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H I G H L I G H T S

ANNUAL

REPORT

2005


C O N T E N T

CONTENT

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ANNUAL

REPORT

2005

General Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Sketch of the institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 MESA+ Strategic Research Orientations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Research Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Awards and Honours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Commercialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Collaborations and Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Highlights Applied Analysis & Mathematical Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 BIOS Lab-on-a-Chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Biophysical Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Chemical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Computational Materials Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Complex Photonic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Inorganic Materials Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Integrated MicroSystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Low Temperature Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Molecular Nanofabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Membrane Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Materials Science and Technology of Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Optical Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Physics of Complex Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Physics of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Philosophy of Science and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Semiconductor Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Supramolecular Chemistry and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Systems and Materials for Information Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Solid State Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Testable Design and Testing of Nanosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Transducers Science and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Publications MESA+ Scientific Publications 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 About MESA+ MESA+ Governing Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 How to contact MESA+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

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INTRODUCTION

PREFACE

Dear readers, Year 2005 was a year of both a fresh orientation towards the future and an evaluation of the first round of our central research programs. In retrospect our five Strategic Research Orientations: Nanofluidics, Nanophotonics, Nanomaterials, Nanolink and Terahertz have done very well indeed and I would like to thank everybody for their hard work and perseverance. We have more than reached our goals, both the scientific and the personal ones. On the science level more high quality papers were produced, with more scientific focus and more cohesion. We have been successful in obtaining the external funds necessary for our research, and 2005 saw the establishment of our 30th spin off company. The personal careers of our staff reflected these successes: program directors Albert van den Berg and Dave Blank became full professors here at the University of Twente, Jürgen Brugger is now Assistant Professor at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne and Kobus Kuipers is both part time Professor at our university and Group Leader at AMOLF in Amsterdam. However, MESA+ also suffered a great loss when Gerrit Gerritsma, our program director of Terahertz, became seriously ill and passed away. As a whole the Institute has grown from a staff of 300 to the 475 we have now. We learned a lot from the success of the ‘MESA+ model’ and in fact used it as a model to initiate the national collaboration in NanoNed.

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Our reflection on the future resulted in plans for six new programs: NanoFabrication, BioNano, Bio Multi Analyte Devices (BioMAD) and NanoElectronics started early this year and Micro&Nano Fluidic Process Technology and Molecular Photonics will start up shortly. For these new SRO’s we are aiming for even more interaction and focus. The institute itself will stabilise, there is no ambition for further growth. The past year, we have further optimised MESA+’s composition, in cooperation with the other institutes at this university. The groups of Bram Nauta and Hans Kerkhoff moved to the CTIT institute and the groups of Matthias Wessling, Detlef Lohse, Frieder Mugele joined MESA+ with parts of their activities to further strengthen the cooperation and strengths in micro- and nanofluidics and cooperation with the Impact institute. Finally, the groups of Arie Rip and Mieke Boon joined with part of their research activities, strengthening the cooperation in Technology Assessment and methodology with the institutes IGS and IBR, respectively. Again we can look back on a very successful year. Professor David Reinhoudt, Scientific Director of MESA+

Intensified steps towards commercialization On 22 February our Minister of Foreign Trade, Ms. Karien van Gennip visited MESA+ and some of its numerous spin-off companies that have set up business in the Business and Science Park around the university. Some of these businesses are ready to start pilot production; a development illustrating the ambition to make the Twente Business and Science Park the heart of a growing micro-nanotechnology industry. These new businesses, - the 33rd MESA+ spin off started up this year - could be vitally important for the economy in the area. To streamline the process of linking new technological possibility to industrial opportunity, two brand new initiatives supported by the Provinces of Overijssel en Gelderland, started up this year. One is the Microsystem Production Project doing feasibility studies into nano and microapplications production in this area, removing barriers if any, and thus creating jobs for the region. The other is the innovation program Nano4Vitality, set up in close collaboration with other universities and industries in the food and health sector. We also established a closer collaboration with the Institute for Governance Studies of this university. IGS is the umbrella research institute of the Faculty of Business, Public Administration and Technology. It supports multi-disciplinary research and graduate training in the fields of governance, management and innovation studies. A special relation has developed with the IGSunit NIKOS, the Netherlands Institute for Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship. Together with IGS and NIKOS, MESA+ welcomed the highly placed visiting professor, Dr. Steven Walsh from New Mexico, USA, who with his expertise contributed greatly to the knowledge of how to commercialize technology and science. Our continued effort will be in that direction, to benefit of our Institute and the whole region. Dr. Kees Eijkel, Technical Commercial Director of MESA+

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R E S E A R C H

Participating research groups Within MESA+ two faculties combine their strengths within the following disciplines: Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science (EEMCS) and Science and Technology (S&T). From these faculties, the following research groups participate:

SKETCH OF THE INSTITUTE

Field and mission MESA+ focuses on Nanotechnology based on its underlying strengths in materials science, microsystem technology, bottom-up chemistry, optics and systems. Its mission is: • To excel in its field of science and technology; • To educate researchers and designers in the field; • To build up fruitful national and international cooperation with industry and fellow institutes. MESA+ is a Research School, designated by the Royal Dutch Academy of Science. MESA+ has defined the following indicators for achieving its mission: • Scientific papers at the level of Science, Nature, or journals of comparable stature; • 1:1 balance between university funding and externally acquired funds; • Sizable spin-off activities.

About the Strategic Research Orientations (SRO’s)

Organizational structure and programs MESA+ has a matrix structure in which scientific disciplines, led by a responsible professor, are combined with strong and ambitious multidisciplinary programs, the Strategic Research Orientations (SRO’s), which aim at the various aspects of Nanotechnology. This structure is depicted below. The creation of SRO’s ensures a strong multidisciplinary activity within the institute and is a basis for realization of its goals. An SRO is a large scientific program (in the order of 30-35 full-time researchers), which satisfies the following criteria: • Combining high-quality research of at least five groups within the institute into a genuine multidisciplinary program; • Providing excellent opportunities for international top-level research; • Attractive for external funding (which is a quality indicator in its own right). A Program Director is responsible for the scientific coordination of each SRO. The Program Director is directly responsible to the Scientific Director of the institute. The SRO’s will be evaluated every two years, based on the criteria mentioned above. MESA+ will use its external reviewers (e.g. Scientific Advisory Board, the technology foundation STW, or others) for this evaluation, which can result in (dis)continuation of the program.

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The SRO’s and their Program Directors should achieve a strong presence and exposure in the (inter)national scientific world. The Program Directors are appointed (at least) at the level of associate professor.

UNIVERSITY BOARD

The following focus programs are part of the MESA+ portfolio: • Molecular Photonics, prof.dr. Vinod Subramaniam • Response of Living Cells to Mechanical Stress, dr. Michel Duits (more particulars in our 2006 MESA+ annual report) • Biomad, dr.ir. Richard Schasfoort The SRO’s cover approximately 70% of MESA+ research. This activity is completed by disciplinary research, which has an important role in the further development of each research group’s disciplinary activities and strength (founding research), in the exploration of new fields (potentials), etc..

BOARD

DIRECTOR

TECH-COMM. DIRECTOR

C O O R D I N AT O R S A N D G R O U P L E A D E R S (ADVISORY BOARD)

MANAGEMENT SUPPORT

MESA+ is the largest research institute of the University of Twente. It employs approximately 475 people, 375 of whom are scientists including over 270 Ph.D.’s, post docs, etc.. MESA+ has an integral turnover of approximately 46 million Euro, of which about 55% is acquired in competition from external sources (National Science Foundations, European Union, industry etc.).

BIONANOTECHNOLOGY NANOELECTRONICS N A N O F A B R I C AT I O N BIOMAD NANOFLUIDICS MESOFLUIDICS

MESA+ also houses a number of smaller so-called focus programs.

At the beginning of 2005 the following SRO’s have started up: • Bionanotechnology, dr.ir. Martin Bennink • NanoElectronics, dr.ir. Wilfred van der Wiel • NanoFabrication, prof.dr.ir. Jurriaan Huskens • MesoFluidics, dr. Han Gardeniers • NanoFluidics, prof.dr. Detlef Lohse (more particulars in our 2006 MESA+ annual report)

MOLECULAR PHOTONICS

C E N T R A L L A B O R AT O R Y F A C I L I T I E S RESEARCH GROUPS EEMCS/S&T

MESA+ has extensive laboratory facilities at its disposal: • A 1250 m2 fully equipped clean room, with a focus on Micro Systems Technology (MST), Nanotechnology, CMOS and Materials and Process Engineering; • A fully equipped Central Materials Analysis Laboratory; • A number of specialized laboratories for chemical synthesis and analysis, materials research and analysis, and device charactererization. MESA+ has a strong relationship with industry, both through joint research projects with the larger multinational companies, and through a cooperation policy focused on small and medium-sized enterprises.

