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THE LONDON SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 2017

Cultural Infrastructure Metabolic Cities

In Collaboration with DSDHA Cultural Infrastructure

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The Design Think Tank Project is a distinctive part of the London School of Architecture. The module is based in the context of a Practice Network where we, as students, collaborate to negotiate a shared research question for the academic year. Metabolic Cities was led by our Practice Leaders from DSDHA, Deborah Saunt, Roberta Marcaccio and Alistair Blake. From January until April we worked collaboratively with our Practice Leaders to research the topic of Cultural Infrastructure. We were joined in our research by a rich collection of offices operating in London, each offering an exciting position in architecture and approach to their design and research work. In addition to our Practice Leaders, DSDHA, our Practice Network included, Simpson Studio Architects, Grimshaw Architects, NBBJ & Scott Brownrigg.

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Metabolic City


Participants Students Louie Austen

Simpson Studio Architects

Charlotte Hurley

Grimshaw Architects

Molly Judge

DSDHA

Lloyd Martin

NBBJ

Sheenwar Siti

Scott Brownrigg

Leaders Deborah Saunt

DSDHA

Roberta Marcaccio

DSDHA

Alistair Blake

DSDHA

With Thanks to Theatrum Mundi, Anlam De Coster, Su Rogers, Finn Williams, Pooja Agrawal, Patricia Bickers, Derek Proven, Rachael Roe, Ian Hunt, Ellis Woodman, Charlotte Schepke, Mark Shaw.

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Executive Summary MeSS: Spatial Strategies for London’s Cultural Infrastructure Focussing on the theme of Cultural Infrastructure, the practice DSDHA led Metabolic City: one of the London School of Architecture (LSA) 2017 Design Think Tanks. Working collaboratively, we have addressed some of the issues raised by the Mayor’s Cultural Infrastructure strategy and devised a spatial strategy to “sustain London’s future as a cultural capital.” London’s cumulative cultural offer is stunning, from the high-arts in old and new iconic architectures, to pop culture and vibrant street life. All these venues and, just as importantly, their smaller interstitial spaces, represent a complex meshing together of the city’s DNA: the urban and cultural planning that underscores innovation, business success, and wellbeing, making our metropolis appealing to tourists, students, and future workforce. Today, however, London’s cultural ecology is under threat from a number of different forces. These range from sanitisation, which is turning our public spaces into hyper-regulated environments that are hostile to informal creativity and spontaneous gathering; to the incessant rise in property value, which is pricing out workspaces and homes for the creative community and the city’s makers; through to the growing phenomenon of privatisation of cultural spaces and collections, resulting in a growing number of private museums – often set up as alternatives to paying taxes – proliferating in our cities, alongside tax exemption schemes like CETI (covertly keeping public collections within private walls) and the socalled ‘Freeports of culture’. These are extra-state, armoured storage facilities, built in the proximity of airports, where high-end collectors can store and trade their artworks without having to pay taxes.

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All this while, under the effect of ubiquitous networked technology and rising mobility, consumption and access to culture are radically changing. As we travel more and more and for longer, the “journey” – the time spent between our destinations – becomes a significant part of our everyday urban experience, one that blurs the boundaries between work and leisure, favouring a more informal approach to culture, which can now be enjoyed “on the go”. Yet the “journey” remains a largely overlooked area when it comes to urban cultural planning, whilst offering potential sites for future cultural infrastructure to be safeguarded. We have devised MeSS (MEtabolic Spatial Strategies). This is a city-wide spatial strategy that operates between mobility, infrastructure and public space and that ingenuously tweaks planning policies and taxation schemes to ensure that future investment in cultural infrastructure is not left in the hands of the private sector and directed solely towards totemic containers for the high-arts. MeSS sustains the evolution of cultural participation and production away from formal institutions and towards a more granular and dispersed array of hybrid activities. MeSS’s spatial framework of small- and mediumscaled flexible spaces (ideal for studios, workshops, and rehearsal) “stitches” between transport infrastructure, new private developments, and public space, to favour a more permissive and playful environment that preserves London’s cultural vibrancy as well as its economical and social wellbeing, offering all forms of art in transit .

Metabolic City


Cultural Infrastructure Manifesto 1.0 MOBILITY & CULTURE We propose to exploit the opportunities generated by transport infrastructure developments, during “the journey” itself, by distributing new cultural spaces along the length of Crossrail, near its many stations to serve a wider demographic and bring benefit to Londoners’ daily lives. For this purpose we have studied the typical day in the life of a Londoner. We have analysed how technology, mobility and daily activities (such as sleeping, eating, playing, working etc.) overlap in the routine of an adult and a child respectively, and where in these cycles cultural production, participation and enjoinment tend to insert themselves. The journeys we make are active sites for cultural investment not just the destinations we travel to and from.

2.0 CREATE PERMISSIVE PLACES FOR PRODUCTION, PARTICIPATION AND PLAY Our proposal favours the proliferation of extra-small, small and medium sized flexible spaces, ideal for studios, workshops and rehearsal spaces, close to transport, this would support local talent and mitigate the incessant expansion of residential space as well as Large and Extra Large containers for the high-arts at the expense of London’s common creative ground.

3.0 REFORM EXISTING FUNDING MODELS We propose to allocate a fixed percentage of both Local Authority and Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) – a planning charge that local authorities can impose on large developments– to support the economic and cultural wellbeing of an area. This levy would fund the provision of new spaces on sites that sit between the forthcoming Crossrail stations and their adjacent speculative developments, as well as further afield within local neighbourhoods. We have tested this proposal on two sites touched by Crossrail: Whitechapel and Heathrow Airport, revealing the huge potential these have to re-provide lost creative space.

4.0 MAKE MESS Our proposed cultural infrastructure network, will utilise the ‘shit space’ of development (the less valuable floor space of new buildings, such as the underground or overshadowed areas, or the noisy space in the proximity of an airport or railway line) to make room for MeSSy creative activities in our city. Borrowing the model of Shared Economy – essentially connecting and making the most of under used resources – less valuable venues will be programmed into new buildings, transport infrastructure itself and public spaces, to maximise their use and create more permissive spatial framework, where variety, hybridity and serendipitous discoveries can unlock the potential for creativity and play in the city.

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B

A

F

E

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A Producing culture on the bus

E Night time culture in the Underground

B Play culture in a gaming arena

F Orchestra performance & making music

C Performance & watching informal theatre

G Consuming culture on Crossrail

D Production and maker spaces

H Dance rehearsal & Art class

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D C

H

G

Section depicting the proposed systems within MeSS Cultural Infrastructure, unlocking the potential to create permissive places for production, participation and play bringing benefit to Londoner’s daily lives.

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Students (From left to right) Sheenwar Siti, Molly Judge, Louie Austen, Charlotte Hurley & Lloyd Martin 8

Metabolic City


Contents Executive Summary New Cultural Infrastructure Manifesto

p4-7

Cultural Infrastructure What is Cultural Infrastructure?

p11

Premise Globalisation & Population p14-15 Mobility Flux p16-17 Trump & Brexit p18-19 Spending on Culture p20-21

Research The Evolution of Culture p24-29 Spaces for Culture p30-41

Strategy MeSS Culture not MASS Culture

p44-45

Mess Tactics p46-47 Crossrail p48-49 Funding Model p52-53 Casestudies p52-53 The Cheap Space p54-55

Tactics Where in London? p58-59 Whitechapel p60-69 Heathrow p70-75 Hayes & Harlington p76-79 Appendix p81-99 Extra Curricular Activities

p100-101

FAQs p102 Cultural Infrastructure

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Cultural Infrastructure What is Cultural Infrastructure? Metabolic City studied the topic of Cultural Infrastructure: the spaces and networks that allow culture, from high art to hiphop, to be produced, disseminated and enjoyed. We consider culture to include informal production and participation at a very small personal scale, right through to mass consumption of culture that is popular to many. Our research stemmed from the question,

‘What is the role of Cultural Infrastructure in an age of global populism at a time when culture is clearly under threat from a number of external forces? Also, importantly, what role can architecture play in providing new relevant spatial models?’ We believe that cities depend on a metabolism of infrastructures, such as health, housing, education and transport, with our focus specifically on Cultural Infrastructure. This is an increasingly relevant topic with the Mayor of London currently authoring a Cultural Infrastructure Plan for London 2030. Are trends such as the Guggenheim effect the epitome of successful culture? It clearly depicts the interlinked nature of cultural prowess and economic success.

Culture in all its forms is what makes a city appealing and a creative place to be skilled workers, researchers and the best students, and therefore to the businesses which want to employ them. Often culture is used as a tourism tool however, we believe that it is about the people who live, work and play in the city. There is rising mobility in the networked city, few people remain in one place for long, nor in one job, often blurring the boundaries between home and work, the centre and the suburbs, which raises the question - where should future investment in cultural infrastructure be focused? We believe that people’s rights to culture cannot be based purely on where people work or where they live, but instead on where people choose to spend their time. The population is set to rise in London to 10 million by 2030. We do not believe the current provision of cultural infrastructure can keep up as high- profit developments are often prioritized over low-rent spaces of culture. Traditional spaces of cultural participation and production are facing extraordinary pressures. Many of these being the small incidental spaces that surround the transport infrastructure in the city - for example railway arches. We need a wider strategy for London working at the intersection of policy, social interaction and spatial proposition to look at Cultural infrastructure holistically.

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Premise

As we settle into an age of populism and anti-establishment sentiments, the recent Brexit vote has exposed a number of fractures: between the UK and the EU; between the city centre and the margins; between increasingly privatized provision of civic and cultural amenities that were previously state-funded and between professionals and the normal working people . In this context, we ask why is it that London and NYC- two world cities most recently affected by the rise of populism and anti-government sentiments- are both authoring Cultural Infrastructure Plans? In this time of uncertainty, with rapidly changing circumstances how will these plans use culture to mitigate the current tensions?

The Mayor of London has set out his intentions to create a Cultural Infrastructure Plan for 2030. It is still in the early stages, but one of the proposed features is a London Borough of Culture, which would rotate through each of the 32 London boroughs in turn. This could perpetuate the process of a top down provision of culture. We need a viable way to orchestrate culture outside of the city’s individual large scale developments. If left to the status quo we end up with bleak, sanitized scenarios of top down circus-like culture – slotted neatly into place. Metabolic Cities perceive this as window dressing, this is NOT culture as we understand it. We will address London’s cultural infrastructure, working between Brexit 2018 and the cultural infrastructure plan in 2030.

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Globalisation & Population Threats to Culture

POPULATION RISE IN THE UK & LONDON 1. In an age of global populism, how should we design for popular cultural infrastructure in post-Brexit London? 2. What role can architecture play in providing new relevant spatial models that will serve this purpose. We are reaching a point in London where all of its citizens will be unable to engage equitably in culture if the market is allowed to continue to play itself out. This has resulted today in a situation where it seems everything other than infrastructure, high-end housing, grand cultural institutions and corporate offices are being pushed out from the city centre. Between 2014 and 2019, 3,500 artists were predicted to lose their places of work in London – a 30% cut. Top: Anti-globalization march in London Bottom: Liverpool Street station at rush hour

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Population Rising UK & London POPULATION RISING UK & LONDON The population in London is increasing at twice the rate of that in the UK. The cultural Infrastructure of London is being put under an intense amount of strain. The significant increase in globalization in the last 20 years has exposed the dominance of the private sector and significantly the privatization of public space in London. The temptation to replace low-rent creative areas with high profit private housing is strong. Artists can pay as little as ÂŁ500 a month in rent, compared to apartments in the same area selling for millions of pounds. Traditional spaces of cultural participation and production are facing extraordinary pressures, many of these being the small incidental spaces that surround the transport infrastructure in the city, for example railway arches.

Top: Graph suggesting that the opportunities to engage in culture is likely to worsen in the future. Bottom: londonischanging.org campaign

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Mobility Flux Live Population City of London Barking and Dagenham Barnet

356,386

Bexley

231,997

Brent

Legend Borough Live work Polulation.shp 7375 - 183177 183177 - 193965 193965 - 219961 219961 - 238691 238691 - 254096 254096 - 261386 261386 - 282695 282695 - 307588 307588 - 312216 312216 - 363378

7,375 185,911

311,215

Bromley

309,392

Camden

220,338

Croydon

363,378

Ealing

338,449

Enfield

312,466

Greenwich

254,557

Hackney

246,270

Hammersmith and Fulham

182,493

Haringey

254,926

Harrow

239,056

Havering

237,232

Hillingdon

273,936

Hounslow

253,957

Islington

206,125

Kensington and Chelsea

158,649

Kingston upon Thames

160,060

Lambeth

303,086

Lewisham

275,885

Merton

199,693

Newham

307,984

Redbridge

278,970

Richmond upon Thames

186,990

Southwark

288,283

Sutton Tower Hamlets

190,146 254,096

Waltham Forest

258,249

Wandsworth

306,995

Westminster London

219,396 8,173,941

LIVE POPULATION LOCATIONS We believe cultural investments should be based on where people in London spend their time everyday, rather than in the locations we traditionally expect. In order to assess the way that mobility surges daily, we mapped the city’s live population against work population. The 2011 census data shows how the London boroughs swell or contract in size to represent the density of residents. 16

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/10417064/Mapped-howthe-countrys-population-changes-during-a-work-day.html

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Workday Population City of London

360,075

Barking and Dagenham Barnet Bexley

196,519

Brent

278,874

Bromley

269,290

Camden

384,107

Croydon

Legend Borough Live work Polulation.shp 150559 - 169306 169306 - 197421 197421 - 210510 210510 - 222057 222057 - 246186 246186 - 270264 270264 - 279752 279752 - 309852 309852 - 352959 352959 - 689572

169,117 314,492

310,641

Ealing

306,007

Enfield

280,224

Greenwich

222,922

Hackney

231,266

Hammersmith and Fulham

207,464

Haringey

211,578

Harrow

198,774

Havering

208,907

Hillingdon

308,668

Hounslow

255,813

Islington

266,778

Kensington and Chelsea

193,805

Kingston upon Thames

150,559

Lambeth

274,160

Lewisham

218,598

Merton

170,061

Newham

279,437

Redbridge

233,021

Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton

166,135 324,494 164,701

Tower Hamlets

368,200

Waltham Forest

216,390

Wandsworth

246,186

Westminster

689,572

London

8,676,835

WORKDAY POPULATION MOBILITY The workday population swells dramatically in central boroughs such as City of London (+4782%), Westminster(+214%) and Tower Hamlets (+45%) during the working day. Yet in Lewisham (-21%) or Wandsworth (-20%) population significantly reduces during the workday prompting us to ask where are people spending their time and where should cultural investments be made and at what scale?

