ANNUAL REPORT 2010
MESA+ Annual Report 2010
Preface................................................................................................................................................................ 5 Opening MESA+ NanoLab......................................................................................................................................... 6 About MESA+, in a nutshell...................................................................................................................................... 8 MESA+ Strategic Research Orientations........................................................................................................... 10 Commercialization..................................................................................................................................................... 16
The Dutch Nano-landscape.................................................................................................................................... 18 National NanoLab facilities.................................................................................................................................... 20 International Networks............................................................................................................................................ 22
Awards, honours and appointments................................................................................................................... 26
Biomolecular Electronic Structure................................................................................................ 32 BioMolecular Nanotechnology..........................................................................................................33
BIOS Lab-on-a-Chip.............................................................................................................................. 34 Catalytic Processes and Materials................................................................................................... 35 Complex Photonic Systems................................................................................................................. 36 Computational Materials Science..................................................................................................... 37
Inorganic Materials Science............................................................................................................... 38 Integrated Optical MicroSystems..................................................................................................... 39
Interfaces and Correlated Electron systems................................................................................40 Laser Physics and Nonlinear Optics............................................................................................... 41
Materials Science and Technology of Polymers..............................................................................42 Membrane Technology Group.......................................................................................................... 43 Mesoscale Chemical Systems........................................................................................................... 44
Molecular nanoFabrication.................................................................................................................45 NanoBioPhysics...................................................................................................................................... 46
MESA+ Scientific Publications 2010........................................................................................................ 60
MESA+ Governance Structure.................................................................................................................. 66
NanoElectronic Materials................................................................................................................... 48
NanoIonics................................................................................................................................................ 49 Optical Sciences...................................................................................................................................... 50 Physics of Interfaces and Nanomaterials...................................................................................... 51
Physics of Complex Fluids.................................................................................................................. 52 Physics of Fluids..................................................................................................................................... 53
Science, Technology and Policy Studies....................................................................................... 54
Semiconductor Components............................................................................................................... 55
Solid Matter, Fluidics and Interfaces..............................................................................................56 Transducer Science and Technology............................................................................................. 57
Contact details.............................................................................................................................................. 66
Eye-catcher The year 2010 was a memorable year with enjoyable moments celebrating great successes in science, technology and infrastructure. Our new MESA+ NanoLab had its grand opening by the Prince of Orange Willem Alexander on November 5. The bright red exterior of the MESA+ NanoLab itself is an eye-catcher, and what happens inside even exceeds expectations. When Prince Claus opened the forerunner to the new MESA+ NanoLab in 1990, it was all about micrometers - onethousandth of a millimeter. Now, barely twenty years later, as his son opens the new MESA+ NanoLab, our work deals primarily with 'nano' and nanometers, introducing great opportunities for research and innovation. In addition, we have been expanding our research activities in bionanotechnology and nanomedicine. The next step in infrastructure is the realization of a joint BioNanoLab, while investments in equipment will follow in the next two years. In 2010 the national nanotechnology research program NanoNed came to an end. At the same time its successor NanoNextNL, supported by the national fund for strengthening the economic structure, started. In comparison with NanoNed this program is broader, as well in partners as in themes, with connections to microtechnology and with strong links towards industry. Since a few years MESA+ stimulates and facilitates its spin-off companies increasingly in developing towards high-volume production. High Tech Factory, located in the redeveloped former MESA+ labs, provides production facilities to micro and nano based SMEs. High Tech Factory also gives access to an operational lease fund where companies with growth ambitions can apply for the investment and use of production equipment. High Tech Fund secured its 9 M€ funding, granted by national, regional and local governments, and was launched in June 2010. In the near future our international collaborations, worldwide and within Europe, will become increasingly important. Existing partnerships will be strengthened, new collaborations will be established. At the MESA+ meeting 2010, the California NanoSystems Institute CNSI, UCLA and MESA+ signed an agreement to intensify their research collaboration. In times where the basic funding from the government and university is expected to go down, only to compensate for that we have to be even more successful in obtaining grants from science foundations, industry and European initiatives. MESA+ Institute of Nanotechnology will continue to provide an environment for excellent science for its researchers and a high level infrastructure supported by technicians. Together with the new MESA+ BioNanoLab and the national program NanoNextNL it has a solid base for the future, joining together over 500 enthusiastic ‘Mesanen’ in working on new developments in nanotechnology. Prof. dr. ing. Dave H.A. Blank, Scientific Director,
Ir. Miriam Luizink, Technical Commercial Director,
MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology
MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology
Opening MESA+ NanoLab Opening MESA+ NanoLab Opening MESA+ NanoLab Opening MESA+ NanoLab
Opening MESA+ NanoLab
Opening MESA+ NanoLab
Opening MESA+ NanoLab Opening MESA+ NanoLab MESA+ NanoLab Opening MESA+ NanoLab
[OPENING MESA+ NANOLAB]
Opening MESA+ NanoLab By writing the words 'The MESA+ NanoLab is hereby opened' on a human hair, Crown Prince Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands opened the new laboratory on November 5, 2010 amid great public interest. The crown prince was greatly impressed by the new facilities, and clearly enjoyed the guided tour by Miriam Luizink through the cleanroom, meeting with researchers, technicians and entrepreneurs. Meanwhile, the audience was given a fascinating insight into the world of nanotechnology in a dual presentation by Jan-Douwe Kroeske and Dave Blank. Three enthusiastic PhD students - JosĂŠe Kleibeuker, Songyue Chen and Johan Engelen - demonstrated aspects of their research work, not only in vision but also in sound, as Johan Engelen recently developed a musical instrument on a microscopic scale. This 'micronium' received great attention in the Dutch and international press, and was played live during the opening ceremony. As part of the varied programme the audience was also treated to a number of humorous 'nanovisions': will you soon be able to swallow a pill that will call you on your mobile phone if you are about to eat or drink unhealthily, for example? On a more serious note, Jan-Douwe Kroeske spoke about the ethical aspects of nanotechnology: is it right to tamper with nature in this way? These are issues that are dealt with frankly by Dave Blank in the many presentations he gives concerning his passion: nanotechnology. Prof. David Reinhoudt spoke on behalf of NanoNed, the national nanotechnology program that he was closely involved in setting up. Together with Kees Eijkel, prof. Reinhoudt was in at the start of the new lab, and he praised Dave Blank and Miriam Luizink for the way in which they have picked up the baton since then. Among those present at the opening ceremony were others who had been involved from the very beginning of the predecessor of the current MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, such as prof. Jan Fluitman and prof. Piet Bergveld. As a grand finale to the proceedings the mayor of Enschede, Peter den Oudsten, had a surprise for Dave Blank. Immediately after the crown prince's departure, in accordance with royal protocol, the mayor called Dave Blank forward to award him the Knighthood of the Order of the Netherlands Lion. Mayor den Oudsten praised Blank for his great services to science and the popularization of science, and also for his numerous social contributions in Twente, for example to art in Enschede. On behalf of all MESA+ researchers, Dave Blank and Miriam Luizink were presented with a plate with the Latin inscription Nanos
gigantium humeris insidentes ('Dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants'): a text that puts the achievements in MESA+ into their scientific perspective and at the same time indicates that from something small (nanos: dwarf) something great can grow. A fitting close to a day of celebration for MESA+, the University of Twente and the scientific community in the Netherlands as a whole.
[RESEARCH] “MESA+ Institute for
Nanotechnology is one of the largest nanotechnology research institutes in the world”
About MESA+, in a nut shell MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology is one of the largest nanotechnology research institutes in the world, delivering competitive and successful high quality research. MESA+ is part of the University of Twente, and cooperates closely with various research groups within the university. The institute employs 500 people of whom 275 are PhD candidates or postdocs. With its NanoLab facilities the institute holds 1250 m2 of cleanroom space and state of the art research equipment. MESA+ has an integral turnover of approximately 45 million euros per year of which 60% is acquired in competition from external sources (National Science Foundation, European Union, industry, etc.). MESA+ supports and facilitates researchers and actively stimulates cooperation. MESA+ combines the disciplines of physics, electrical engineering, chemistry and mathematics. Currently 28 research groups participate in MESA+. MESA+ introduced Strategic Research Orientations, headed by a scientific researcher, that bridge the research topics of a number of research groups working in common interest fields. The SROs’ research topics are an addition to the research topics of the chairs. Their task is to develop these interdisciplinary research areas which could result in new independent chairs. Internationally attractive research is achieved through this multidisciplinary approach. MESA+ uses a unique structure, which unites scientific disciplines, and builds fruitful international cooperation to excel in science and education. MESA+ has been the breeding ground for more than 40 high-tech start-ups to date. A targeted program for cooperation with small and medium-sized enterprises has been specially created for start-ups. MESA+ offers the use of its extensive NanoLab facilities and cleanroom space under hospitable conditions. Start-ups and MESA+ work together intensively to promote the transfer of knowledge. MESA+ has created a perfect habitat for start-ups in the micro and nano-industry to establish and to mature. MESA+ is a Research School, designated by the Royal Dutch Academy of Science. Basically all MESA+ PhD’s are member of one of the Twente Graduate School programmes: Advanced Optics, Novel Nanomaterials, Fluid Physics, Nanodevices, and Ethics and Technology.
[RESEARCH] Mission and strategy MESA+ conducts research in the strongly multidisciplinary field of nanotechnology and nanoscience. The mission of MESA+ is: n to excel in its research field; n to explore (new) research themes; n to educate researchers and engineers in its field; n to commercialize and valorize research results; n to initiate and participate in fruitful (inter)national cooperation. MESA+ has defined the following indicators for achieving its mission: n scientific papers at the level of Science, Nature, or journals of comparable stature; n 1:1 balance between university funding and externally acquired funds; n sizable spin-off activities. MESA+ focuses on three issues to pursue its mission: n to create a top environment for international scientific talent; n to create strong multidisciplinary cohesion within the institute; n to become a national leader and international key player in nanotechnology.
Organizational structure University Board
Scientific Advisory Board
Scientific Director/ Technical Commercial Director Management Support
Advisory Board: â€˘ Strategic Research Orientations â€˘ Research Groups
MESA+ is an institute of the University of Twente and falls under the responsibility of the board of the university. The scientific advisory board assists the MESA+ management in matters concerning the research conducted at the institute and gives feedback on the scientific results of MESA+. The governing board advises the MESA+ management in organizational matters. The scientific director accepts responsibility for the institute and the scientific output. The managing director is responsible for commercialization, central laboratories, finance, communications and the internal organization. The participating research groups and SRO program directors form the MESA+ advisory board.
[strategic RESEARCH orientations] Dr. Pepijn W.H. Pinkse:
NanoPhotonics: there's more to light than meets the eye" "Applied
Applied NanoPhotonics Optics has revolutionized fields as various as data storage and long-distance telecommunication. Optical systems have a chance to become even more ubiquitous in other areas, like today’s smart devices, but this step requires further miniaturization. The example of electronics shows us that miniaturization will sooner or later hit physical limitations. In the case of optics this will be in the nanoworld. Working with optics on this scale requires new concepts to be developed and many questions to be answered: How can we shrink the dimensions of optical structures to or even below the wavelength limit? To what extend can we build socalled “meta materials” that have specially engineered optical properties by nanostructuring? How can we miniaturize lasers, reduce their threshold and increase their yield? How can one make high-sensitivity optical detectors, e.g. for medical applications, and integrate them in low-cost labs on a chip? And on the more fundamental side: Can single emitters be controlled efficiently and embedded into nanophotonic structures? Can we use nanophotonics to study complex (molecular) systems and can we tailor light to efficiently steer their behavior? Are there opportunities to exploit the quantum character of light for new functionality? The goal of our SRO is to address some of these questions exploiting the expertise in MESA+ groups. Building adaptivity into nanophotonic systems will be a common paradigm in answering these questions. Adaptivity allows optimizing certain desired properties or processes with clever learning algorithms. Adaptive systems can react on external stimulus, can compensate for fluctuations and inevitable randomness in nanophotonic environment. The Strategic Research Orientation (SRO) Applied Nanophotonics (ANP) started in October 2009 with the arrival of Pepijn Pinkse from the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching to become ANP program director at MESA+. ANP fosters new research and develops new expertise on a few key areas. For instance by means of ANP group meetings, colloquia and
[strategic RESEARCH orientations]
workshops, ANP stimulates cooperation between the research groups at MESA+ that have a strong optics focus including COPS, IOMS, LPNO, NBP, and OS. Program director: Dr. P.W.H. Pinkse, phone +31 53 489 2537. email@example.com, www.utwente.nl/mesaplus/anp
First data taken in an ANP collaboration with the groups COPS and ANP in action at the Kurhaus in Bad Bentheim. In 2010 we organized our first yearly
OS with a photonic crystal waveguide from partners at the Danish
workshop with over 50 participants from the MESA+ groups COPS, IOMS, LPNO, NBP
Technical University (Lodahl group). Light from the waveguide is
measured with a near-field optical microscope.
[strategic RESEARCH orientations] Prof. dr. Serge J.G. Lemay:
"To understand the microscopic foundations
emergent behavior, it is not sufficient to probe on the microscopic scale: one must further do so in a massively parallel manner.â€? of
Nanotechnology for innovative medicine A defining feature of higher organisms is that the whole is more than the sum of its parts. In principle, all processes taking place in living systems can be understood in terms of relatively simple local interactions between molecular building blocks. But these myriad local interactions give rise to complex emergent behavior on larger scales that often bears little obvious connection to the underlying microscopic interactions. Examples include how the growth of a complex organism from a single cell is orchestrated, how vast biochemical networks are regulated, and even how the brain is organized. Not surprisingly, understanding the very nature of many medical problems also requires unraveling this complexity: How do neural networks form and evolve? How is tissue regeneration best controlled? Exactly how does cancer develop, and where are the best entry points for controlling its development? Answering these questions requires understanding both the macroscopic emergent behavior, as well as the relevant microscopic interactions that give rise to it. This in turn demands new tools and approaches. It is the aim of this SRO to address these broad questions by combining the efforts of the various groups within MESA+. The key challenges include: n Developing tools that are suitable for monitoring large cellular networks at the level of individual cells or below. These include advanced microscopy, highly parallelized sensors, and methods for analyzing the contents of individual cells.
[strategic RESEARCH orientations]
n Developing insight on how to extract useful information from the vast amounts of information thus generated, a fundamental theme from systems biology. n Identifying specific medical problems where these new technologies can be applied.
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This orientation is synergetic with other strategic developments within MESA+, including nanomedicine-oriented investments in NanoLab and new appointments in the context of the 3TU Center of Excellence in bio-nano applications. The SRO Nanotechnology for Innovative Medicine will undergo a major shift from the inventory phase to the implementation phase in 2011 with the appointment of a fully dedicated program director. Interim program director: Prof. dr. S.G. Lemay, +31 (0)53 489 2306, s.g.lemay@ utwente.nl
[strategic RESEARCH orientations] Dr. ir. Mark Huijben:
"Breakthroughs in energy
applications can only be accomplished by manipulation of novel materials on the nano scale"
NanoMaterials for Energy The worldwide energy demand is continuously growing and it becomes clear that future energy supply can only be guaranteed through increased use of renewable energy sources. With energy recovery through renewable sources like sun, wind, water, tides, geothermal or biomass the global energy demand could be met many times over; currently however it is still inefficient and too expensive in many cases to take over significant parts of the energy supply. Innovation and increases in efficiency in conjunction with a general reduction of energy consumption are urgently needed. Nanotechnology exhibits the unique potential for decisive technological breakthroughs in the energy sector, thus making substantial contributions to sustainable energy supply. The goal of the Strategic Research Orientation (SRO) NanoMaterials for Energy is to exploit and expand the present expertise of the MESA+ groups in the field of nano-related energy research. Through multidisciplinary collaboration between various research groups new materials with novel advanced properties will be developed in which the functionality is controlled by the nanoscale structures leading to improved energy applications. The range of new research projects for nano-applications in the energy sector comprises gradual short and medium-term improvements for a more efficient use of conventional and renewable energy sources as well as completely new long-term approaches for energy recovery and utilization. Visible-light induced water splitting on a chip This new research project aims to develop a novel device with improved efficiency for visible light induced overall photocatalytic splitting of water to obtain sustainable hydrogen. We make use of the so-called Z-scheme photocatalytic action of a combination of two types of semiconducting nanoparticles, one with water oxidation functionality and one with water reduction functionality. Nanosize is essential to provide for a high reactive surface with a high density of surface activated states.
[strategic RESEARCH orientations]
Our device will be a significant improvement as compared to mixing of two semiconductor particles as a suspension in solution, in which electron transfer is mediated by a redox couple, or weak particle-particle interactions. Its advantage compared to conventional photo-electrochemical cells lies in the absence of a proton transfer membrane, and the absence of an expensive ITO (Indium Doped Tin Oxide) electrode. Furthermore an external circuit is not necessary. While the emphasis is on the splitting of water to produce H2, we also aim to extend the application of the device to highly selective synthetic applications of (photo) catalysis, i.e. oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions. Program director: dr. ir. Mark Huijben, +31 53 489 2367, firstname.lastname@example.org, www.utwente.nl/mesaplus/nme
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS:  A.Y. Borisevich, H.J. Chang, M. Huijben, M.P. Oxley, S. Okamoto, M.K. Niranjan, J.D. Burton, E.Y. Tsymbal, Y.H. Chu, P. Yu, R. Ramesh, S.V. Kalinin, S.J. Pennycook. Suppression of Octahedral Tilts and Associated Changes in Electronic Properties at Epitaxial Oxide Heterostructure Interfaces. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 087204.  P. Yu, J.-S. Lee, S. Okamoto, M. D. Rossell, M. Huijben, C. -H. Yang, Q. He, J. -X. Zhang, S. Y. Yang, M. J. Lee, Q. M. Ramasse, R. Erni, Y.-H. Chu, D. A. Arena, C. -C. Kao, L. W. Martin, R. Ramesh. Interface ferromagnetism and orbital reconstruction in BiFeO3-La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 heterostructures. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 027201.