• EEMCS-AAMP: Applied Analysis and Mathematical Physics, prof.dr. E.W.C. van Groesen • EEMCS-BIOS: Biosensors, prof.dr.ir. A. van den Berg • S&T-BPE: Biophysical Engineering, prof.dr. V. Subramaniam • S&T-CA: Chemical Analysis, prof. U. Karst • EEMCS-CADTES-TDT: Testable Design and Testing of Microsystems, dr.ir. H.G. Kerkhoff • S&T-CMS: Computational Materials Science, prof.dr. P.J. Kelly • S&T-COPS: Complex Photonic Systems, prof.dr. W.L. Vos • S&T-IMS: Inorganic Materials Science, prof.dr.ing. D.H.A. Blank • EEMCS-IOMS: Integrated Optical MicroSystems, prof.dr. M. Pollnau • S&T-LT: Low Temperature Division, prof.dr. H. Rogalla • S&T-MnF Molecular NanoFabrication, prof.dr.ir. J. Huskens • S&T-MTP: Materials Science and Technology of Polymers, prof.dr. G.J. Vancso • S&T-MTO: Membrane Technology, prof.dr.ing. M. Wessling • S&T-OT: Optical Techniques, prof.dr. N.F. van Hulst • S&T, PCF: Physics of Complex Fluids, prof.dr. F.G. Mugele • S&T, POF: Physics of Fluids, prof.dr. D. Lohse • EEMCS-SC: Semiconductor Components, prof.dr. J. Schmitz • S&T-SMCT: SupraMolecular Chemistry and Technology, prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt • EEMCS-SMI: Systems and Materials for Information Storage, dr.ir. L. Abelmann • S&T-SSP: Solid State Physics, prof.dr.ir. B. Poelsema • EEMCS-TST: Transducers Science and Technology, prof.dr. M.C. Elwenspoek Collaboration is also established with: • BBT-PST: Philosophy of Science and Technology, prof.dr. A. Rip

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R E S E A R C H

M E S A + S T R AT E G I C R E S E A R C H O R I E N TAT I O N S

Prof.dr.ir. Jurriaan Huskens

Dr.ir. Martin Bennink

BioNanotechnology

The multidisciplinary approach of the program will lead to hybrid devices composed of different types of materials, such as ferro magnets, complex oxides, semiconductors, organic films and molecules. Ultimately there will be a balance in the program between the fundamental and the more application driven research.

From a nanotechnological point of view life is nothing more than a subtle interplay of a large number of individual molecules, such as proteins and DNA. Within each cell of the human body, thousands of individual molecules interact with each other, resulting in a number of processes which create the function of the cell and make it into something that we refer to as ‘living’. The SRO Bionanotechnology provides tools that allow the study of these biological systems at the nanoscale, allowing the observation and study of single molecules, providing new insights in how nature is organized and how it realizes the multitude of functionalities that cells present. Besides the scientific interest to understand nature in detail, the acquired knowledge can be directly used in different applications. The detection of molecules in very small quantities is extremely important in the diagnosis of diseases, in environmental control and homeland security. Furthermore understanding biology and the progress of diseases on the molecular level allows the development of new therapy strategies. The projects include: • Force spectroscopy studies on biomolecular complexes; • Mimicry of cell function using polymer nanocontainers; • Nanopores detection of DNA-protein interactions; • Atomic force microscopy imaging of molecular aggregates; • Creating molecular bionanosensors; • Patterning biomolecules on non-bio surfaces. Program director: Dr.ir. Martin Bennink, phone +31 (0)53 489 56 52, m.l.bennink@utwente.nl, www.mesaplus.utwente.nl/bionano

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The projects include: • Nanoscale spintronic devices based on ferromagnetic oxides; • Organic materials for nanoscale spintronic devices; • Smart self-assembled monolayers for nanoelectronics; • Physical properties of single organic molecules; • Smart substrates for nanoelectronic devices; • First-principles quantum transport theory; • NanoStructured interfaces in complex oxides. Program director: Dr.ir. Wilfred van der Wiel, phone + 31 (0)53 489 28 73 w.g.vanderwiel@utwente.nl, www.mesaplus.utwente.nl/nanoelectronics

NanoFabrication Dr.ir. Wilfred van der Wiel

The importance of the NanoFabrication program is the development and fine-tuning of general methods for making nanostructures. The NanoFabrication program deserves to be a separate discipline within the nanotechnology field because of its perspective of methodology development of nanostructures rather than the usual focus on end structures. The program has a fundamental approach and as such differs also from the nanomanufacturing technologies that deal with the actual application of nanotechnology in a production process. The SRO NanoFabrication focuses on key issues as surface patterning on multiple length scales, complex structures and materials and 3D nanofabrication with an emphasis on the integration of top-down and bottom-up methods.

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NanoElectronics The now completely up and running NanoElectronics program’s aim is twofold. The first goal is conducting fundamental research on nanoelectronic devices with a curiosity driven focus on the complementary ways of using nanoelectronic structures with altogether different concepts and materials. The electric spin in addition to the electric charge of an electron and the use of organic materials open up new horizons. The second goal will be the application of those new concepts into new devices with lower production costs and an increased capacity and performance.

The projects include: • Integration of nanoimprint lithography and blockcopolymer assembly; • Integration of edge lithography and self-assembly; • Monolayer fabrication and patterning on complex oxides; • Polymeric nanostructures of fluorescent nanoparticles. Program director: Prof.dr.ir. Jurriaan Huskens, phone +31 (0)53 489 25 37 j.huskens@utwente.nl, www.mesaplus.utwente.nl/nanofabrication


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THE CURRENT MESA+ SRO’s ARE: 1. BioNano 2. NanoElectronics 3. NanoFabrication 4. BioMAD NanoFluidics 5. MesoFluidics 6. Molecular Photonics

Prof.dr. Vinod Subramaniam

Dr. Han Gardeniers

Bio Multi Analyte Devices (BioMAD)

The projects include: • Pressure and shear driven liquid chromatography in microstructured columns with integrated functionality; • (parallel) Microreactor structures with on-line spectroscopic feature (high-throughput) reaction kinetic studies in (bio)catalysis; • Electrowetting and ultrasonic control of fluidic behaviour; • Mass and heat transport in confined systems; • Liquid behaviour on nanopatterned and hydrophobic surfaces in microstructures.

The BioMAD project focuses on the fabrication of ultra high density protein microarrays using a novel microfluidic DNA coding technique based on a self assembly process of proteins onto individually addressable self-organized microstructures with densities of more than 10,000 spots per mm2. The objective of this collaboration within the Universtity of Twente in the areas of microfluidics, separation sciences, surface chemistry and biomolecular interactions is to do innovative research in the areas of food technology and diagnostics in the life sciences. Entirely new technologies are required in order to understand for example the effects of food on the human body, the progress of disease and facilitating its diagnosis and treatment. The economic advantage of making devices small is an additional benefit.

Program director: Dr. Han Gardeniers, Phone +31 (0)53 489 43 56, j.g.e.gardeniers@utwente.nl, www.mesaplus.utwente.nl/mesofluidics

Molecular Photonics The projects include: • Microfluidics; • Separation sciences; • Micro arrays; • Biomolecular interaction; • Surface chemistry. Program director: Dr.ir. Richard Schasfoort, phone +31 (0)53 489 56 21, r.b.m.schasfoort@utwente.nl, www.mesaplus.utwente.nl/biomad

Dr.ir. Richard Schasfoort

The strategic potential program in Molecular Photonics focuses on platforms, tools, and (bio) molecules that can be used to design, build, and investigate molecular photonic assemblies. Projects within this potential involve synthesis of innovative photonic materials (quantum dots, fluorescent self-assembled monolayers) and the optical creation and interrogation of these assemblies. A newly developed technology platform combining atomic force and optical microscopy with single molecule resolution (the atomic force fluorescence microscope – AFFM) will be used to explore the limits of dip-pen nanolithography for patterning and investigating molecular assemblies. The projects bridge physics and chemistry expertise within MESA+.