180,000 & Lower

270,000-290,000

180,000-190,000

290,000-310,000

190,000-210,000

310,000-330,000

210,000-230,000

330,000-350,000

250,000-270,000

350,000 & Higher

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Trump & Brexit Populism and Disenchantment ON THE LOND CULTURAL TURE UC INFRASTR PLAN 2030

?

Trump & Brexit

Cultural Infrastructure Plan

As we move into an age of populism and antiestablishment sentiments, the recent Brexit vote has exposed a number of fractures:

We ask why it is that two world cities most recently affected by the rise of populism and anti-government sentiments are both authoring Cultural Infrastructure Plans?

-Between the UK and the EU;

A) In post Brexit London

- Between the city centre and the margins – one a place of opportunity, the other isolated, yet increasingly well connected

B) In post Trump New York

- Between the increasingly privatized provision of civic and cultural amenities that were previously statefunded -Between experts/professionals/specialists and normal working people

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In this time of uncertainty, are these plans an attempt to address the current crisis or purely a coincidence? The Mayor of London has set out his intentions to create a Cultural Infrastructure Plan for 2030. It is still in the early stages, but one of the proposed features is a London Borough of Culture, which would rotate through each of the 32 London boroughs in turn. Does this could perpetuate the provision of top down culture?

Metabolic City


Brexit vs. Arts Council Funding Newcastle

Hillingdon

Wakefield Liverpool

Sheffield Lincoln

Birmingham Hillingdon

Tower Hamlets

Cambridge

Oxford

Bristol

Percentage of Leave Votes 70+%

Lewes Chichester

Exeter 21-30%

Arts Council England

London

Arts Council England is an institution that financially support activities across the arts, museums and libraries – from theatre to digital art, reading to dance, music to literature, and crafts to collections. Between 2015 and 2018, The Arts Council will invest £1.1 billion of public money from government and an estimated £700 million from the National Lottery. We mapped this funding against Brexit Leave votes, highlighting a correlation between the parts of the England that receive large amounts of spending on culture and low percentages that voted to leave the EU.

When the Arts Council Funding was mapped in London, the correlation between high spending on culture and low percentages of leave votes were similar. Hillingdon:

Remain: 58,040 Leave: 74,982

Tower Hamlets: Remain: 73,011

Leave: 35,244

Islington:

Leave: 25,180

Cultural Infrastructure

Remain: 76,420

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Spending on Culture Arts Council Funding WOOLWICH AS A ‘CULTURAL DESTINATION’ Time Out recently reported that the Arts Council are spending £270,000 in Woolwich, which they claim will make it a ‘cultural destination’. As a way of quantifying this amount we worked out that £270,000 would equate to 21.5sqm of the Tate Modern Switch House extension. Metabolic Cities do not feel that this is an adequate amount to address such a complex issue, especially when contrasted with the amount invested in high-profile museums, galleries or theatres. This highlights the imbalance of funding for singular institutions compared to dispersed cultural provision.

Arts Council to spend £270,000 to make Woolwich into a “Cultural Destination”

£270,000=21.5sqm of Tate Extension (0.09%sqm) 20

Metabolic City

Total cost of the Extension= £260,000,000


OLYMPICOPOLIS

Privatisation of Culture

HERE EAST

We question the current strategy of investing in culture in the traditional enclaves such as Olympicopolis, that repeats modes of the past. We need a viable way to foster and support culture outside of these individual developments. If left to the status quo we end up with bleak, sanitized scenarios of top down circus-like culture – slotted neatly into place within defined limits. We feel this is a kind of window dressing, and is NOT culture as we ‘London Communities of understand it.

Culture’ ‘London Communities of Culture’

Imbalance between small scale culture & institutions

THE OLD VINYL FACTORY

The Balancing Act

The Balancing Act We propose to redress this balance

We propose to address this balance and to seek investment in people’s involvement in both everyday and high culture, in the places where they spend time not just in privileged institutions.

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Research The Evolution of Culture What are the forms of mass participatory culture today? Where is it taking place and what have been the spatial demands compared to those throughout history? To better understand the current situation, we mapped the evolution of culture over the last five centuries. We looked specifically at the spatial consequences that technology, transport and policies have had on cultural infrastructure. These observations allowed us to set out a taxonomy of cultural spaces, that explored 10 examples of culture, their spatial requirements, economic demands, sociopolitical context and their urban location (see overleaf). The digital technologies available today have the potential of making culture ubiquitous. They are turning our cities into hybrid environments that bare similarities to the overlapping of people and activities of the middle ages, rather than with the rigid zoned approach of the 20th century. We asked ourselves, are there any common traits that the city has always provided in its spaces or policies that are now under threat or no longer required?

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Before 1499

SPORT

12,300 BC Sprinting & Wrestling

1500-1599

1363 Hockey was defined in the UK

6000 BC Swimming & Archery

1598 Cricket was defined in the UK as a sport

PUBLIC HOUSES

PUBLIC EXECUTIONS

THEATRE

900-1299 Drama performances were held in Churches

1700 Boxing was defined as a sport in the UK

1664 The Gambling Act was deemed necessary for sports such as Cricket, Horse Racing & Boxing

1599 The Globe was built

1700 It was common to arrive an hour in advance to get a seat

1660 British Theatres were reopened.

1576 Indoor purpose-built outdoor theatres started in London

1789 Box seating became open to everyone

1571 The Tyburn Tree, three-sided gallows

Pirates permitted a final ‘Quart of Ale’ at the Turks head inn

Meeting houses for folk to socially congregate

50 BC Ancient roman Taberna Single room shop within larger indoor market

1446 Guild “The Hostellers of London”

Anglo Saxon ‘Alewife’

Gossip

Hunting Parties Stables

1210 Royal Menagerie

Farm Animals

Royal Mews

Coursing

Prisoner expected to execution unrestra

Newgate Prison parades Prison Execution

The Saloo A Beer Engine

1660 The Hung Drawn and Quatered Tower Hill

1577 14,202 alehouses 1,631 inns 329 taverns

1736 The Gin Act High taxes leading to riots

Zoological park

1622 Lion Fighting

1777 Astleys Ampitheatre Animal shows

Cockfighting pits Southwark bear pit

Smithfield meat market

Ill-health and alcoholism among th working classes

The Gin Shop

Royal Parks

Animal Showdom

Cock Fights

1747 Final Tower Hill beheading

1660 “I went to see Major General Harrison, hung drawn and quatered, he was looking as cheerful as any man could in that condition” Diary of Samuel Pepys

Bear Baiting

Dog Fights

220 Crimes for caiptal punishment

1514 Worshipful Company of Innholders

Arrange mutual help within communities

The Pub Sign

Kennington Common also used for cricket matches

Tower Green reserved for high profile exection

1.2 high, 2.75 x 2.75m platform

1794 Drury lane held over 3000 people

Audiences were very lively, riots were very common.

1600 Elizabeth I would get private performances at her home

Execution Dock Smithfield jousting, fairs and executions as public celebration

Vi b

1642 British Theatres were closed by parliament.

Inn yards were often used as performance spaces

1300-1399 Plays were performed outside of the church

1700-1799

1642 The long parliament prohibited sports such as cricket.

1540 Curling was invented in the UK

776 BC-393 AD Ancient games were held in Olympia in Greece Open to all classes of society (Apart from royalty)

ANIMALS

1600-1699

Westminster dog pit

1776 Coursing meet

Dovecotes

Smithfields paved market

M Hunting Grounds

PARKS

Execution sites Village Commons

Epping Forest Hunting Grounds

Garden squares

Burial Grounds

1607 Moorfield Pleasure Garden

Royal Worshipful Company of Gardeners

1618 Lincoln’s Inn Fields Gardens historically used for animal grazing, executions and sports

Town Gardens with food and craft markets and fairs

FAIRS

1199-1350 Fairs held by Royal Charter in towns to maintain control of the crowds and the revenue Fairs as temporary markets for trade Fairs linked to Christian Religious Holidays and harvest times, with traditional markets held on Sundays

MUSIC

Religious Music

ART DANCE

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1133-1855 Batholomew Fair 1350-1850 Mop Fairs In agricultural regions for the hiring of labourers

Town trade fairs Sunday Markets 1615 Smithfield Fair for trade

Links between music and the upper classes of society

Royalty as patrons of music - popular in courts and high society

1448 Morris dancing An English folk dance performed in courtly settings

1681 Soho Square

1600 William Kemp an actor dances solo from London to Norwich

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1790 Kensington Gardens open 1 day a week Manor Houses with woodlands

1635 Hyde Park

1 Suburban and bac

1715-1783 Capability Brown English Landscape Architect

1683/1716/1739/1789/1814 Frozen Thames Fair: dancing, pubs, food, circuses, markets, sports, shows and souvenir production

Fairs are famous for trade and commerce

Victorian T emphasis on shows not t dancing, gho shows, mena waxworks,

1700 - 1900 Assembly Rooms with m drink, food, gam 1774 Hanover square Room

1700 Music societies perform in taverns

1678 Proffessional musicians open concert house by Charing Cross

1740 Pleasure Gardens hosting orchestras and singers

1800 Music halls re pleasure g

1768 Royal Academy

1495 - 1619 Aristocrats hiring European painters from France and the Netherlands to do the thier portraits

1533 - 1603 Queen Elizabeth 1st It was in the Queen’s courts that the country dances were particularly popular

1742 Ranalegh Gardens

1673 Chelsea Physics Garden 1661 Vauxhall Pleasure Garden

1672 John Banister (former court violinist) sets up a concert room in his house on Fleet Street

1661 Lincolns Inn Field tennis court converted to a theatre

1200 Romanesque and English art. English generally followed Euroean art movements

1500 Morris Dancing becomes popular with the lower classes

Musicians playing privatley in the homes of the wealthy 1656 First opera in English, performed in a theatre in a home

Broadside Balladscheap printing making music more available at fairs and on the streets

2600 BC Stone Henge

Royal Parks

1697 - 1764 Willian Hogarth A painter that introduces satire in to british art, and recognized for pioneering western sequential art.

1668 Sadler’s Wells Built as a theatre, yet to become a dance venue

1651 - 1728 The English Masters dancing manual John Playford authors an English Country Dance manual


1800-1899 1863 Football rules were first written

1900-1999

1800-90 Badminton, Tennis, Squash and Table Tennis were defined as a sport in the UK

Introduction of gaslight in the 19th century

1850 Theatre was London’s West End incorporated in attracted the middle Bartholemew Fair classes back to theatre Support for theatres declined from upper & middles classes as it became popular, they went to the opera instead

1944 Onwards WWII changed peoples views on the world

1946 Founding of Arts Council

1950 Music halls & circuses for the working class

1902 Newgate Prison demolished

‘Great Seperation’ Public health concerns 1828 London Zoo Aquarium Tower of london animal education Travelling circus Royal Circus Animal Welfare Societies Animal Rights Campaigns Police Dogs Dog Racing Dog Domestication Pidgeon Racing Metropolitan Meat Market

1968 Abolition of theatre censorship in 1968

? Social media as a political tool Ministers protect pubs of community value from demolition

Nightclub culture Lounge Bar

The Moon Under Water George Orwell

2003 Licensing act to encourage change of use form shops to pub

Smoking ban in all enclosed work spaces

2001 Pub history society promoting heritage and use Safari park

Childrens Zoo

Slaughtering moves out of city

? Popular trendy/ themed bars and clubs

Self service contactless pumps

? Rise in Veganism

Animal theme Park

? Slow Food Movements

Zoo

? Saving species from extinction and reintroducing into the wild

? Animal Rights Movements

Horse racing Dog Racing

? Growing Environmental Awareness

Lee Valley Regional Park Garden City Movement

1880 Postmans Park

1842 New tent style brought over from America

Sports pitches in parks

Standardised Garden Plots 1964 First Notting Hill Carnival

1851 The Great Exhibition Hyde Park celebration of British Industry Travelling Fairs 1860 n entertainment Decline of Fairs due to trading: boxing, the fairs act - no longer ost stories, freak sited in the city center, ageries, theatres, had to compete with arts, exhibitions music halls and theatres

Fairs focus on entertainment and amusements 1861 Steam Powered Train Technological Advancement repopularises fairs

1830 Song and supper rooms

0 music, dance, ming ms 900 people 1800s Rise of parlour music

1870 Royal Albert Hall opens 1892 Hosts first Sci-Fi Convention

1850-1960 Purpose built music halls, 0s also used for comedy, replace the theatre, gymnastics and gardens dance

1960 Liberalisation of the censorship law

1877 Phonograph invented

1951 Festival of Britain To promote recovery and progress post war

Green-washing of Privatley Owned Public Space

Parks used for events: British Summer Time Music Festival Winter Wonderland Cinema screenings Triathlons

2012 10,000 street parties for the Diamond Jubilee Growing interest in local produce and Farmers Markets

Late 1900s Fold out trailer shows Shows travelling further and faster across the country

Film Festival Festival of Architecture Design Festival Food and Drink Festivals

Large scale music festivals Glastonbury - 177,000 Larger outdoor venues, 2016 in and out of London Most watched music event Wembley - 90,000 - Lady Gaga’s Superbowl half time performance Larger indoor venues,

? Reinvigoration of craft fairs to offset trends of mass production ? Increased emphasis put on programming of spaces and events ? Destination Festivals

? Growth in Festivals

? Links with advertising and celebrity

? Live music as the main revenue source, all downloads free

? Accessible but monopolised by a few sites

? All digital on the cloud

? Performance Art 1936 London International surrealist Exhibition 2000 Tate Modern A gallery exhibiting international modern art

? Designing ‘Grey Box’ art galleries

2017 Fabric almost closes 1898 Dame Ninette de valois Anglo - Irish dancer imports balletg from her russian teacher

? Rewilding and Dereliction trends in public space

? Will incorporate smart city technology

? Privatisation and greenwashing

? Customise your own experience

1951 Royal festival Hall seats 2895 people 1960 Sound system theatres and halls Globalised celebrity developments lead to O2 arena - 20,000 culture with awards and larger performances Royal Albert Hall - 5,222 accolades Technological advancements Pubs and live performaces 1931 - First Vinyl Fringe venues in London 1960 - Tapes 2000 - Ipods Individual listening, Music goes beyond 1979 - Walkman 2005 - Youtube personal music the boundaries of 1980 - CDs 2006 - Spotify collections and playlists time and space 1999 - Napster

