro-Pattern

Transparent Guiding Panels

Transparent Guiding Panels

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British Transport Police (69.86 sqm) Station Concierge (160.39 sqm) Photo Booth (17.16 sqm)

Ticket Office 1 (595.29 sqm) Ticket Office 2 (78.89 sqm) Mobility Assistance Reception (148.39 sqm) Cash Point (46.57 sqm) Information (21.66 sqm) Currency Exchange (24.30 sqm) qm)

Visitor Centre (111.46 sqm) Toilet and Baby Change 1 (214.56 sqm) Toilet and Baby Change 2 (120.98 sqm)

m)

Virgin Lounge (314.15 sqm)

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Prime Burger (123.44 sqm) Caffee Nero (91.69 sqm) Mi Casa Burritos (48.61 sqm) Beany Green (23.65 sqm) Pastry Shop (37.58 sqm) Camden Food .co (36.71 sqm) Starbucks Coffee (127.20 sqm) Upper Crust (26.09 sqm) The Rib Man (23.65 sqm) The Body Shop (46.70 sqm) Delice de France (26.09 sqm) Costa Coffee (70.62 sqm) Leon (186.56 sqm) Gino's My Restaurant (221.99sqm) Itsu (99.73 sqm) WHSmith 1 (107.49 sqm) Big Apple Hot Dogs (23.65 sqm) WHSmith 2 (158.30 sqm) AMT Coffee (41.31 sqm) Patisserie Valerie (32.20 sqm) Whistleshop (58.25 sqm) Fat Face (83.17 sqm) Accessorize (65.31 sqm)

M&S Simply Food 2 (421.78 sqm)

Boots (262.32 sqm) M&S Simply Food 1 (112.26 sqm) Burger King (26.09 sqm) Timpsons (24.88 sqm) Paperchase (46.70 sqm) Journey's Friend (42.98 sqm) Sainsbury's (135.19 sqm)

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APPENDIX

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MATERIAL PROPERTIES TEST

Elongation test of thermoplastic adhesive (hot glue) on wood sheets

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Elongation test of thermoplastic adhesive (hot glue) mixed with steel powder on steel sheets

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Light transmitting test of thermoplastic adhesive (hot glue) mixed with steel powder on acrylic sheets

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Vacuum forming test

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Elongation test of thermoplastic adhesive (hot glue) on metal wires

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9. Sample 09: PLA Natural Clear 10. Sample 10: PLA Natural Clear + Iron Powder 1 Layer 11. Sample 11: PLA Natural Clear + Iron Powder 2 Layers 12. Sample 12: PLA Light Blue + Iron Powder 3 Layers

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13: PLA Natural Clear + Low Melting Alloy

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When the metal and plastic appear to fuse it was due to our physical intervention whereby we mixed them with a tool.

By simply pouring the two materials we were not able to achieve a fusion because of their material differences. These areas appear to have a clear barrier between them preventing us from creating gradations while using this method.

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MATERIAL FUSING AND GRADUAL OPENING SIMULATION

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MATERIAL FUSING AND GRADUAL OPENING SIMULATION 3D PRINTED MOULDS

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3D view of selected material fusing and gradual opening simulation.

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MATERIAL TEST BASED ON MATERIAL FUSING AND GRADUAL OPENING SIMULATION

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5. Sample 18: PLA Natural Clear + Low Melting Alloy 6. Sample 19: PLA Natural Clear + Low Melting Alloy

6

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

LIQUID PARTICLES SIMULATION BETWEEN TWO MOVING PLATES VISCOSITY TEST Tetrahedron Mesh Type

Quad Mesh Type

Viscosity: 500

Viscosity: 250

Viscosity: 0

SURFACE TENSION TEST Tetrahedron Mesh Type

Surface Tension: 500

Surface Tension: 250

Surface Tension: 100

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Quad Mesh Type


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Image at 200th Frame Mesh Type: Quads

Image at 200th Frame Mesh Type: Tetrahedron

Image at 250th Frame Mesh Type: Tetrahedron

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

FLUIDS SIMULATION

This image shows the form exploration based on liquid simulationcaptured in different frames.