MesoFluidics

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The goal of this program is to study physics and chemistry of and in fluids at the mesoscopic scale. The behaviour and control of fluids, including miscible and immiscible liquids, gases and two-phase gas-liquid systems and of the chemical species contained in these fluids will be studied in a confined environment and more specifically, near plain, nanostructured and/or or reactive surfaces and interfaces. Particular focus will be on microfluidic elements that contain materials fabricated by nanotechnology, to which electronically controlled stimuli will be applied in order to control the course of chemical reactions and fluidic behaviour, as phase separation and liquid transport.

The projects include: • Direct read-write dip-pen nanolithography on fluorescent self-assembled monolayers for sensing: dip-pen nanolithography for biomolecular assembly; • Engineering optical emission of quantum dots in polymeric nano- and microspheres.

11 Program director: Prof.dr. Vinod Subramaniam, phone +31 (0)53 489 31 57, v.subramaniam@utwente.nl, www.mesaplus.utwente.nl/molecularphotonics


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RESEARCH GROUPS

Prof.dr. Frieder Mugele

Prof.dr. Arie Rip

Also in the biomedical field Physics of Fluids contributes with its research into bubbles. Coated microbubbles are used in ultrasound imaging to enhance the contrast in cardiac or liver perfusion images. Bubbles can be targeted to specific cells for molecular imaging to non-invasively detect the presence and location of diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis. Furthermore, the bubbles can be exploited to generate acoustic streaming and jetting near cell boundaries which leads to permeation, destruction or removal of target cells. Professor Lohse expects that a closer collaboration with MESA+ contributes to the research into nanobubbles and microbubbles of the Physics of Fluids group.

In 2005 the long standing collaboration between MESA+ and the following research groups were formalised in order to support the university’s research strategies: • the Philosophy of Science and Technology group of Professor Arie Rip (now named Foundations of Science, Technology and Society, as part of the Science, Technology, Health and Policy Studies capacity group); • the Physics of Fluids group of Professor Detlef Lohse; • the Physics of Complex Fluids group of Professor Frieder Mugele; • the Membrane Technology group of Professor Matthias Wessling.

Physics of Complex Fluids

Prof. dr. ing. Matthias Wessling

Foundations of Science, Technology and Society There are two links with Professor Arie Rip and the MESA+ institute: in STeHPS Professor Rip is responsible for a set of studies of science and technology policy for nanotechnology, constructive technology assessment and Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects of nanotechnology; and he is captain of Technology Assessment flagship of the NanoNed national program chaired by the MESA+ director Professor David Reinhoudt. The overall goal of technology assessment is to understand and improve the interaction between science, technology and society. This requires dedicated methodologies and in-depth studies. In the field of nanotechnology the focus is on emerging (heterogeneous) networks and development paths, on societal responses, and on Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA). Sociotechnical scenarios are a way to anticipate technological development and its embedding in society at an early stage.

Physics of Fluids

12 Physics of Fluids group studies bubbles, e.g. the disturbing bubbles in microchannels found in ink jet printing. By patterning surfaces on sub-micron scales individual 'nanobubbles' are identified which may lead to a quantitative understanding of the fluid dynamics’ phenomenon of wall slip.

Prof.dr. Detlef Lohse

The trend of miniaturization has reached the areas of mechanical and fluid mechanical engineering. On the one hand the miniaturization of fluid handling systems reduces costs and increases the efficiency of processes. On the other hand also completely new functionalities and new physical properties of liquids arise and questions like ‘Where exactly is the boundary between molecular motion and continuum flow?’ and ‘How do molecular-scale effects affect the liquid behaviour on larger scales?’ need to be answered since this much is known: molecular interactions are crucial. According to Professor Mugele the nanostructuring facilities at MESA+, e.g. for precise etching of nanochannels, are extraordinary and allow new experiments under extreme conditions.

Membrane Technology Professor Wessling is convinced that parts of the Membrane Technology group’s research integrates very well with the strategic ambitions of MESA+. Nanostructuring is a prerequisite for the proper function of a membrane, so new concepts out of nanofabrication are being taken and translated into membrane functionality. Imitating natural processes into separation technology, membrane technology for process technology is a priority of the group. The ultimate aim is the production of highly selective, stable and durable membranes to replace existing high-energy consuming separation technologies.

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MISCELLANEOUS

MISCELLANEOUS

Prof.dr.ir. Hans Hilgenkamp

Two members of staff took up prestigious research positions in Barcelona. In October 2005 Niek van Hulst and Maria Garcia-Parajo moved to the ICFO institute and the PCB institute (University of Barcelona) respectively, both obtaining ICREA research professorships directly funded by the Catalan government.

PhD’s at MESA+ Also in 2005 all the PhD students involved in one of the MESA SRO’s who got their degree were interviewed. Olga Crespo Biel, who got her doctor’s degree on research into Nanofabrication of two-and three dimensional structures by Multivalent Supramolecular Interactions said about her four years at MESA+: ‘It is a very good place to do a PhD. The facilities for good research are excellent, you have the freedom to conduct your research as you see fit and you get a contract besides.’ The interviews with our PhD students are published on the MESA website: www.mesaplus.utwente.nl, PhD students, interviews. On February 11 Ir. E.M.H.P. van Dijk was promoted ‘cum laude’ with his research into ultra fast and ultra sensitive detection of single nanoparticles. Thesis title: Single nanoparticles: ultra fast en ultra sensitive detection. On March Ir. S. Deladi promoted cum laude on MEMS Generated and AFM-based Surface Modification.

The appointment of three new professors, Harold Zandvliet, professor of Physical Aspects of Nano-electronics, Hans Hilgenkamp professor of Condensed Matter Physics and Devices and Jurriaan Huskens, professor of Nanofabrication illustrate the importance attached to the research conducted at MESA+. The research areas of nanofabrication, devices and electronics are of strategic importance for the national nanotechnology program and the international positioning of the institute. Jurriaan Huskens was appointed Professor to the new chair of Nano-fabrication. He studied chemical engineering at the Eindhoven University of Technology. He obtained his PhD from the Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. In 2002 he obtained a NWO VIDI grant for research into the positioning and self assembly of molecules, using these as the building blocks for nanodevices. Professor Jurriaan Huskens chairs the Nano-fabrication flagship in the national NanoNed program. In his inaugural lecture Professor Huskens compared nanofabrication to the work of a composer, determining the position of every note and rest that make up the music, thus providing musicians with a set of instructions and the audience with the audible result.

MESA+ secretariat

Robert Moerland wins the CST University Publication Award 2005 in September 2005. Based on the publication of R. Moerland, N. van Hulst, H. Gersen and L. Kuipers in Optics Express, The CST company (Computer Simulation Technology) has awarded R. Moerland et al. the CST University Publication Award 2005.

Prof.dr.ir. Jurriaan Huskens

The "Chinese Government Award for Outstanding Self-financed Students Abroad 2004", issued by Chinese Scholarship Council including a prize of 5000 USD, was offered on April 26 at Chinese Embassy, Den Haag to Shan Zou, who promoted on her PhD research ‘Exploring individual supra molecular interactions and stimuli-responsive polymers by AFM-based forced spectroscopy’ on 10 February 2005.

NanoElectronics Meetings In May 2005 the NanoElectronics Meetings were introduced. These monthly scientific meetings are attended by the NanoElectronics PhD students and researchers otherwise involved and interested in the NanoElectronics program. The meetings turn out to be an effective instrument for information exchange between the participants in the program. Details can be found on www.mesaplus.utwente.nl/nanoelectronics/activities/.

Hans Hilgenkamp was appointed Professor of Condensed Matter Physics and Devices. He studied Science and Technology at the University of Twente and obtained his doctor degree with Professor Horst Rogalla. In 1997 he was appointed Research Fellow of the KNAW (Royal Netherlands Academy of Science). In 2002 he received a VIDI grant for his research into the measurement of magnetic fields on the atomic level. Hilgenkamp published several articles in Nature, Science and Applied Physics Letters.

Improved nanochannel fabrication to facilitate co-researchers

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Harold Zandvliet was appointed Professor of Physical Aspects of Nano-electronics. Harold Zandvliet obtained his Master’s degree ‘cum laude’ at the faculty of Science and Technology at the University of Twente and obtained his PhD in 1990. After several years of research at the Philips ‘Natlab’ he returned to the university. In 2002 he received a NWO VIDI grant for his research activities in the field of molecular electronics. Harold Zandvliet is active in the field of scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, self-organisation processes on surfaces and several other areas in the field of nano-electronics.