1819 - 1900 Tate Britain An art museum housing exhibitions of British art

1812 The Waltz takes hold in England

? Automation frees up space for Parks

? Reinvigoration of local Framers Markets

1806 - 1876 British Institure for Promoting Fine Arts in the United Kingdom 1819 - 1900 John Ruskin A prominent British art critic and writer

? Increased automation leads to more personal leisure time

Petting Zoo

Travelling Circus Pet Store

? Continued closure of pubs

Supermarkets begin occupation

Aquarium

Conservation Park

Millenium Conservation Centre

Beer Garden investmemt

? Service Industry Jobs fall due to automation

? Automation allowing for more leisure time Micro-pub movement

1875 Public Health Act Fit and Sober 1930-1940 Sports Pitches - ‘Fit to Fight’ 1882 1992 Royal Wimbledon London Planning comittee 1858 Golf Course define park categories Battersea Gardens 1890 1951 44,000 Acres allotment 1868 Festival of Britain Landscaping election Museum Gardens

1838 n Garden front ck of house 1851 Crystal Palace Purpose Built Gardens

? 4D cinema Virtual Reality

? Rising tensions leading to trolling and aggressive memes

Snug

Whipsnade Safari Park

1838 Regents Park 1840 Kew Gardens opens

? Secret cinema - looking for a unique experience 1997 Netflix

Tabloid scandal outing

1963 Henry Cooper training to fight Cassius Clay

Bio park

? Experimental Arts theatre

2017 Tourism due to theatres and musicals

1965 Death penalty abolished

1923 - 24 The Fellowship Inn Bellingham Pub - Cinema

1910 Illegal and Unlicensed Budget increased 1914 ‘Gin Palaces’ taxes on brewers WWI Hours of alcohol sale limited: 12:00 - 14:00 Cesspits of immorality or crime 18:30 - 21:30 The Pub Dog

? Video game tournaments played from home

Social Media shaming

Modern day west end occupies site of famous Tyburn gallows

1915 The Lock In

Beerhouse Act 400 in first year 46,000 within eight

on

2014 Women were 40% of the participants in the Olympic Winter Games

1950 TVs and cinema became popularised

1941 German spy Josef Jakobs by firing squad

o walk to ained

he

2008 4,000,000,000 people watched the Beijing Olympics 1990 Opening Ceremony Stadiums introduced safety measures following the Hilssborough disaster. All stadia had to be all-seater. Due to scale loud voices and drama were necessary so 1963 stories were largely National Theatre based on farce.

1900 Most Theatres were lit by electricity

1850 Music halls & circuses for the working class

? E-Sports Drone racing

? Lack of exercise leading to obesity

1904 Boxing was introduced in the summer olympics

1896 First modern olympics were held. 241 Athletes, 100,000 Spectators

2017-2030

2012 Boxing became open to female participation

1900 The first time female athletes participated in the Olympics

1871 The Rugby Football Union was Created

1800s ictorians changed sport from being brutal, lawless sports to being higher classed

2000-2017

1926 Royal Ballet school Established by Dame Ninette de Valois

1998 Sadler’s Wells becomes a dance venue

Cultural Infrastructure

? Expanding art storage in museums, art as a commodity

? Street Dance Competitions

? Space being re-appropriated by other contrasting programmes

? Competative Dance for TV Entertainment

25


Spaces for Culture SPORTS & THEATRES Our research looking at the technological, economical and political effects on culture over the last 5 centuries, enabled us to understand the effects these have had on the spaces for culture. The examples of Sports and Theatres show the ways they have changed over time.

Before 1499

SPORT

12,300 BC Sprinting & Wrestling

1500-1599

1363 Hockey was defined in the UK

6000 BC Swimming & Archery

1598 Cricket was defined in the UK as a sport

THEATRE

PUBLIC HOUSES SPORT PUBLIC EXECUTIONS

THEATRE

900-1299 Drama performances were held in Churches

12,300 BC Sprinting & Wrestling 6000 BC Swimming & Archery

776 BC-393 AD Meeting houses for folk to socially Ancient games congregate were held in Olympia in Greece

50 BC Ancient roman Taberna Single room shop within larger indoor market Gossip

Hunting Parties Stables

Anglo Saxon ‘Alewife’ The Pub 900-1299 Sign Drama performances

were held in Churches 1210 Royal 1300-1399 Menagerie Plays were performed outside of the church

Dog Fights Coursing

Dovecotes Smithfield jousting, fairs and executions as public celebration Hunting Grounds Execution sites

PUBLIC HOUSES

Fairs as temporary markets for trade Hunting Parties Fairs linked to Christian Stables Religious Holidays and harvest times, with traditional Farm Animals markets held on Sundays Cock Fights

ANIMALS

50 BC Ancient roman Taberna Single room shop 1199-1350 within indoor in Fairs held by larger Royal Charter marketcontrol of towns to maintain

FAIRS

PARKSPUBLIC EXECUTIONS ANIMALS

Cock Fights

Village Commons

the crowds and the revenue Gossip

Dog Fights

1600-1699

1571 1598 1642 The Tyburn Tree, forlong caiptal punishment Cricket was defined in220 Crimes The parliament prohibited three-sided the UK as a sport sports such as cricket. gallows 1540 Curling was invented in the UK

1700-1799 Examples of how per

Kennington Common also used for cricket matches

1599 The Globe was built 1577 14,202 alehouses 1,631 inns 329 taverns

1622 Lion Fighting 1600

1660 British Theatres were reopened.

Elizabeth I would get Cockfighting pits private performances at Southwark bear pit her home Westminster dog pit

Execution Dock Tower Green reserved for high profile exection Epping Forest Hunting Royal Parks Grounds

1.2 high, 2.75 x 2.75m platform Garden squares

1571 The Tyburn Tree, Pirates permitted a final ‘Quart of Ale’ Royal Worshipful Company three-sided of at the Turks head inn Gardeners gallows Burial Grounds

Town Gardens with food and Meeting houses for folk to socially craft markets and fairs congregate

1514 Worshipful Company of Innholders

1446 Guild Anglo Saxon “The Hostellers of ‘Alewife’ London” 1133-1855 Batholomew Fair Arrange mutual The Pub help within 1350-1850 Sign communities Mop Fairs In agricultural regions for the hiring of labourers 1210 Royal Menagerie Animal Showdom Bear Baiting Smithfield meat market Royalty as patrons ofRoyal musicMews - popular in

1577 Town trade fairs 14,202 alehouses Sunday Markets 1,631 inns 329 taverns

220 Crimes for1607 caiptal punishment Moorfield Pleasure Garden

execution unrestra

Prison Execution

The Saloo A Beer Engine

Ill-health and alcoholism among Vi th b working classes

1700 It wasThe common to arrive Gin Shop an hour in advance to get a seat

1794 1736 The Gin Act Drury lane held High leading to riots over taxes 3000 people

Audiences were very lively, Zoological park riots were very common. 1777 Astleys Ampitheatre Animal shows

1789 Box seating became open to everyone

1776 Coursing meet Kennington also used for SmithfieldsCommon paved market cricket matches 1681 Soho Square

M

1747 Final Tower1742 Hill beheading Ranalegh Gardens

1673 Prisoner expected to Newgate Prison parades 1790 Chelsea Physics Garden execution unrestra Kensington Gardens 1618 1661 open 1 day a week Lincoln’s Inn Fields Gardens Vauxhall Pleasure Garden 1 Prison Execution historically used for animal 1660 Suburban Manor Houses with grazing, executions and sports “I went to see Major General Harrison, hung drawn and bac woodlands The Saloo and quatered, he was looking as cheerful 1635 as any man 1715-1783 could in that condition” Hyde Park Capability Brown Diary of Samuel Pepys A Beer Engine English Landscape Ill-health Architectand alcoholism among th working classes

Tiered typology for viewing at a variety of scales

1660 1683/1716/1739/1789/1814 The Hung Drawn and Quatered Frozen Thames Fair: Tower Hill dancing, pubs, food, circuses, The Gin Shop markets, sports, shows and souvenir production

1615 Smithfield Fair for trade Royal Parks 1622 Lion Fighting

Metabolic City pits Cockfighting

Links between music and the upper classes

1700

Boxing was defined as a sport Newgate Prison parades in the UK

1660 1642 The Hung Drawn and Quatered British Theatres were Tower Hill closed by parliament.

Royal Parks

and class had an effe popularity of the Prisoner expected to

1747 Final Tower Hill beheading

1664 The Gambling Act was 1660 deemed necessary sports “I went to see Major General Harrison,for hung drawn such as Cricket, Horse Racing and quatered, he was looking as cheerful as any man & Boxing could in that condition” Diary of Samuel Pepys

1514 Worshipful Company of Innholders

1446 Guild Open to allof classes “The Hostellers of society (Apart London” from royalty) Arrange mutual help within Inn yards were often communities used as performance spaces

1789 Box seating became open to everyone

Tower Green reserved for high profile exection

1576 Animal ShowdomIndoor purpose-built outdoor theatres Bear Baiting started in London Smithfield meat market Royal Mews

Farm Animals

26

1500-1599

1794 Drury lane held over 3000 people

Audiences were very lively, riots were very common.

1600 Elizabeth I would get private performances at her home

1.2 high, 2.75 x 2.75m platform

1363 Hockey was a final ‘Quart of Ale’ Pirates permitted definedat in the the Turks UK head inn

1700 It was common to arrive an hour in advance to get a seat

1660 British Theatres were reopened.

1576 Indoor purpose-built outdoor theatres started in London

Execution Dock

Before 1499

Vi b

1642 British Theatres were closed by parliament.

Inn yards were often used as performance spaces

1300-1399 Plays were performed outside of the church

1700 Boxing was defined as a sport in the UK

1664 The Gambling Act was deemed necessary for sports such as Cricket, Horse Racing & Boxing

1599 The Globe was built

Open to all classes of society (Apart from royalty)

1700-1799

1642 The long parliament prohibited sports such as cricket.

1540 Curling was invented in the UK

776 BC-393 AD Ancient games were held in Olympia in Greece

Smithfield jousting, fairs and executions as public celebration

1600-1699

Musicians playing privatley in the homes of the wealthy

Southwark bear pit 1672 Westminster dog pit John Banister (former

1736 The Gin Act High taxes leading to riots Fairs are famous for trade and commerce

Zoological park 1777 Astleys Ampitheatre Animal shows 1700 1776 Music societies Coursing meet

Victorian T emphasis on shows not t dancing, gho shows, mena waxworks,

1700 - 1900 Assembly Rooms with m drink, food, gam


Examples of how moments in history have informed the design spaces for sport

1800-1899 1863 Football rules were first written

1800-90 Badminton, Tennis, Squash and Table Tennis were defined as a sport in the UK

1871 The Rugby Football Union was Created

1800s ictorians changed sport from being brutal, lawless sports to being higher classed Introduction of gaslight in the 19th century

1900-1999

1896 First modern olympics were held. 241 Athletes, 100,000 Spectators

1850 Music halls & circuses for the working class

1850 Theatre was London’s West End incorporated in attracted the middle Bartholemew Fair classes back to theatre Support for theatres declined from upper & middles classes as it became popular, they went to the opera instead

1800-1899 rmissivity ect on the 1902 1863 1800-90 Newgate Prison oeatre walk to rules were first Football Badminton, Tennis, Squash

2000-2017

1900 The first time female athletes participated in the Olympics 1904 Boxing was introduced in the summer olympics

1900 Most Theatres were lit by electricity

? Lack of exercise leading to obesity 2008 4,000,000,000 people watched the Beijing Olympics Opening Ceremony

1990 Stadiums introduced safety measures following the Hilssborough disaster. All stadia had to be all-seater. Due to scale loud voices and drama were necessary so 1963 stories were largely National Theatre based on farce.

1944 Onwards WWII changed peoples views on the world

1946 Founding of Arts Council

1950 Music halls & circuses for the working class

1941 1900-1999 German spy Josef

Jakobs by firing squad

2017-2030

2012 Boxing became open to female participation

1968 Abolition of theatre censorship in 1968

1950 TVs and cinema became popularised

1965 Death penalty abolished

2014 Women were 40% of the participants in the Olympic Winter Games

2017 Tourism due to theatres and musicals

? E-Sports Drone racing

? Video game tournaments played from home

? Experimental Arts theatre

We researched the scales of spaces ? Secret cinema - looking ? required for sport in history. Other for a unique experience 4D cinema 1997 than significant shiftsVirtual inReality human Netflix rights and equality the spaces for ? culture have largely remained the Rising tensions leading to trolling and aggressive same, for example the architecture 2000-2017 2017-2030 memes ? required for mass gathering in Social media as a 2012 Social Media shaming political tool ? Boxing became open to amphitheaters & stadiums. E-Sports female participation Ministers protect pubs of community value from