Commercialization Nanotechnology offers chances for new business. Around knowledge institutions, stimulated by a dynamic entrepreneurial environment, nuclei of spin-off companies arise. The number of new businesses based on nanotechnology is growing rapidly. MESA+ plays an important role nationwide, being at the start of more than 40 spin-offs. Access to state-of-the-art nanotech infrastructure, shared facilities functioning in an open innovation model, is of crucial importance for both creation and further development of spin-off companies. These spin-off companies are important for the national and regional economy; SMEs will become increasingly important for employment and turnover. MESA+ intensifies and strengthens its commercialization activities to further increase the number of patents, the number and size of spin-offâ€™s and, consequently, its national and international reputation.
High Tech Factory MESA+ is establishing the High Tech Factory, a shared production facility for products based on micro- and nanotechnology. High Tech Factory is designed to ensure that the companies involved can concentrate on business operations and focus their energies on growth rather than on realizing the basic production infrastructure required for achieving that growth. In 2010 the existing MESA+ R&D facility has become available for redevelopment into this production environment. The first 500 m2 of High Tech Factory labs have been realized in 2010. Development of cleanrooms, labs and offices will continue in 2011 and is expected to be finalized by the summer of 2012.
High Tech Fund The technical infrastructure fund High Tech Fund offers an operational lease facility for companies in micro- and nanotechnology. Equipment will be located in the production facility High Tech Factory. The 9 Mâ‚Ź fund, supported by the ministry of Economic Affairs, the province of Overijssel and the region of Twente, was launched successfully in June 2010.
MESA+ Technology Accelerator With the MESA+ Technology Accelerator, organized in UT international ventures (UTIV), MESA+ invests in early stage scouting of knowledge and expertise with a potential interest from the market. The first phase of technology and market development is organized in so-called stealth projects. A successful stealth project is continued as a spin-off or license. Through the initiative Kennispark, the UT is applying the UTIV model more widely at the University.
Kennispark Twente Commercialization of nanotechnology research is one of the very strong drivers of MESA+. As illustrated in the topics above, key aspects of the MESA+ agenda encompass business development, facility sharing, area development, and growth towards a production facility. With these key commercialization projects MESA+ contributes strongly to the Kennispark agenda and the provincial and regional innovation systems.
The Dutch Nano-landscape The Dutch Nano-landscape The Dutch Nano-landscape The Dutch Nano-landscape
The Dutch Nano-landscape
The Dutch Nano-landscape
The Dutch Nano-landscape The
The Dutch Nano-landscape
The Dutch Nano-landscape
[the dutch nano-landscape]
The Dutch Nano-landscape Netherlands Nano Initiative The nanotechnology research area is comprehensive and still extending. The Netherlands continually makes choices based on existing strengths supplemented with arising opportunities. Generic themes in which the Netherlands excel, are beyond Moore / nanoelectronics, nanomaterials, bionanotechnology and instrumentation, while application lies within the sectors water, energy, food, and health and nanomedicine. These generic and application areas are, when applicable, covered by risk analyses and technology assessment of nanotechnology. NanoLabNL provides the infrastructure for the implementation of the NNI strategic research agenda.
NanoNextNL NanoNextNL has been granted 125 M€ by the Dutch government for the NNI business plan ‘Towards a Sustainable Open Innovation Ecosystem’ (2009) in micro and nanotechnology. This 250 M€ business plan, a collaboration of 118 partners, proposes to apply micro- and nanotechnologies to strengthen both the technology base and competitiveness of the high tech and materials industry and to apply them in support of a variety of societal needs in food, energy, healthcare, clean water and the societal risk of certain nanotechnologies. The main economic and societal issues addressed in this initiative are: n the societal need for risk analysis of nanotechnology n the need for new materials n ageing society and healthcare cost n more healthy foods n need for clean tech to reduce energy consumption, waste production and provide clean water n advanced equipment to process and manufacture products that address these issues NanoNextNL, successor to NanoNed, covers all relevant generic, application and social themes.
NanoNed The NanoNed program, an initiative of eight knowledge institutes and Philips, combines the nanotechnology and enabling technology capabilities of the Dutch nanotechnology knowledge infrastructure. This program facilitates rapid progress in terms of knowledge through strong research projects and the infrastructure investment program NanoLabNL. Since NanoNed was established, it is not only in the field of nano-electronics that progress has been made; tremendous improvements have also been seen in nano-structured materials science, enabling technology for a broad variety of functional nanostructures and applications in the field of life sciences and (sustainable) energy. NanoNed has a total budget of 235 M€, of which about 120 M€ was granted by the Dutch government. NanoNed started in 2004 and ran till the end of 2010.
National NanoLab facilities National NanoLab facilities National NanoLab facilities National NanoLab facilities National NanoLab facilities
National NanoLab facilities
National NanoLab facilities National
National NanoLab facilities
National NanoLab facilities
[national nanolab facilities]
National NanoLab facilities NanoLabNL NanoLabNL is listed on the first ‘The Netherlands’ Roadmap for Large-Scale Research Facilities’ as one of the 25 large-scale research facilities whose construction or operation is important for the robustness and innovativeness of the Dutch science system. NanoNed recognized the importance of a national facility, and provided a large part of the driving force and the accompanying budget to establish NanoLabNL. NanoLabNL provides access to a coherent, high-level, state-of-the-art infrastructure for nanotechnology research and innovation in the Netherlands. The NanoLab facilities are open to internal as well as external researchers from universities as well as companies. NanoLabNL seeks to bring about coherence in national infrastructure, access, and tariff structure. Since its establishment in 2004 the NanoLabNL partners invested about 110 M€ in nanotech facilities through their own funding and additional public funding. The partners in NanoLabNL are: n Twente: MESA+ Institute of Nanotechnology at University of Twente; n Delft: Kavli Institute of Nanoscience at Delft University of Technology and TNO Science & Industry; n Groningen: Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials at Groningen University; n Eindhoven, Technical University Eindhoven and Philips Research Laboratories (associate partner). Together, these four locations cover most of the country and offer the widest possible spectrum of nanotechnology facilities for researchers in the Netherlands to use.
MESA+ NanoLab The new MESA+ NanoLab, centre for nanotechnological research and innovation in the Netherlands, has been finalized in 2010. Due to the immense effort from a lot of people in the design and construction of the building and its infrastructure the new NanoLab is now up and running. At 5 November 2010 the MESA+ NanoLab was officially opened by the Prince of Orange Willem-Alexander. MESA+ NanoLab has extensive laboratory facilities at its disposal, offering a wide spectrum of opportunities for researchers in the Netherlands and abroad: n a 1250 m2 fully equipped cleanroom, with a focus on microsystems technology, nanotechnology, CMOS and materials and process engineering; n a fully equipped central materials analysis laboratory; n a number of specialized laboratories for chemical synthesis and analysis, materials research and analysis, and device characterization. The MESA+ NanoLab facilities play a crucial role in the research programs and in collaborations with industry. MESA+ has a strong relationship with industry, both through joint research projects with the larger multinational companies, and through a commercialization policy focused on small and medium sized enterprises.
International Networks (Inter)national position and collaborations MESA+ has a strong international position, several strategic collaborations and is active in international networks and platforms. MESA+ has strategic collaborations with: NINT (Canada), Ohio State, Materials Science Nano Lab (US), Stanford, Geballe Lab of Advanced Materials (US), Berkeley, nanoscience lab Ramesh group (US), California NanoSytems Institute at UCLA (US), JNCASR (India), NIMS (Japan), University of Singapore, and the Chinese Academy of Science CAS, and in Europe with: Cambridge, IMEC, Karlsruhe, MĂźnster, Aarhus and Chalmers University.
MoU signed between CNSI / UCLA and MESA+ / UT MESA+ and the California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI) at UCLA signed a Memorandum of Understanding, uniting two of the worldâ€™s leading institutes of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Their combined intellectual and physical resources will focus on expanding understanding of the nature and behavior of phenomena at the nanolevel. Through joint research projects and educational exchanges CNSI and MESA+ will apply nanotechnology to problems of global concern in health and the environment. Special attention will be given to new materials, nanoelectronics, and medical diagnostic devices. Collaborative efforts will be undertaken to commercialize their research, moving it from the lab into the marketplace in order to maximize the economic and social benefits of discoveries and devices.
EICOON EICOON is the FP7 Euro-Indo forum for nano-materials research coordination & cooperation of researchers in sustainable energy technologies. The consortium addresses the strategic assessment including synergy analysis of nano-materials research needs in the EU and India. It establishes and communicates the mutual interests and topics for future coordinated calls to enable decision and policy makers to make better informed decisions. Besides the assessment, the project also addresses the dissemination of the "nano-materials research acquis" in the field by organization of events. Finally, it brings together researchers to exchange ideas for joint projects for future research collaboration. . The first EICOON workshop was held in New Delhi, India (1-4 Nov. 2010) to address the strategic assessment of nanomaterials needs in energy research within Europe and India. During the workshop 70 scientists and policymakers from Europe and India discussed various research topics for sustainable energy. The EICOON school was attended by 120 PhD students from India and consisted of scientific lectures on state-of-the-art nanomaterials research for energy applications. Visit the EICOON website for more information: www.eicoon.eu
International Networks International Networks International Networks International Networks International Networks
International Networks International
Impressions of MESA+ meeting
Education Twente Graduate School MESA+ is a Research School, designated by the Royal Dutch Academy of Science. The University of Twente is establishing the Twente Graduate School, aiming to reinforce collaboration, strengthen education and improve the skills of PhD students. Participation in the Graduate School is limited to excellent research groups only. Basically all MESA+ PhD’s are member of one of the Twente Graduate School programmes: Advanced Optics, Novel Nanomaterials, Fluid Physics, Nanodevices, and Ethics and Technology.
Master of Science Nanotechnology Access to the best research students worldwide is critical to the success of MESA+. In the academic year 2005-2006 a master track nanotechnology was started as the first accredited master’s training at the University of Twente. MESA+ invests in information to students of appropriate bachelor’s courses, and brings the master’s nanotechnology to the attention of its international cooperation partners. The master Nanotechnology will be completely incorporated into the Twente Graduate School.
Fundamentals of Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary research field, and requires expertise from the field of electrical engineering, applied physics, chemical technology and life sciences. The workshop ‘Fundamentals of Nanotechnology’ is annually organized by MESA+ and provides an initial introduction to the complete scope of what nanotechnology is about. The workshop is set up for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows that are starting to work or are currently working in the field of nanotechnology. The workshop is given in an intensive one-week format, in which the participants attend about 20 lectures on different subfields of nanotechnology in the morning, accompanied with visits to the laboratories in the afternoon. Each year about 25 students participate.
Awards, honours and appointments ERC Advanced Grant Prof. Detlef Lohse (Physics of Fluids group) has been awarded an Advanced Grant by the European Research Council. The 2.1 M€ will be used to conduct research into vapour bubbles. Until now, the behaviour of vapour bubbles in, for example, boiling water has been explored mainly from an engineering point of view. The aim of this new study is to examine the physics of cooking.
ERC Starting Grant Researcher dr. Pascal Jonkheijm (Molecular NanoFabrication group) has obtained a 1.5 M€ personal ERC Starting Grant. He will be using the grant over the next five years for research work creating artificial cell membranes on microchips for instance for measuring how living cells communicate with each other. Dr. ir. Pascal Jonkheijm
VICI grant Prof. dr. Frieder Mugele (Physics of Complex Fluids group) received a VICI grant from NWO/STW. Together with his team he will develop “Electrically Switchable Superhydrophobic Surfaces” in the upcoming five years. The goal of the research is to design a new generation of functional surfaces and three-dimensional topographic structures with electrically tunable wetting properties. Reversible switching between competing wetting states, such as the well-known Cassie and Wenzel state on superhydrophobic surfaces, will allow for novel tunable optofluidic devices, ultrasound detectors, and microfluidic devices with enhanced functionality. The total funding volume amounts to 1.5 M€.
VIDI grant Dr. Jacco Snoeijer (Physics of Fluids group) has been awarded a VIDI grant of 800 k€ for his research on the behaviour of drops. Drops usually move in random streams, not in straight lines. This research examines how such flows can be controlled in modern printing techniques and in the chip industry, where a perfect control between 'wet' and 'dry' is required.
VENI grant A 250 k€ VENI grant has been awarded to dr. Arie van Houselt (Catalytic Processes and Materials group). He will be using his grant to study chemical reactions on metal surfaces, such as catalysts, under water. These reactions are usually difficult to follow, because for many measurements the water 'gets in the way'.
FOM Free Research programs 2010 Both, prof. Vinod Subramaniam (NanoBioPhysics group) and prof. Harold Zandvliet (Physics of Interfaces and Nanomaterials group) have received a so-called ‘free-research program’ grant (2.5 M€ for each program) from the Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Dr. Arie van Houselt
Research on Matter (FOM). The aim of these proposals is to facilitate novel initiatives with focus and cohesion. Most programs have
partners from different (Dutch) universities. Prof. Subramaniam received the grant for the program called ‘A single-molecule view on protein aggregation’ and prof. Zandvliet for the program ‘The singular physics of 1D electrons’.
FOM Valorisation Prize 2010 The FOM Valorisation Prize 2010 was awarded to prof. Fred Bijkerk from the FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen and the MESA+ Laser Physics and Nonlinear Optics group. He received this prize worth 250 k€ for his work in the area of multilayer optics for light with a short wavelength, such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light.
BMM subsidy Dr. Pascal Jonkheijm (Molecular NanoFabrication group) has been awarded the Young Investigator subsidy in the BioMedical Materials program (BMM). This program is a public private partnership of universities, university medical centers, companies and patient organizations, dedicated to the development of novel BioMedical Materials and their applications.
Rubicon grant Dr. Xuexin Duan, a recent PhD graduate from the Molecular NanoFabrication group, has obtained a NWO Rubicon grant for his research on molecular detection and spectroscopy using plasmon and nanowire detectors to spend on a 2-year postdoctoral stay at Yale University (USA).
Prof. Fred Bijkerk (right)
Honorary Doctorate for David Reinhoudt Prof. dr. ir. David Reinhoudt, professor emeritus in Supramolecular Chemistry and Technology and former scientific director of MESA+, has received an honorary doctorate from the University of Pécs in Hungary for his years of service to the field and the international recognition he has gained.
Prof. Reinhoudt’s 100th PhD student A milestone for prof. dr. ir. David Reinhoudt in 2010: Xuexin Duan, Reinhoudt’s 100 th PhD student, has defended his dissertation on February 26, 2010. David Reinhoudt worked at the University of Twente for 32 years. He was professor of Supramolecular Chemistry
Prof. dr. ir. David Reinhoudt (right)
and Technology and scientific director of MESA+.
Prof. dr. Julius Vancso member Hungarian Academy of sciences and Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry Prof. dr. Julius Vancso, has been appointed member of the Hungarian Academy of sciences, the Magyar Tudományos Akadémia. Earlier this year he became Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry in the United Kingdom.
Twente business woman of 2010 Ir. Miriam Luizink, technical commercial director of MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology has been appointed ‘Twentse Zakenvrouw van 2010’, the best business woman of Twente in 2010. The jury called Luizink an inspiring and results driven person.
Ir. Miriam Luizink
Member of Young Academy and Central Education Prize Dr. ir. Alexander Brinkman, Interfaces and Correlated Electron Systems group and lecturer in Applied Physics at the University of Twente, became member of the Young Academy of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). Members are selected on the basis of their academic excellence, their interdisciplinary approach, and their broad range of academic interests. Alexander Brinkman was also awarded the Centrale Onderwijsprijs (Central Education Prize) 2010.
Cum laude distinction In 2010 two PhD students of MESA+ received a cum laude distinction for their work. Dr. Martin Jurna (Optical Sciences group) for his PhD thesis ‘Vibrational phase contrast cars microscopy’ and Zeynep Çulfaz, Soft Matter, Fluidics and Interfaces group, for his thesis ‘Microstructured hollow fibers and microsieves; Fabrication, Characterization and Filtration applications’.
MESA+ meeting 2010 The MESA+ meeting 2010 was held in Cinestar on September 14. The best scientific poster was won by David Fernandez Rivas (Mesoscale Chemical Systems). Ina Rianasari (NanoElectronics) won the 2nd prize and the 3rd poster prize was awarded to the SupraMolecular Chemistry and Technology group. During the annual meeting MESA+ scientists exchange their scientific work by poster presentations and lectures.
Appointments Dr. ing. Guus Rijnders has been appointed Professor NanoElectronic Materials as of April 1, 2010. This chair will perform research and education in the field of materials science of complex materials, mostly used for nanoelectronics. Since April 1, 2010 dr. ir. Rob Lammertink accepted his appointment as Professor Soft Matter, Fluidics and Interfaces. Dr. Jan Eijkel of the BIOS Lab-on-a-chip group has been appointed professor of NanoFluidics for Lab-on-a-chip applications from December 1, 2010. During the ‘Dies celebration’ of the University Twente Rector Magnificus Ed Brinksma appointed prof. dr. ir. Albert van den Berg as Prof. dr. Jan Eijkel
‘Universiteitshoogleraar’, University Professor, of the University of Twente.
[highlights] The Bio-molecular Electronic Structure (BES) group is a computational group in the field of electronic structure theory and focuses on the methodological
Prof. dr. Claudia Filippi
development of novel and more effective approaches for investigating the
â€œElectronic-structure theory has dramatically
electronic properties of materials. Our current research centers on the
expanded the role of computational modeling,
problem of describing light-induced phenomena in biological systems,
enabling a detailed atomistic understanding of
where available computational techniques have limited applicability.
real materials. Our research focuses on the
Deepening our physical understanding of the primary excitation processes
challenge to further enhance the predictive
in photobiological systems is important both from a fundamental point
power of these approaches while bridging to the
of view and because of existing and potential applications in biology,
length-scales of complex (bio)systems.â€?
biotechnology, and artificial photosynthetic devices.