Prof.dr.ir. Harold Zandvliet

Jeroen Haneveld received his degree on the PhD research ‘Nanochannel fabrication and characterization using bond micromachining’ allowing fellow researchers with this thesis in their hands to make their own nanostructures quickly and accurately. The ‘easy-to-make’ nanochannels have a depth of only 5 nanometer and are perfectly smooth, with sharp edges.

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AW A R D S A N D H O N O U R S In search of the smallest magnet Dr. Ron Jansen, of the MESA+ group Systems and Materials for Information storage will develop a technique to study magnets on the smallest possible level, e.g. single atoms. This is vital to increase the capacity of magnetic data storage systems, and for the emerging nano-electronics technologies in which nano-magnets with novel properties are applied.

Other prizes and awards Snell’s medal for Professor Willem Vos The Dutch Society for Physical and Medical Sciences has awarded its Snell’s medal to Willem Vos, group leader at the FOM-Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF) and professor at the MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology. The medal was awarded in a ceremony in Amsterdam on Friday November 25th, 2005. Willem Vos performs advanced research in photonics and materials science, and investigates how light is slowed down and ultimately trapped with specially designed nanostructures called photonic crystals.

Spinoza Award Professor Detlef Lohse, who chairs the Physics of Fluids group, won the highest prize in the Netherlands for scientific work: the prestigious NWO Spinoza award. The award involves a 1,5 million Euro grant to fund further research. Professor Lohse, who received worldwide acclaim for his work on sonoluminescence –the emission of light in bubbles-, will continue his challenging research on the physics of bubbles. The science of micro bubbles has, among others, led to applications in the field of medical diagnosis and the local drug delivery. In his word of thanks professor Lohse memorized that the award honours the work of the whole group, since ‘science is a collective occupation and my scientific achievement is the joint work of my colleagues, members of my staff, post docs, PhD students and students’.

Prof.dr. Detlef Lohse

Within the European Committee’s Sixth Framework Program the group was also granted a subsidy to develop an ultrasound sensor for the early detection of prostate cancer. For this purpose micro bubbles are deployed that attach themselves to specific cells in the human body. The NWO Innovational Research Incentives Scheme include the VENI, VIDI or VICI awards for excellent researchers in various phases of their career: VENI for talented postdocs, VIDI for experienced researchers and VICI for top researchers.

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Researchers Dr.ir. André ten Elshof and Dr. Ron Jansen have been granted 600.000 Euro each to set up their own line of research for the next five years. Dr.ir. André ten Elshof of the MESA+ group of Inorganic Materials Science submitted a proposal on Microscopic patterning of small self-assembling oxide components. Electrical and sensor components are becoming increasingly smaller in size and more complicated with regard to design and assembly, making manufacture equally more expensive and complicated. In the project functional oxide micropatterns incorporating small selfassembling components are developed that can be manufactured more easily.

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AW A R D S A N D H O N O U R S 'Van den Kroonenberg Award for Young Entrepreneurship' for Micronit Microfluidics Micronit Microfluidics specializes in developing and fabricating glass microfluidic chips and lab-on-a-chip applications. Since its start, Micronit has been rapidly expanding every year. The company now employs 20 members of staff. The Van den Kroonenberg Award is an annual tribute to a young entrepreneur that has its roots at the University of Twente and that contributes to the enterprising character of the university and the Twente region. The award has been named after the founder of the university, Professor Harry van den Kroonenberg. Micronit also got a 13th ranking in the Deloitte Technology Fast 50. Micronit is the first micro/nano company in this important ranking of fast growing high tech businesses.

Helene Andersson (29), research associate at MESA+, is listed in the Young Innovators Top 100 of MIT's Technology Review, the magazine of this American technology-mecca. Helene Andersson has been awarded a prestigious 5 year research fellowship from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. She will assume an 80% position at the KTH in Stockholm and start research on the topic of artificial organs using nanotechology.

Kolthoff price In 2005 the PhD thesis of Dr. Elwin Vrouwe, “Quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis for inorganic ion analysis at the point of care” was awarded the prestigious Kolthoff price for the best thesis in analytical chemistry. On the basis of findings and developments in his thesis work, a startup company “Medimate” was founded by Steven Staal and Arjan Floris to develop a miniaturized lithium analyzer for manic-depressive patients. Best Poster Award Sandeep Unnikrishnan, D. Kohlheyer, S. Schlautmann, A.J. Tüdös, R.B.M. Schasfoort received the ‘Best Poster Award’ at the ‘Sense of Contact 7’ conference held in Wageningen from 31 March to 1 April 2005 with their poster on ‘Electroosmotically Controlled Perpendicular Address-Flow Chip for Biosensor Array Patterning’.

An article published in Optics Express of Robert Moerland, Henkjan Gersen, Niek van Hulst and Kobus Kuipers, is one of the five winning articles of the University Publication Awards 2005; a Computer Simulation Technologies award. The authors of the article belong to the MESA+ Optical Techniques Group and the FOM Instituut voor Atoom en Molecuulfysica (AMOLF). Dr. Kees Eijkel, Technical Commercial Director of MESA+ and president of the international organization of MANCEF (Micro and Nanotechnology Commercialization Education Foundation) ended up as an honourable 2nd for the ‘Advocate of the Year’ award, a prize included in the Best of Small Tech Awards of Small Times Magazine. ‘Pick any continent and there is a fair chance that Kees Eijkel was there in the past twelve months, promoting micro and nanotechnology…’

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NETWORKS

C O L L A B O R AT I O N S A N D N E T W O R K S Memorandum of Understanding In the presence of the Canadian ambassador in the Netherlands, Ms Colleen Swords, a ‘Memorandum of Understanding’ was signed between the MESA+ Institute and the National Institute for Nanotechnology in Canada and the University of Alberta, both in Edmonton, Canada. The aim is to set up mutual projects, exchange students and learn from each other in the field of commercialization. A 8-person mission from MESA+ will visit its Canadian partner in July 2006 to set up the various activities.

Nano4Vitality Innovation Program

30th MESA+ spin off company The 30th MESA+ spin off company in the field of Microsystems and nanotechnology was launched in December 2005. The company that goes by the name of Medimate, will manufacture compact systems to monitor the lithium content in the blood. Micronit Microfluidics, one of the 30 spin offs, opened up a production unit in one of the MESA+ laboratories. Ms Carry Abbenhues, vicegovernor for Economy and Innovation of the Province of Overijssel formally opened the facility.

Steven Walsh visiting professor at MESA+ Dr. Steven Walsh, Alfred Black Professor of Entrepreneurship, director of the Technology Entrepreneurship Program and Co-Director of the Management of Technology Center at the University of New Mexico Anderson Schools of Management, was the Van den Kroonenberg Visiting Professor at MESA+ in 2005. Apart from his many other activities in the field of commercialization, he presented 10 Master Classes on the ‘Introduction of High Tech Entrepreneurship, Using technology as the cornerstone for competitive advantage for Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship.’ Dr. Walsh has recently been ranked as a top 10 researcher in the world on technology commercialization and the program he co-directors has been ranked on many measures in the top 10 in the United States.

Kennispark Twente

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Karien van Gennip, minister of foreign trade, gave the symbolic go-ahead for the development of an extensive micro/nano industry in Twente. Within the ‘Kennispark Twente’ location, a number of high tech small businesses are clustered, some of which ready for actual production. In the presence of Ms Van Gennip an agreement was signed between MTF (University of Twente clean room), and the spin off’s Micronit and Medspray to jointly further the development of micro/nano production of Twente.

In November/December the Nano4Vitality Innovation Program was established; a collaboration between industry, high tech SME’s, high tech start-ups and universities in the Netherlands. The reason behind the Nano4Vitality initiative is the strong need for innovation in the areas of food and health. The cost of health care, food safety, the ageing population and many other issues demand an increased innovation rate. The nanometre scale is the relevant scale for processes in living systems. With nanotechnology it is possible, for the first time, to interact with these natural systems on their own scale based on nature’s own principles. Within Nano4Vitality a novel, accelerated innovation process is developed to support its mission of creating food and health systems to innovate industries and benefit end-users.