Modern day west end 1900 Tabloid scandal outing occupies site of famous Thegallows first time female athletes Drone racing ? demolished Tyburn Snug demolition ained written and Table Tennis were defined participated in the Olympics Lack of exercise leading as a sport in the UK to obesity Nightclub 1904 1871 2003 ? 1923Boxing - 24 was introduced in the culture 1915 The Rugby Football Union was 2008act to encourage change of Licensing ? Service Industry Jobs fall due The Fellowshipsummer Inn olympics The Lock In Created 4,000,000,000 people use form shops to pub 1896 2014 Automation allowing for to automation Beerhouse Act Bellingham on Loungewatched Bar the Beijing Olympics First modern olympics were Women were 40% of the more leisure time ? 400 in first year Pub Cinema 1800s 1990 ? Opening Ceremony held. 241 Athletes, 100,000 participants in the Olympic Video game 46,000 ictorians changed sportwithin from eight Stadiums introduced safety measures 1963 ? tournaments Increased he Spectators Winter Games Micro-pub played from being brutal, lawless sports to following the Hilssborough disaster. All Henry Cooper training Continued closure ofhome pubs automation leads to 1910 movement Illegal and Unlicensed being higher classed stadia be all-seater. to had fighttoCassius Clay more personal leisure Budget increased 1914 Smoking ban in all ‘Gin Palaces’ ? time Due to scale loud taxes on brewers WWI Hours of alcohol 1900 enclosed work spaces Popular trendy/ 1850 Introduction of voices andWater drama sale Theatres limited: were lit The Moon Under ? Most Beer Garden Self service themed bars and Music halls & circuses gaslight in the 19th were necessary so 12:00 14:00 George Orwell Experimental Arts by-electricity investmemt contactless pumps Cesspits of immorality or crime 1963 2001 2017 clubs for the working class century stories were largely 18:30 - 21:30 theatre National Theatre Tourism due to theatres society promoting heritage based on farce. Pub history The Pub Dog 1850 Supermarkets and musicals and use Theatre was London’s West End 1944 Onwards 1946 1968 begin occupation incorporated in ? ‘Great Seperation’ attracted the middle WWII changed peoples Founding of Arts Abolition Aquariumof theatre Fair health concerns Rise in Veganism Whipsnade Safari Park classes back to views on the world Council ? 1828 Bartholemew Public censorship in 1968 Safari park theatre Secret cinema - looking London Zoo ? Petting Zoo Childrens Support for theatres declined Aquarium 1950 Zoo for a unique experience Tower of london animal 1950 4D cinema Conservation Park from upper & middles classes as it Music halls & circuses ? Animal theme Park 1997 education Millenium Conservation TVs and cinema became Virtual Reality Travelling circus became popular, they went to the for the working class Slow Food Movements Netflix popularised Royal Circus Centre Travelling Circus ? opera instead Bio park Animal Welfare Societies Saving species from Animal Rights Campaigns Pet Store Zoo extinction and reintroducing ? ? Police Dogs into the wild 1965 Rising tensions Animal Rights leading Slaughtering moves Dog Racing racing Dog Domestication DeathHorse penalty toMovements trolling and aggressive out of city 1941 Pidgeon Racing Dog Racing abolished memes German spy Josef Metropolitan Meat Market ? ? Jakobs byRegional firing squad Lee Valley Park 1838 Growing Environmental Social media as a 1875 Social Media shaming Garden City Movement Regents Park Awareness political tool Public Health Act 1902 Modern day west end 1840 ? Fit andPrison Sober Tabloid scandal outing Newgate occupies site of 1930-1940 famous Ministers protect pubs of community value from o walkKew to Gardens opens Rewilding and Green-washing of Privatley Sports Pitches - ‘Fit to Fight’ demolished 1882 Tyburn gallows Snug demolition ained Dereliction trends in Owned Public Space 1992 ? Royal Wimbledon public space London Planning comittee Automation frees up 1858 Golf Course Nightclub define park categories 1838 2003 space for Parks Battersea Gardens 1890 ? 1923 - 24 culture 1951 1915 n Garden front Licensing act to encourageParks change of for events: used 44,000 Acres allotment 1868 ? Service Industry Jobs fall due The Fellowship Innof Britain Landscaping Festival The Lock In ck of house use form shops to pub British Summer Time Music Festival election Museum Gardens Automation allowing for to automation Bellingham on ? 1851 Beerhouse Act Lounge Bar Winter Wonderland more leisure time ? Sports pitches in parks 400 in first year 1880 Pub - Cinema Will incorporate smart Crystal Palace Purpose ? Privatisation and Standardised Cinema screenings 46,000 within eight city technology Postmans Park Built Gardens 1963 Increased he greenwashing ? Garden Plots Triathlons Micro-pub Henry Cooper training Continued closure of pubs automation leads to 1910 movement Illegal and 2012 1842Unlicensed to fight1964 Cassius Clay more personal leisure ? Budget increased 1914 Smoking ban in10,000 all ‘Gin Palaces’ ? Reinvigoration of craft street parties for the New tent style brought time taxes on brewers WWI Hours of alcohol First Notting Hill Carnival enclosed work spaces Popular trendy/ Diamond Jubilee over from America fairs to offset trends of sale limited: The Moon Under Water Beer Garden Self service themed bars and Fairs focus on 1851 Growing interest in local mass production 12:00 - 14:00 George Orwell investmemt 1960 contactless pumps Cesspits of immorality or crime clubs entertainment and The Great Exhibition Hyde 2001produce and Farmers ? 18:30 - 21:30 Liberalisation of the ? amusements Park Pub history society promoting heritage Reinvigoration of local Markets The Pub Dog censorship law Increased emphasis Supermarkets celebration of British Industry and use Framers Markets Late 1900s begin occupation Travelling Fairs 1861 ? put on programming of ‘Great Seperation’1860 Film Festival Fold out trailer shows Aquarium spaces and events n entertainment Decline of Fairs due to Steam Powered Train ? Public health concerns Rise in Veganism Whipsnade Safari Park1951 Festival of Architecture Shows travelling further 1828 Safari park and trading: boxing, the fairs act - no longer Technological Advancement Customise your own ? Festival of Britain Design Festival faster across the country London Zoo Petting Zoo ost stories, freak repopularises fairs sited in the city center,Aquarium experience Childrensrecovery Zoo Destination Festivals To promote and Food and Drink Festivals Tower of london animal Conservation Park ageries, theatres, had to compete with Large scale music festivals ? progress post war Animal theme Park educationmusic halls and theatres Millenium Conservation arts, exhibitions Travelling circus Glastonbury - 177,000 Slow Food Movements Royal Circus Centre Travelling ? ? 1951 2016 LargerCircus outdoor venues, Bio park 1830 0 Animal Welfare Societies Growth in Festivals Saving species from Royal festival Hall Most watched music event in and out of London SongCampaigns and supper Animal Rights music, dance, Pet Store Zoo extinction and reintroducing seats 2895 people ? Wembley - 90,000 - Lady Gaga’s Superbowl rooms ming Police Dogs

Similar to sport, theatre has long-existed as a form of mass culture throughout history. Although the types of spaces used for culture have changed significantly from churches to London’s West End performances the fundamental requirements for the spatial provision have remained remarkably unchanged.

Cultural Infrastructure

27


1600-1699

1598 cket cke k t was defined in he UK as a sport

40 invented UK

1700-1799

1642 The long parliament prohibited cricket. sports such as cricke k t.

1863 Football rules were first written

1700 Boxing o was defined as a sport in the UK

19th Century Globalisation 1664 The Gambling Act was f sports sports deemed necessary for Cricke k t, Horse Racing such as Cricket, o & Boxing

1599 was built he Globe was

1642 British Theatres were closed by parliament.

lt

1850 London’s West End attracted the middle classes back ack tto o theat tre theatre Support ffor or the atres declined theatres from upper & middles classes as it opular,r th ey went to the became po popular, they opera instead

Prison Execution

The Gin Shop

Ill-health and alcoholism among the working classes

1736 The Gin Act High taxes leading to riots

We observed the significant Zoological park 1622 and overlapping influences shifts Lion Fighting 1777 Astleys Ampitheatre Cockfighting k brought pits about by technology Animal shows Southwark bear pit and globalization. These sped up Westminster dog pit 1776 Coursing meet the notion of hybridity in culture Sm paved marke ket Smithfields market and its spaces in the 19thSmit &hfields 20th Epping Forest Hunting Century. Royal Parks 1681 Soho Square

1678 ff Proffessional musicians open concert house by Charing Cross

1700 Music societies f perform in taverns

1740 Pleasure Gardens hosting orchestras and singers

Cesspits of immorality or crime The Pub Dog g

1600 William K Kemp an aactor ctor dances solo from London to Norwich

1838 Garden front Suburban Garden and back of house 18 185 85 8 1851 al Palace al Palace Purpose Crystal Built Gardens

28

1651 - 1728 The English Masters dancing manual John Playfo f rd authors an Playford English Country Dance manual

TTabloid scandal outing Snug Nightclub culture

1923 - 24 The Fellowship Inn Bellingham Pub - Cinema

Lounge Bar 1963 Henry Cooper training to fight Cassius Clay

1914 WWI Hours of alcohol sale limited: 12:00 - 14:00 21:3 30 18:30 - 21:30

The Moon Under Water George Orwell

Smoking ban in all enclosed work spaces

Aquarium f park Safari

Childrens Zoo

Bio park

Licensing ac use

2001 Pu history society promoting heritage Pub and use

Whipsnade Safari f Park

1880 Postmans Park

1842 New ttent ent sstyle b rought brought over fr om America from

C Cons ervation Park Conservation

Millenium Conservation Cen Cent re Centre

T avelling Circus Tr Travelling Pet Store

Slaughtering moves out of city

Zoo Horse racing g Racing g Dog

Victorian Tr TTravelling avelling Fairss emphasis on ent en tertainment ainme entertainment shows not trading: boxing, o dancing, ghost stories, freak shows, menageries, theatres, waxworks, arts, exhibitions

Fairs ffocus on entertainment and amusements 1861 Steam Powered Tr TTrain ain TTechnological Advancement repopularises fai ffairs rs

1830 Song and supper rooms

1700 - 1900 Asssembly Rooms with music, music dance, Assembly food, gaming g drink, food, 74 Hanover Hanover square square Rooms 900 9 people 1774 1800s Rise e of parlour music 1800s epla the Music halls replace pleasure gardens

Sports pitches in parks

Standardised Garden Plots 1964 First Notting Hill Carnival

1851 The Great Exhibition Hyde Park celebration of British Industry 1860 Decline of Fairs due to the fai ffairs rs act - no longer sited in the city center,r compete had to compet e with h music halls and theatres e

1870 Ro oyal Albert Hall opens Royal 1892 Hosts fi rst Sci-Fi Convention first

1850-1960 Purpose built music halls, y y, also used ffor comed comedy, theatre, gymnastics and dance

1877 Phonograph invented

1960 Libe beralis be a ation of the Liberalisation cens sorship law censorship 1951 Festival of Britain TTo p romote recovery and promote progress post war

10,000 s D Growing g interest interest i Growing produce and Far produce Marke k ts Markets

Late 1900s Fold out trailer shows Shows Shows travelling further and d faster fas a ter across the country

L rge scale La sccale music fes fes Large Glasttonbury - 177 7 Glastonbury 1951 Larger outdoor venues Royyal festival f val Hall festi Royal in and out of London t 2895 people seats Wembley - 90,000 Wembley 1960 Larger indoor venues, Sound system theatres and halls developments lead to O2 arena - 20,000 larger performances f Royal Albert Hall - 5,222 Technological advancements advancements Technological Pubs and live performaces f Pubs 1931 - First Vinyl Fringe venues in London T 1960 - Tapes I 2000 - Ipods 1979 - Walkman Y 2005 - Youtube 1980 - CDs o 2006 - Spotify co Napstte err 1999 - Napster

1806 - 1876 Brittish Institure Institure ffor P romoting Fine British Promoting Arts in the United Kingdom

1697 - 1764 Willian Hogarth A painter that introduces satire in to british art, and recognized for f pioneering western sequential art.

1668 Sadler’s Wells Built as a theatre, yet to become a dance venue

1965 Death penalty abolished

V ey Regional Park Lee Vall Valley 1875 Garden City Movement Public Health Act Fit and Sober 1930-1940 Sports Pitches - ‘Fit to Fight’ 1882 1992 Royal Wimbledon on on London Planning comittee 185 858 8 85 5 1858 Golf Course defi defin e park categories define Batterse ssea se e Gardens Battersea 1890 1951 0 Acres allotment 44,000 1868 Festival of Britain Landscaping election Museum Gardens

176 68 1768 Royal Academy Acaademy Royal 1495 - 1619 Aristocrats hiring European painters from France and the Netherlands to do the thier portraits

1950 TVs V and cinema became popularised

Social

Modern day west end occupies site of famous f occupies TTyburn gall ows gallows

1910 Budget increased d taxes on brewerss

Illegal and Unlicensed ‘Gin Palaces’

19 Abolition censorship

1838 Regents Park 1840 K w Gardens opens Ke Kew

1742 Ranalegh Gardens

1607 There have been particular 1673 Moorfield Pleasure Garden 1790 C Chel sea P sea hysics Ga G rden Chelsea Physics Garden K Kensing ton Gardens Kensington catalysts1618and policies 1661 that open 1 day a week Lincoln’s Inn Fields Gardens V auxhall Pleasu re Vauxhall Pleasure Garden informed spatial provisions of historically used ffor animal Manor Houses with grazing, ex e ecutions and sports executions woodlands culture, for example1635the fairs act 1715-1783 Hyde Park Capability Brown in 1860 abolished fairs from the English Landscape Architect centres to the periphery, leading 1683/1716/1739/1789/1814 Frozen Thames Fair: to a decline in popularity as rcuses, dancing, pubs, ffood, ci circuses, trade fai ffairs rs mark kets, sports, sport ts, shows show h s and d markets, they had to compete with music ay Marke k ts Markets souvenir production 1615 Fairs are famous f f for halls and theatres. Conversely Smithfield Fair ffor ttrade rade trade and commerce advancements in technology and steam trains increased the access Musicians playing reach of these fairs. and 1672 John Banister (former f court violinist) sets up a concert room in his house on Fleet Street

194 946 9 94 4 1946 Found ding of Arts Founding Council

1950 Music halls & circu cuse ccu u s circuses ffor the worki king cclass ki lass working

‘Great Seperation’ Public he ealth concerns health 1828 London Zoo Aquarium TTower To wer of london animal education TTravelling Tr avelling g ccircus ircus Royal Circus Animal Welfa f re Societies Welfare A nimal Rights Campaigns Animal Police Dogs Dog Racing Dog Domestication Pidgeon Racing g Metropol opoliitan Me M eat Ma Marrket Metropolitan Meat Market

R oyal P arkks ar Royal Parks

1661 Lincolns Inn Field tennis court converted to a theatre

1944 Onwards WWII changed peoples view vi ewss o on the world views

1915 The e Lock In

Beerho ouse Act Beerhouse first year 400 in first with th n eight thi 46,000 within

The Saloon

1660 T Hung D The rawn and Quatered Drawn TTower Tow er Hill

G roundss Grounds

1902 Newgate Prison demolished

Prison ner expe e cted to walk to Prisoner expected execution e un restrained unrestrained

A Beer Engine

2008 4,000,000,000 p watched watched h the Beijing 1990 19 990 Opening Cere Stadiums introduced safety safe f tyy measures measures following f owing the Hilssborough disaster.r All foll stadia had to be all-seater. all-se eater.r Due to scale loud voices and drama were necessary so 1963 stories were largelyy National Theatre based on fa ffarce. rce.