Biomolecular Electronic Structure A vision for retinal photoisomerization The primary event of vision in the vertebrate eye is one of the most fundamental photo-induced processes in biology. Even though this process has been the subject of decades of theoretical and experimental studies, the debate on the exact nature of the molecular mechanism underlying this primary event is still open. Importantly, a decade of theoretical literature has mainly meant a decade of low-correlation calculations, which we here demonstrate are qualitatively incorrect. Using sophisticated numerical approaches recently developed in our group, we uncover the complexity and heterogeneity of the relaxation pathways of retinal in the gas phase following photo-excitation. At variance with previous studies and compatibly with solution experiments, our findings indicate a rich behavior of a flexible chromophore, which can access multiple pathways on a complex excited-state potential energy surface. This work represents the first step in our on-going study of various opsins to understand which photo-induced mechanism is active in the confined space of the protein pocket.
Figure: Retinal chromophore relaxation in the gas phase.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: O. Valsson, C. Filippi, Photoisomerization of model retinal chromophores: Insight from quantum Monte Carlo and multiconfigurational
perturbation theory, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6 (2010) 1275.
[HIGHLIGHTS] The BioMolecular Nanotechnology group (BNT) is founded in 2009 by the appointment of it’s chair prof. Jeroen Cornelissen and acts on the interface of biology, physics and materials science coming from a strong chemical back ground. The research of the group centers around the use of biomolecules as building blocks for (functional) nanostructures, relying on principles from Supramolecular and Macromolecular
Prof. dr. Jeroen J.L.M. Cornelissen
Chemistry. Current research lines involve the use of well-defined nanometer-sized
“Using the building blocks from
field of liquid crystalline materials are explored. The success of the multidisciplinary
Nature to make and understand
work of the group partly relies on intense interactions within MESA+ and with other
protein cages as reactors and as scaffolds for new materials, while new directions in the
BioMolecular Nanotechnology Hierarchical Assembly of Protein Cages Nature offers a vast array of biological building blocks that can be combined with synthetic materials to generate a variety of hierarchical architectures. Viruses are particularly interesting in this respect because of their structure and the possibility of them functioning as scaffolds for the preparation of new biohybrid materials. We report here that cowpea chlorotic mottle virus particles can be assembled into well-defined micrometre-sized objects and then reconverted into individual viruses by application of a short optical stimulus. Assembly is achieved using photosensitive dendrons that bind on the virus surface through multivalent interactions and then act as a molecular glue between the virus particles. Optical triggering induces the controlled decomposition and charge switching of dendrons, which results In the loss of multivalent interactions and the release of virus particles. We demonstrate that the method is not limited to the virus particles alone, but can also be applied to other functional protein cages such as magnetoferritin. This work presents a straightforward and previously unused method for the optically reversible self-assembly of protein cages into large ordered architectures by using cationic dendrons that bind to the negatively charged cage surface. Facile control of the assembly
Figure 1: Assembly of virus-like protein cages with magnetic
size can be achieved by adjusting the generation and concentration of the dendron as well as the salt concentration. Such oppositely
charged polyelectrolyte complexes are generally considered to be kinetically frozen systems in which the mobility of individual polyelectrolyte components is limited. In our approach, however, we use optically triggered destruction of the multivalent binding interactions as a tool to release the protein cages from their complexes. Development of assembly–disassembly procedures for such three-dimensional structures is an important prerequisite for the preparation of reversible colloidal architectures, which may find applications as virus-based optical metamaterials or bioengineered magnetic crystals. .
Figure 2: Photo-cleavable dendrimer as glue.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: M.A. Kostiainen, O. Kasyutich, R.J.M. Nolte, J.J.L.M. Cornelissen, Self-Assembly and optically triggered disassembly of hierarchical dendron-virus complexes, Nature Chem. 2 (2010) 394.
[highlights] In the BIOS Lab-on-a-Chip group (BIOS) fundamental and applied
Prof. dr. ir. Albert van den Berg
aspects of miniaturized laboratories are studied. With the use of
â€œWe aim at doing top-level
by our Nanolab facilities, microdevices for medical applications are
research on micro- and
realized, such as chips for monitoring medication, counting sperm
nanofluidics, new nanosensing
cells, discovery of new biomarkers and ultrasensitive detection
principles and cells and tissues
advanced and newly developed micro- and nanotechnologies, enabled
on chip, and to realise real-life Lab-on-Chip systems that help patients.â€?
Figure 1: SEM images of subwavelength nanotextured surfaces. (upper left) 2D nanopyramid surface, (lower left) 1D nanogroove surface, (upper right) TEM image of nanocrevice, (lower right) AFM image of Au coated surface.
BIOS Lab-on-a-Chip Subwavelength nanopyramids for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy The multidisciplinary work presented here concerns the research and development of novel nanotextured surfaces with self-aligned periodic subwavelength nanopyramid and nanogroove structures with precisely defined pitch that are closely packed with 2 nm separation gaps over large areas and form high-density arrays of hot-spot scattering sites ideally suited for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and Raman spectroscopy. The simple self-aligning fabrication technique requires only a single lithography step and wet anisotropic etching. Measured average Raman enhancement factors of > 106 from rhodamine 6G on patterned Au surfaces with 200 nm pitches are consistent with numerical calculations. The nanostructured surfaces can be scaled to smaller dimensions, which results in increased enhancement as well as increased hot-spot spatial density.
Figure 2: Raman measurements of R6G adsorbed on flat (dotted lines) and nanotextured (solid lines) surfaces. (top and middle) 200 nm pitch nanopyramids, and (bottom) 150 nm pitch nanogroove surfaces.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: M. Jin, V. Pully, C. Otto, A. van den Berg, E.T. Carlen, High-Density Periodic Arrays of Self-Aligned Subwavelength Nanopyramids for Surface-
Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, J. Phys. Chem. C 114 (2010) 21953.
[HIGHLIGHTS] Prof. dr. ir. Leon Lefferts
The aim of the Catalytic Processes and Materials group (CPM) is to understand heterogeneous
â€œOne of the most valuable applications
with their application in practical processes. Our research focuses on three themes:
of nanotechnology is in the area
1. Sustainable processes for fuels and chemicals, like catalytic conversion of biomass to fuels.
of heterogeneous catalysis. The
2. Heterogeneous catalysis in liquid phase
challenges are to improve the level of
3. High yield selective oxidation
control over the active nanoparticles
The fundamental study of surface reactions in liquid phase requires the development of new
as well as the local conditions at
analysis techniques for which CPM is in the forefront of leading catalysis groups in the world.
those particles, and to understand the
Moreover, we explore preparation and application of new highly porous, micro-structured support
molecular mechanism at the surface.â€?
materials as well as micro-reactors and micro-fluidic devices.
catalysis by investigation of catalytic reactions and materials on a fundamental level in combination
Figure 1: Schematic representation of the principle of STM.
Catalytic Processes and Materials Figure 2: The extraordinary quality of our research on in-
Veni-grant for liquid phase STM
situ heterogeneous catalysis in liquid phase using ATR-IR spectroscopy was acknowledged by an invitation to publish a tutorial review in a Themed Issue (In situ spectroscopy and
The first highlight in 2010 was the successful application of dr. Arie van Houselt for a VENI grant. Dr. van Houselt will explore the
heterogeneous catalysis) of Chemical Society Reviews.
abilities of a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) for characterization of catalysts in-situ in liquid phase. With an STM one can make really atomically resolved images of catalyst surfaces by scanning the image with an atomically sharp needle (see Fig. 1). Hence it is possible to study the catalytic event on the length scale where it really happens! With this grant a new type of measurement will be used to enhance the time resolution of the measurements of the catalytic events. Figure 3: Reaction scheme of the catalytic hydrogenation of
Characterization of heterogeneous catalysts in water
nitrite over Pd/Al2O3 and Pt/Al2O3. The dotted lines represent possible reaction pathways for N2O and N2 formation, although at present there is no evidence for these pathways. Step applies for
Attenuated Total Reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy is an ideal tool to perform detailed studies on catalytic surfaces in water
Pt/Al2O3 only. All other steps apply for both catalysts.
as we have shown in a series of papers. One of the intriguing findings was that the catalytic nitrite reduction over supported noble metal catalysts follows different reactant pathways for Pt and Pd. Our studies showed that pH clearly influenced the surface coverage and reaction rates of intermediates, which were different for the two metals.
Figure 4: Home built in-situ ATR-IR (Attentuated Total Refliction Infra Red) spectroscopy flow-through-microreactor.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: Barbara L. Mojet, Sune D. Ebbesen, Leon Lefferts, Light at the interface: the potential of Attenuated Total Reflection infrared spectroscopy for understanding heterogeneous catalysis in water, Chem. Soc. Rev., 39 (12) (2010) 4643 - 4655.
[highlights] The Complex Photonic Systems (COPS) group studies light propagation in ordered and disordered nanophotonic materials. We investigate photonic bandgap materials, random lasers, diffusion and Anderson localization of light. We have recently
Figure 1: (a) In a transparent material, identical fluorescing
Prof. dr. Willem L. Vos
pioneered the control of spontaneous emission in photonic crystals and the active
“COPS strives to catch light with
control of the propagation of light in disordered photonic materials. Novel photonic
nanostructures. But beware dear
nanostructures are fabricated and characterized in the MESA+ cleanroom. Optical
colleagues, since Shakespeare once
experiments are an essential aspect of our research, which COPS combines with a
said: ‘Light, seeking light, doth light of
theoretical understanding of the properties of light. Our curiosity driven research
light beguile’. In other words: the eye in
is of interest to various industrial partners, and to applications in medical and
seeking truth deprives itself of vision.”
Complex Photonic Systems
molecules all emit the same number of photons per second, hence they produce the same amount of light (b) Opaque materials, such as paint and organic tissue, are a maze for photons. Molecules
Light in a maze controls the properties of light sources
in these materials emit widely varying numbers of photons per second.
Spontaneous emission of photons is a fundamental quantum process that is of great relevance to technology and to basic science. It is the desired process by which light is generated in energy-efficient light sources, such as white LEDs. It is also an undesired loss channel in photovoltaic solar energy conversion. For these and many other applications, control of spontaneous emission is crucial. At the nanoscale, fluorescing molecules behave as highly-efficient light sources. That is why they are frequently used in energy-efficient lighting, computer screens and imaging techniques in the biomedical sciences. In transparent materials identical molecules emit the same number of photons per second. In many applications, however, these molecules are not contained in a transparent material. Examples are the white light-scattering phosphorous layer in energy-saving lamps and the opaque milky colour of white LEDs. This whiteness appears because the material forms a light-scattering maze, in which photons often change direction. In the 1990s, it was predicted that fluorescing molecules in such materials would emit variable amounts of light. The spontaneous emission rate of a fluorescing molecule is influenced by the sources’ nano-environment, and it is this effect that gives rise to the variation in light emission. Dependent on its size and position, a light-scattering particle at a distance of several nanometers can either make it easier or more difficult for a molecule to emit a photon. Together with scientists from Grenoble University COPS has obtained the first ever experimental evidence that these light sources varied
Figure 2: Distribution of the emission rates for fluorescing
in this way. The experiments were performed using nanospheres filled with fluorescent molecules. Sensitive measurements were able
molecules in materials with increasing scattering strengths
to detect the spheres, even when they were surrounded by a myriad of light-scattering particles. In a transparent medium, the amount
(bottom to top). Shown are histograms of the emission rates from
of light emitted per second was the same for each nanosphere. In light-scattering media, however, the amount of light emitted varied
fluorescent nanospheres embedded in three different materials:
considerably. The greater the light-scattering effect of the medium, the greater the variability. On the basis of these measurements, we
(a) ZnO, (b) Polystyrene beads, and (c) transparent polymer layer.
have developed a new model which provides new understanding on how light is emitted in light-scattering materials. In addition to
Dotted curves: width of the distribution (2σ). Full curves: Gaussian
more efficient light sources, this knowledge is useful for the development of new imaging techniques to study biochemical processes
fits to the histograms.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS:  M. D. Birowosuto, S. E. Skipetrov, W. L. Vos, A. P. Mosk, Observation of Spatial Fluctuations of the Local Density of States in Random Media,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 013904 1-4.  I. M. Vellekoop, A. Lagendijk, A. P. Mosk, Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing, Nature Photon, 4 (2010) 320-322.
[HIGHLIGHTS] Understanding the magnetic, optical, electrical and structural properties of solids in terms of their chemical composition and atomic structure by numerically solving the quantum mechanical equations describing the motion of the electrons is the central research activity of the group Computational Materials Science (CMS). These equations contain no input from experiment other than the fundamental physical constants, making it possible to analyze
Prof. dr. Paul J. Kelly
the properties of systems which are difficult to characterize experimentally
”Computational Materials Science:
or predict the physical properties of materials which have not yet been made.
taking the guesswork out of
This is especially important when experimentalists attempt to make hybrid
NanoScience and Technology.”
structures approaching the nanoscale.
Computational Materials Science
Figure 1: Calculated resistivity as a function of the concentration x for fcc Ni1-xFex binary alloys with (solid line) and without (dashed-dotted line) spin-orbit coupling. Low-temperature
Influence of spin-orbit coupling on spin-dependent transport
experimental results are shown as symbols. The composition Ni80Fe20 is indicated by a vertical dashed line. Inset: resistance of
The drive to increase the density and speed of magnetic forms of data storage has focused attention on how magnetization changes in
Cu|Ni80Fe20|Cu as a function of the thickness of the alloy layer. Dots
response to external fields and currents, on shorter length and time scales. The time decay of a magnetization precession is described
indicate the calculated values averaged over five configurations,
using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in terms of a dimensionless parameter
α while its spatial decay is described using a
while the solid line is a linear fit.
diffusion equation in terms of a spin accumulation that is the difference between the spin-dependent electrochemical potentials for up and down spins, and a spin-flip diffusion length lsf. The parameters
α and lsf are determined by a small coupling between the spin
and orbital degrees of freedom of the transition metal d states, as is the resistivity ρ. Using a formulation of first-principles scattering theory that includes disorder and spin-orbit coupling on an equal footing, we calculate the resistivity
ρ and, for the first time, the
spin-flip diffusion length lsf and Gilbert damping parameter α for Ni1-xFex substitutional alloys as a function of x. For the technologically important Ni80Fe20 alloy, Permalloy, we calculate values of ρ= 3.5 ± 0.15 μΩcm, lsf = 5.5 ± 0.3 nm, and
α=0.0046 ± 0.0001 compared to α, indicating that the
experimental low-temperature values in the range 4.2 – 4.8 μΩcm for ρ, 5.0 – 6.0 nm for lsf, and 0.004 – 0.013 for theoretical formalism captures the most important contributions to these parameters.
Figure 2: Calculated zero-temperature (solid line) and experimental room-temperature (symbols) values of the Gilbert damping parameter as a function of the concentration x for fcc Ni1-xFex binary alloys. Inset: total damping of Cu|Ni80Fe20|Cu as a function of the thickness of the alloy layer. Dots indicate the calculated values averaged over five configurations, while the solid line is a linear fit.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: Anton A. Starikov, Paul J. Kelly, Arne Brataas, Yaroslav Tserkovnyak, Gerrit E.W. Bauer, Unified First-Principles Study of Gilbert Damping, Spin-Flip Diffusion, and Resistivity in Transition Metal Alloys, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 236601.
[highlights] Prof. dr. ing. Dave H.A. Blank
The mission of the Inorganic Materials Science group (IMS) is to work at the
“The recent developments in atomically
international forefront of materials science research on complex metal oxides and
controlled synthesis and characterization
hybrids, and provide an environment where young researchers and students are
tools increased the applicability of
stimulated to excel in this field.
inorganic materials substantially. This
The research is focused on establishing a fundamental understanding of the
especially holds for complex oxide
relationship between composition, structure and solid-state physical and chemical
materials, enabling new materials and
properties of inorganic materials, especially oxides. Insights into these relationships
devices with novel functionalities. The aim
enable us to design new materials with improved and yet unknown properties that
is to consolidate our leading role in this
are of interest for fundamental studies as well as for industrial applications. With the
field of oxides electronics.”
possibility to design and construct artificial materials on demand, new opportunities become available for novel device concepts.
Figure 1: (a) The AMO3 unit cell, where A is typically a rare earth, alkaline earth or alkali metal ion, and M is often a transition metal ion. b) A schematic representation of a mixed-terminated
Inorganic Materials Science
surface with steps of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 nm height. c) A singleterminated MO2 surface with steps of 0.4 nm height. The blue blocks correspond to the AO layer and the orange blocks to the
Rare-Earth Scandate Crystal Surfaces with Atomic Definition
MO2 layer, with blue, orange, and white circles corresponding to A, M, and O ions, respectively.
The fabrication of well-defined, atomically sharp substrate surfaces over a wide range of lattice parameters is crucial to realize atomically regulated epitaxial growth of complex oxide heterostructures. Especially the deposition of perovskite-type complex oxides with the general formula AMO3 may to enable several applications in the field of superconductivity, magnetism, and ferroelectricity. The substrate surfaces onto which these oxide are to be grown should have single-terminated outer atomic planes. The cubic unit cell of AMO3 in the  direction can be represented as a simplified stack of alternating layers of AO and MO2. So when a surface is created, for instance by cleaving a single crystal, both layers are expected to be present at the surface in equal proportion. Unfortunately, the established techniques to obtain single terminated surfaces have been limited to SrTiO3 with a unit cell parameter a=0.391 nm. It has been a challenge to many research groups to extend the toolbox to include other perovskite-type substrates with larger unit cells. By applying a framework for controlled selective wet etching of complex oxides on the stable rare-earth scandates (REScO3), with unit cell parameters of 0.394–0.404 nm, we were able to obtain reproducible, single-terminated DyO2 surfaces.