NanoNed MESA+ collaborates with other universities and institutions in the national program of NanoNed. Partners are: Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology CNM, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven BioMade/MSC+, University of Groningen IMM, Radboud University Nijmegen BioNT, Wageningen University and Research Centre Photonics Group, Universiteit van Amsterdam TNO Science and Industry Philips Electronics Nederland NanoNed is a research program joining the forces in the nanotechnology field of 7 universities, TNO and Philips in a national network. In April 2005 the Ministry of Ecomic Affairs gave the official go-ahead. MESA+ scientific director Professor David Reinhoudt chairs the NanoNed initiative that will run until 2009. The partnership covers about 200 research projects, which over the next 5 years will represent more than 1200 man-years of research. Generic, technology-oriented Flagships run together with more application-oriented programs, to create a cohesive nation-wide multidisciplinary program. The Dutch government has granted a Bsik subsidy of 95 million Euro. The total budget amounts to 235 million Euro. Within NanoNed an important part of the funding is dedicated to NanoLab NL. NanoLab NL is an investment program of a high-level state-of-the-art nanotechnology infrastructure. MESA+ is one of the partners in NanoLab NL, together with Kavli, TNO and BioMade/MSC+.

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The research is organised in three clusters: Cluster 1 Nanofabrication of Single Molecules and Nanoclusters includes the fundamental nanotechnology science, which is at the basis of Cluster 2 Nanostructured Surfaces for Bio-Interfacing and Bio-Templating, integrating nanoscale structures and biomolecules or larger biological entities; and

Frontiers partners Cluster 3 Bio-nanotechnology Applications, a follow-up of the work done in cluster 1 and 2, aimed at actual nano applications, such as intelligent drug delivery devices and biocompatible surfaces and implants.

Frontiers Frontiers is a European Commission Network of Excellence supported by the Sixth Framework Program (FP6). Frontiers focus lies at the cross-over between life sciences and nanotechnology. The Frontiers partners constitute an impressive list of partners scattered all over Europe. The Frontiers program was initiated by the University of Twente. Dr. Jan Willem Weener (MESA+) is the program manager of the network. In the area of life sciences nanotechnology has great potential. It provides novel opportunities to measure and make things at the scale of the processes in life. To fully exploit the expertise and facilities of its partners, Frontiers works at integration of research, lab facilities and education. Frontiers has a strong focus on the translation of the knowledge generated in the network into actual products. The joint program of activities is organized into four blocks: • Coordination of research; • Implementation of a Virtual European Nanoscience Laboratory for efficient use of infrastructure and lab facilities; • Creation of a European Joint Curriculum: a Master-level educational program on life science related nanotechnology; • Spreading of excellence, with a focus on joint management and the development of new business cases (science to industry).

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CeNTech GmbH (DE) Chalmers University of Technology (SE)

Dr. Jan Willem Weener

Frontiers aims to develop new products based on nanotechnology in a safe and responsible manner. Frontiers external communication, led by Monique Snippers, is aimed at different sectors in society to promote a balanced dialogue about the potential (both good and bad) of nanotechnologies. The network has a gender equality policy in place and a system which continuously safeguards international regulation on social and ethical standards.

Delft University of Technology (NL) IMEC (BE) Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (DE)

Monique Snippers

For more information please contact: Dr. J.W. Weener Program Manager Frontiers Phone: +31 (0)53 489 2228 Fax: +31 (0)53 489 2575 Email: info@frontiers-eu.org Internet:www.frontier-eu.org

Max Planck (DE) MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology (NL) University of Aarhus (DK) University of Cambridge (UK) University of Münster (DE) NCCR (CH) CEMES (FR)

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H I G H L I G H T S

A A M P

A P P L I E D A N A LY S I S & M AT H E M AT I C A L P H Y S I C S Transparent-Influx Boundary Conditions for Simulations of Integrated Optical Devices The group Applied Analysis & Mathematical Physics conducts research and teaching activities in ordinary and partial differential equations, and in mathematical modeling of problems from the physical and technical sciences. Methods from nonlinear analysis (variational methods, bifurcation theory, dynamical system theory), small scale numerical

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calculations, and computer-algebra are the main mathematical tools used to study partial differential equations from a series of different fields of applications. The group contributes to MESA+ in two areas: Fluxons in coupled long Josephson junctions are

ANNUAL

REPORT

2005

investigated by the analysis of systems of coupled perturbed sine-Gordon equations. Research in optics considers the light propagation in nonhomogeneous linear and nonlinear dielectric media. The Maxwell equations of classical electrodynamics are to be solved for structures and devices from guided wave (integrated) optics or, more general, photonics.

The field of integrated optics aims at the realization of complex optical setups on micrometer scales by manipulating the flow of light through artificial structures of wavelength-order dimensions. Optical chips find applications e.g. in optical telecommunication systems or in systems for chemical or biological sensing. In particular, devices based on microcavities or on photonic crystals are of interest in photonics research due to their potential for high integration densities. Since light is an electromagnetic wave, its behavior is described by the Maxwell equations whenever it propagates in free space or through dielectric materials. For two-dimensional optical scattering problems, a scalar Helmholtz equation describes the time-harmonic behavior of the optical electric field. Here "scattering" refers to the physical process in which a given incoming wave hits an obstacle and generates scattered waves. In many cases open problems are relevant, i.e. light comes in from a source far away, and the scattered waves leave the area of interest around the scattering object. Thus, in principle the Helmholtz equation is to be solved on an unbounded domain. Analytic solutions are not available for most practical structures and numerical methods are required. Appropriate boundary conditions have to be found that confine the problem to a bounded computational domain. We have developed a hybrid method that combines analytical Fourier expansions of the waves in the exterior regions with numerical finite-element representations of the field in the interior domain through the use of so-called Transparent-Influx Boundary Conditions (TIBCs), which smoothly connect the exterior and interior fields. These conditions permit to prescribe a given influx on the boundary, while scattered waves can leave the interior computational domain without reflections. The analytical exterior field is directly available as part of (an approximation to) the solution of the open problem. Simulation tools in two spatial dimensions have been realized; the TIBCs have also been implemented for use with the commercial finite-element package FEMLAB. The work is supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO, Computational Science programme, project CIPS), and by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW, EPAM-Industrial Mathematics, part of the scientific programme Indonesia-Netherlands).  HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: J.B. Nicolau, E. van Groesen, "Hybrid analytic-numeric method for light through a bounded planar dielectric domain", Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials 14 (2), 161-176 (2005).

Figure 1: Hybrid analytical / numerical simulation of a square high-contrast dielectric cavity. A Gaussian beam, incoming from the left, excites a resonance in the cavity. The field in the interior rectangular domain (dashed lines) is discretized by finite elements (own implementation, a regular rectangular mesh). Transparent (-influx) boundary conditions connect the interior field to analytical plane wave expansions in the exterior regions.

Figure 2: Excitation of a defect cavity at the center of a small 2D photonic crystal by external free-space waves. The plots show a snapshot of the electric field (top) and the related intensity profile (bottom) for one of the cavity resonances. The computations make use of the FEMLAB package, where an own implementation of the TIBCs has been incorporated.

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BIOS

BIOS LAB-ON-A-CHIP

BIOPHYSICAL ENGINEERING

Nanofluidics

Towards Nanomedicine

The research in the BIOS Lab-on-a-Chip group focuses on 4 main themes, viz.

The group is multidisciplinary and operates at the interfaces of physics, chemistry,

nanofluidics, microreactors, analytical systems and nanosensors, and BioMEMS/cells-

biology, and medicine. We use micro- and nano-scale visualization, manipulation, and

on-a-chip. Whereas the central expertise in the group is in electrical measurements and

spectroscopy techniques to probe the complexities of functional biological systems. We

micro/nanofluidics, the themes have a clear link to life sciences and chemistry, and

work on a range of molecular and cellular biophysics problems, including the elucidation

several collaborations in these fields have been established. One particular aim of BIOS

of structure-function relationships at the single molecule level, advanced imaging of

is to demonstrate the importance of Labs on a Chip through relevant applications, such

complex molecular organization, quantitative biology at the cellular level, and analytical

as for example a lithium analyzer on a chip. Besides this, new research fields are being

and diagnostic imaging of functional tissue.

B P E

disclosed as is clearly illustrated by the work on accelerated drying in sharp edged The group is actively investigating medically relevant processes at the nanometer scale,

nanochannels carried out within the Nanofluidics Flagship in the Nanoned program.