1941 German spy Josef Ja akobs by firing squad Jakobs

Newgate Prison parades

GLOBALIZATION & HYBRIDITY

1656 First opera in English, f performed in a theatre in a home

1900 Most Theatres were lit by electricity

waas Theatre was incorporate ed iin n incorporated Bartholemew w Fair

1747 Final Tow TTower er Hill beheading

1660 “I went to see Major General Harrison, hung drawn and quatered, he was looking as cheerful as any man could in that condition” Diary of Samuel Pepys

privatley in the homes of the wealthy

1904 Boxing Bo oxin ng was introduced in the e summer olympics

Kenning K ton Common also used for f Kennington cricke k t matches cricket

TTow er Green reserved ffor high p rofile Tower profile exection

1577 alehouses 631 inns taverns

1900 The first athletes fir first time female female e participated participated in the Olympics

1896 First First modern olympics were werre held. 241 Athletes, 100,000 100,00 00 Spectators

1850 M usic halls & circuses Music ffor or the working class

Introduction of gaslight in the 19th cent y century

1794 Drury lane held over 3000 people

1789 o seating seating became Box open to everyone

220 Crimes ffor cai ptal punishment caiptal

1800-90 Badminton, Tennis, Squash T Squ quas q u h and Table Tennis were T T were defined as a sport sporrt in i the UK

1800s Victorians changed sport from being brutal, lawless sports to being higher classed

y Audiences were very lively, riots were very common.

1600 EElizabeth Eli zabeth I would get private performances f at her home

1900-1999

1871 The Rugby Football Union was Created

1700 It was common to arrive an hour in advance to get a seat

1660 British Theatres were reopened.

71 rn Tr TTree, ee, ided ows

1800-1899

1819 - 1900 John Ruskin A prominent British art critic and writer

1936 London International surrealist Exhibition

200 00 2000 T te Modern Ta Mo odern Tate exhibiting A gallery exhibiting international modern a international

1819 - 1900 T te Britain Ta Tate An art museum housing exhibitions of British art

1812 Th he Waltz takes k hold in The England

Metabolic City

1898 Dame Ninette de valois Anglo - Irish dancer imports balletg from her russian teacher

1926 Royal Ballet school Established by Dame Ninette de Valois V

1998 Sadler’s Wells becomes a dance venue


1800-1899 1863 Football rules were first written

1900-1999

1800-90 Badminton, TTennis, Squash and Table T T Tennis were defined as a sport in the UK

What did we learn? 1850 Music halls & circuses ffor the working class

Introduction of gaslight in the 19th century cent y

d e

1900 Most Theatres were lit by electricity

1850 Theatre was London’s West End incorporated in attracted the middle Bartholemew Fair classes back ack tto o theatre theat tre Support ffor the atres declined theatres from upper & middles classes as it ey went to the became popular,r th they opera instead

789 g became everyone

2008 4,000,000,000 people watched watched h the Beijing Olympics 1990 19 990 Opening Ceremony Stadiums Stadiums introduced safety safe f ty measures following following the Hilssborough disaster.r All stadia sttadia had to be all-seater.r Due to scale loud voices and drama were necessary so 1963 stories were largely National Theatre f rce. fa based on farce.

1944 Onwards WWII changed peoples view vi ewss on o the world views

1946 Founding of Arts Council

1950 Music halls & circuses ffor the working class

r expe e cted to walk to expected ution unrestrained

The Saloon

sm among the asses

FUTURE CATALYSTS Illegal and Unlicensed ‘Gin Palaces’

1910 Budget increased taxes on brewers

? Experimental Artss theatre

2017 Tourism due to theatres T and musicals

1968 Abolition of theatre censorship in 1968

? Secret cinema - looking for f a unique experience e

? 4D cinema cinem ma Virtual Reality Re eality

1997 Netflix ? Rising tensions leading to trolling and aggressive memes

1965 Death penalty abolished

Tabloid scandal outing T

? Social media media as a political poliitical tool Ministers protect pubs of community value from demolition

Snug Nightclub culture

1923 - 24 The Fellowship Inn Bellingham Pub - Cinema

1914 WWI Hours of alcohol sale limited: 12:00 - 14:00 18:30 - 21:3 30 21:30

? Video game tournaments tourname men me e ts played from home hom me

Social Media shaming

Modern day west end o ccupies site of famous f occupies TTyburn gall ows gallows

1915 The Lock In

Beerhouse Act 400 in first year 46,000 within eight

2014 Women were 40% of the participants in the Olympic Winter Games

1950 TVs V and cinema became popularised

1941 German spy Josef Jak Ja kobs by firing squad Jakobs 1902 Newgate Prison demolished

? E-Sports ts Drone racing raacing

? Lack of exercise L e errcise leading ex to to obesity o

1904 Boxing Bo oxin ng was introduced in the e summer olympics

1896 First First modern olympics were werre held. 241 Athletes, 100,000 100,00 00 Spectators

2017-2 2017-2030 203 030

2012 Boxing became open to o female participation f participation

1900 first The fir fi rst time ffemale e emale athletes participated participat ed in the Olympics

1871 The Rugby Football Union was Created

1800s Victorians changed sport from being brutal, lawless sports to being higher classed

2000-2017

Lounge Bar 1963 Henry Cooper training to fight Cassius Clay

The Moon Under Water George Orwell

2003 Licensing act to encourage change of use form shops to pub f

Beer Garden

? Increased automation automation leads to more personal leisure time

? Continued Continue ued closure of pubs

Micro-pub movement

Smoking ban in all enclosed work spaces

? Job bs fall fall due Service Industry Jobs to automation on n

? Automation allowing ng g for f more leisure time

? Popular trendy/ trendy/ y

themed bars baars and d investmemt We thenCesspits investigated contactless pumps p p of immorality or crime what the clubss 2001 Pu history society promoting heritage Pub The Pub Dog g catalysts for culture in 2018Supermarke k ts Supermarkets and use begin occupation ? ‘Great Seperation’ Aquarium 2030 could and their potential Publicbe health concerns V Rise in Veganism Whipsnade Safari f Park 1828 f park Safari London Zoo Petting Zoo effects, focusing on the timeless Childrens Zoo Aquarium Tower T wer of london animal To Co ervation Park Cons Conservation ? A i l theme th Parkk Animal Park education Millenium Conservation qualities needed forTravelling culture circus T avelling Tr Food Movements Slow Food Royal Circus Cen re Cent Centre T avelling Circus Tr Travelling ? Bio park Animal Welfare Welfa f re Societies Savi vi species from ving Saving to thrive. The Animal culture of the Rights Campaigns Pet Store Zoo extin nctio on and reintroducing extinction ? Police Dogs into the wild Animal Rights street and the Dog emergent virtualSlaughtering moves Racing Horse racing Dog Domestication Movements out of city Racing g Racing g Dog betweenPidgeon social media Metropolitan Metterritories ropol opoliitan Meat Meat Market Me Ma Marrket ? V ey Regional Park Vall 1838 Lee Valley Envvironm nme mental Growing Environmental and hybrid activities, that do 5 1875 Regents Park Garden City Movement A are Aw eness Awareness Public Health Act 1840 ? not fit into traditional definitions Fit and Sober 1930-1940 K w Gardens opens Ke Kew Rewilding and G reen-washing Green-washing of Privatley Sports Pitches - ‘Fit to Fight’ 1882 Dereliction trends in De e Owned Public Space 1992 ? Royal Wimbledon of cultural1858activities, are where public space p publ ic London Planning comittee Automation frees fre ees up Golf Course defi defin e e park categories define 1838 space Parks spac p e for f Pa arks Gardens 1890 peopleBattersea increasingly wish to 1951 Garden front Suburban Garden f events: eventss: Parks used for 44,000 Acres allotment 1868 Festival of Britain Landscaping and back of house B ish Summer Time Musicc Festival Brit Br British Museum participate andGardens create. election ? 1851 ? Wonderlaan and Winter Wonderland Sports pitches in parks

in Act ng to riots

Crystal Palace Purpose Built Gardens

1880 Postmans Park

Standardised

Garden Plots An example of a particular catalyst 1842 New brought tent srise brought is tent a style in automation causing job over from o America 1851 Fairs ffocus on lossesTheand therefore leading to Great Exhibition Hyde entertainment and Park amusements increased leisure time. ccelebration cele bration of British Industry

T avelling Fairss Tr Victorian Travelling ent entertainment ainme emphasis on entertainment o shows not trading: boxing, dancing, ghost stories, freak shows, menageries, theatres, wax axw wor orkks, arts, exhibitions waxworks,

1860 Decline of Fairs due to the fai ffairs rs act - no longer sited in the city center,r had to compet e with h compete music halls and theatres e

Self service

1964 First Notting Hill Carnival 1960 Liberalisation of the censorship law

1861 Steam Powered Tr TTrain ain T Technological Advancement repopularises fai ffairs rs

Late 1900s Fold out trailer shows SShows hows travelling further and d ffaster a ter across the country as

Will incorporate smart city technology

Privatisation and greenwashing

screeniings Cinema screenings T athlons Tri ns Triathlons

2012 f the 10,000 street parties for D Diam ond Jubilee Diamond Growing g interest interest in locall Growing produce and Farmers produce Marke k ts Markets

? Reinvigoration of local Marke k ts Framers Markets

? R nvigorattion of craft Rei Re f Reinvigoration f rss to offset fai offs ff et trends of fairs maass production pro oduction mass ? Increased emphasis put on programming of spaces and events

A summary of cultural activity 1951 ? Festival of Britain Dest tination Festivals Destination TTo p romote recovery and promote leads us to the possible conclusion Laarge scale sccale music festivals festiivals l Large progress post war Glasttonbury - 177,000 7 Glastonbury that boundaries of binary ? 1951 Larger outdoor venues, 2016 1830 1 830 1700 - 1900 G rowth in Festivals Growth Royyal festival f val Hall festi Royal in and out of London Most watched music event between high and low seats Song and supper Rooms with music music, distinctions dance, se t 2895 people Wembley - 90,000 Wembley - Lady Gaga’s Superbowl rooms rink, ffood, ood, gaming g 1960 h time performance ha pe p rformance f half Larger indoor venues, are being blurred. For er squar e Rooms 900 9 cultures people square 1870 Sound system ? ? theatres and halls Royal oyal Albert Hall opens Globalised celebrity developments lead to Live music main g mussic as the mai ain Links with advertising 1800s O2 arena - 20,000 example a yogaRo class 1892 taking place culture with awards and f larger performances revenue and celebrity revenu ue source, all all Rise e of parlour music Royal Albert Hall - 5,222 first Hosts fi rst Sci-Fi Convention accolades downloads d own nloads free frree Technological advancements advancements Technological f Pubs and live performaces in a museum, or an orchestral 1850-1960 1931 - First Vinyl ? Fringe venues in London Purpose built music halls, 1800s T 1960 - Tapes Accessible but 1877 ? I 2000 - Ipods Individual listening, Music goes beyond comedy, also used ffor comed y in a transport y, Music halls replace epla performance the 1979 - Walkman ffew w sites si monopolised by a fe Phonograph invented All digital digitaal on on the cloud Y 2005 - Youtube personal music the boundaries of theatre, gymnastics and pleasure gardens 1980 - CDs coll olle ections and playlists spa p ce 2006 - Spotify collections time and space interchange suggests the way dance 1999 - Napster 1806 - 1876 spaces forBrit culture are no longer ? 768 76 68 British Institure Promoting tish Institu re ffor P romoting Fine f Art Performance Art cademy ca ademy Arts in the United Kingdom monofunctional, and the terms 1936 1819 - 1900 apply elitist and popular no longer London International John Ruskin surrealist Exhibition ? A prominent British art to culture in all its guises. Designing ‘Grey Box’ o ? 200 00 2000 critic and writer Film Festival Festival of Architecture Festival Design Festival Food and an Drink Festivalss Food

art galleries

T te Modern Ta Mo odern Tate exhibiting A gallery exhibiting international modern art art international

1819 - 1900 T te Britain Ta Tate An art museum housing exhibitions of British art

2017 Fabric abric almost alm closes

1812 Th he Waltz takes k hold in The England

1898 Dame Ninette de valois Anglo - Irish dancer imports balletg from her russian teacher

1926 Royal Ballet school Established by Dame Ninette de Valois V

1998 Sadler’s Wells becomes a dance venue

Cultural Infrastructure

? Customise your own experience

Expanding art storage in museums, art as a commodity

? Street Dance Competitions

? Space Spac pace being re-appropriated other re-appropriat ted e by o ther programmes contrasting prog gramm mes

? Competative Dance for f TV Entertainment

29


Spaces for Culture Sport

Above: Collage for a gaming arena

We created a series of collages that summarised the major spatial shifts of our chosen culture strands, namely; Sport, theatre, Fairs, Music, Animals, Dance, Parks and Art. We observed how, for example, sport has often involved mass audiences, inclusivity has changed over time between men and women, and there is a continued change in emphasis from physical to virtual gaming. This may suggest a redefinition of what a game might be and what the spatial requirements are.

30

Metabolic City


Theatre

Above: Multi-use Performance Space Collage

Theatre originated in churches between 900-1200AD. Following churches, inn yards became appropriated for performance spaces in London. This was a fully permissive space where people were allowed to sit on the stage, talk through performances and excessively consume food and alcohol. Later theatre performances evolved to be dominated by the higher classes and the wealthy in terms of hierarchy and quality of viewing, and became housed in specific highly organised venues. Today smaller rehearsal venues are disappearing placing stress on theatre beyond big West End productions. Cultural Infrastructure

31


Spaces for Culture Fairs

Above: Collage for Fairs over time

32

Initially tied to religious events, holidays and harvest times, Fairs slowly evolved into more entertainment driven expositions with games, music and theatrical performances. The Fairs Act in 1860 abolished fairs from town centres, and moved them to the periphery, suggesting a decline in popularity. Conversely, advancements in steam trains increased access and once more increased the popularity of fairs in Cities.

Metabolic City


Music

Above: Music venue Collage

Mass consumption of music occurred principally within religious buildings, whilst Royalty and the rich were the patrons, shows occurred primarily in elite private settings. In 1678 a group of musicians opened the first concert house in the context of a private home. Technology evolved to allow for mass music consumption. Digital music initially appeared to threaten artist performances, however the advent of accessible music online gave rise to popular live performances that could fill larger concert venues. Music is produced today in a variety of scales from studios to private homes, yet increased urban density has meant that noise is being cleansed from the urban environment. Cultural Infrastructure

33


Spaces for Culture Animals

Above: Animals as a form of entertainment to sacred objects

The involvement of animals in society as a form of entertainment has evolved from simple means of brutal entertainment, as seen in the cockfighting and bear baiting pits of the 15th century, to domesticated pets through the proliferation of animal rights movement and the phenomenon of animal memes and videos. Re-wilding and conservation efforts are encouraging positive relationships between humans and animals and is prompting new urban typologies of open spaces and the closure of traditional zoos.