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Image at 5th Frame

Image at 10th Frame

Image at 15th Frame

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION THROUGH REAL FLOW

Process: 1. Parallel surface as origin 2. Mirrored surfaces origin 3. Punctual vertical origin

1

Interaction between fluids

Melted metal

Melted plastic

Solidificated metal inside the block

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2

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

DIGITAL SIMULATION OF TOPOLOGICAL OPTIMISATION Load and Support Position

Optimised Density

New Isosurface

Distributed Load (Top)

Point Load (Top, Center)

Distributed Load (Top Edge)

Point Load (Top Edge)

Double Point Load (Top Edge)

Distributed Load (Top)

Point Load (Top, Center)

Distributed Load (Top Edge)

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

This is a catalogue of simulation based on topological optimisation with different load and support settings

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

EXPERIMENTATION OF ALLOY CASTING ON TOPOLOGICALLY OPTIMISED SHAPE

1

2

Low melting alloy casting process: 1. Alloy melting process 2. Printed mold 3. Casting alloy in the mold

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

FIRST ATTEMPT

SECOND ATTEMPT

CONCEPT

Leakage from 3D printed PVA mold

Leakage fixed by thinkening walls of 3D printed PVA mold

Casted metal enveloped in casted plastic

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

DIGITAL WIRE COMPOSITION EXPLORATION

Basic Curve

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Rotation

Horizontal Mirror

Vertical Mirror


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

MATERIAL TEST BASED ON DIGITAL WIRE EXPLORATION

Plastic wrapping on metal wire based on vertical curves

Plastic wrapping on metal wire based on horizontal curves

Plastic wrapping on metal wire based on loop curves

Plastic wrapping on metal wire based on free-form curves

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

DIGITAL EXPLORATION OF MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION THROUGH 3D MULTI PATHS BEHAVIOURS

Experimenting with Culebra

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

1

2

3

1. Lines extracted from Culebra simulation 2. Thickness added to lines 3. Particles emittied on lines from Culebra creating a mesh

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

EXPERIMENTATION OF RESIN CASTING ON TOPOLOGICALLY OPTIMISED SHAPES

Base shape 1: optimised shape scale 1:5

Base shape 2: Optimised shape Scale 1:5

Base shape 3: Multi path behaviour Scale 1:5

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

BASE SHAPE 1

BASE SHAPE 2

Isometric casted shape

Side view casted shape

Bottom view casted shape

Top view casted shape

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

MODULAR BLOCK EXPLORATION

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

ISOSURFACE BLOCK EXPLORATION

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

ISOSURFACE BLOCK EXPLORATION

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

MATERIAL TEST WITH WIRES AND ACRYLIC TUBES

SINGLE TWIST

DOUBLE TWIST

Two strands, each composed of 3mm alumnium wire inside 5mm diametre of acrylic were heated continuously to achieve a single twist.

Two strands were further heated to achieve a double twist.

VARING TWIST

TWISTED TWO STRANDS

Two strands were heated at varying concentrations to achieve loose and tight strands.

Three strands were combined and heated. One was twisted through continuous heat application while the two others wrapped around it.

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

BLOCK ARRANGEMENT THROUGH MESH RELAXATION TECHNIQUE

Milipede Block Mapping

Stress lines

Milipede load analysis

Initial relaxed mesh

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Milipede block mapping

Material map

Optimised mesh shape

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

SURFACE RELAXATION OF GEOMETRIC PATTERN

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

EXPLORATION OF LATICE STRUCTURE

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

EXPLORATION OF STRESS LINES WITH PATH FOLLOWING SIMULATIONS

Stress lines from simple mesh relaxation

Path following stress lines simulation Parent Child A Child B

Path following stress lines simulation Child A Child B

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Top view of lines with thickness


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

SPACE FORMATION THROUGH PATH SIMULATION SYSTEM & LATTICE STRUCTURE

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

STRESS LINES FOR STRUCTURE & SURFACE PATTERN GENERATION

Base Form

Rebuilt curves: 4 points, 2 degrees

Extracted Stress Lines

Rebuilt curves: 4 points, 3 degrees

Metal wire

Flexible plastic

Rigid plastic

Composite Tectonic Structure 426

Piping

Rebuilt curves: 4 points, 1 degree


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

COMPOSITE TECTONIC STRUCTURES

427


INITIAL FORMS THROUGH MESH RELAXATION

428


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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