Nanofluidics is one of the research topics in the BIOS Lab-on-a-Chip group and this research can sometimes lead to unexpected results. During microscopic observations of nanochannels etched in Pyrex (channels 70 nm high, 10 micrometers wide and 4 mm long) it was noted that they seemed to dry surprisingly rapidly in air. To investigate whether this was a real effect or not, we performed a series of controlled drying experiments. We established that these nanochannels dried up to 1000 times faster than expected on the basis of vapor diffusion alone. The explanation of the observed phenomena was found by inspection of the channel geometry by both atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and by theoretical modelling. We found that the channels actually did not dry because of water vapor diffusing to the channel exits, but because of liquid water being siphoned in the channel corners towards the exits before evaporating (figure 1). In the channels we used this process was highly efficient because the channel corners, because of their sharp corner angle, held a lot of water. It also turned out that the drying rate was independent of the relative humidity (figure 2). The observed phenomena can possibly be applied in the clothing industry, to produce garments that feel comfortable even in the tropics. Another possible application would be in the production of micro heat pipes for chip cooling. 

Figure 1: The corner section of a nanochannel during drying. Vapor diffusion and corner flow contribute to the drying process, with the contribution of the corner flow being dominant.

including protein misfolding and aggregation, aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, and chromatin structure and function. We have used optical microscopy to shed light on the innate immune response of neutrophils, white blood cells that have an important role in the destruction of microorganisms that invade the human body. Using confocal Raman microscopy on single cells, we discovered that upon the internalization of latex beads (used as model particles for bacteria) by neutrophils, intracellular organelles identified as lipid bodies frequently associate with the ingested beads. These findings were corroborated by confocal fluorescence microscopy on live cells (figure 1). Furthermore, it was found that the association between lipid bodies and ingested particles depends in part on gp91phox, which is a crucial enzyme in the immune response of neutrophils. From these results, we hypothesize that lipid bodies may have a hitherto unknown role in the innate immune response of leukocytes against microbes such as bacteria and fungi. 

Figure 1: Pseudocolor confocal fluorescence image (10x10 µm) of live neutrophils that have phagocytosed latex beads (red features encircled in white). Cells were incubated with the dye Nile Red to visualize intracellular lipid bodies (red punctate features). The cytoplasm is shown in yellow. In this image, five internalized beads have one or more lipid bodies associated with them, suggesting that these lipid organelles may have a role in the immune response against microbial infections.

Figure 2: Observed drying rates (λ) as a function of relative humidity (RH). Drying is independent of relative humidity up to RH=93%. Also shown are the theoretical drying rates for drying by A) corner flow and B) vapor diffusion.

Figure 2: Scanning force micrographs of the aggregation of wild type human α-synuclein protein (0, 69, 96, 120 hours). The progressive formation of spheroidal intermediate structures, small filaments, mature fibrils, and a dense network of fibrils is seen in the images. α-synuclein is implicated in the pathology of many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease. We use advanced imaging and spectroscopy methods to investigate the kinetics, morphology, interactions, and mechanical properties of the protein and the aggregate species. Image size: 11 x 11 microns.

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HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: J.C.T. Eijkel, B. Dan, H.W. Reemeijer, D.C. Hermes, J.G. Bomer and A. van den

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: 1. H.-J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto. Single-cell Raman and

Berg, Strongly accelerated and humidity-independent drying of nanochannels induced by sharp corners,

fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes, Proc. Natl Acad.

Physical Review Letters 95 (2005) 256107.

Sci. USA 102: 10159-10164 (2005).


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C H E M I C A L A N A LY S I S

C O M P U TAT I O N A L M AT E R I A L S S C I E N C E

Multiplexing ESI-MS Assay Scheme for Screening

Spin-transfer and magnetization-relaxation enhancement

Proteolytic Activities in Snake Venom

in thin magnetic films

Enzymatic catalysis plays a key role in the regulation of all kinds of processes in life.

Understanding the magnetic, optical, electrical and structural properties of solids in

Therefore, the Chemical Analysis (CA) group is developing mass spectrometric assays

terms of their chemical composition and atomic structure by numerically solving the

for the screening of enzymatic activities in natural samples, e.g. snake venoms.

quantum mechanical equations describing the motion of the electrons is the central

Furthermore, the development of bioassays allowing the simultaneous quantification of

research activity of the group Computational Materials Science. When the equations

multi-analyte systems, e.g. glucose oxidase and acid phosphatase, is a central research

contain no input from experiment other than the fundamental physical constants (charge

topic. The miniaturisation of analytical methods and systems is a continuously increasing

and mass of the electron, Planck's constant and the speed of light), then it is possible to

field of interest. Currently, the CA group is developing detection systems for on-chip

make statements about the properties of systems which are difficult to characterize

separations, which allow both a lateral as well as a spectral resolution of separated

experimentally or which have not yet been made. This is especially important as

(bio)analytes. Apart from optical detection techniques, CA also investigates the field of

experimentalists begin to make hybrid structures approaching the nanoscale.

new ionisation techniques related to mass spectrometry (MS). This comprises on the one hand the determination of non-polar analytes that have not been amenable to atmospheric pressure ionisation MS before, and on the other hand the investigation and elucidation of (bio)chemical redox processes.

Serine proteases play a major role in the regulation of the blood coagulation system and are therefore an important target for the development of anti-thrombosis drugs. Snake venom is accounted to be a major natural source for these substances, typically containing at least several hundred of different biologically active components. Predominantly, the determination of enzymatic activities is performed in singlesubstrate/single-enzyme assay schemes by UV/Vis-, fluorescence- or radioactivitybased detection methods. To enable optical detection, the spectroscopic properties of the substrate have to be changed significantly during the conversion (figure 1). Unfortunately, most naturally occurring substrates do not possess any distinct spectroscopic features or these are not significantly altered during the enzymecatalysed reaction. Therefore, chromogenic or fluorogenic groups have to be introduced into their molecular structure. However, a change of the substrate structure often leads to a considerable change in the enzymatic recognition, thus resulting in different kinetic characteristics of the reaction. The use of mass spectrometry (MS) allows overcoming these drawbacks. It is possible to perform multi-substrate assay formats, as long as the substrate and respective product compounds are different in their m/z ratios. Based on an MS-assay scheme, it was possible to rapidly identify and classify proteolytic activities in snake venom fractions. The classification was carried out semi-quantitatively by determination of the relative reaction progress at defined reaction times (figure 2). The resulting activity patterns could be used as fingerprints to characterise the respective venom fractions (figure 3). Additionally, it was possible to find model-like activities in the venom fractions by comparison of the fingerprints. 

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Figure 1: Example for a proteolytic assay with optical detection. The substrate compound is composed of a protecting group (PG), a varying sequence of amino acids (AA1 – AA2) to provide different selectivities and a chromogenic group (pNA), which is released by the enzymes.

The starting point for theoretical investigations in the CMS group is a ground state calculation carried out in the framework of Density Functional Theory. This results in a (meta-)stable atomic structure together with an electronic charge density, single-particle eigenvalue spectrum and the corresponding eigenfunctions. These serve as input for studies of single-particle excitations based on the so-called "GW" approximation of many-body theory or for quantum transport studies based on calculations of the scattering matrix within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism.

Figure 2: Instrumental set-up for the multiplexing ESIMS assay (S: substrate, E: enzyme, P: product).

Figure 3: Complete activity maps for 19 venom fractions (F28 to F46) showing the time-resolved relative reaction progress of the respective substrate conversions mediated by the individual venom fraction (red ➔ 100% relative reaction progress; dark blue ➔ 0.2% relative reaction progress.

The magnetization dynamics of small monodomain ferromagnets are well described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation down to the micron scale. On the submicron scale, however, where the magnetization dynamics is no longer a highly coherent process because interfaces are relatively more important in small samples, new effects may play a role. One such effect, depending on the environment into which the ferromagnet is embedded, occurs when a time-dependent ferromagnetic order parameter pumps spin currents that carry angular momentum (and energy) into adjacent conducting materials. This angular-momentum loss is equivalent to a damping torque on the magnetization. It forms an additional, non-local source of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line broadening. We used scattering matrices calculated from first-principles [1] to study spin transfer and magnetization damping in layered systems comprising normal metal and ferromagnetic films. An example of the spin-dependence of interface transmission is shown for an fcc Cu|Co(111) interface in figure 1 (majority-spins) and figure 2 (minorityspins). In [2]. It was shown that the spin-current-induced magnetization torque is an interface effect and that quantum-interference effects are greatly overestimated by freeelectron models and do not survive when realistic transition-metal band structures are used, especially when interface disorder is included. We also found that the additional term in the ferromagnetic equation of motion is of the Gilbert-damping form, with only a very small correction to the gyromagnetic ratio. 

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: [1] K. Xia, M. Zwieryzycki, M. Talanana, P.J. Kelly, and G.E.W. Bauer, Phys.