34

Metabolic City


Dance

Above: Choreographed dance and impromptu performances

Dance and its recognised values of formal both choreographed performances and impromptu dances, has continual importance through society as a manifestation and expression of culture. In particular this image represents trends of folk dancing in courtly settings to the current day, where street dance has been promoted to a much larger scale of sponsored formal performances. Today a flash mob performance may occupy a train station interchange and be broadcast to a global audience, however the provisions of rehearsal spaces and studios are under threat. Cultural Infrastructure

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Spaces for Culture Parks

Parks and the evolution of natural open spaces such as village commons and royal hunting grounds, to the micro, highly designed, urban landscapes, shape our cities over time with various degrees of public access and control. City planning has promoted the development of the garden city movement the reintroduction and importance of urban farming and allotments. Whilst privately owned public spaces suggest openness, they are highly controlled and policed despite appearances. 36

Metabolic City


Art

The spatial requirements of visual art, from the walls of churches, to the salon showings in private homes, to the white cube galleries of today have significantly impacted the design of modern galleries, resulting in a common trend of ‘white cube’ galleries. 50 of the last 300 galleries and museums built were designed by just three architects; Chipperfield, Piano and Tadao Ando, which indicates the homogenization of cultural spaces, especially galleries. Alongside the display of art, the production of art is essential. Artists need low-rent, messy studios spaces that are quickly become priced out of the city. Cultural Infrastructure

37


Spaces for Culture Scale of Venues

Above Top: The finals of the Red Bull Dance Academy have grown into

a rich and vibrant dance scene, with active communities stretching across every corner of the globe. Each year, top dancers push the limits of dance, with a vast audience in huge arenas.

Above Below: The grand finals of the online game League of Legends,

an “e” Sport that has 67million active players a month creates demand for physical participation despite being a ‘virtual’ production. The world wide phenomenon of gaming is quickly becoming one of the biggest sports in the world with huge live finals and cash prizes.

38

Metabolic City


Where in the City?

Cafes

Pubs and Bars

Theatres & Cinemas

Stadiums and Sports Centres

Parks and Green Spaces

We chose to map where amenities are commonly located in London in an attempt to explore the correlation between scales of provision and whether they lie in fringe locations or in the city centre. Both stadiums and theatres, as larger spaces for cultural participation, are both concentrated in the centre close to transport, and also found as isolated provisions in the Greater London boroughs. In contrast, cafes and pubs are a much more common granular provision throughout London, that allow for smaller scale spaces for cultural participation. Cultural Infrastructure

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Spaces for Culture Scaled Plan Taxonomy XS A

B

C

D

To further our research into a taxonomy of cultural spaces, we scaled existing plans that represented varying sizes of space in London for cultural production and participation.

E

S F

G

H

A: Finsborough Theatre B: SPACE Artist Studios

M

C: Barge Cinema by Studio Weave D: Tube Carriage I

J

K

E: Bedroom Music Studio F: The Crown and Shuttle, Shoreditch G: Historic Execution Stage

L

H: Dance Rehearsal Studio, Clapham M

L

N

I: Historic Inn Yard J: Holborn Wetherspoons K: Dance School, Islington L: Royal Opera House, London M: Newgate Prison N: Whitechapel Gallery O: Royal Academy P: Sadlers Wells Q: London Olympic Stadium

O

P

XL

Q 40

Metabolic City


Hybridity of Space Barge Cinema

Tube Carriage

12 People

170 People

Production

Participation

Participation

Hybrid Space Informal dining event on the Tube

HYBRIDITY OF SPACE

Hybrid Space Birmingham Symphony Orchestra

Scales of contemporary cultural production and participation are evolving: a barge becomes an intimate cinema experience for 12 people or a typical London tube carriage which carries 170 people can be hijacked as an impromptu shared dining space, questioning the scale of culture and its location in the city. There are various forms of cultural participation in cities that explore hybridity of space such as a full orchestra performance and participation in an infrastructure train ticket hall. Cultural Infrastructure

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42

Metabolic City


Strategy

Before building a typology around the hybrid uses of space within the city with good public accessibility we first took a position on the scales and locations of intervention. Our research of Culture over time in conjunction with the current context in London informed our strategies for cultural infrastructure. In addition we looked at viable funding models that would enable the implementation of these strategies in locations all over London.

Cultural Infrastructure

43


MeSS Culture not MASS Culture Institutions vs Granular

CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS We reject the emphasis on future models of heavy institutions that provide top down culture in a formal fixed setting and ask; can we instead offer an alternative?

44

GRANULAR CULTURAL IMPLEMENTATION We view cultural production at varying scales as a fundamental and core component of the successful city. We propose to design policies, new typologies and public spaces through granular implementation that values popular mass culture, shared encounters and moments of participation and production.

Metabolic City


Metabolic Spatial Strategies

XS

1-10 People

S

M

10-50 People

L

1000+ People

50-200 People

XL

10,000+ People

To this extent we propose a new form of policy, a Policy for MeSS Metabolic Spatial Strategy, for the provision of cultural infrastructure based on the number of people and where they spend time – rather than just where they live or work – to form a new territory of sharing space and culture as never before. We will consider the spaces within the city which are most under threat, the XS, S, M. We have identified a framework of spaces with activities that are appropriate for each of these scales. We will work within the “bottom-up” model of granular culture, as the larger scales are able to successfully take care of themselves.

Cultural Infrastructure

45


MeSS Tactics Tactic Examples

TOOLKIT DESCRIPTIONS Play Space: Playful urban environments respond to location based reality gaming and children’s games.

Production Spaces: Maker space becomes a fundamental obligation in developments similar to affordable housing quotas. Performance: Flexible spaces which address the spatial hierarchy of viewing and performance should be provided for congregation and exchange. Pubs: Threats to pubs and increased automation, mean new typologies for socialising are needed. Gaming: A spatial provision for online social gatherings at a variety of scales.

46

Fitness: As obesity rises, demand rises for physical urban forms that encourage sports. Public Platform: As Privately owned public space increase, the platform offers a civic space for exploration. Domestic Galleries: Tax Exemption schemes are challenged so that private homes are obliged to become publicly accessible exhibition spaces.

Metabolic City


With our knowledge that the extra small, small, and medium scaled spaces, that are now under threat are key to the evolution of culture and its ability to thrive, we will focus on the culture of the street and the emergent virtual territories between social media and hybrid activities in which people increasingly wish to participate.

The initial hybrid scales of the tactics were tested close to transport hubs, including elements of production and participation at varying scales which respond to the future predictions of culture based on our mapping.

Cultural Infrastructure

47


Crossrail Developments

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

West

West

Central

Central

500 m zone 1000 m zone

HAROLD WOOD

GIDEA PARK

ROMFORD

CHADWELL HEATH

GOODMAYES

SEVEN KINGS

Eastern Section

0 Whole Line

SHENFIELD

ABBEY ROAD

MANOR PARK

ILFORD WOOLWICH

STRATFORD

FOREST GATE CUSTOM HOUSE

CANARY WHARF

WHITECHAPEL

Central Section

Whole Line

East

LIVERPOOL STREET

LONDON EUSTON FARRINGDON

PADDINGTON

BOND STREET

ACTON MAIN LINE

HANWELL

WEST EALING

EALING BROADWAY

SOUTHALL

Western Section

TOTTENHAM COURT ROAD

HEATHROW T1,2,3&4

READING

HAYES AND HARLINGTON

SLOUGH

OLD OAK COMMON

BIRMINGHAM

East

2,000,000

4,000,000

6,000,000

8,000,000

10,000,000

Residential Office Retail

PLANNING APPLICATION BY LINE SECTION

ESTIMATED FLOOR SPACE BY LINE SECTION & USE

In 2012, Crossrail published a Property Impact Study following research by GVA,noting how it was already having an impact on property developments, stimulating investment in commercial, retail and housing developments and further driving up values around stations.

The report suggests that along the full line of Crossrail there will be almost 9,000,000sqm of developments primarily in residential, office and retail developments. With these developments comes wealth and demand, driving up prices in the area and pushing low-cost cultural spaces to the fringes of the city. We believe this process has to change and planning obligations should preserve cultural infrastructure in relation to accessibility

Crossrail Development Pipeline Study Report by GVA 2014

48

Metabolic City


SILVERTOWN QUAYS

THE OLD VINYL FACTORY

THE WATERFRONT

Location: Custom House

Location: Hayes & Harlington

Location: Woolwich

Developer: Chelsfield & First Base

Developer: Perplexed LLP

Developer: Berkeley Homes

Size: 9,000 New Jobs

Size: 510 Units, 7886sqm B1a

Size: 2032 units

LONDON WALL PLACE

RATHBONE PLACE

WHITECHAPEL, BDP

Location: Liverpool Street

Location: Tottenham Court Road

Location: Whitechapel

Developer: Hammerson (Centurion) LTD

Developer: Great Portland Estates

Size:64,145sqm B1a

Size: 162 units 33,000 sqm B1a

Client: London Borough of Tower Hamlets Size: 3,500 New Homes, 5000 Jobs

London developments as a result of Crossrail appear generic side by side and tend not to reprovide lost spaces for production and participation, for messy informal environments for creativity and play.

Cultural Infrastructure

49


Funding Model CIL/ MCIL

5%

25%

Administration Costs Local Community Charging Authority

70%

The Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL): CIL is a tool for local authorities in England and Wales to help deliver infrastructure to support the development of the area, where the gross internal area of the new development exceeds 100 square metres. Mayoral Community Infrastructure Levy (MCIL): The MCIL is used specifically to fund Crossrail. It is separate to other borough community infrastructure levies (CILs) that raise funds for local infrastructure projects. CIL

MCIL

CIL is managed at a borough-wide level throughout London where each borough manages their own fees for developments and their tenures. CIL can be used as either incentives or deterrents for developments in particular boroughs, where fees can be changed to encourage or discourage particular developments. Could this be more specifically targetted for cultural infrastructure

Mayoral Community Infrastructure Levy was introduced in 2012 to help fund the Crossrail development. The total projected cost of Crossrail is £14,800,000,000, the Mayoral CIL was targeted to raise £600,000,000, Between 2012-16 MCIL has raised £300,000,000 from developments within 1km of Crossrail stations. Currently this does not address the reprovision of activities displaced by Crossrail.

50

Metabolic City


MeSS Policy

5%

25%

Cultural Infrastructure Administration Costs Local Community Charging Authority

45%

25%

MESS POLICY CIL is currently divided in three ways between; administration costs, the local community and the charging authority for culture. As local government funding continues to reduce, it is increasingly difficult to know where best to spend CIL funds to safeguard the city’s creativity & long-term cultural legacy.

Cultural Infrastructure

51


Casestudies Whitechapel Developments

11. 10.

WHITECHAPEL

2. 9.

4.

5. W hi te ch ap el

3.

1.

6. 8. 7.

Site

Resi (Units)

Office (sqm) Retail (sqm)

1. 191-195 Whitechapel Road

45

0

791

2. Adjacent to railway viaduct

93

0

0

5. 6-8 Hemming Street

34

1,434

0

6. Goodman’s Fields

864

0

0

7. Aldgate Union/ Aldgate Place

463

2,330

1,307

8. Attitude Aldgate

235

0

0

9. Block C- Brewery

0

7,889

0

10. 58-64 Three Colts Lane

149

0

0

11. The Colt

67

0

0

Totals 2,061 11,653 2,098

6. The Cavallo, Goodman’s Fields. Luxury housing development. “The advantages of inner city living with the peaceful tranquillity of a more rural setting with 2 acres of beautifully landscaped open space comprising of city gardens, animated water features and public art.” - Peabody sales

10. Three Colts Lane. “Stylish apartments in London’s creative East End”. “Brimming with cultural diversity”. “All finished to a high specification with spacious living areas, contemporary interiors and private balconies. - Peabody Sales

WHITECHAPEL Crossrail has acted as a catalyst in the area causing large amounts of new developments to arise within 1km of the station. Whitechapel sits at the fringe between the City of London and the East End, and is set to undergo huge amounts of transformation. With these new developments we have calculated that they will bring £12 million worth of CIL into the area, to be spent on local infrastructure. Under the new MeSS Policy 25%, which equates to £3 million, would be spent on funding cultural infrastructure to complement the existing provision.

52

Metabolic City


Hayes & Harlington Developments 5. 4. 6.

2. 1.

Ha ye

3.

n s & Ha rli ng to

7.

HAYES & HARLINGTON Site

Resi (Units)

Office (sqm) Retail (sqm)

1. The Old Vinyl Factory

132

321

251

2. The Old Vinyl Factory

510

7,886

4,000

3. 20-30 Blythe Road

120

543

0

4. Hayes Swimming Pool

72

0

0

5. The Kings Arms PH

21

0

0

6. Glenister Garden

65

0

0

7. Hyde Park Hayes

0

6,966

1,307

Total 920 15,716 4,692

1&2. The Old Vinyl Factory. “Intelligently designed workplaces, entertainment venues, shops and homes in art deco landmarks and smart contemporary buildings, set around colourful new public plazas.” U+I

7. Hyde Park, Hayes. “A modern business park located in an important and improving West London office market area. 13,880sqm of office floor space”.

HAYES & HARLINGTON Hayes and Harlington sit within the London Borough of Hillingdon, alongside Heathrow Airport. Similarly to Whitechapel, Hayes and Harlington will undergo a number of large scale developments due to the arrival of Crossrail, and on the current low land values of old industrial sites. The Old Vinyl Factory is an example of a large scale development which will include retail, residential and cultural amenities with a total new development area of 70,238sqm.

Crossrail Development Pipeline Study Report by GVA 2014

Cultural Infrastructure

53


The Cheap Space Whitechapel BDP Proposal

CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS Developments throughout London, such as the BDP scheme in Whitechapel, never show the full consequences of the proposals. This drawing by MUF shows the true nature of the scheme - in terms of the spaces that will suffer from lack of lighting and poor access. We feel that the potential impact on culture needs to be explicit at the planning stage.