INITIAL FORMS THROUGH MINIMAL SURFACES

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

3X3X3 SPACE DESIGN THROUGH HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID FUNCTION

Colour Mapping Deflection

Base Form

Re-configuration of Mesh

Stress Lines

Material Distribution

3X3X3 SPACE DESIGN THROUGH GYROID FUNCTION

Colour Mapping Deflection

Base Form

432

Re-configuration of Mesh

Stress Lines

Material Distribution


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

3X3X3 SPACE DESIGN THROUGH VORONOI FUNCTION

Colour Mapping Deflection

Base Form

Re-configuration of Mesh

Stress Lines

Material Distribution

3X3X3 SPACE DESIGN THROUGH VORONOI FUNCTION

Colour Mapping Deflection

Stress Lines

base form from voronoid function

Base Form

Re-configuration of Mesh

Material Distribution

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

MINIMAL SURFACES : SELECTED FORMS FOR ANALYSIS

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

APPROACH 1: ADDING STRUCTURE THICKNESS ACCORDING TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

STEP 1 : REMESH WITH STRESS LINES

Stress lines

Original lines from mesh

Remeshed surfaced according to stress lines: first level of structure

STEP 2 : INCREASING EDGES THICKNESS ACCORDING TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Remeshed surfaced according to stress lines: primary structure

Colour mapping according to stress lines

High stress panel

Low stress panel

Wires

Structure gradient mapped onto surface

3D printed plastic (rigid)

3D printed plastic (flexible)

Wires

Details of the final result. Thickness differentiation between areas. Wire detail in the panel.

436

Enlarged panel view

Wire detail

3D printed plastic (rigid)

3D printed plastic (flexible)


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

APPROACH 2: INCREASSING AMOUNT OF SUBDIVISIONS ACCORDING TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

STEP 1 : REMESH WITH STRESS LINES

Stress lines

Original lines from mesh

Remeshed surfaced according to stress lines: first level of structure

STEP 2 : SECONDARY SUBDIVISION INSIDE EACH PANEL

Remeshed surfaced according to stress lines: primary structure

Colour mapping according to stress lines

Add an amount of subdivisions inside each panel according to colours

Details of the final result. Secondary structure inside the defined panels for the Step 1

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

STRUCTURAL COLOUR MAPPING SUBDIVISION LOGIC

original gradation

Original colour gradation from the structural analysis of the Millipede for Grasshopper

0%

100%

Panel trace]] panel division division [6 [ 6colour color trace

0% -25%

25% - 50%

50% - 75%

75% - 100%

1 point

3 points

5 points

point distribution Point

0 points

Sub structure sub structure

incrementation of points on each panel to increase subdivision according to colour gradation .

Structural performance RGB 171,209,211

RGB 165,195,198

RGB 182,136,132

RGB 164,182,182

20% - 40%

40% - 60%

RGB 211,119,97

80% - 100%

0% -20% RGB 154,209,209

Final sub structure according to setted divisions. Colour of each panel as an average of vertex RGB value

RGB 170,208,213

RGB 165,168,167

RGB 196,135,122

RGB 214,126,99

RGB 237,116,99

Sub-structure sub structure

1st level structure

0% - 25%

25% - 50%

50% - 75%

75% - 100%

438

RGB 237,116,99

60% - 80%

2nd level structure

material distribution


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

MATERIAL GRADATION BASED ON SOLAR RADIATION ANALYSIS

Minimal surface : Solar radiation analysis showing shades between black and transparent at 100%

Opacity level 0

Opacity level 1

Opacity level 2

Opacity level 3

Opacity level 4

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

FINAL RESULT OF APPLICATION OF THE COLOUR GRADATION

Minimal surface : Solar radiation analysis. Shades between black and transparency at 100%