Figure 2: AFM height images. (a) single-terminated DyScO3 (110) substrate with steps of one unit cell height, after wet etch and thermal treatment; (b) Mixed terminated DyScO3 (110) surface.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: J.E. Kleibeuker, G. Koster, W. Siemons, D. Dubbink, B. Kuiper, J.L. Blok, C.-H. Yang, J. Ravichandran, R. Ramesh, J.E. ten Elshof, D.H.A. Blank,
G. Rijnders, Atomically defined rare earth scandate crystal surfaces, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20 (2010) 3490-3496.
[HIGHLIGHTS] The Integrated Optical MicroSystems (IOMS) group performs research on highly compact, potentially low-cost and mass-producible optical waveguide devices with novel functionalities. After careful design using dedicated computational tools, optical chips are realized in the MESA+ clean-room facilities by standard lithographic tools as well as high-resolution techniques for nano-structuring, such as focused ion beam milling and laser interference lithography. Integrated optical devices, including on-chip integrated
Prof. dr. Markus Pollnau
light sources and amplifiers, optically resonant structures, micro-mechanically or thermo-
“Guiding light into the
detection schemes based on these devices are developed for a variety of applications in
the fields of optical sensing, bio-medical diagnostics, and optical communication.
optically actuated switches, spectrometers, and novel light generation, manipulation, and
Figure 1: Laser output power as a function of absorbed pump power for various outcoupling mirror transmissions in a
Integrated Optical MicroSystems
KY0.60Gd0.130Lu0.258Yb0.012(WO4)2 planar waveguide.
Microchip Optical Amplifiers and Lasers Based on Rare-earth-ion Dopants The crystalline potassium double tungstates KY(WO 4)2, KGd(WO 4)2, and KLu(WO 4)2 are recognized as excellent host materials for rare-earth (RE) doped lasers. We employ liquid-phase epitaxy to grow KY1-x-yGd x Luy(WO 4)2:Yb 3+ layers onto KY(WO 4)2 substrates. These co-doped layers allow for lattice matching with the undoped substrate, while simultaneously obtaining a significantly enhanced refractive index contrast up to 2 × 10 -2, hence thinner waveguides with tighter light confinement and accordingly higher intensities. By excitation with a pump laser, we demonstrated a planar waveguide laser at 1025 nm with 82.3% slope efficiency
Figure 2: Scanning-electron-microscopy image of a
(Fig. 1), which represents the most efficient RE-doped waveguide laser reported to date . Microstructuring by Ar+ beam etching
microstructured double tungstate channel waveguide and
provides channel waveguides (Fig. 2), in which we obtained lasing with 418 mW output power and a record-low defect between
measured optical mode profile .
pump and laser wavelength of 0.7% , resulting in an extremely small heat generation in this device. RE-doped fiber amplifiers are a standard in optical communication systems. However, their high overall gain of 30-50 dB comes at the expense of several meters of fiber length, making them unsuitable for on-chip integration. Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) can provide a high gain per unit length of 250-1000 dB/cm, but short carrier lifetimes and refractive-index changes induce temporal and spatial gain patterning effects. To date, the gain in RE-doped integrated waveguides has hardly exceeded 10 dB/cm. Our KGd0.447 Lu 0.078Yb 0.475(WO 4)2 waveguides combine a high dopant concentration, large transition probabilities, and strong light confinement in a single device. Consequently, we demonstrated an ultra-high gain of 950 dB/cm , representing a two-ordersof-magnitude improvement over previous gain in RE-doped materials and being comparable to gain in SOAs, while avoiding the negative side effects present in the latter. This breakthrough paves the way for on-chip integrated RE-doped amplifiers. Figure 3: Experimental (dots) and calculated (line) modal gain at 980.6 nm in a KGd0.447Lu0.078Yb0.475(WO4)2 channel waveguide versus launched pump power at 932 nm .
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS:  D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, Low-threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb3+ planar waveguide lasers, Laser Phys. Lett. 6, (2009) 800.  D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, High-power, broadly tunable, and low-quantum-defect KGd1-xLux(WO4)2:Yb3+ channel waveguide lasers, Opt. Express 18, (2010) 26107.  D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, S.M. García-Blanco, M. Pollnau, Giant optical gain in a rare-earth-ion-doped waveguide, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, Maryland, 2011 (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC 2011), postdeadline paper PDPA12.
[highlights] Materials with exceptional, well-tailored properties are at the heart of many new applications. In the electronic/magnetic domains, powerful
Prof. dr. ir. Hans Hilgenkamp
means to create such properties are nanostructuring as well as the use
"The Interfaces and Correlated Electron
These can arise from intricate interactions of the mobile charge carriers
systems group (ICE) focuses on materials
mutually and/or with the crystal lattice. In the Interfaces and Correlated
and interfaces with unconventional
Electron systems group (ICE), the fabrication and basic properties of
electronic properties, especially related
such (nano-structured) novel materials are studied, and their potential
to interactions between the mobile
for applications is explored. Current research involves superconductors,
p- and n-doped Mott compounds, topological insulators and electronically
of compounds in which the intrinsic physics involves ‘special effects’.
active interfaces between oxide insulators.
Interfaces and Correlated Electron systems Creating a pair of 2-dimensional conducting layers on a nanometer distance Bring two oxidic, non-conducting materials into contact and exactly at their interface something remarkable happens: at that precise point a highly conducting sheet can appear. This effect has become a very hot topic in science in the last few years, because of its potential to create novel functional electronic structures ‘beyond Moore’. In the last year, MESA+ researchers have teamed up with colleagues from the LMU Munich, UC Berkeley and UC Davis to push this one step further. In thin film combinations of the oxides strontium-titanate (STO) and lanthanum-aluminate (LAO), grown with unit cell precision, they have created even two parallel conductive paths, just one nanometer apart. These conducting layers arise from electron transfer from one interface to the other, creating next to the electron-conducting interface a layer in which the positively charged holes that are left behind can conduct current. Future research will concentrate on new effects that may arise from the electronic coupling between these closely spaced p- and n-conducting layers and their potential for applications. Four MESA+ research groups were involved in this research: Interfaces and Correlated Electron Systems, Inorganic Materials Science, NanoElectronic Materials and Physics of Interfaces and Nanomaterials. The research was funded from the Netherlands by FOM, NWO, VIDI and VICI grants and NANONED and published in Physical Review Letters. Figure 1: In a stacked atomic structure of LAO with a STO capping layer on a STO substrate (crystal structure from left to right, top of illustration), the internal potential in the LAO layer brings about a rearrangement of charge. The transferred electrons leave behind holes, and both can conduct electricity. The separation between the 2-dimensional electron-and hole layers is approximately 1 nanometer.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: R. Pentcheva, M. Huijben, K. Otte, W.E. Pickett, J.E. Kleibeuker, J. Huijben, W. Siemons, G. Koster, H. Zandvliet, G. Rijnders, D.H.A. Blank,
H. Hilgenkamp, A. Brinkman. Parallel electron-hole bilayer conductivity from electronic interface reconstruction, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 166804.
[HIGHLIGHTS] The Laser Physics and Nonlinear Optics group (LPNO) strives at mastering the generation and manipulation of coherent light in improved and novel ways, with new concepts for lasers and by exploring nonlinear interaction of light with matter. The research comprises wide ranges of intensities, time scales and light frequencies.
Prof. dr. Klaus J. Boller
For instance, we investigate a novel type of laser based on slow light in photonic
â€œLight shows us the beauty of
electron bunches into ultra-fast, atto-second time scales . We control nonlinear
nature. We generate light and
light generation for extremely sensitive and specific detection of molecules. Or we
put it to work, for knowledge and
study how nonlinear optics and nano-structured optics (Fig. 1) can enable microscopy
Figure 1: High aspect ratio etching of Bragg-Fresnel structures
and XUV lithography on the nano-scale.
for increased optical performance of XUV and soft X-ray mirrors.
structure. We also investigate how to employ intense light pulses to compress
Laser Physics and Nonlinear Optics Shrinking nonlinear optics Ultra-short pulses with extremely high repetition rates and generated in a compact format are of high interest, e.g., for ultrafast optical
Figure 2: Optical waveguide circuits on a chip using Si3N4/SiO2
switching and data storage. We have recently shown a novel concept via which ultra-short light pulses can be synthesized with
photonic integration technology, which is ideally suited for
extremely high repetition rates in the range of tens and hundreds of GHz . Due to its spatially distributed approach, the method is
implementation of the spatially distributed approach to generate
of high interest for integration and miniaturization using photonic integration technologies (see Fig. 2). The pulses are synthesized
from a large number of independent laser beams each having a slightly different wavelength, which we generated with 49 diode lasers integrated on a chip. The scheme induces a mutual, optical phase control with nonlinear feedback from a saturable absorber mirror. The approach matches ideally with our record mid-infrared generation based on optical parametric oscillators directly pumped by high-power diode lasers (see Fig. 3). A further extension of the approach, to enable sensing applications via nonlinear nano-photonics in waveguide format, will be performed within a recently acquired research project.
Figure 3: Starting from top left and clockwise the optical beam cross-section of the undepleted and depleted pump, signal and idler beams of a continuous-wave mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by an integrated high power tapered diode laser.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS:  M.J.H. Luttikhof, A.G. Khachatryan, F.A. van Goor, K.-J. Boller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 124801.  R. Oldenbeuving, C.J. Lee, P.D. van Voorst, H.L. Offerhaus, K.-J. Boller, Opt. Expr. 18 (2010) 22996.
[highlights] Prof. dr. G. Julius Vancso
The current research in the Materials Science and Technology of Polymers group (MTP)
"The general focus of research in the MTP
focuses on platform level work in macromolecular nanotechnology and polymer materials
group revolves around devising and building
chemistry. The applications are utilized in collaborations with specialized groups. The
tools and synthesizing molecular platforms
projects target problems aiming at controlled synthesis of stimulus responsive “intelligent”
that enable studies of macromolecular
polymers, and manipulation as well as fabrication of complex polymeric architectures in
structure and behavior from the nanometer
combination with nanoparticles, and metallic or semiconductor nanocrystals. Controlled
length scale, bottom up. This knowledge is
assembly of systems from the nanoscale to macroscopic dimensions, and their applications
then used in macromolecular materials and
in surface engineering, responsive molecular architectures, devices such as molecular
devices with enhanced or novel properties
motors, sensors and actuators, nanostructured composites, and molecular delivery are
and functions for targeted applications."
considered. The development of enabling tools such as scanning probe microscopes, and optical approaches, including single molecule imaging, complements this effort.
Figure 1: Quantum dots can be made water soluble by adding an
Materials Science and Technology of Polymers
amphiphilic polymer coating.
Towards three dimensional functional polymer based nanosystems: Soft matter-semiconductor nanocrystal hybrids Direct delivery of therapeutic compounds to cellular targets can enhance drug efficacy and safety, but such techniques require careful monitoring within the body. Semiconductor nanocrystals can have superior photonic properties, which make them very promising in sensing devices and in biological imaging. Integrating QDs in functional systems requires molecular engineering of the QDs surface which can be achieved by designer polymers (Fig. 1). The MTP team, in collaboration with the MESA+ groups SMCT, MNF and NBP, and with A*STAR Singapore, developed various nanosystems that encompass fluorescent QDs and hold the promise to light up the Figure 2: “Click” chemistry was used with success to prepare
pathways of critical biological processes.
polymer cross-linked microparticles with QD loading .
Fluorescent markers, such as chemical dyes, are often attached to biomolecules to track their movements inside living cells. Quantum dots (QD) - semiconductor nanocrystals with extraordinary light-emitting capabilities such as bright fluorescence emissions and long lifetimes - promise to radically advance biological imaging by offering a brighter, longer-lived source of fluorescent light than any comparable dye. When combined with other fluorophores, QDs may provide sensing platforms with molecular sensitivity. Researchers in MTP developed a polymeric shell to solubilize QDs in water and to allow covalent attachment of QDs into functional nanosctructures by “click chemistry” . Clicking can also be used to prepare controlled composite spherical microparticles with well-defined nanoparticle loading (Fig. 2). QDs exhibit bright fluorescence emissions and long lifetimes. Using the “molecular printboard” approach developed by David Reinhoudt Figure 3: Fluorescence energy transfer allows sensitive
and his coworkers, QDs with molecular receptors were immobilized at patterned substrates . The receptors provide binding sites
detection of fluorophore labeled analytes by a surface
for various analytes. Analyte detection via supramolecular host–guest binding and QD-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer
immobilized QD platform .
(FRET) signal transduction mechanism were demonstrated in another “highlighted” study (Fig. 3).
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONs:  D. Janczewski, N. Tomczak, S. Liu, M.-Y. Han, G.J. Vancso, Covalent assembly of functional inorganic nanoparticles by "click" chemistry in water Chemical Communications, 46 (19) (2010) 3253-3255.  D. Dorokhin, S.-H. Hsu, N. Tomczak, C. Blum, V. Subramaniam, J. Huskens, D.N. Reinhoudt, A.H. Velders, G.J. Vancso, Visualizing resonance energy transfer in supramolecular surface patterns of ß-CD-functionalized quantum dot hosts and organic dye guests by
fluorescence lifetime imaging, Small 6 (24) (2010) 2870-2876.
[HIGHLIGHTS] The Membrane Technology Group (MTG) focuses on the multi-disciplinary topic of membrane science and technology for the separation of molecular mixtures. We aim at designing membrane morphology and structure on a molecular level to control mass transport phenomena in macroscopic applications. We consider our expertise to be a multidisciplinary knowledge chain ranging from molecule to process, both involving polymeric and inorganic membranes. The research program is divided
Dr. ir. Kitty Nijmeijer
into four application clusters: Sustainable Membrane Processes, Energy, Water and
“Molecular design of membranes
Biomedical and Life Sciences.
to control mass transport in macroscopic applications.”
Membrane Technology Group Microstructured hollow fiber membranes Phase separation processes are used for the preparation of the majority of synthetic polymer membranes. In such a process a polymer solution is thermodynamically destabilized and undergoes phase separation in a polymer rich and a polymer lean phase. To design hollow fiber geometries we use this principle in a hollow fiber spinning process. Round, cylindrical spinnerets are used resulting in
Figure 1: Evolution of the microstructure at the outer surface of a
hollow fiber membranes with a smooth outer surface.
polymer solution in the air gap during hollow fiber spinning.
To produce a hollow fiber membrane with high permeability, usually the first approach is to optimize membrane fabrication conditions. A next step, well known from heat exchangers, is the increase in area-to-volume ratio of the membrane using microstructured membrane surfaces. The present publication reports the use of a microstructured insert in the hollow fiber membrane spinneret allowing the design of such microstructured hollow fiber membranes with enhanced surface area and membrane performance. Fibers with maximum 89% surface area enhancement are prepared. The microstructured fibers and the round fibers spun under the same conditions have comparable (intrinsic) pure water permeability, molecular weight cut-off, pore size distribution and average skin layer thickness. This implies that the flow through the unit volume of the structured fibers will be enhanced compared to their round counterparts, while maintaining the same separation properties. Structured fibers spun with a slow-coagulating polymer dope show varying skin thickness throughout the outer surface, which is dependent on the geometry of the fiber and probably caused by varying local coagulation conditions around the structured outer surface of the fibers. Polymer dopes with high coagulation value, on the other hand, result in structured fibers with a homogeneous skin layer all along the surface. Figure 2: Hollow fiber membranes produced in a hollow fiber spinning process using a microstructured insert in the spinneret. Depending on the length of the air gap the outer surface of the fiber has a distinct microstructured morphology or a more smooth surface.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: Pınar Zeynep Çulfaz, Erik Rolevink, Cees van Rijn, Rob G.H. Lammertink, Matthias Wessling, Microstructured hollow fibers for ultrafiltration, Journal of Membrane Science 347 (2010) 32-41.
[highlights] Prof. dr. Han J.G.E. Gardeniers
The research focus of the Mesoscale Chemical Systems group (MCS) is on three themes:
"The MCS team studies downscaling
Examples are: microplasma, electrostatic control of catalytic surface processes, photo
concepts in order to enhance yield
and sonochemical microreactors and microreactors with integrated work-up functionality
and selectivity of chemical reactions
(extraction, crystallization); n Micro chemical analysis and process analytical technology:
and product purification, to improve
advantages of microsystem integration and nanotechnology are exploited to develop new
the analysis of mass-limited (bio)
concepts of (bio)chemical analysis. Examples are: liquid and gas chromatography, microscale
chemical samples, and to contribute
NMR, and microcalorimetric gas sensors; n (Bio)molecular dynamics in confinement: Micro
to the fundamental knowledge of (bio)
and nanofluidic systems are used to study fundamental biomolecular processes in a
molecular dynamics in confinement."
confined state (immobilized on a surface or entrapped in a nanostructure).
n Alternative activation mechanisms for chemical process control and process intensification:
Mesoscale Chemical Systems Nanogrooved substrates for osteoblast-like cell growth The introduction of implants into a living organism causes specific reactions of the biological environment. The bio-molecules and cells together with the intrinsic properties of the biomaterials used, determine the biocompatibility and longevity of implants. Since the interaction of those bio-molecules and cells with the biomaterial surface is a vital element in evaluating the suitability of a biomaterial for its intended function, every attempt towards avoiding undesired and/or enhancing desired responses to implants or prostheses is of utmost importance. It is hypothesized that implant surfaces can be improved by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix of bone tissue, Figure 1: Typical nanostructure on silicon master, fabricated
which is a highly organized nano-composite. To prove this, in a collaboration with the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, the
by Laser Interference Lithography and Directional Reactive Ion
biological effect of an artificial nanostructure engraved in the surface of relevant substrates was studied. Laser Interference Lithography
and Directional Reactive Ion Etching were used to manufacture silicon masters with different nanotopographical cues like depth, width, (an)isotropy and spacing, which subsequently were used to establish imprints in polystyrene slabs, by thermal nano-imprinting. Results of biological studies at RUMC showed that osteoblasts are indeed responsive to these nanopatterns. SEM and TEM studies showed that osteoblast-driven calcium phosphate mineralization occurs and follows the surface pattern dimensions. A single-cell based approach for real-time PCR demonstrated that osteoblast-specific gene expression was increased on nanopatterns compared to a smooth control. Mechanical stimulation by substrate stretching gave a significant synergistic effect on upregulation of fibronectin and Cfba. Microscopic analysis and time lapse imaging revealed that isotropic topography does not alter cell morphology, but induces cell motility, while cells cultured on anisotropic topographies are highly elongated and aligned. Cell motility was found to be highly dependent on the ridgegroove ratio of anisotropic patterns. Focal adhesion length decreased with increasing motility. These results indicate that nanogrooves can be a very promising tool to direct the bone response at the interface between an implant and the bone tissue.