54

Metabolic City


400 MQSSQM 004 Office oidutS 100% %52

Housing gnisuoH 25% %52

MQS 00 Studio oiedcuffi tSO 25% % %0 50 21

SQM PRICES SQMSQM PRICES PRICES 25% £800,000

£762,000

25%

gnisuoH %52

20% SAVING

£643,000

!% 02- Office !%Studio 02-20%! Office OfficeResidential Studio Studio Residential Residential £800,000 £762,000 00 0,2£1625 67£430 £ ,04068££ 00 0,346 £ £2000 £643,000 000000,3 £2000 £2000 £1625 £1625 £430£430

000,267£

PRODUCTION SPACES & CHEAP SPACES Cultural makers spaces have always existed in the cheap spaces of the city, and are commonly associated with low rent spaces and cheap finishes. We feel there is an opportunity to utilise the ‘cheap’ space of any development, where levels of light are low or noise is a nuisance, for cultural spaces. Which is essential as makers spaces are continuously pushed out of the city centre due to rising costs. As indicated by MUF’s overlay of shadows onto the BDP proposal, we believe these ‘cheap’ spaces exist in developments all over London and could be put to better use. Affordable housing quotas are common in developments, however they may not always be appropriate for housing and often become dull back of house areas, we propose these spaces can be used for creativity in the city centre. Cultural Infrastructure

55


56

Metabolic City


Tactics

Cultural Infrastructure

57


Where in London? Crossrail

WHITECHAPEL

HAYES AND HARLINGTON

HEATHROW T1,2,3&4

CROSSRAIL & CIL We have devised a city wide cultural strategy that is applicable all over London, in the future context of increased privately funded developments, utilising CIL money to balance the over scaled developments with granular scale culture for people that live, work and play in the city. We are focusing our initial explorations along Crossrail as it acts as a prominent catalyst for developments throughout East, Central and West

58

London in the next 20 years. Under the new MeSS Culture Policy, 25% of CIL from developments along Crossrail will be used to fund cultural infrastructure using the cheap space of developments. This balances the scale of sanitized commercial and residential developments with infrastructures that are truly publicly owned for the common good of the city’s current & future cultural identity.

Metabolic City


Existing Whitechapel Road

Proposed Entrance of Whitechapel Station

Existing Terminal 5

Proposed Terminal 5 Expansion

Existing Hayes & Harlington

Proposed Vinyl Factory Development

We have highlighted three contrasting scales of developments along the Crossrail route that exemplify varying contexts that will be affected by developments following Crossrail. Whitechapel, represents a central location within Tower Hamlets that is an interesting example of a fringe between the expanding march of the city towers and the

vulnerable East. Heathrow in significant contrast, is the third largest airport in the world, and is its own city within a city, that will be undergoing a vast expansion until 2030. As Heathrow’s ecosystems stretch far beyond it’s boundaries we will pair the MeSS Tactics in Terminal 5 with Hayes and Harlington, that will be connected to Terminal 5 by the Crossrail line.

Cultural Infrastructure

59


Whitechapel BDP Masterplan

WHITECHAPEL, BDP MASTER PLAN Crossrail opens in Whitechapel in 2018. The BDP master plan for 2021 includes Civic redevelopment of the Old Royal London Hospital into a town hall and a new Queen Mary University Campus. Key objectives of the regeneration scheme are to deliver; over 3,500 new homes by 2025, including substantial numbers of local family and affordable homes which will generate some 5,000 new jobs. In addition the master plan aims to transform Whitechapel Road into a destination shopping area for London, whilst creating 7 new public squares and open spaces and creating a world class Life Science Campus at QMUL. FUTURE Significant increase in population (291,300 in 2015 to 388,600 by 2030) and jobs over the next two decades the council are planning for more health facilities, increasing primary and secondary school places and improving green spaces, transport connections, community facilities and other elements of the borough’s infrastructure however cultural infrastructure is poorly represented in the proposal.

60

Metabolic City


BDP MASTERPLAN PROPOSED DEMOLITION

BDP MASTER PLAN PROPOSED DEVELOPMENTS In 2013, the borough of Tower Hamlets published the Whitechapel Vision stating “as the centre of London moves east, Whitechapel is uniquely placed to benefit from increased investment and development, to become a key destination”

Cultural Infrastructure

61


Whitechapel

Whitechapel Crossrail

Proposed Development

Mixed retail and leisure are to the north of the immediate retail buffer zone. “A secondary loop linked to Whitechapel Road will provide a range of complementary retail, leisure and business activity.”

1.

Core retail to the immediate high street context. “Activity will be focused on Whitechapel Road, announcing arrival into Whitechapel.”

2.

62

Metabolic City


ts

3.

Satellite residential areas to surround developments. “Important opportunities for improvements to existing housing estates, and new in ll development.”

Medical-city campus to the south of crossrail station and high street. “Opportunity to expand the Health, Bio-Tech and Life Sciences sector in Whitechapel through the evolution of the activities. Potential to bring together a number of disciplines to provide globally significant research activity and commercial spin-offs.”

4.

BDP, MASTER PLAN QUARTER ANALYSIS BDP highlights both existing and proposed zones and districts within Whitechapel in order to frame the location of developments within their context. The zones it has identified are: 1. Mixed retail, leisure & business 2. Core high street retail 3. Satellite Residential Areas to surround Developments

“Cultural, community and creative quarter. Provision of flexible work spaces for local Small and Medium Enterprises to support ongoing production. Protecting, enhancing and refurbishing business space for new start-ups on New Road. The masterplan would seek to support and enhance their provision through infrastructure improvements.”

5.

Cultural Infrastructure

4. Medical city campus to provide globally significant research 5. Community & Creative Quarter As a reaction to Crossrail, notably from the vast amounts of developments that will be located around the station itself, we have identified critical locations close to the transport interchange and further away where the proposed and existing context meet and require the MeSS Culture tactical toolkit to be applied.

63


Whitechapel Performance Space

MeSS Culture Tactic: Performance

Plan of Master plan meeting Existing with MeSS

PERFORMANCE TACTIC FOR WHITECHAPEL The performance space bridges between The Urban Bar, a local bar and venue on Whitechapel, and a new retail and residential scheme. The existing and proposed are mediated by a new public performance space and structure for permissivity. Our tactic straddles the new development and stitches front and back elements of the high street together. 64

The proposal becomes a shared territory around the development that can be used for small to medium scale performances on the street. From busking to professional performances, the indoor and outdoor space becomes publicly democratised.

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Whitechapel Production Space

MeSS Culture Tactic: Production Space

PRODUCTION SPACE FOR WHITECHAPEL The MeSS Culture tactic of production space ensures that cheap spaces with low lighting, noise pollution and reduced access aren’t bleak back of house areas. Instead the production space tactic will programme the cheap space of a new 6 storey residential scheme to provide individual and communal space for rehearsals, 66

maker’s spaces and activities all of which will be able to flood out into the street. This will provide a local, city central location for production space as well as lively streetlife, in Whitechapel rather than being marginalised by large sanitised commercial and residential proposals.

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Whitechapel Permissive Public Space

PLAY SPACE

PUBLIC PLATFORM (Overleaf)

To compliment an existing area of congregation, the responsive sunken play environment creates an urban provision for virtual reality and location based reality gaming, as well as more traditional forms of play.

By using our public platform tactic, the bleak sanitized privately owned public space adjacent to a mixed retail and leisure development becomes straddled by a publicly owned public space, where permissivity and tolerance are promoted as an armature for spontaneous appropriation by passersby.

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Heathrow Linking local and international Cultures

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HEATHROW Intersecting our priorities of where people are spending their time and the surge in developments over the next 12 years, let’s test our MeSS Culture tactics at the extreme scale. With the new Crossrail Elizabeth Line, these two previously remote locations, are more connected than ever when Heathrow will be only 35 minutes from Whitechapel. Exploring the context of infrastructural shifts in transport, we were in conversations with Derek Provan, the head of development at Heathrow Airport regarding the huge expansion of Terminal 5. Heathrow is akin to a city within a city; 32,000,000 passengers pass through Terminal 5 alone with 30,000 members of staff. Due to automation and driverless cars, Heathrow expect that the car park at Terminal 5 will no longer be required and will be turned into a new retail concourse. We think this development will need some MeSS Culture.

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Heathrow Terminal 5

1.

3. 2.

2.

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7. 4. 5.

6.

Cultural Infrastructure

1.

Typical Retail Airport Concourse

2.

Art storage on Public Display

3.

Social Gaming Arena

4.

Automated Pub(lic) Canopy

5.

Performance Space

6.

Piccadilly Line

7.

Crossrail Elizabeth Line

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Heathrow Gaming & Display TERMINAL 5 MESS CULTURE Although the scale of Terminal 5 is vast, the importance for extra small, small and medium scale cultural infrastructure could be significant in maximising its potential both for passengers in airport transit, workers, as well as local Londoners. MeSS provides a social gaming platform that allows for group play and participation. In addition a spatial experience that displays art and collectibles. Freeports in Airports all over the world that store high value art and items for tax exemption, making these private collections public.

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Performance & Pub(lic) Canopies The performance space straddles the divisions of departures, staff and arrivals, and creates shared theatre experiences between the vast quantities of people moving through Terminal 5 at all times of the day, in the airport’s 24 hour nature. Threats to service industry jobs and increased automation encourages new typologies for socialising through the Pub(lic) Canopy Tactic where ‘opening hours’ are programmed into the canopies creating entertainment throughout the day & night in the 24 hour Airport.

res

u art

p

De

aff

St

ls va i r r

A

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Hayes & Harlington Satellite Towns

TERMINAL 5 & IT’S SATELLITE TOWNS Terminal 5 sits in the context of Heathrow’s 1230 Hectare site, located in the Borough of Hillingdon, where 20% of it’s population currently work in Heathrow. The Borough has 260,000 residents and covers an area of 44 square miles. Heathrow’s influence extends far beyond it’s boundaries and is surrounded by satellite towns within Heathrow. In conjunction with Heathrow, the satellite towns would benefit highly from MeSS Culture Tactics generated by the vast expansion of Terminal 5, both on the perimeter of the airport itself and in the satellite towns too.

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The loss of 600,000 manufacturing jobs in the UK by 2030 will lead to increasing amounts of industrial buildings becoming redundant. This is an opportunity for the cheap space to be reappropriated for cultural use within local communities with great accessibility. Production space in satellite towns around the context of Heathrow would benefit from local, granular scale refurbishment of vacant industrial space, rather than them lying as voids in the suburban fabric. We tested the Production Space MeSS Culture Tactic Hayes & Harlington, that sits to the north of Heathrow. These spaces could also lend themselves to other noisy uses like night clubs or alternative sports facilities.

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Hayes & Harlington Production Space

2.

3.

1.

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1.

Crossrail Station

2.

Vacant industrial warehouses

3.

Community space

4.

Studios/ Workshops/ Maker Spaces

5.

Local residential buildings

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5.

4.

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Appendix

To develop a strategy that proposes a relevant shift in the way the metabolic city reacts to cultural challenges, we have to position ourselves within a wealth of current and historical understanding. As MeSS - Metabolic Spatial Strategists we work from a vantage point built on a broadened perspective that informs the way we design from the grass roots up. This section of supporting information and useful references further describes the context and builds on the process of defining cultural infrastructure and our position within it.

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CIL Spending Hillingdon Chrysalis Funding

Yiewsley & West Drayton Community Centre before

Yiewsley & West Drayton Community Centre After

GRANULAR CULTURAL IMPLEMENTATION From these developments, the resulting CIL gets pooled into each local borough, it commonly supports local small scale infrastructures. The Chrysalis Fund is a community funding programme in The London Borough of Hillingdon, designed to support community driven projects since 2009. This programme in particular is available for the enhancement of facilities on council land only. The images above are images showing how CIL money has been spent in Hillingdon for the past two years, with negligible improvements. https://www.hillingdon.gov.uk/article/30869/Chrysalis-projects-2016

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Before

After

Car park at Kingston Lane

Refurbished car park at Kingston Lane

Swakeleys Park Before

Swakeleys Park Refurbished Playground

Moorcroft Social Centre Before

Moorcroft Social Centre Refurbishment

Northwood Town Cricket Before

Northwood Town Cricket After Cultural Infrastructure

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The Future Demographic Designing for the Extremes

Over 65s

Urban Elites

Low Skilled Workers

Foreign Born Workers

Ages 5-14

THE FUTURE DEMOGRAPHICS

Urban Elites

To develop our proposals for cultural infrastructure between 2018-2030 we researched into the projections for the demographics living in a postBrexit London.

Class based tensions will increase and as we approach 2030 and the wealth gap will further widen. Increases in the private sector will lead to selfemployed workers totalling more than public sector employees.

Over 65s in 2030 By 2030 there will be a 30% increase in the number of over 65’s, which will total 15.4 million in the UK. In addition over 85’s will double before 2030. Low-Skilled Workers Due to increases in the use of automation, there will be 2 million job losses in retail by 2030, and a further 600,000 in manufacturing.

Ages 5-14 In 2030 the ages between 5 & 14 will be in the later stages of their education and entering their professional careers. Ethnic Majorities/ Foreign Born Workers Despite the 2016 Brexit results, 21% of the population will be non-white by 2030 that will increase to 33% by 2050.

https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/dec/29/uk-in-2030-older-moreunequal-and-blighted-by-brexit-report-predicts

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AGED 5-14

AGED 65-89

Ages 5-14

PAKISTANI

Ages 65+

ARAB

Pakistani

BRITISH

Arab

BANGLADESHI

British

INDIAN

Bangladeshi

CHINESE

Indian Cultural Infrastructure

Chinese 87


Greater London Plan Abercrombie & Forshaw

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Abercrombie & Forshaw’s Greater London Plan The greater London plan of 1944 was developed to represent London as a city of opportunity following the rapid industrialisation of the 19th century, amongst post World War II context. Population growth, housing, employment and industry, recreation and transport represented key aspects of city life. A new plan was proposed to set out community areas which were based around green spaces. It’s implementation was never realised as it was concluded that it was not possible to provide the green space amenity locally, and that it could instead be achieved through improvements to transport. Cultural Infrastructure

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Mobility Transport and Connectivity

MOBILITY If the city of the future is planned around not only where the population spends its time, but also the finer grain of that population. We looked to challenge the notion of ‘the London borough’ acknowledging the rates of change in previously identified trends. Prompted by a criticism of the GLA’s concept of a London borough of culture, a new definition of community identity can be formed around increased mobility and the constant evolution of the world city. This map overlays the London Boroughs with the demographics of London’s population, showing that they are not bound by the borough boundaries, and are constantly in flux . 90

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Cultural Districts London

OLYMPICOPOLIS We looked to explore the proposed Olympicopolis master plan in the knowledge that it looks to embrace the energy of London’s creative culture. Located closely to Hackney Wick’s makers community, this is an institutionalised model of top down implementation that is forcing the creative culture it seeks to provide for out of the city. Increasing the distance between the city and it’s forms of creative production.