80 % transluscent 20 % opaque

440

60 % transluscent 40 % opaque

40 % transluscent 60 % opaque

20 % transluscent 80 % opaque

0 % transluscent 100 % opaque


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

MATERIAL GRADATION SUMMARY

Gradient based on solar radation

Material gradient

Transluscency and opacity

Gradient based on solar radation

Material gradient

Transluscency and opacity

SKIN PATTERN

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

MICRO-PATTERN RELIEF BASED ON SOLAR ANALYSIS : TYPE 01

Type 01 (dense)

Type 02

Type 03

Type 04

Type 05 (sparse)

Type 04

Type 05 (sparse)

MICRO-PATTERN RELIEF BASED ON SOLAR ANALYSIS : TYPE 01 AMPLITUDE

Type 01 (dense)

442

Type 02

Type 03


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

OUTDOOR AND OPEN SPACE QUALITY

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MArch/Architectural M MArc Arc rcch h//Ar h/Ar h/A /A Archi hitectu e ural ral Desi De Design eesssiig esi gn n - RC RC 8

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Metaplas Meta Me Met M ettap eeta pllass - 3D plas 3D Printed Prrrinte P iinte ntt d Mu n M Multi-polymers ullt lti tti tiip ipoly lyymer meers erss

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE IN QUADS

1. Basic Shape

2.Concave / Convex Def.

3. Folding Tecnique

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

FINAL STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR

The incorporation of the folding technique uniformises the performance reaching an intermediate level of structural performance. The graphic shows the structure in the intermediate colour of the range. Finally we could observe in a zoom of the quad faces that each quad still presents a diferentiation of colours.

ED7463

CE847C

A39E9E

9ABBBD

99CFD0

447


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

HOMOGENISATION OF FORM: ADDING FOLDS

vertex

vertex

quad

vertex

vertex

(D v1,v2)/2

(D v1,v2) /2

controlable distance

face

folded area

448


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

RECURSIVE SUBDIVISION

1. Structural Analysis

2. Color Remap

3. Recursive Subdivisions

449


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

Material test

the objective is to achieve a continuous change of scale of the quads. We experimented with paper samples folded in two different scales. We noticed that to achieve the continuity it is necesary to divide the mesh in two segments and overlap one row in the folding procedure to achieve a continuity.

1. FIRST SCALE quad dimension: 4 cm x 4 cm include one row of the next scale

SUBDIVISION TEST Two pieces overlaped in one. The sample achieve a transition to a quarter of the original dimension of the quad. The overlap presented weak points on the overlap row.

450

1. SECOND SCALE quad dimension: 2 cm x 2 cm


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Recursive Subdivision Limitations

The digital simulation of the rescursive subdivision presented the following dificulties. After several attempts to solve the limitations we concluded that this method compromises our main goals and is not the best option.

1. HIGH CONTRAST loss of sense of continuity

2. OVERLAPS isolated spots

3. EDGES gaps between layers

DIGITAL SUBDIVISION. Basic pipe with 2 scales of quads.

451


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

ON-SITE FABRICATION

1

2

1. Connection With Ground Milled wall according to the specific folded panel which intererlocks with the milled wall

2. Union Through Overlap Adjacent pieces share one row to allow overlaping

3. Closed Fold Quads close to each other provide high structural performance 4. Open Fold Quads separated from each other provide low structural performance

452


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

3

4

453


MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

the depth of the fold is accounted for in the maximum printing size, thus reducing the maximum area by 50%

Top Formwork To support and transmit the loads from the mesh to the ground.

Interior Floor Level -0.50 m The inside ground is carved to build the connection between the mesh and the floor.

454


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

Multi-Polymers Panel 3D-printed flat panel composed by different ratios of PLA and TPU.

Top support and transmit the loads from the mesh to the ground.

455


MArch/Architectural MArch/Ar h/A chitectu ctural Desi Design ign - RC R 8

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

DETAILING A SECTION OF EUSTON STATION

Programme Enclosure

470


Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

472


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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

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Metaplas - 3D Printed Multi-polymers

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MArch/Architectural Design - RC 8

To our tutors, Kostas Grigoriadis, Martina Rosati and Sheng-Yang Huang; and our families from Sudan, Indonesia, Thailand and PerĂş.

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