Figure 2: 150 nm wide (120 nm deep) grooved substrates display
Currently, the research is extended to "real" implants, i.e. the silicon masters mentioned above are used to imprint a nanostructure in a
suitable resist and the resulting pattern is transferred into medical grade titanium specimens.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS:  E. Lamers, F. Walboomers, M. Domanski, J. te Riet, G. McKerr, B.M. O'Hagan, C.A. Barnes, L. Peto, F.C.M.J.M. van Delft, R. Luttge, A.J.A. Winnubst, J.G.E. Gardeniers, J.A. Jansen, Nanogrooved substrates to determine osteoblast-like cell behavior and extracellular matrix deposition, Biomaterials 31 (2010) 3307-3316.  L. Prodanov, J. te Riet, E. Lamers, M. Domanski, R. Luttge, J.W.A. van Loon, J.A. Jansen, X.F. Walboomers. The interaction between nanoscale surface features and mechanical loading and its effect on osteoblast-like cells behavior, Biomaterials 31 (2010) 7758-7765.  E. Lamers, R. van Horssen, J. te Riet, F.C.M.J.M.
van Delft, R. Luttge, X.F. Walboomers, J.A. Jansen, The influence of nanoscale topographical cues on initial osteoblast morphology and migration, Eur. Cells Mat. 20 (2010) 329-343.
[HIGHLIGHTS] The Molecular nanoFabrication (MnF) group, headed by prof. Jurriaan Huskens, focuses on bottom-up nanofabrication methodologies and their integration with top-down surface structuring. Key research elements are: supramolecular chemistry at interfaces, multivalency, supramolecular materials, biomolecule assembly and cell patterning, nanoparticle assembly, soft and imprint lithography, chemistry in microfluidic devices, and multistep integrated nanofabrication schemes. The group has several collaborations
Prof. dr. ir. Jurriaan Huskens
within MESA+, e.g. on the assembly of proteins and cells on patterned surfaces and on the
"Molecular nanoFabrication: shaping
actively participates in the Twente Graduate School program Novel NanoMaterials, and
the future of molecular matter."
in the national nanotechnology programs NanoNed and NanoNext.
development of alternative lithographies and their applications. Furthermore, the group
Molecular nanoFabrication Self-assembled nanoparticle nanowires In a collaborative effort, researchers from MnF and of the group of prof. Vincent Rotello (Amherst, USA) have developed a new method to anchor functional nanoparticles and to apply this method in a nanomolding fabrication scheme to create nanowires of nanoparticles. These wires were shown to be electrically conductive, yet at the same time still showed signatures of their particulate nature. In an initial study (ref 1), the coupling chemistry was developed. This method is based on an easy, versatile and reversible chemical
Figure 1: Process scheme for the formation of one-dimensional
reaction between an amine and CS2 and the instantaneous and strong coupling of its product to gold surfaces. This methodology was
gold nanoparticle arrays by nanomolding in capillaries combined
applied to the local and specific binding of amine-functionalized silica nanoparticles to micropatterned gold surfaces.
with DTC coupling chemistry.
In a follow-up study (ref 2), very small gold nanoparticles were assembled into nanowires by combining this coupling chemistry with a new nanostructuring method, nanomolding in capillaries (Fig. 1). Wires of less than 50 nm width and height were fabricated in this way, and their collective electronic properties were assessed. Also crosswire architectures were successfully fabricated (Fig. 2). These nanoparticle nanowires can potentially be applied in nanoelectronic circuits. More importantly, the self-assembly methods developed here may provide alternative routes to facile bottom-up nanoelectronic device fabrication.
Figure 2: Schematic diagram (a) illustrating grid patterns obtained by two sequential nanomolding steps and SEM and AFM (b-e) images of various cross-wire architectures.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS:  M.-H. Park, X. Duan, Y. Ofir, B. J. Creran, D. Patra, X. Y. Ling, J. Huskens, V. M. Rotello, Chemically Directed Immobilization of Nanoparticles onto Gold Substrates for Orthogonal Assembly using Dithiocarbamate Bond Formation (with cover). ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 2 (2010) 795-799.  X. Duan, M.-H. Park, Y. Zhao, E. Berenschot, Z. Wang, D. N. Reinhoudt, V. M. Rotello, J. Huskens, Gold Nanoparticle Wires Formed by an 足Integrated Nanomolding-Chemical Assembly Process: Fabrication and Properties, ACS Nano 4 (2010) 7660-7666.
[highlights] Prof. dr. Vinod Subramaniam
The research mission of the NanoBioPhysics group (NBP) is to perform world-class research in
“Our goal is to perform
of neurodegenerative disease related protein aggregation, in protein-ligand interactions on cell
world-class research in
surfaces, and in the emerging field of nanobiophotonics, where we use the toolbox of nanophotonics
molecular and cellular
to manipulate biological fluorophores. We strive for quantitative nanoscale functional imaging of
biophysics at the nanometer
dynamic molecular and cellular biophysical processes, and develop cutting-edge technologies to
scale, to gain new
address these questions.
molecular and cellular biophysics at the nanometer scale. We are interested in the mechanisms
Figure 1: Confocal microscopy imaging of kinetics of dye efflux
insights into fundamental
from a single GUV upon addition of oligomeric α-synuclein.
mechanisms related to
In 2010 our work on amyloid aggregation at the nanoscale formed the nucleus of a program proposal
POPG GUVs (red membrane label) are filled with the dye HPTS
granted by the Foundation for the Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM).
(green). The quencher DPX was present in the external solution. Time stamps in seconds. Note that the GUVs remain intact after addition of the oligomers and leakage of the dye. For a movie, see the NBP website, www.utwente.nl/nbp. a)
NanoBioPhysics Towards mechanistic understanding of α-Synuclein oligomer-membrane interactions α-Synuclein (aS) is a small intrinsically disordered protein that is abundantly expressed throughout the human brain. Aggregation of
this protein is implicated in the onset and progression of Parkinson’s disease, and there is compelling evidence that the interaction of small oligomeric aggregates of the proteins with lipid membranes contributes to neurotoxicity. In a project supported partly by NanoNed, MESA+ PhD student Bart van Rooijen used a broad repertoire of biophysical techniques to shed light on the mechanisms by which oligomeric α-synuclein permeabilizes membranes. Using time-lapse confocal microscopy we have been able to image the permeabilization of giant unilamellar vesicles by oligomeric α-synuclein, without further damage or solubilization of the vesicles (Fig. 1, and ref. 1).
Figure 2: a) Scanning electron micrograph (left) of a titania inverse
Nanobiophotonics – mapping sub-surface properties of 3D photonic crystals
opal photonic crystal shows large areas of high quality but also areas of low order on the crystal surface. The true colour picture
In a joint project with the Complex Photonic Systems group (COPS), dr. Christian Blum has been exploring the use of the modification
of the emission of a fluorescent protein (right) infused into a
of the photophysical properties of visible fluorescent proteins by 3D photonic crystals to quantitatively map the spatial extent and
similar crystal shows clear color variations, reflecting subsurface
homogeneity of the photonic properties of these nanophotonic structures. Local emission spectra from emitters deep inside a photonic
crystal quality variations. b) Local photonic modifications at
crystal are recorded with micrometer lateral resolution using spectral emission imaging microscopy. The recorded directional emission
different areas of the crystal are seen as variations in the intensity
spectra are modified by Bragg diffraction, which we use to determine the local stop-band attenuation, centre position and width.
ratio spectra. The photonic stop band is apparent as a wavelength
Assembling the values obtained into spatial maps yields detailed access to the distributions of the local photonic properties below
region of attenuation. c) A map of the photonic quality deep inside
the crystal surface (Fig. 2).
the crystal shows strong attenuation in the centre of the sampled region, surrounded by a non- or only weakly photonic region.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS:  B.D. Van Rooijen, M.M.A.E. Claessens, V. Subramaniam. Membrane Permeabilization by Oligomeric α-Synuclein: In Search of the Mechanism. PLoS ONE 5(12) (2010) e14292.  C. Blum, A. P. Mosk, C. Otto, W. L. Vos, V. Subramaniam, Looking deep into 3D photonic crystals: spectral emission imaging
to map photonic properties below the crystal surface, JOSA B 26 (2009) 2101-2108.
[HIGHLIGHTS] Prof. dr. ir. Wilfred G. van der Wiel
The Chair NanoElectronics (NE) performs research and provides education in the field of nanoelectronics.
aspects of Electrical Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science, and Nanotechnology. NE
is where electrical
consists of more than 20 group members and still has some vacancies.
Nanoelectronics comprises a mix of intriguing physical phenomena and revolutionary novel concepts
for devices and systems with improved performance and/or entirely new functionality.
NE has some dedicated infrastructure including MBE deposition, scanning tunneling microscopy,
cryogenic measurement systems down to temperatures of 250 mK in combination with magnetic fields
up to 10 tesla.
Our research involves hybrid inorganic-organic electronics, spin electronics and quantum electronics. The research goes above and beyond the boundaries of traditional disciplines, synergetically combining
Figure 1: [a] Native SiO2 is fully stripped by NH4F. [b] Monolayer formation using an organic-dopant-atom-containing molecular precursor (1-undecenyl-dimethylphosphonate). [c] Spin–coating of the imprint resist. [d] NIL. [e] RIE of the residual layer
Local Doping of Silicon Using Nanoimprint Lithography and Molecular Monolayers
and local removal of the monolayer using O2 plasma, with concomitant oxidation of the exposed Si areas. [f] Resist removal by ultrasonication in acetone. [g] Deposition of a SiO2 capping
World-wide, several strategies are perceived in downscaling of semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) components. As conducting
layer by electron beam (e-beam) evaporation. [h] Rapid thermal
properties of silicon largely depend on the presence of dopant impurities, a strategy could consist of addressing the way dopants
annealing (RTA) to distribute the dopant atoms.
are traditionally implemented in semiconductor materials. Fabrication of small, ultra-shallow doped regions will require the ability to control the position of dopant atoms within nanometers. A niche way of introducing dopants to silicon uses molecular (organic) monolayers containing a dopant atom. After protection of the monolayer by a SiO2-capping layer, diffusion of dopant atoms in the bulk silicon is achieved using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at high temperature. Such an approach offers considerate advantages over traditional doping of silicon, which is usually achieved by ion-implantation. Ion-implantation requires a relatively long annealing step to repair – bombardment inflicted – crystal damage. Such an annealing step is unbeneficial in situations where deterministic positioning, i.e. influencing the exact location of dopants, is required. By using RTA a considerate influence can be exercised on the depths where introduced dopants will be positioned. Moreover, the quantity of introduced dopants can be tuned using a limited source condition such as a molecular monolayer. Apart from influencing the depth (z-direction) of dopants in a structure, actual device fabrication requires concomitant influence on positioning of dopants
Figure 2: Phosphor elemental images recorded with TOF-SIMS
in x- and y-directions and therefore necessitates combination with a suitable patterning method.
(normalized to Si, image size 500 x 500 µm2) of a 1x1 cm2 intrinsic
In this work  we combine a bottom-up fabrication such as introducing dopants using molecular monolayers with top-down
Si(100) sample containing 100- μm-wide phosphorus-doped
nanoimprint lithography (NIL) (Fig. 1). Phosphorus doped areas in silicon were fabricated and characterized by time-of-flight
regions at 200-μm period (RTA, 5 min at 1000oC) at successive
secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) (Fig. 2) and Hall and sheet resistance measurements. The work was performed at
depths: each image represents an interval of ~10 nm (0–10 for
MESA+ in a collaboration of the Nano Electronics (NE) and Molecular Nano Fabrication (MNF) groups.
image I, 10–20 for image II, etc.). The coloring has been done artificially and represents increasing doping concentrations from black to blue to green to yellow to red.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: W.P. Voorthuijzen, M.D. Yilmaz, W.J.M. Naber, J. Huskens, W.G. van der Wiel, Local doping of silicon using nanoimprint lithography and molecular monolayers, Adv. Mater. 23 (2011) 1346.
[highlights] The aim of the NanoElectronic Materials (NEM) group is to advance the field of materials science, with a focus on nanomaterials for applications in electronic devices. The research is based on current trends in nanomaterials science and developments within MESA+, such as the controlled growth of materials, control of their structure, and understanding of the structure-property relations. The research is focused on three areas: Artificial Materials, Functional and Smart
Prof. dr. ing. Guus Rijnders
Materials for Devices, as well as In-situ Characterization of Film Growth and
"Recent advances in materials engineering at the
Interface Processes. These areas have in common that they find their basis
atomic scale facilitated a significant revival in the
in materials science, bridging major disciplines within MESA+, i.e., Chemical
field of functional complex oxide materials."
Engineering, Applied Physics, and Nanotechnology.
NanoElectronic Materials Optimized magnetic properties of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 Perfect control (at the atomic level) of the crystalline structure, chemical bonding and the phase formed are a prerequisite to fully exploit functional properties of materials, such as high dielectric permittivity, ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. La 0.67Sr 0.33MnO 3 (LSMO) is a half metal with a Curie temperature of 370 K, and such metals are of great interest for spintronic devices, e.g. magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). In these devices, the tunnel current depends on the relative orientation of the two ferromagnetic electrodes. In most of the MTJs, however, the obtained tunnel magnetoresistance ratio (TMR) drops rapidly with temperature and the devices cannot be prepared very reproductively. The interfacial dead layer of LSMO is thought to be an important cause of the less than ideal behavior. At the interface between LSMO and the barrier material, e.g., SrTiO 3 (STO), theÂ Laâ€“Sr ratio surrounding the interfacial Mn ions changes and this results in locally overdoped LSMO. Interface engineering, changing the local cation stoichiometry, has been applied to solve this issue as well as an alternative approach, fabricating tunnel junction using LSMO with other crystallographic orientation. In an optimized orientation, the dopants are in the same atomic layer as the Mn ions and no overdoping is expected. We studied the magnetic behavior as well as the interface properties of LSMO on STO, with a focus on magnetic anisotropy of the LSMO and have determined the chemical and electronic structure profile of the LSMO at the interface with STO. The outcome is important for understanding and optimization of spintronic devices.
Figure 1: High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy image (cross section) of a LSMO-STO heterostructure, showing atomically smooth interfaces.
Highlighted publications:  X. Gray, C. Papp, B. Balke, S.-H. Yang, M. Huijben, E. Rotenberg, A. Bostwick, S. Ueda, Y. Yamashita, K. Kobayashi, E. M. Gullikson, J. B. Kortright, F. M. F. de Groot, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, R. Ramesh, C. S. Fadley, Interface properties of magnetic tunnel junction La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/SrTiO3 superlattices studied by standing-wave excited photoemission spectroscopy, Phys. Rev. B 82 (2010) 205116.  H. Boschker,
J. Kautz, E.P. Houwman, G. Koster, D.H.A. Blank, G. Rijnders. Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films on SrTiO3(110). J. Appl. Phys. 108 (2010) 103906.  M. Mathews, E. P. Houwman, H. Boschker, G. Rijnders, D. H. A. Blank, Magnetization reversal mechanism in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films on NdGaO3 substrates.
[HIGHLIGHTS] Prof. dr. Serge J.G. Lemay
The goals of the group Nanoionics are to add to fundamental
“The physics of ions in liquid are directly
understanding of electrostatics and electron transfer in liquid,
relevant to a surprisingly wide array of
and to explore new concepts for fluidic devices based on this
research areas of current scientific and
new understanding. Our experimental tools, which are largely
societal interest. These include nanoscience
dictated by the intrinsic nanometer scale of the systems that
(the ‘natural’ length scale for ions), energy
we study, include single-molecule techniques borrowed from
(fuel cells, supercapacitors), neuroscience
biophysics, sensitive electronics, and lithography-based
(signal transduction, new experimental
microfabrication. Through its focus on nanoscience and its
tools), and health and environment
multidisciplinary nature, this research is a natural fit for
monitoring (new and better sensors)."
NanoIonics Roadblocks for nanocarbon biosensors Marrying microarrays from biotechnology with modern electronics on the same chip is expected to lead to dramatic increases in the parallelization and performance of existing platforms while dramatically lowering costs. A key hurdle in achieving this vision is the development of suitable detection strategies that rely solely on electrical mechanisms. The traditional approach of field-effect detection has recently undergone a revival with the advent of intrinsically nanometer scale materials suitable for use in such sensors. In particular, single-walled carbon nanotubes and, very recently, graphene have received a flood of attention. This is because their sensitivity is expected to be extremely high: after all, every atom sits on the surface and is accessible to a liquid sample. While not incorrect, this line of reasoning however omits a complementary truth: for exactly the same reason, nanocarbon-based field-effect sensors are particularly sensitive to perturbations in their electrostatic environment. Such interference can lead to electrical noise in the sensor response, or to spurious signals caused by variations of extraneous parameters such as the pH or the salt concentration of the sample. By studying the response of individual nanotubes or sheets of graphene under controlled conditions, we were able to quantitatively understand the main manifestations of this coupling and to place limitations on the expected performance of nanocarbon-based field-effect sensors. These results, while not always good news for would-be sensor makers (!), represent necessary steps toward rational design. These experiments were performed at
the TU Delft while the new Nanoionics group was being formed at MESA+, and are illustrative of the research taking place in NI on electrical sensing mechanisms. Figure 1: Nanocarbon-based biosensors. Their monolayer thickness renders carbon nanotubes and graphene ideal for field-effect detection of charged species in liquid. But buyer beware! It also renders them supremely susceptible to interference from other changes in their electrostatic environment.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS:  I. Heller, S. Chatoor, J. Männik, M. A. G. Zevenbergen, C. Dekker, S. G. Lemay, Influence of electrolyte composition on liquid-gated carbonnanotube and graphene transistors, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 17149-17156.  I. Heller, S. Chatoor, J. Männik, M. A. G. Zevenbergen, J. B. Oostinga, A. F. Morpurgo, C. Dekker, S. G. Lemay, Charge noise in liquid-gated single-layer and bilayer graphene transistors, Nano Letters 10 (2010) 1563-1567.