A. Liesener, A. M. Perchuc, R. Schoni, M. Wilmer, U. Karst, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 2005, 19, 2923-2928. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection

Rev. B 73 (2006) 064420. [2] M. Zwieryzycki, Y. Tserkovnyak, P.J. Kelly, A. Brataas, and G.E.W. Bauer, Phys. Rev. B

schemes for simultaneous enzymatic conversions: Method development and comparison, C. Hempen, A. Liesener and U. Karst, Analytica Chimica Acta 2005, 543, 137-142.

71 (2005) 064420.

and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2005, 382, 742-750.

Figure 1: Top row, left-hand panel: Fermi surface (FS) of fcc Cu; middle panel: majority-spin FS of Co; righthand panel: Cu FS viewed along the (111) direction with a projection of the bulk fcc Brillouin zone (BZ) onto a plane perpendicular to this direction and of the two dimensional BZ. Bottom row, left-hand and middle panels: projections onto a plane perpendicular to the (111) direction of the Cu and majority-spin Co Fermi surfaces; right-hand panel: transmission probability for majority-spin states as a function of transverse crystal momentum, T(kII), for an fcc Cu|Co(111) interface.

Figure 2: Top row, left-hand panel: Fermi surface (FS) of fcc Cu; middle panels: third, fourth and fifth FS sheets of minority-spin fcc Co; right-hand panel: projection of the bulk fcc Brillouin zone (BZ) onto a plane perpendicular to the (111) direction and of the two dimensional BZ. Middle row: corresponding projections of individual FS sheets and (rhs) of Co total. The number of propagating states with positive velocity is colour-coded following the colour bar on the right. Bottom row: probability Tµν(kII) for a minority-spin state on the single FS sheet of Cu (ν = 1) to be transmitted through a Cu|Co(111) interface into FS sheet µ of fcc Co as a function of the transverse crystal momentum (kII). Rightmost panel: transmission probability for majority-spin states as a function of transverse crystal momentum, T(kII), for an fcc Cu|Co(111) interface.

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HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: Screening for proteolytic activities in snake venom by means of a multiplexing electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry assay scheme,

Prediction of clozapine metabolism by on-line electrochemistry/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, S. M. van Leeuwen, B. Blankert, J. M. Kauffmann, U. Karst, Analytical

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COMPLEX PHOTONIC SYSTEMS

I N O R G A N I C M AT E R I A L S S C I E N C E

Directional spontaneous emission of light

Build your own superlattice

The Complex Photonic Systems (COPS) group studies light propagation in ordered and

The research group Inorganic Materials Science of the Faculty Science and Technology

disordered photonic materials. We investigate photonic bandgap materials, random

is involved in different aspects of the science and technology of advanced inorganic

lasers, diffusion and Anderson localization of light. We have recently pioneered novel 3D

materials on the nano-scale. Our primary goal is to elucidate the effects of size, structure,

photonic materials, so-called “inverse opals”. Novel photonic nanostructures are

and interfaces of atomically controlled nanostructures made from (sometimes artificially

fabricated in the MESA+ cleanroom. Optical experiments are an essential aspect of our

constructed) complex materials, with special attention to properties such as electronic

research, which COPS combines with a theoretical understanding of the properties of

and ionic conductivity, spin polarization, and ferroelectricity1. At first sight, the exhibited

light. Our curiosity driven research is of interest to various industrial partners, and to

phenomena look very diverse but, and this is the uniqueness of the materials which are

Control over spontaneous emission of light is of great importance in quantum optics. It is essential for diverse applications ranging from miniature lasers, light-emitting diodes, solar-energy harvesting to single-photon sources. In 1987, Eli Yablonovitch and Sajeev John pointed out that periodic dielectric composites, known as photonic crystals, have a great potential to control emission as well as propagation of light. In 2004 we were the first to observe a change of the spontaneous emission lifetime of sources embedded in photonic crystals. Here we report angle-resolved emission spectra from such sources.

Figure 1: Scanning electron microscope image of two photonic crystals with the fcc crystal symmetry: a polystyrene opal (left) and an inverse opal (right) consisting of air-spheres (dark) in a TiO2 frame (white).

Photonic crystals are materials with periodic variations of the dielectric constant on length scales comparable to the wavelength of light. Spatial changes of the dielectric constant cause scattering of light. Interference of scattered light from a periodic structure leads to stopgaps, wavelength ranges in which light cannot propagate along certain directions. In the extreme situation when light cannot propagate along any direction, the crystal possesses a photonic bandgap. Emission of light is completely suppressed in such a bandgap. In contrast, emission can be enhanced for wavelengths outside the bandgap. We have studied emission from two types of photonic crystals: inverse opals consisting of air holes in a titania matrix, and opals consisting of polystyrene spheres (figure 1). The typical size of a photonic crystal is 1 mm3, so that it contains millions of unit cells. We infiltrated the inverse opals with quantum dots (CdSe nanocrystals of ~ 4.5 nm in diameter, prepared by the group of Vanmaekelbergh in Utrecht.) The opals were infiltrated with a laser dye (Rhodamine 6G). Angle-resolved experiments revealed pronounced directional dependencies of the emission spectra: We found ranges of strongly reduced emission as well as enhanced emission (figure 2). Emission from embedded light sources is affected both by the periodicity and by unavoidable structural imperfections of the photonic crystals: the photons are Bragg diffracted by lattice planes and scattered by the structural disorder. Such disorder is universally present in all photonic crystals. We compare the data to a theoretical model that unifies effects of the disorder and photonic-crystal properties. The theory quantitatively explains both the observed enhancement and reduction of emission.

Figure 2: Escape distribution versus exit angle for titania inverse opals with three different lattice parameters at λ = 610 nm. The curves represent the calculated distributions, with no adjustable parameters.

and strong correlation of the carriers, are universal in these materials. It is expected that these effects become extremely large if one can realize them in systems in which the dimensions approach the characteristic length scales of the long-range order, which is often in the 1-100 nanometer range.

The above mentioned possibilities inspired theoreticians and experimentalist to design superlattices with unique or enhanced properties. Among them are piezo-electrics in perovskite superlattices of PbTiO3 /ZrTiO3 or multiferroics in SrTiO3 /SrRuO3 . In the latter case SrTiO3 is ferroelectric and SrRuO3 ferromagnetic. The question rises if the superlattice has both properties, which will be a unique feature. It is the experimental proof that artificial superlattices can lead to enhanced properties that surpass the properties of the individual building blocks. It demonstrates that superlattices can be built from building blocks on demand with atomic precision to yield materials with improved or new functionalities. 

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: I.S. Nikolaev, P. Lodahl and W.L. Vos, Quantitative analysis of directional

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: 1. G. Catalan, A. Janssens, G. Rispens, S. Csiszar, O. Seeck, G. Rijnders, D. H. A.

spontaneous emission spectra from light sources in photonic crystals, Phys. Rev. A 71, 053813: 1-10 (2005). A.F.

Blank, and B. Noheda Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 127602. 2. Guus Rijnders and Dave H.A. Blank Nature 433 (2005)

Koenderink, A. Lagendijk, and W.L. Vos, Optical extinction due to intrinsic structural variations of photonic

369-370.

in multiple scattered light, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 173901: 1-4 (2005).

Figure 1: Building regulation – a Lego version (left) and real TEM data (right) of a superlattice structure. The base constitutes the substrate and the Lego wall is made of layers of two different bricks: SrTiO3 (yellow), SrRuO3 (blue).

The main goal is to ‘build’ superlattices with (perovskite) oxide building blocks. Often the optimum deposition conditions of these perovskites are so critical, that stable phases can not be grown. This is especially true with regard to the oxygen stoichiometry. The use of Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is a favourable technique, because with PLD one creates ‘stoichiometric’ plasmas by evaporating from multi-component targets. Furthermore, PLD can be used up to relatively high oxygen pressures, which makes the optimal window to deposit stable building blocks significantly larger. With the introduction of reflection high energy electron diffraction, even up to the high oxygen pressures, control at atomic level became feasible. Artificial materials constructed from oxide building blocks turn out to be excellent ferroelectrics, demonstrating that materials with specific properties can be designed by atomic-scale tailoring of their composition. Ferroelectric oxides are used in a wide range of applications – random access memories in computers, accelerometers in airbags or inkjet printers, telecommunication signalprocessing devices and high-frequency devices for ultrasonic medical imaging, to name a few. It is expected that the performance of a ferroelectric oxide can be significantly improved when it is combined with other oxides in a carefully tailored lattice. In a News and Views article in Nature2 we gave our point of view on the prospective of artificial materials made from perovskites. This subject is an important part of the research of the Inorganic Materials Science.