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SOUTHBANK The Festival of Britain, 1951, on London’s Southbank is another immediately recognisable lasting effect of a cultural catalyst at a national scale. Originally a celebration of technology and experimentation it has seen many changes, most recently in increased commerciality. The temporary nature of a festival allows for flexibility and an open platform, the Southbank is a model that uses this stage to inform permanent structures and programmes that capture and maintain the initial temporary celebration.

Funded by Government Festival of Britain 1951

ALBERTOPOLIS In 1851, the Great Exhibition was a similar celebration of the advances of the day in the Arts, science and technology. Making a substantial unexpected profit from ticket sales for the Great Exhibition, the profit was used to buy 86 acres of land that now contains some of the worlds best known museums, galleries and educational facilities in the UK. Now seen as the elite old guard of London’s cultural institutions, it has become detached from the advances made by others more recently, with many of the institutions developing satellite outposts to reconnect to the population. This is an example of the heavy institutions we sought to balance through empowering the local communities with granular culture.

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Mapping Appendix Connectivity

MAPPING Using available government data resources we undertook a city wide mapping exercises. 1 Transport: Mapping the PTAL Transport rating throughout Greater London to determine the areas of the highest connectivity. This formed the basis of our initial site investigations. 2 Art Institutions: By using a combination of GIS data and digital computation we mapped the major Art Institutions and their connectivity to the rest of the London. Seen here as a 20 min distance from surrounding area to the relevant institution.

Transport

1

3 Visual Arts: We mapped the connectivity to all listed galleries, monuments and external artworks in London to determine the general access to visual art. Seen here as a 20min distance from surrounding area to the visual art institution or monument.

This mapping further highlighted the disparity of access to the large scale visual art institutions outside of Greater London. Art Institutes

2

https://data.gov.uk/ https://data.London.gov.uk/ http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database https://www.visitbritain.org/

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3


Mapping Appendix Demographic 1

Rental Prices

MAPPING Using Local output areas classification (LOAC) and 2011 census Data we revealed an invisible map of London. A London based on its demography. This helped us to locate distinct communities within which we would start to design for. This mapping showed us that even though London is perceived as an ethnically diverse and intermingled city, the city is still extremely segregated.

2

Education 1 Rental Prices: This map of the average rent prices reveals the concentration of wealth in the central west and fringes. 2 Education: We mapped London’s educational rating, based on access and standard of education received. Similarities can be drawn when compared to the Rental Prices mapping. 3 + 4 LOAC Super Groups: The LOAC is a new open-source geodemographic classification data set that uses 2011 Census data, providing summary indicators of the social, economic and demographic characteristics of neighborhoods at output area level. The LOAC consists of 8 Super Groups and a total of 19 Sub-Groups.

A1 A2 B1 B2 B3 C1 C2 C3 C4 D1 D2 E1 E2 F1 F2 G1 G2 H1 H2

3

LOAC: Super Groups

https://www.ons.gov.uk/census/2011census

A B C D E F G H

https://data.gov.uk/ https://data.London.gov.uk/ http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database https://www.visitbritain.org/

LOAC: Sub Groups Cultural Infrastructure

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Live & Workday Population Live Population

Leeds Manchester Nottingham Birmingham

Cardiff

LIVE/WORK POPULATION Few people remain in one place for long, nor in one job, often blurring the boundaries between home and work, the centre and the suburbs, which raises the question - where should future investment in cultural infrastructure be focused? These maps of England’s live and work populations show the daily flux and the draw of the large metropolitan cities.

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Bristol

London


Leeds

Manchester Nottingham

Birmingham

Cardiff

London

Bristol

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/10417064/Mapped-howthe-countrys-population-changes-during-a-work-day.html

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Mapping Culture? London Developments

MAPPING CULTURE This is an initial mapping of the evolution of culture over the last century, looking at specific causes and their effects. These turning points, and the moments that surround them, unearthed clear trends, but also highlighted to us the need for a more detail and fluid mapping medium. This mapping exercise was exciting as it began to study all the different forms of policy and political shifts that have influenced the evolution of culture in the city and its spatial provision, right up to the current day with technology playing a prime role in the world of cultural participation. The map to the right looks at the evolution of culture over the last five centuries, beginning to highlight the various categories of cultural entertainment. Some of these have continued throughout time with little changes such as pubs, whilst some have evolved in their levels of participation and production such as dance, music and art. Then there are some slightly more unusual examples such as public executions which died out, but have been revived in a contemporary form through public shaming in the media on Facebook and in tabloids. 98

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17th C

21st C

Cinema

Glastonbury London Zoo Concert White Cube

Gramophones

Sadlers Wells

Stadiums

Hyde Park Festival of Britain London Zoo Olympics

Great Exhibition

Skygarden

Public Shaming

53 MILLION

MEDIA BASED PUBLIC SHAMING

PRIVATELY OWNED PUBLIC SPACE

LARGE FESTIVALS OUTSIDE CITIES

EVOLVING ANIMAL RIGHTS- NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS

CONTINUOUS WITH EXPANDING SCALE

LARGE SCALE ESTABLISHMENTS

LARGE SCALE EVENTS vs. HOME LISTENING

WHITE CUBE GALLERY TRENDS, WITH COMMERCIAL ADDITIONS

LARGE SCALE VARYING LOCATIONS vs. HOME VIEWING

Pub

COMMERCIALISED, PRONE TO TRENDS

London Fabric

Brunch Queues

Cultural Infrastructure

Dance Halls

Balls

Balls

Balls

Taverns

CONTINUOUS

Dinner Parties Maypole Celebrations

DANCE

Scientific Zoo Music Halls Dulwich Picture Gallery Camera Development

FILM

FOOD

Football

Cricket

Menagerie

Batholomew Fair

Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens

ART

In Residence

MUSIC

PUBS

20th C

49.1 MILLION

Sadlers Wells

Red lion - First Purpose Built Theatre

Boxing

SPORT

THEATRE

19th C

30.5 MILLION

High Victorian

Hunting

FAIRS

Blood Sports

River Thames

GARDENS/ PARKS

ANIMALS

18th C

8.3 MILLION

Cinema

5.5 MILLION

Public Hangings

PUBLIC EXECUTIONS

16th C

Witch Trials

4 MILLION

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Extra Curricular Activities BERLIN TRIP 13-15.01.2017 The opening of ‘Black Tower’, a Walid Siti exhibition at the Zilbermann gallery, investigating aspects of collective memory, cultural identity and personal experience amid changing sociopolitical realities. To understand the culture of a world city it requires experiencing this scale of contemporary culture through exhibition, alongside the long established and continually developing districts. To frame the context of London as one of many metabolic cities.

CETI VISITS 07.01.2017- 15.02.17 This little known scheme seeks to keep assets considered valuable to British Cultural Heritage within the UK borders by offering tax exemption to those who inherit them - the theory being that otherwise the assets would not be affordable to keep and would be sold off overseas. In exchange the asset must be kept in the UK, maintained and made available to the public for viewing. This is done either through exhibitions (1 month each year, 6 months every 6 years), or through appointment from the website which lists 400,000 assets.

HOW TO: AN EVENING WITH DAVID SALLE 24.01.2017 “David Salle is the leading American post modernist painter, the shaping spirit of a movement which provocatively took the entire history of art as its raw material as well as subject matter. To coincide with his new book – How to See: Looking, Talking and Thinking about Art– Salle will walk us through the museum without walls that is his world. ‘If John Berger’s Ways of Seeing is a classic of art criticism, David Salle’s How to See is the artist’s reply, a brilliant series of reflections on how artists think when they make their work. The ‘how’ of art has never been better explored”

NAVARRA SYMPOSIUM 07.01.2017- 15.02.17 DSDHA organised a cross-university symposium with Universidad de Navarra, a University in Pamplona, Spain where Deborah Saunt leads an architecture post-graduate course. A number of presentations were organised on the topic of Cultural Infrastructure and Visual Art. The speakers included; Ian Hunt a Lecturer at Goldsmiths, University of London; Ellis Woodman from the Architecture Foundation; Charlotte, the owner of the Large Glass Gallery; Mark Shaw from Studio Shaw and John Bingham-Hall from Theatrum Mundi.

SALT INSTITUTE DISCUSSION 20.02.2017 DSDHA hosted an open table discussion with Anla reflecting on her work with the Salt Institute in Istanbul. We discussed the nature of art and the contrasts between the highly mobile class of the jet set elite vs. mass tourism; The necessary costs of public programming, events, attractions and the challenges faced by the Salt Institute when it opened and how in these contexts can we create something permissive and MeSSy that can be a place of intersection to accommodate different demographics?

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FUNDAMENTALS @ CSM 16.02.2017 “As the kamikaze pilots of urban renewal, wherever artists go the cranes are sure to follow. Rents will rise, the artists will move on and the preexisting community will be kicked out with them. But how can artists play a meaningful role in regeneration? How can public art go beyond the shiny bauble, the token garnish used to distract from the mean-minded reality of commercial development? Can the art strategies of the “placemaking” industry truly add value to a place, or are they destined to be a soothing salve for the developers’ conscience?”

TWIN TALKS 02.03.2017 “Where is the centre of architecture? Where does architectural culture evolve? Does it have a geographic base? What is marginal activity and what are marginal places? In a digitally democratised world is the idea of physical proximity and cultural hegemony relevant?” Guest Speakers: Daisy Froud, Jess Fernie, David Knight Hosted By: Charles Holland & Robert Mull

PATRICIA BICKERS, ART MONTHLY 06.03.2017 Patricia Bickers is editor of Art Monthly and principal lecturer in art history and theory at the University of Westminster. She is the author of The Brit Pack: Contemporary British Art, The View from Abroad (Cornerhouse, 1995), and recently coedited, Talking Art: Interviews with Artists since 1976, (Art Monthly and Ridinghouse Editions, 2007).

DEREK PROVAN, HEATHROW AIRPORT 06.03.2017 Derek is the Head of Heathrow Development, Derek explained some of the logistical process of managing the Heathrow Development, looking at the mega trends and asking which sociopolitical trends will affect life in 2070? Autonomy - it will happen, but the question is when will it become mainstream? Airports are becoming cities in their own right, how do you manage these effects on surrounding towns and neighbourhoods.

FINN WILLIAMS & POOJA AGRAWAL -GLA 06.04.2017 Finn is vice-chair of the Tower Hamlets Design Review Panel and board member of Urban Design London. Pooja, formerly of design studio We Made That, is now working on the upcoming cultural infrastructure plan. We met to discuss the direction of our proposal, specifically the proposed use of CIL, and to assess ways to maximise the effectiveness of London’s current models of funding.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q.1 “What do you define as Cultural Infrastructure?”

Q.4 What is Populism?

We believe it is the series of spaces and networks throughout the city that allow for culture, from high art to hip hop, to be produced, disseminated and enjoyed. This involves the freedom to play and explore, for production and participation, and provides a level of porosity and permissiveness that allows for MeSS.

Q.2 “What do you define as Popular Culture?” A culture of the people, not an educated elite. Through which they affirm their solidarity in the face of oppression, to establish a social identity and sense of belonging.

Q.3 Why is Culture important? A common culture has consistently bred tribes within modern society and allows for sharing, interaction and cross pollination. Contrast and excitement make our cities. In times of disenchantment it is testament to this that a city turns to it’s culture as a form of rejuvenation.

Populism is a collective disestablishment motion towards addressing the feeling that the common is being exploited by a privileged elite.

Q.5 What is Globalisation? This is not a new phenomenon, but an economic change which started early 1970s, erasing national limits to the free flow of goods, capital and workers. A political, economic and social accelerator.

Q.6 What is Culture? We consider culture to be arguably one of the hardest words to define. It has a unique meaning to each individual as well as to different collections of people. Johann Gottfried Herder defined Kultur in the mid 18th Century as the lifeblood of a people, the flow of moral energy that holds society intact. The definition grew to be of culture as defining the essence of a nation, a shared spiritual force which is manifest in all the customs, beliefs and practices of a people. It shapes language, art, religion, and history. Many people believe it to be the best that has been written and said and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement. In Roger Scruton’s book ‘An Intelligent Person’s Guide to Modern Culture’ (2006) he describes three types of culture: Common Culture -the shared culture of a tribe which is a sign of its inner cohesion and identity. High Culture - as the property of an educated elite, an attainment that involves intellect and study. Popular Culture - a culture of the people, through which they affirm their solidarity in the face of oppression and through which they establish their social identity and sense of belonging We believe that Scruton’s definition are outdated considering the evolution of culture today into a highly hybridized form. We have highlighted many examples of this throughout our research, such as Beyonce styling images of herself after high art paintings of the Virgin Mary when announcing her pregnancy, and museums and galleries hosting silent discos and sleep overs to attract a new audience. It is this hybridity of culture today that we find so exciting.

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Bibliography Trump, Brexit, and the Rise of Populism: Economic Have-Nots and Cultural Backlash - Faculty research working papers series.

Ronald F, Pippa Norris HarvardKennedy School - 2016 The value of arts and culture to people and society an evidence review.

Arts council - 2014 Making cultural infrastructure

John Bingham-Hall, Adam Kaasa Theatrum Mundi - 2016 Caruso St.John - Almost Everything

Phillip Ursprung - 2008 Does Globalisation mean we will become one culture?

http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120522-oneworld-order - BBC 2014 London Borough of Hillingdon community infrastructure levy - Charging Schedule

Hillingdon Council - 2014 London Borough of Hillingdon community infrastructure levy - Annual Report

Hillingdon Council - 2016 Whitechapel Vision - Supplementary Planning Document

London Borough of Tower Hamlets - 2013 All over the world, museums are springing up. Will they become white elephants?

Fiammetta Rocco - LSE Lecture Series

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Profile for Metabolic Cities

Cultural Infrastructure by Metabolic Cities  

Metabolic Cities have addressed some of the issues raised by the Mayor of London about Cultural Infrastructure and have devised 'MESS': A wa...

Cultural Infrastructure by Metabolic Cities  

Metabolic Cities have addressed some of the issues raised by the Mayor of London about Cultural Infrastructure and have devised 'MESS': A wa...

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