[highlights] Optical Sciences (OS) is a dynamic and multidisciplinary research group, whose infrastructure and expertise ranges from near-field probing of (single) molecules and materials through nonlinear spectroscopy and imaging to nanostructure fabrication, and ultrafast laser spectroscopy. The integration
Prof. dr. Jennifer L. Herek
of phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses and adaptive learning algorithms
â€œFundamental research in
of chemistry, physics and nanomaterials science. Applications include
spectroscopy and imaging
improving the efficiency of photodrugs, chemical-selective imaging in
shines light on innovation and
biology and pharmacology, and studying wave propagation and nonlinear
phenomena in nanostructured materials.
within these themes is leading to exciting new research at the interface
Optical Sciences Riding a molecular roller coaster through complex space In coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), the emitted signal carries both amplitude and phase information of the molecules in the focal volume. Most CARS experiments ignore the phase component, but its detection allows for two advantages over intensity-only CARS. First, the pure resonant response can be determined, and the nonresonant background rejected, by extracting the imaginary component of the complex response, enhancing the sensitivity of CARS measurements. Second, selectivity is increased via determination of the phase and amplitude, allowing separation of individual molecular components of a sample even when their vibrational bands overlap. We demonstrate enhanced sensitivity and selectivity in quantitative measurements of mixtures. This powerful technique opens a wide range of possibilities for studies of complicated systems where overlapping resonances limit standard methodologies. Combined with our narrowband CARS efforts where we can measure both amplitude and phase, we aim to develop a library of optical pulses that are customized for particular molecules. To predict optimal response functions we use evolutionary strategies that employ the vibrational phase responses of the component molecules. We further explore different basis sets for the phase functions, as well as how the choice of basis affects the fitness landscape regarding fast convergence of the optimizations. We have recently shown that modified polynomials and orthogonal rational functions can give rise to improved contours for CARS fitness landscapes . Figure: The molecular roller coaster is a 3-D representation of a vibrational response, shown here for two types of plastic. The projections of the imaginary and real parts show the Raman spectra and the refractive index behavior of the vibrational resonances, respectively. The combination of the real and imaginary response can be used to separate different materials using CARS imaging techniques.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS:  M. Jurna, E.T. Garbacik, J.P. Korterik, J.L. Herek, C. Otto, H.L. Offerhaus, Visualizing Resonances in the Complex Plane with Vibrational Phase Contrast Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering, Analytical Chemistry 82 (2010) 7656-7659 and featured on the cover of the issue.  A.C.W. van Rhijn, H.L. Offerhaus, P. van der Walle, J.L. Herek, A. Jafarpour, Exploring, tailoring, and traversing the solution landscape of a phase-shaped CARS process, Optics Express 18 (2010)
[HIGHLIGHTS] The research field of the Physics of Interfaces and Nanomaterials group (PIN) involves controlled preparation and understanding of interfaces, low-dimensional (nano)structures and nanomaterials. We focus on systems that (1) rely on state-of-
Prof. dr. ir. Harold J.W. Zandvliet
the art applications or (2) can potentially lead to future applications. Our research
“The ability to see, probe and
properties depend on size, shape and dimensionality. A key challenge of our
manipulate nano-sized materials
research activities is to obtain control over the properties in such a way that
or objects has opened up a world of
we are able to tailor the properties for (device) applications, ranging from nano/
possibilities in a variety of industries
micro-electronics, nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) and wettability to
and scientific endeavors.”
sustainable energy related issues.
interest is driven by the fact that on a nanometer length scale the material
Physics of Interfaces and Nanomaterials Controlling the morphology of gold nanostars A simple and versatile way using (nano)colloidal methods to achieve high yield synthesis of star-shaped, multi-branched gold nano
Figure 1: SEM image of star-shaped, multi-branched
particles, as shown in the (coloured) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cover image of Nanotechnology, is demonstrated .
Varying the relative concentrations of gold ions and reducing ascorbic acid in solution, enables controlling the length of the branches. Higher ascorbate concentrations result in the smoothing of the branches leading to relatively more isotropic particles. The optical properties prove to be strongly dependent on the shape of the nanoparticles. Therewith, the characteristic localized surface plasmon resonance of the gold nanostars is tuneable over a broad spectral range, from the visible to the near infrared. The optical results can be analyzed in terms of plasmon coupling between the core and the branches of the multi-branched nanoparticles. Possible applications of these nanoobjects, for example in biological sensors, make use of the large enhancement of the electromagnetic field near the sharp branches of the nanostars.
Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy Scanning tunnelling microscopy has revolutionized our ability to image, study, and manipulate solid surfaces on the size scale of atoms. However, one important limitation of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) is its poor time resolution. Dynamic processes on surfaces, e.g. for instance atom diffusion, coarsening or roughening, play a crucial role in many technological relevant areas,
Figure 2: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy image of an array of Au
such as crystal growth, etching and catalysis. A prerequisite for visualizing dynamic phenomena on surfaces is the ability to acquire
induced nanowires on a semiconductor surface taken at room
sufficient temporal resolution, i.e. to collect STM images at a sufficiently high rate. The typical time to record a single image with a
temperature. The noisy dimers (outlined by ellipses) exhibit flip-
conventional STM is rather poor: it takes several seconds to acquire a 400 x 400 pixels STM image. The time resolution can, however,
flop motion during imaging. Image size is 10 nm by 10 nm.
be improved by at least six orders of magnitude. In our recent review  we have given an overview of various methods that can be
Inset: The noisy dimers are exclusively located at anti-phase
applied in order to significantly enhance the time resolution of STM.
boundaries in the buckling registry.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS:  W. Ahmed, E.S. Kooij, A. van Silfhout, B. Poelsema, Controlling the morphology of multi-branched gold nanoparticles, Nanotechnology 21 (2010) 125605.  A. van Houselt, H.J.W. Zandvliet, Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy, Reviews of Modern Physics 82 (2010) 1593.
[highlights] The goal of the Physics of Complex Fluids (PCF) group is to understand and control the physical properties of liquids and solid-liquid interfaces from molecular scales up to the micrometer meter range. We are particularly interested in i) nanofluidics, ii) (electro)wetting & microfluidics, iii) soft
Prof. dr. Frieder Mugele
matter mechanics. Our research connects fundamental physical and physico-chemical phenomena
â€œPhysics of Complex
angle hysteresis, superhydrophobicity, drop impact, drop evaporation to practically relevant
applications such as enhanced oil recovery, inkjet printing, immersion lithography, lab-on-a-chip
liquids and interfaces
systems, and optofluidics. In 2010, prof. Mugele was awarded an NWO-VICI grant to explore the
from the micro- to the
potential of superhydrophobic surfaces functionalized by electrowetting for various biomedical
and optofluidic applications based on the recent research highlight described below.
in nanotribology and -lubrication, microfluidic two-phase flow, static and dynamic wetting, contact
Physics of Complex Fluids Electrical switching of wetting states on superhydrophobic surfaces Figure 1: Schematic setup and SEM picture of superhydrophobic
Topographically structured superhydrophobic surfaces attracted a great deal of attention in recent years owing to a variety of
surface in electrowetting configuration with homogeneous
spectacular properties including their extraordinary water repellency, self cleaning properties, and strong optical reflectivity. The
electrode (top). Microscopic view of the drop substrate interface
superhydrophobic Cassie state, in which air is entrapped in the cavities of the surface topography, is rather fragile and can easily
for increasing voltage (from left to right in bottom picture).
collapse into the Wenzel state, in which the air is expelled and the cavities are filled with liquid. Due to the intimate contact between
Beyond a critical voltage individual pits of the structure
liquid and substrate in the Wenzel state, most favorable properties of the superhydrophobic Cassie state turn into their reverse.
transform from the Cassie to the Wenzel state and appear black.
So far, this loss of superhydrophobicity was considered a threat since the transition from the Cassie to the Wenzel state is usually irreversible. The PCF group recently succeeded to achieve reversible switching between the Cassie and the Wenzel state by combining superhydrophobic surfaces with electrowetting. Using specifically designed geometries of surface structures and electrodes, local reversible switching between the Cassie and the Wenzel state could be achieved for the first time. A combination of experimental observations and numerical modeling paved the way to this breakthrough, which is at the basis of the larger VICI project mentioned above. The highlighted research was carried out in collaboration with the Soft Matter, Fluidics & Interfaces group of prof. Rob Lammertink.
Figure 2: Locally reversible switching can be achieved by activating and deactivating individual electrodes (top). Threedimensional view of the numerically calculated equilibrium configuration of the liquid surface in the Cassie state upon applying a voltage (bottom).
Highlighted publications:  G. Manukyan, J.M. Oh, D. van den Ende, R.G.H. Lammertink, F. Mugele. Electrical switching of wetting states on superhydrophobic surfaces: a route towards reversible Cassie-to-Wenzel transitions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (2011) 014501.  J.M. Oh, G. Manukyan, D. van den Ende, F. Mugele, EuroPhys. Lett.
93 (2011) 56001.
[HIGHLIGHTS] Prof. dr. Detlef Lohse
The Physics of Fluids group (PoF) is studying various flow phenomenona, both on a micro- and
“The physics of fluids
fundamental and applied research. Our main research areas are:
is very different on the
n Turbulence and Two-Phase Flow
nano- and micro-scale
n Granular Flow
as compared to the
n Biomedical Application of Bubbles
macro-scale and offers
n Micro- and Nanofluidics
various challenges of both
In the context of Mesa+, the Physics of Fluids group dealt with the behavior of surface nanobubbles,
macro-scale. We use both experimental, theoretical, and numerical techniques and we do both
fundamental and applied
thin films, and wetting phenomena. We closely collaborate with various other Mesa+ groups, in
particular with the PIN, CPM/MCS, SFI, MTG and BIOS Lab-on-a-chip groups.
Physics of Fluids
Figure 1: A solid object impacting on liquid creates a liquid jet due to the collapse of the impact cavity. Using visualization experiments with smoke particles and multiscale simulations, we show that in addition, a high-speed air jet is pushed out of the
Impact phenomena on liquid & solid surfaces
cavity. Despite an impact velocity of only 1 m/s, this air jet attains supersonic speeds already when the cavity is slightly larger than 1 mm in diameter. The structure of the air flow closely
In one line of research we study impact phenomena on liquid & solid surfaces. In fig. 1 we show the void formation and the resulting
resembles that of compressible flow through a nozzle - with the
gas flow after the impact of a disk on a liquid surface. We also studied the impact of droplets on microstructured solid surfaces and the
key difference that here the “nozzle” is a liquid cavity shrinking
effect the air has there on: We investigated the splashing. We experimentally investigate the splashing mechanism of a millimeter-sized
rapidly in time. Taken from S. Gekle, I.R. Peters, J.M. Gordillo, D.
ethanol drop impinging on a structured solid surface, composed of micropillars, through side-view and top-view high-speed imaging. By
van der Meer, D. Lohse, Supersonic Air Flow due to Solid-Liquid
increasing the impact velocity, we can tune the impact outcome from a gentle deposition to a violent splash, at which tiny droplets are
Impact, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 024501 (2010).
emitted as the liquid sheet spreads laterally. We measure the splashing threshold for different micropatterns and find that the arrangement of the pillars significantly affects the splashing outcome. In particular, directional splashing in the direction in which air flows through the pattern is possible. Our top-view observations of impact dynamics reveal that entrapped air is responsible for the splashing. Indeed, by lowering the pressure of the surrounding air we show that we can suppress the splashing in the explored parameter regime. In fig. 2 we show two typical time evolutions of a ethanol droplets impacting on a microstructured surface, which have been made by the Membrane Group by Rob Lammertink and Matthias Wessling. In (a) and (c) we see a gentle deposition, i.e., simple spreading of a liquid sheet; and (b) and (d) violent splashing, i.e., emitting of small droplets within 0.5 ms during the advancing phase of a spreading lamella. The inset bars indicate 1 mm in length. The effect of the impact velocity, dimensionlessly expressed as Weber number We, is revealed by the side-views of spreading (a) and of splashing (b) for the same micropatterned molds consisting of cylindrical holes 5 μm in width and 6 μm in height in square arrangements, at different Weber numbers. The influence of micropatterns is shown by the top-view high-speed recordings at similar Weber number for square pillars with different interspaces of 5 μm in (c), leading to
Figure 2: Two different cases of droplet deposition of
spreading (We = 189), and of 2 μm in (d), leading to splashing (We = 184). So simply by widening the structure of the pattern the onset
microstructured surface: (a) and (c): gentle deposition; (b) and
of splashing can be delayed. The time sequences in both (c) and (d) are the same, at t = 0.25, 0.45, 0.65, and 1.05 ms. The dark areas
(d): splash. Taken from Tsai, van der Veen, van de Raa, Lohse,
in (c) and (d) are wetted regions by ethanol. The arrows in (d) mark the edge of the lamella.
Langmuir 26, 16090 (2010).
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: S. Gekle, I.R. Peters, J.M. Gordillo, D. van der Meer, D. Lohse, Supersonic Air Flow due to Solid-Liquid Impact, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 024501.
[highlights] Prof. dr. Arie Rip
In ST PS (Science, Technology and Policy Studies, Faculty of Management and Governance),
“Bridge the gap between innovation
a broad spectrum of studies is pursued, from history of science in the 17th and 18th century,
and ELSA (Ethical, Legal and Social
to the interaction between new technology and users, for example in telemedicine, and issues
Aspects).That’s our aim, so we focus
of governance of science and innovation, including international comparisons. Constructive
on what happens in and around the
Technology Assessment, in particular of nanotechnology and other emerging technologies, is
nano-world, rather than on public
an important topic; four PhD positions were funded by NanoNed (with additional support from
responses to nanotechnology.
an EU FP6 project). Other PhD projects study organization (esp. collaborations) and funding
And we work towards improving
of nanoscience. In 2010, Robinson defended his thesis which demonstrated how development
the anticipation on embedding of
and societal embedding of nanotechnology domains can be explored with the help of complex
nanotechnology in society."
scenarios and interactive stakeholder workshops.
Images of nanotechnology Images of nanotechnology are more than attempts to capture the invisible nanoscale (cf. Ruivenkamp and Rip 2010). There is blurring of boundaries between images produced with the help of probing and other microscopy, their “realistic” rendering through colours (as with the IBM-Almaden images starting with the IBM logo), and so-called artist’s impressions. Hybrid images occur as on the cover of Science (Fig. 1), where a realistic rendering of carbon nanotubes is combined with non-realistic images of the gold connections (where the atoms are not visible). The authors were taken to task for this by Ottino, in Nature (2003). Ruivenkamp’s Figure 1: Cover of Science with mixed representation of the
point is that such hybrid images occur often and are widely accepted as doing a good job in representing the nanoscale.
Going one step further, nanoscientists likeChris Ewell play around with graphics, as when enclosing the earth in a bucky ball (Fig. 2). There is now also interest in nano & art. The world of nanotechnology is full of images and visualization of visions. They can play a role in the development of nanotechnology, even if it is too early to trace that in empirical detail.
Figure 2: Playing with images of nanotechnology.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS:  M. Ruivenkamp, A Rip, Visualizing the Invisible Nanoscale: Visualization Practices in Nanotechnology Community of Practice, Science Studies, 23 (2010) 1, 3-36.  D. Robinson, Constructive Technology Assessment of Emerging Nanotechnologies. Experiments in Interactions (25 November
[HIGHLIGHTS] The research program of Semiconductor Components (SC) deals with siliconbased technology and integrated-circuit devices. Scope of the group is “More than Moore” microtechnology. Our aim is to contribute to this emerging field by adding functionality to completed CMOS microchips. The research comprises thin film
Prof. dr. Jurriaan Schmitz
deposition and low-temperature processing; the integration of new components
"Microchips are great, but we want
(such as silicon LED’s and elementary particle detectors) into CMOS; and advanced
them better still. In the EE-group
device physics and modelling. The group has strong ties with Philips, NXP
Semiconductor Components we study
Semiconductors, ASM International, and the CTIT-group IC-design. The Dutch
new materials and new device concepts
Technology Foundation STW and the Ministry of Economic Affairs are the main
for integrated circuits."
Semiconductor Components Solar cells op top of CMOS microchips Microchips that 'harvest' the energy they need from their own surroundings, without depending on batteries or mains electricity. That will be possible now that researchers from the University of Twente's Semiconductor Components group, together with colleagues from Nankai University (China) and Utrecht University, have for the first time succeeded in manufacturing a microchip with an efficient solar cell placed on top of the microelectronics. The researchers presented their findings at the International Electron Device Meeting that was held from 5 to 8 December in San Francisco. The placement of a solar cell directly on top of the electronics means the autonomous chip does not need batteries. In this way, for example, a sensor chip can be produced, complete with the necessary intelligence and even an antenna for wireless communication. If the chip's power consumption remains well below 1 milliwatt, it can even collect enough energy to operate indoors. The simplest solution would seem to be to manufacture the solar cell separately and then fit it on top of the electronics, but this is not the most efficient production process, so instead the researchers use the chip as a base and apply the solar cell to it layer by layer. This uses fewer materials, and also ultimately performs better. But the combination is not trouble-free: there is a risk that the steps in the production of the solar cell will damage the electronics so that they function less efficiently. For this reason the researchers decided to use solar cells made of amorphous silicon (with Utrecht University) or copper-indium-
Figure 1: Cross-section showing the conceptual arrangement
gallium-selenide (with Nankai University). The manufacturing procedure for these cells does not influence the electronics, and these
of layers in a solar-cell-on-CMOS microsystem. A standard
types of solar cells also produce sufficient power, even in low light. Tests have shown that the electronics and the solar cells function
CMOS microchip is covered by a protective layer, then by
properly, and the manufacturing process is also highly suitable for industrial serial production with the use of standard processes.
the solar cell layers. Alternatively, a solar cell can also be deposited on the back side of the microchip – experiments have
The research was made possible by the STW Technology Foundation.
shown that this approach is at least as successful.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: J. Lu, W. Liu, C. H. M. van der Werf, A. Y. Kovalgin, Y. Sun, R. E. I. Schropp, J. Schmitz, Above-CMOS a-Si and CIGS Solar Cells for Powering Autonomous Microsystems, IEEE International Electron Device Meeting 2010, paper 31.3.
[highlights] The Soft matter, Fluidics and Interfaces group (SFI) is addressing interfacial phenomena that are relevant for microfluidic processes. Such phenomena include multiphase flow, phase contacting, interface geometry, wetting, and separations, mostly related to mass/heat transport control. Careful interfacial design and fabrication will allow manipulating (multiphase) flow on a (sub)micrometer level. Fabrication of well-defined structures is foreseen as a crucial aspect, in order to study
Prof. dr. ir. Rob G.H. Lammertink
the fundamentals of interfacial phenomena. The connection between microfluidics and interfaces
understanding at the microscopic length scale is required to advance microfluidics further in the
optimizing processes at
mentioned areas, as well as possible new application fields. Micro flow structures can be further
explored for operation units and conditions that are unprecedented on a macro scale.
is evident as interfacial phenomena start to dominate at small length scales. A fundamental
Soft Matter, Fluidics and Interfaces Evaporation triggered wetting transition Superhydrophobic surfaces repel water by means of their chemical composition and structure. Such structured surfaces can typically accommodate a water droplet in two distinct configurations. One where the droplet is in full contact with the surface (Wenzel state), Figure 1: Snapshots of evaporating droplets with 15 s time
and one where the droplet sits on top of the protrusions of the surface (Cassie Baxter state). The Cassie Baxter state provides a hybrid
intervals. Initially the droplets evaporate with constant contact
interface as the liquid is partly in contact with the solid, and partly with the gas present between the protrusions.
angle. After the transition, the contact line pins and evaporation
Fundamental studies related to the wetting states on superhydrophobic surfaces are relevant for many scenarios. In fluid mechanics
results in a strong contact angle decrease.
for instance, the flow along superhydrophobic walls is influenced by the wetting state via the occurrence of slip velocity near the wall. A careful design of the wetting state is required in many chemical processes, including heterogeneous catalyzed processes and wet chemical etching processes. In this paper, we address the observation of the wetting state transition induced during evaporation of the droplet. Evaporating droplets are frequently encountered in production of (bio)arrays, inkjet printing, and coating processes. We have addressed the wetting transition during evaporation by means of a global energy argument. This argument estimates the interfacial energy of the droplet as a function of drop size. It can thereby predict for each drop size which wetting state is the most favorable. The predicted drop size at which the transition should occur is thereby easily obtained. The predicted drop size for the transition was found to match very well with the experimentally observed one.
Figure 2: Global interfacial energy of the droplet as a function of droplet base radius. The inset displays the energy difference between the two wetting states from which the predicted transition point can be derived (Î”E=0).
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: Tsai et al. Evaporation-triggered wetting transition for water droplets upon hydrophobic microstructures, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2010) 104 (11).
[HIGHLIGHTS] The Transducer Science and Technology (TST) group has a history and focus on micro system
Prof. dr. Miko Elwenspoek
technology. The research is highly multidisciplinary, ranging from the millimeter down to the nanometer
“Most interesting and
system aspects. The group works on micro- and nanosystems off the beaten paths offered e.g. through
foundry processes. Applications are clustered around Sensors, Actuators, Micro- and nanofluidics and
Probe based data storage. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of our work, strong cooperation exists
problems are such
with other MESA+ groups, but also with groups in- and outside UT, as well as many spin-off companies.
that a multidisciplinary
The recent finding of a simple process to machine particles in the range of 10 nm – 10 μm in the form
approach is absolutely
of tetrahedrons, and the experience we are building up with elastocapillarity triggered interest in the
self assembly to realize complex colloidal crystals and three-dimensional systems.
range, including physical concepts, materials and micro- and nanofabrication technology, as well as
Transducer Science and Technology Elastocapillary fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures We machined low-stress silicon nitride flaps connected by flexible joints to study the self-assembly of the flaps by utilizing elastocapillary forces. While initially flat (fig. a, c) a droplet of a liquid which wets the surfaces of the flaps introduces capillary forces which can be balanced by elastic forces. When the liquid evaporates the force balance leads under the right condition to the self-assembly of three-dimensional micro structures as shown in the fig. (b, c (inset), d) to the right. Our models reproduce neatly the form of the system during evaporation, which allows us to design the compliance of the joints. Residues in the liquid droplet lead to a bond between the touching surfaces which are strong enough to stabilize the final three-dimensional form.
Figure: (a) Some of the planar geometries to be folded into 3D shapes by capillary forces. The left structure shows the elongated geometry corresponding to the 2D model, which was used for the experimental analysis. (b) A SEM picture of this 2D structure after complete folding. (c) SEM pictures of a fivefold structure, forming half a dodecaeder (inset). (d) SEM pictures of a four-fold structure from which a “microbox” is folded. All scale bars correspond to 50 μm.
HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: J. W. van Honschoten, J. W. Berenschot, T. Ondarçuhu, R. G. P. Sanders, J. Sundaram, M. Elwenspoek, N. R. Tas, Elastocapillary fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures, Applied Physics Letters 97 (2010) 014103.
MESA+ Scientific Publications 2010 PHD THESES
Jinesh, K.B. (2010, October 6). Dielectric properties of atomic-layer-deposited LayZr1-yOx and EryHf1-yOx thin films. University of Twente (205 pag.). Boxpress). Prom.: prof.dr. J. Schmitz.
Acikgoz, C. (2010, February 12). Controlled Polymer Nanostructures by Alternative Lithography. University of Twente (147 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. J. Huskens & Prof.dr. G.J. Vancso.
Jose, J. (2010, December 9). Near-field investigation of surface plasmon polaritons. University of Twente (93 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. J.L. Herek & Dr.ir. H.L. Offerhaus.
Ahmed, W. (2010, November 24). Synthesis and field control of non-spherical bare and coated gold nanoparticles. University of Twente (143 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. B.
Jurna, M. (2010, July 2). Vibrational Phase Contrast CARS Microscopy. University of Twente (146
pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. J.L. Herek, Dr.ir. H.L. Offerhaus & Dr. C. Otto.
Beeker, W.P. (2010, January 29). Propagation and nonlinear Scattering of ultrashort pulses -
Kauppinen, L.J. (2010, October 7). Compact integrated optical devices for optical sensor and
Examples of Modeling and Applications. niversity of Twente (151 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.
switching applications. University of Twente (114 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. M. Pollnau, dr.ir.
Dr. K.J. Boller & Dr. C.J. Lee.
R.M. de Ridder & dr. H.J.W.M. Hoekstra.
Can, E. (2010, May 12). Vapor Bubbles in Confined Geometries: A Numerical Study. University
Khan, S. (2010, June 30). Soft-lithographic Patterning of Functional Oxide and Composite
of Twente (165 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. A. Prosperetti & Prof.dr. D. Lohse.
Materials. University of Twente (137 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ing. D.H.A. Blank & Dr.ir. J.E. ten Elshof.
Chinthaginjala, J.K. (2010, June 18). Hairy Foam: Thin Layers of Carbon nanofibers as Catalyst Support for Liquid Phase Reactions. Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. L. Lefferts.
Kockmann, D. (2010, July 9). Gold- and Platinum induced nanowires on Ge(001); structure, electronic properties and interaction with simple molecules. University of Twente (139 pag.).
Culfaz, P.Z. (2010, December 3). Microstructured Hollow Fibres and Microsieves. University of
Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ir. H.J.W. Zandvliet & Prof.dr.ir. B. Poelsema.
Twente (178 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ir. R.G.H. Lammertink & Prof.dr.-ing. M. Wessling. Krishnamoorthy, G. (2010, March 12). Integrated microarray surface plasmon resonance labDongre, C. (2010, August 25). Multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an integrated optofluidic
on-a chip biosensor for multiplexed bioassays. University of Twente (192 pag.). Prom./coprom.:
lab on a chip. University of Twente (126 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. M. Pollnau & dr. H.J.W.M.
prof.dr.ir. A. van den Berg, E.T. Carlen & dr.ir. R.B.M. Schasfoort.
Hoekstra. Kuit, K.H. (2010, April 16). Hybrid Magnetometers for Unshielded Operation. Combining Hall Dorokhin, D.V. (2010, February 5). Surface Engineered Quantum Dots in Photoelectrochemistry
Sensors with Superconducting Flux Concentrators. University of Twente (115 pag.). Prom./
and Supramolecular Assembly. University of Twente (137 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. G.J.
coprom.: Prof. H. Rogalla & Dr.ir. J. Flokstra.
Vancso, Prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt & Dr. A.H. Velders. Lee, Y.J. (2010, October 7). The origin of magnetism in anatase Co-doped TiO2 magnetic Duan, X. (2010, February 26). High-resolution imprint and soft lithography for patterning self-
semiconductors. University Of Twente. Prom./coprom.: prof. dr.ir. W.G. van der Wiel & dr.ir. M.P.
assembling systems. University of Twente (161 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. J. Huskens &
Prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt. Leistikow, M.D. (2010, December 15). Controlling spontaneous emission with nanostructures. Hsu, S.H. (2010, May 20). Lateral interactions at functional monolayers. University of Twente
University of Twente (142 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. W.L. Vos.
(151 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt, Prof.dr.ir. J. Huskens & Dr. A.H. Velders. Luttikhof, M.J.H. (2010, September 17). Theoretical investigation of external injection schemes
Ivanova, O.V. (2010, March 25). Dimensionality reduction in computational photonics. University
for laser wakefield acceleration. University of Twente (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: Prof.Dr. K.J.
of Twente (147 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ir. E.W.C. van Groesen & dr. M. Hammer.
Boller & Dr. A.G. Khachatryan.
[SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS] Maas, M.G. (2010, December 15). Template-electrodeposited nanowires: synthesis, manipulation
Saedi, A. (2010, August 27). Novel spectroscopic techniques in scanning tunneling microÂ
and application. University of Twente (98 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ing. D.H.A. Blank & Dr.ir.
scopy: applications to modified Ge substrates. University of Twente (91 pag.). Prom./coprom.:
J.E. ten Elshof.
prof.dr.ir. H.J.W. Zandvliet & Prof.dr.ir. B. Poelsema.
Melai, J. (2010, December 21). Photon imaging using post-processed CMOS chips. University of
Scaramuzzo, F.A. (2010, July 8). Functionalization of inorganic surfaces: from the synthesis
Twente (126 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof. dr. J. Schmitz & dr.ir. C. Salm.
of new monolayers to the immobilization of biological material. University of Twente. Prom./ coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. J. Huskens & M. Barteri.
Milder, M.T.W. (2010, March 12). Energy transfer in (bio)molecular systems. University of Twente (196 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. J.L. Herek & W.R. Browne.
Tagit, O. (2010, March 19). Stimuli Responsive Polymer/Quantum Dot Hybrid Platforms Modified at the Nanoscale. University of Twente (153 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. G.J. Vancso & prof.
Mogulkoc, B. (2010, September 29). Reflow Bonding of Burosilicate Glass Tubes of Silicon
dr. J.L. Herek.
Substrates as Fluidic Interconnect. University of Twente (124 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. M.C. Elwenspoek & dr.ir. H.V. Jansen.
Thakur, D.B. (2010, October 29). Catalytic Microreactors for Aqueous Phase Reactions â€“ Carbon Nano Fibers as Catalyst Support. University of Twente (168 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. L.
Murade, C.U. (2010, June 4). Insights into DNA intercalation using combined optical tweezers
Lefferts & Dr. K. Seshan.
and fluorescence microscopy. University of Twente (120 pag.) (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: prof. dr. V. Subramaniam, dr.ir. M.L. Bennink & Dr. C. Otto.
Uitert, I. van (2010, October 22). Investigating cellular electroporation using planar membrane models and miniaturized devices. University of Twente (222 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ir. A.
Naber, W.J.M. (2010, February 26). Electron transport and spin phenomena in hybrid organic/
van den Berg & S. Le Gac.
inorganic systems. University of Twente (188 pag.) Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt & prof. dr.ir. W.G. van der Wiel.
Vera Marun, I.J. (2010, May 20). Spin-filter scanning tunneling microscopy : a novel technique for the analysis of spin polarization on magnetic surfaces and spintronic devices. University of
Ngene, I.S. (2010, May 27). Real time visual characterization of membrane fouling and cleaning.
Twente (191 pag.). Prom./coprom.: P.J. Kelly & dr. R. Jansen.
University of Twente (115 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. W.G.J. van der Meer & dr.ir. R.G.H. Lammertink.
Walle, P. van der (2010, March 17). Coherent control in the presence of disorder. University of Twente (108 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. J.L. Herek & Prof dr. L. Kuipers.
Nguyen, D.M. (2010, June 30). Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial PZT films and devices on silicon. University of Twente (172 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ing. D.H.A. Blank
Wu, C.C. (2010, June 18). Novel Dip-Pen Nanolithography Strategies for Nanopatterning.
& Prof.dr.ing. A.J.H.M. Rijnders.
University of Twente (144 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof. dr. V. Subramaniam, Prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt, Dr. A.H. Velders & Dr. C. Otto.
Ramachandra, S. (2010, March 25). Photoinduced processes in nanoassemblies and on surfaces. University of Twente. Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt & prof.dr. L. de Cola.
Yang, J. (2010, July 23). Neodymium-doped waveguide amplifiers and lasers for integrated optical applications. University of Twente (136 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. M. Pollnau & prof.
Robinson, D.K.R. (2010, November 25). Constructive Technology Assessment of Newly
dr. A. Driessen.
Emerging Nanotechnologies. Experiments in Interactions. University of Twente (523 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. A. Rip.
Yildirim, O. (2010, December 8). Self-Assembled Monolayers on Metal Oxides: Applications in Nanotechnology. University of Twente (113 pag.). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. J. Huskens & Prof.
Rooij-Lohmann, V.I.T.A. de (2010, October 1). Nanoscale diffusion, compound formation and
dr.ing. A.J.H.M. Rijnders.
phase transitions in Mo/Si multilayer structures. University of Twente (109 pag.). Prom./ coprom.: Prof.dr. F. Bijkerk & A.E. Yakshin.
Zhao, Y. (2010, May 27). High-resolution stamp fabrication by edge lithography. University of Twente (170 pag.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. M.C. Elwenspoek, Prof.dr.ir. J. Huskens & dr.ir. H.V. Jansen.
[SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS] ACADEMIC JOURNAL REFEREED (RANKED BY IMPACT FACTOR › 6)
Schwartz, E., Gac, S. le & Cornelissen, J.J.L.M., Macromolecular multi-chromophoric scaffolding, Chemical Society reviews 39 2010 1576-1599.
van Honschoten, J.W., Brunets N. & Tas, N.R., Capillarity at the nanoscale, Chemical Society Reviews Eijkel, J.C.T. & van den Berg, A., Nanofluidics: Tiny electrostatic traps, Nature 467 2010 666-667.
39 2010 1096-1114.
Houselt, A. van & Zandvliet, H.J.W., Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy, Reviews of
van den Berg, A., Craighead, H.G., Yang, P.D., From microfluidic applications to nanofluidic phenomena,
modern physics 82 2010 1593-1605.
Chemical Society Reviews 39 2010 899-900.
Brück, T., Beaudry, C., Hilgenkamp, J.W.M., Kassen, R., Karoonuthaisiri, N., Mohamed, H.S. &
Escalante, M., Lenferink, A.T.M., Zhao, Y., Tas, N.R., Huskens, J., Hunter, C.N., Subramaniam, V. & Otto,
Weiss, G.A., The Time of Young Scientists Response, Science 329 2010 626-627.
C., Long-range energy propagation in Nanometer arrays of light harvesting antenna complexes, Nano letters 10 2010 1450-1457.
Brück, T., Beaudry, C., Hilgenkamp, J.W.M., Mohamed, H.S. & Weiss, G.A., Empowering Young Scientists, Science 328 2010 17.
Heller, I., Chatoor, S., Männik, J., Zevenbergen, M.A.G., Oostinga, B., Morpurgo, A.F., Dekker, C. & Lemay, S.J.G., Charge noise in liquid-gated single-layer and bilayer graphene transistors, Nano letters 10 2010
Peruzzo, A., Lobino, M., Matthews, J.C.F., Matsuda, N., Politi, A., Poulios, K., Zhou, X., Lahini, Y.,
Ismail, N., Worhoff, K., Bromberg, Y., Silberberg, Y., Thompson, M.G. & OBrien, J.L., Quantum Walks of Correlated Photons, Science 329 2010 1500-1503.
Lohse, D. & Xia, K.Q., Small-Scale Properties of Turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard Convection, Annual review of fluid mechanics 42 2010 335-364.
Walters, R.J., van Loon, R.V.A., Brunets, I. Schmitz, J. & Polman, A., A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons, Nature materials 9 2010 1-5.
Kuperstein, I., Broersen, K., Benilova, I., Rozenski, J., Jonckheere, W., Debulpaep, M., Vandersteen, A., Segers-Nolten, G.M.J., Werf, K.O. van der, Subramaniam, V., Braeken, D., Callewaert, G., Bartic, C.,
Jansen, R., Min, B.C., Dash, S.P., Oscillatory spin-polarized tunnelling from silicon quantum wells
d'Hooge, R., Martins, I.C., Rousseau, F., Schymk, Neurotoxicity of Alzheimer's disease Aß peptides is
controlled by electric field, Nature Materials 9 2010 133-138.
induced by small changes in the Aß42 to Aß40 ratio, EMBO journal 29 2010 3408-3420.
Eijkel, J.C.T. & van den Berg, A., Microfluidics Bridges between two worlds, Nature Nano
Drescher, M., Rooijen, B.D. van, Veldhuis, G., Subramaniam, V. & Huber, M., A Stable Lipid Induced
technology 5 2010 387-388.
Aggregate of alpha-Synuclein, Journal of the American Chemical Society 132 2010 4080-4082.
Vellekoop, I.M., Lagendijk, A. & Mosk, A.P., Exploiting disorder for perfect focusing, Nature
Gonzalez Campo, A., Hsu, S.H., Puig, L., Huskens, J., Reinhoudt, D.N. & Velders, A.H., Orthogonal
photonics 4 2010 320-322 2010 1-3.
covalent and noncovalent fucntionalization of cyclodextrin-alkyne patterned surfaces, Journal of the American Chemical Society 132 2010 11434-11436.
Eijkel, J.C.T. & van den Berg, A., Nanofluidics and the chemical potential applied to solvent and solute transport, Chemical Society reviews 39 2010 957-973.
Heller, I., Chatoor, S., Männik, J., Zevenbergen, M.A.G., Dekker, C. & Lemay, S.J.G., Influence of electrolyte composition on liquid-gated carbon-nanotube and graphene transistors, Journal of the American
Honschoten, J.W. van, Brunets, N. & Tas, N.R., Capillarity at the nanoscale, Chemical Society
Chemical Society 132 2010 17149-17156.
reviews 39 2010 1096-1114. Kim, K.T., Zhu, J.H., Meeuwissen, S.A. & Cornelissen, J.J.L.M., Polymersome Stomatocytes: controlled
Keyser, U.F., Dorp, S. van & Lemay, S.J.G., Tether forces in DNA electrophoresis, Chemical Society
shape transformation in polymer vesicles, Journal of the American Chemical Society 132 2010 12522-
reviews 39 2010 939-947.
Mojet, B.L., Ebbesen, S.D. & Lefferts, L., Light at the interface: the potential of attenuated total
Kwak, M., Minten, I.J., Anaya, D.M. & Cornelissen, J.J.L.M., Virus-like particles templated by DNA
reflection infrared spectroscopy for understanding heterogeneous catalysis in water, Chemical
micelles: a general method for loading virus nanocarriers, Journal of the American Chemical Society
Society reviews 39 2010 4643-4655.
132 2010 7834.
[SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS] Mirtschin, S., Slabon-Turski, A., Scopelliti, R., Velders, A.H. & Severin, K., A coordination cage with
Birowosuto, M.D., Skipetrov, S.E., Vos, W.L. & Mosk, A.P., Observation of Spatial Fluctuations of the
an adaptable cavity size, Journal of the American Chemical Society 132 2010 14004-14005.
Local Density of States in Random Media, Physical review letters 105 2010.
Voorthuijzen, W.P., Yilmaz, M.D., Gomez-Casado, A., Jonkheijm, P., van der Wiel, W.G. & Huskens,
Borisevich, A.Y., Chang, H.J., Huijben, M., Oxley, M.P., Okamoto, S., Niranjan, M.K., Burton,
J., Direct Patterning of Covalent Organic Monolayers on Silicon Using Nanoimprint Lithography,
J.D., Tsymbal, E.Y., Chu, Y.H., Yu, P., Ramesh, R., Kalinin, S.V. & Pennycook, S.J., Suppression
Journal of the American Chemical Society 26 2010 14210-14215.
of Octahedral Tilts and Associated Changes in Electronic Properties at Epitaxial Oxide Heterostructure Interfaces, Physical review letters 105 2010 087204.
Duan, X., Zhao, Y., Berenschot, J.W., Tas, N.R., Reinhoudt, D.N. & Huskens J., Large-Area Nanoscale Patterning of Functional Materials by Nanomolding in Capillaries, Advanced materials 20 2010
Cedergren, K., Kirtley, J.R., Bouch, T., Rotoli, G., Troeman, A.G.P., Hilgenkamp, J.W.M., Tafuri, F. &
Lombardi, F., Interplay between static and dynamic properties of semifluxons in YBa2Cu3O7- 0- Josephson junctions, Physical review letters 104 2010 177003.
Dorokhin, D.V., Hsu, S.H., Tomczak, N., Reinhoudt, D.N., Huskens, J., Velders, A.H. & Vancso, G.J., Fabrication and Luminescence of Designer Surface Patterns with ß-Cyclodextrin Functionalized
Eshuis, P.G., Meer, R.M. van der, Alam, M., Gerner, H.J. van, Weele, J.P. van der & Lohse, D., Onset
Quantum Dots via Multivalent Supramolecular Coupling, ACS nano 4 2010 137-142.
of Convection in Strongly Shaken Granular Matter, Physical review letters 104 2010 038001-1038001-4.
Duan, X., Park, M.H., Zhao, Y., Berenschot, E., Wang, Z., Reinhoudt, D.N., Rotello, V.M. & Huskens, J., Metal Nanoparticle wires formed by an integrated nanomolding - chemical assembly process:
Eshuis, P.G., Weele, J.P. van der, Lohse, D. & Meer, R.M. van der, Experimental Realization of a
fabrication and properties, ACS nano 4 2010 7660-7666.
Rotational Ratchet in a Granular Gas, Physical review letters 104 2010 248001-1-248001-4.
Duvigneau, J., Schönherr, H. & Vancso, G.J., Nanoscale Thermal AFM of Polymers: Transient Heat
Gekle, S., Peters, I.R., Gordillo, J.M., Meer, R.M. van der & Lohse, D., Supersonic Air Flow due to
Flow Effects, ACS nano 4 2010 6932-6940.
Solid-Liquid Impact, Physical review letters 104 2010 024501-1-024501-4.
Wu, C.C., Reinhoudt, D.N., Otto, C., Velders, A.H. & Subramaniam, V., Protein immobilization on
Kawabata, S., Asano, Y., Tanaka, Y., Golubov, A. & Kashiwaya, S., Josephson pi-state in a
Ni(II) Ion patterns prepared by microcontact printing and dip-pen nanolithography, ACS nano 4
ferromagnetic insulator, Physical review letters 104 2010 117002.
2010 1083-1091. Koch, M., Sames, C., Kubanek, A., Apel, M., Balbach, M., Ourjoumtsev, A., Pinkse, P.W.H. & Rempe, Murade, C.U., Subramaniam, V., Otto, C. & Bennink, M.L., Force spectroscopy and fluorescence
G., Feedback Cooling of a Single Neutral Atom, Physical review letters 105 2010 173003-1-4.
microscopy of dsDNA-YOYO-1 complexes: implications for the structure of dsDNA in the overstretching region, Nucleic acids research 38 2010 3423-3431.
Kumar, S., Brink, J. van den & Kampf, A.P., Spin-Spiral States in Undoped Manganites: Role of Finite Hund's Rule Coupling, Physical review letters 104 2010 017201/1-017201/4.
Lamers, E., Walboomers, X.F., Domanski, M., Riet, J. te, Delft, F.C.M.J.M. van, Luttge, R., Winnubst, A.J.A., Gardeniers, J.G.E. & Jansen, J.A., The influence of nanoscale grooved substrates on osteoblast behavior and extracellular matrix depostion, Biomaterials 31 2010 3307-3316.
Luttikhof, M.J.H., Khachatryan, A.G., Goor, F.A. van & Boller, K.J., Generating ultrarelativistic attosecond electron bunches from laser wakefield accelerators, Physical review letters 105 2010 124801-1-124801-4.
Melchels, F.P.W., Bertoldi, K., Gabbrielli, M., Velders, A.H., Feijen, J. & Grijpma, D.W., Mathematically defined tissue engineering scaffoled architectures prepared by stereolithography, Biomaterials
Pentcheva, R., Huijben, M., Otte, K.M., Pickett, W.E., Kleibeuker, J.E., Huijben, J., Boschker, J.A.,
31 2010 6909-6916.
Kockmann, D., Siemons, W., Koster, G., Zandvliet, H.J.W., Rijnders, A.J.H.M., Blank, D.H.A., Hilgenkamp, H. & Brinkman, A., Parallel electron-hole bilayer conductivity from electronic
Prodanov, L., Riet, J. te, Lamers, E., Domanski, M., Luttge, R., Loon, J.J.W.A. van, Jansen, J.A. &
interface reconstruction, Physical review letters 104 2010 -166804.
Walboomers, X.F., The interaction between nanoscale surface features and mechanical loading and its effect on osteoblast-like cells behavior, Biomaterials 31 2010 7758-7765.
Popovich, P., Boris, A.V., Dolgov, O.V., Golubov, A., Sun, D.L., Lin, C.T., Kremer, R.K. & Keimer, B., Specific Heat Measurements of Ba0.68K0.32Fe2As2 Single Crystals: Evidence for a Multiband Strong-Coupling Superconducting State, Physical review letters 105 2010 027003.
[SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS] Seidel, J., Maksymovych, P., Batra, Y., Katan, A., Yang, S.-Y., He, Q., Baddorf, A.P., Kalinin, S.V.,
Duvigneau, J., Cornelissen, S., Bardaji Valls, N., Schönherr, H. & Vancso, G.J., Reactive Imprint
Yang, C.-H., Yang, J.-C., Chu, Y.-H., Salje, E.K.H., Wormeester, H., Salmeron, M. & Ramesh, R.,
Lithography: Combined Topographical Patterning and Chemical Surface Functionalization of
Domain Wall Conductivity in La-Doped BiFeO3, Physical review letters 105 2010 197603.
Polystyrene-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) Films, Advanced functional materials 20 2010 460468.
Seo, S.S.A., Han, M.J., Hassink, G.W.J., Choi, W.S., Moon, S.J., Kim, J.S., Susaki, T., Lee, Y.S., Yu, J., Bernhard, C., Hwang, H.Y., Rijnders, A.J.H.M., Blank, D.H.A., Keimer, B. & Noh, T.W., Two-
Kleibeuker, J.E., Koster, G., Siemons, W., Dubbink, D., Kuiper, B., Blok, J.L., Yang, C.-H.,
Dimensional Confinement of 3d1 Electrons in LaTiO3/LaAlO3 Multilayers, Physical review letters
Ravichandran, J., Ramesh, R., Elshof, J.E. ten, Blank, D.H.A. & Rijnders, A.J.H.M., Atomically
104 2010 036401.
defined rare earth scandate crystal surfaces, Advanced functional materials 20 2010 34903496.
Starikov, A.A., Kelly, P.J., Brataas, A., Tserkovnyak, Y. & Bauer, G.E.W., Unified first-principles study of gilbert damping, spin-flip diffusion, and resistivity in transition metal alloys, Physical
Le Gac, S. & Berg, A. van den, Single cells as experimentation units in lab-on-a-chip devices,
review letters 105 2010 236601/1-236601/4.
Trends in Biotechnology 28 2010 55-62.
Sugiyama, K., Ni, R., Stevens, R.J.A.M., Chan, T.T.S., Zhou, S.Q., Xi, H.D., Sun, C., Grossmann, S.,
Arayanarakool, R., Le Gac, S. & van den Berg, A., Low-temperature, simple and fast integration
Xia, K.Q. & Lohse, D., Flow Reversals in Thermally Driven Turbulence, Physical review letters
technique of microfluidic chips by using a UV-curable adhesive, Lab on a chip 10 2010 2115-
105 2010 034503-1-034503-4.
Tsai, P.C., Lammertink, R.G.H., Wessling, M. & Lohse, D., Evaporation-Triggered Wetting
Costantini, F., Benetti, E.M., Reinhoudt, D.N., Huskens, J., Vancso, G.J. & Verboom, W., Enzyme-
Transition for Water Droplets upon Hydrophobic Microstructures, Physical review letters 104
functionalized polymer brush films on the inner wall of silicon-glass microreactors with tunable
biocatalytic activity, Lab on a chip 10 2010 3407-3412.
Veldhorst, M. & Brinkman, A., Nonlocal Cooper pair splitting in a pSn-junction, Physical review
Crespi, A., Gu, Y., Ngamson, B., Hoekstra, H.J.W.M., Dongre, C., Pollnau, M., Ramponi, R., Van
letters 105 2010 107002.
den Vlekkert, H.H., Watts, P., Cerullo, G. & Osellame, R., Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection, Lab on a chip
Weiss, S., Stevens, R.J.A.M., Zhong, J.Q., Clercx, H.J.H., Lohse, D. & Ahlers, G., Finite-Size Effects
10 2010 1167-1173.
Lead to Supercritical Bifurcations in Turbulent Rotating Rayleigh-Bénard Convection, Physical review letters 105 2010 224501-1-224501-4.
Floris, J., Staal, S.S., Lenk, S.O., Staijen, E., Kohlheyer, D., Eijkel, J.C.T. & van den Berg, A., A prefilled, ready-to-use electrophoresis based lab-on-a-chip device for monitoring lithium in
Yu, P., Lee, J.-S., Okamoto, S., Rossell, M.D., Huijben, M., Yang, C.-H., He, Q., Zhang, J.-X., Yang, S.-Y.,
blood, Lab on a chip 10 2010 1799-1806.
Lee, M.J., Ramasse, Q.M., Erni, R., Chu, Y.-H., Arena, D.A., Kao, C.C., Martin, L.W. & Ramesh, R., Interface Ferromagnetism and Orbital Reconstruction in BiFeO3-La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 heterostructures,
Gu, H., Duits, M.H.G. & Mugele, F., A hybrid microfluidic chip with electrowetting functionality
Physical review letters 105 2010 027201.
using ultraviolet (UV)-curable polymer, Lab on a chip 10 2010 1550-1556.
Benetti, E.M., Sui, X., Zapotoczny, S.J. & Vancso, G.J., Surface-Grafted Gel-Brush/Metal
Ingham, C., Bomer, J.G., Sprenkels, A.J., van den Berg, A., de Vos, W.M. & van Hylckama Vlieg,
Nanoparticle Hybrids, Advanced functional materials 20 2010 939-944.
J.V., High-resolution microcontact printing and transfer of massive arrays of microorganisms
Duan, X., Zhao, Y., Berenschot, E., Tas, N.R., Reinhoudt, D.N. & Huskens, J., Large-area nanoscale
on planar and compartmentalized nanoporous aluminium oxide, Lab on a chip 10 2010 1410-
patterning of functional materials by nanomolding in capillaries, Advanced functional materials 20 2010 2519-2526.
Krishnamoorthy, G., Carlen, E.T., Bomer, J.G., Wijnperle, D., de Boer, H.L., van den Berg, A. & Schasfoort, R.B.M., Electrokinetic label-free screening chip: a marriage of multiplexing and
Duan, X., Zhao, Y., Perl, A., Berenschot, E., Reinhoudt, D.N. & Huskens, J., Nanopatterning by an
high throughput analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging, Lab on a chip 10 2010
integrated process combining capillary force lithography and microcontact printing, Advanced
functional materials 20 2010 663-668.
[SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS] Napoli, M., Eijkel, J.C.T. & Pennathur, S., Nanofluidic technology for biomolecule applications: a critical review, Lab on a chip 10 2010 957-985.
Segerink, L.I., Sprenkels, A.J., Braak, P.M. ter, Vermes, I. & Berg, A. van den, On-chip determination of spermatozoa concentration using electrical impedance measurements, Lab on a chip 10 2010 1018-1024.
Vangelooven, J., Malsche, D.M.W. de, Beeck, J. op de, Eghbali, H., Gardeniers, J.G.E. & Desmet, G., Design and evaluation of flow distributors for microfabricated pillar array columns, Lab on a chip 10 2010 349-356.
Chen, Q., SchĂśnherr, H. & Vancso, G.J., Encapsulation and Release of Molecular Cargos via Temperature-Induced Vesicle-To-Micelle Transitions, Small 23 2010 2762-2768.
Dorokhin, D.V., Hsu, S.H., Tomczak, N., Blum, C., Subramaniam, V., Huskens, J., Reinhoudt, D.N., Velders, A.H. & Vancso, G.J., Visualizing Resonance Energy Transfer in Supramolecular Surface Patterns of Ă&#x;-CD Functionalized QD Hosts and Organic Dye Guests by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging, Small 6 2010 2870-2876
Visit our website (www.utwente.nl/mesaplus/publications) for the complete publication list.
PATENTS Bijkerk, F. & Goor, F.A. van (24-08-2010). Werkwijze voor het splitsen van een bundel met elektromagnetische straling met golflengtes in het extreem ultraviolet (EUV) en het infrarood (IR) golflengtegebied en optisch tralie en optische inrichting daarvoor. No. 2002545.
Hasper, A., Snijders, G.J., Vandezande, L., De Blank, M.J. & Bankras, R.G. (08-06-2010). Deposition of TiN films in a batch reactor.
Kreiter, R., Castricum, H.L., Vente, J.F., Elshof, J.E. ten, Rietkerk, M.D.A. & Veen, H.M. van (21-01-2010). Hybrid silica membrane for water removal from lower alcohols and hydrogen separation. No. WO/2010/008283.
Tilmans, H.A.C., Beyne, E., Jansen, H.V. & De Raedt, W. (16-11-2010). System for fabrication of integrated tunable/switchable passive microwave and millimeter wave modules.
Ymeti, A., Nederkoorn, P.H.J., Kanger, J.S., Dudia, A. & Subramaniam, V. (12-08-2010). System for analysis of a fluid. No. WO2010090514.
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MESA+ Annual Report 2010
ANNUAL REPORT 2010