In conclusion, our analysis provides detailed understanding of the transport of emitted light in real photonic crystals, which is essential in the interpretation of quantum optics in photonic band-gap crystals and for applications wherein directional emission and total emitted power are important. 

crystals, Phys. Rev. B 72, 153102: 1-4 (2005). P. Lodahl, A.P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, Spatial quantum correlations

I M S

under investigation, the elements that control these phenomena, such as carrier doping

applications in medical and biophysical imaging.

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I N T E G R AT E D O P T I C A L M I C R O S Y S T E M S

L O W T E M P E R AT U R E D I V I S I O N

Quasi one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact

Micro Satellite Research

LT

building-block for optical refractive-index sensors The Integrated Optical MicroSystems group performs research on both passive and

The research activities of the Low Temperature division are oriented towards ‘Applied

active planar optical waveguide devices, mainly for optical sensing applications. These

Superconductivity’ in a broad sense. On the one hand, they deal with application-

“optical chips” are realized in the MESA+ clean room facilities. Silicon oxynitrides and

oriented research, such as development of superconducting devices, systems and high-

photonic polymers are applied as waveguide materials on silicon substrates. For

current applications, including the development of necessary supporting cooling

nanophotonic structures like photonic crystals, mostly very thin (~250 nm) crystalline

technologies. On the other hand, they cover more fundamental research areas like

silicon membranes are used, which are structured with ~10 nm resolution using focused

material research on superconductors and related materials, device physics and

ion beam milling. Optical microring resonators are frequently selected as compact building blocks for the realization of complex integrated optical circuits. Apart from

Figure 1: Refractive-index sensor. (a) Longitudinal crosssection, (b) transversal waveguide cross-section.

mathematical modeling. This all takes place in close feedback between fundamental and applied research and technology development.

passive devices like wavelength filters and power splitters, active devices like tunable Figure 1: Microcoolers able to reach 100 K

filters, optical switches and modulators are realized. To this end, thermo-optic, electro-

Two research activities were started focused at technologies to be applied in a future micro satellite. These projects were granted within the MISAT program as part of MicroNed. The first project is to perform a scaling analysis on the thermal aspects of a satellite and to apply microcooling technology. This technology is under development in the Low Temperature division, in cooperation with the Transducers Science and Technology group (TST) and the company Micronit. Examples of such microcoolers able to cool to 100 K are shown in figure 1).

optic and optical amplification effects are exploited. Optical gain properties of actively doped crystalline (double tungstates) and amorphous (aluminium oxide) materials are investigated for light amplification, lasing and modulation in inte-grated optical devices.

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Optical sensors often operate by detecting the change in refractive index of a fluid due to concentration changes of a substance, the measurand. Several different sensing principles are known that differ in parameters like sensitivity, required sensing volume, overall size, and complexity. If the ultimate in sensitivity is required, Mach-Zehnder interferometers are still unsurpassed. However, if small size and small sensing volume are more important, the application of other principles may be advantageous. We considered an optical waveguide in which a strong grating is etched, which is exposed to the fluid to be analysed, see figure 1. Like photonic crystals in general, such a strong grating (a photonic crystal with one-dimensional periodicity) has a so-called photonic stop band, a range of optical wavelengths that cannot propagate through the structure. The transition between the stop band and the transmission band can have a steep slope enabling a sensitive detection of small shifts of the stop band, which are caused by small changes of the refractive index of the measurand, see figure 2. We found that the stop band (at λ ≈ 660 nm) of a 400 period, 75 µm long grating shifted by 0.8 nm wavelength due to either an 0.05 refractive index change or a 120 K temperature change [1]. Since the thermal effect is linear over an extended temperature range, it can be compensated for with relative ease. Using only a simple photodetector, a variation of 4 x 10 -4 in refractive index could be detected. Since this device is much smaller than typical integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers which are a few cm long, it is much more suitable for realizing integrated sensor arrays. We expect that these photonic crystal sensors can be strongly reduced in size while increasing the sensitivity. This can be achieved by increasing the refractive index contrast in the periodic structure, and by exploiting specific effects in photonic crystals. These effects include “slow light” (i.e. propagation with a group velocity at a fraction of the speed of light in vacuum) and extremely sharp resonance peaks of cavities formed either by short periodic sections in a uniform waveguide (figure 3), or by small “defects” in an otherwise regular periodic structure. 

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: W.C.L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P.V. Lambeck, R.M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H.J.W.M. Hoekstra, R.M. de Ridder, “Quasi one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., Vol. 11, pp. 11-16, 2005.

Figure 2: Normalized transmission spectra for two different refractive-index values of the measurand.

The second project granted within MicroNed is the development of gravity field sensors for future planetary missions. The new sensor will be based on MEMS-technology and will make use of the reduced satellite temperature. It should replace the very heavy systems as will be applied in the GOCE mission. Apart from a gravity gradient sensor also a multi-sensing multi-satellite sensor for formation flying will be developed. This project also is in cooperation with TST. Further, SRON (Utrecht) will be involved for the integrated space qualified electronics for the readout of the gravity gradient sensor. Space activities are coordinated within the Dutch Platform for Planetary Research (NPP), including all scientific and industrial groups in Space Research of the Netherlands.

Figure 2: Conceptual design of a single wafer gravity gradient sensor

33 Figure 3: Top: Transmission (red) and scattering (blue) spectra of a strong grating. The strong and narrow scattering peaks are due to high-Q resonances near the photonic band edges. Bottom: Images of the device in action obtained using an infrared camera.

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: Lerou, P.P.P.M., Veenstra, T.T., Burger, J.F., Brake, H.J.M. ter & Rogalla, H. (2005), Optimization of counterflow heat exchanger geometry through minimization of entropy generation, Cryogenics, 45, 659-669. Jaap Flokstra, Reinder Cuperus, Remco Wiegerink, Javier Sesé, Herman Hemmes and Christophe Sotin, Gravity Gradient Sensor Technology for future planetary missions December 2005, ESA AO/1-3829.


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M O L E C U L A R N A N O F A B R I C AT I O N

MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY

Microcontact printing with flat stamps

Microfluidics with membrane functionalities

The Molecular Nanofabrication (MnF) group emerged from the Supramolecular

The membrane technology group focuses on controlling mass transport through

Chemistry & Technology (SMCT) group in September 2005. The group currently consists

polymeric and hybrid materials. Therefore, we aim at understanding material and

of 6 PhD students and 2 postdocs, and is headed by Prof. Jurriaan Huskens. The group

interfacial properties in relation to selective permeation characteristics. Membranes are

focuses on bottom-up nanofabrication methodologies and their integration with top-

increasingly exploited for diverse functions, including separation, filtration, (gas-liquid or

down surface structuring. Key research elements are: supramolecular chemistry at

liquid-liquid) contacting, and emulsification. Such functionalities are also of interest for

interfaces, homo- and heterotropic multivalency, supramolecular materials, nanoparticle

miniaturized applications like microreactors, micro TAS, and micro arrays.

M T O

assembly on surfaces, inkless and flat stamp microcontact printing methodologies, nanoimprint lithography, and multistep integrated nanofabrication schemes. The group has several collaborations within MESA+, e.g. with the Materials Science and Technology of Polymers group on the detection of single host-guest interactions with

Figure 1. Ink transfer via a relief stamp (a) in a traditional microcontact printing process and via a chemically patterned flat stamp (b) in the newly developed procedure.

AFM and with the Solid State Physics group on the diffusion behavior of inks in microcontact printing. Furthermore, the group actively participates in the MESA+ Strategic Research Orientation Nanofabrication and in the flagship Nanofabrication in the national nanotechnology program NanoNed, both headed by Prof. Jurriaan Huskens.

In a collaboration with the Solid State Physics group (Profs. Harold Zandvliet and Bene Poelsema) and Philips Research (Dr. Dirk Burdinski), we have developed a new concept for creating patterned self-assembled monolayers of standard thiol inks on gold substrates. In a standard microcontact printing procedure, this would involve a relief stamp in which the voids function as barriers for ink transport. In the newly developed strategy, we use flat PDMS stamps with patterned, chemically functionalized ink barriers integrated in the stamps’ surface. This method prevents pattern deformation, which is a common mechanical problem for relief stamps, while it also appears to largely solve another intrinsic problem of microcontact printing: diffusion of ink molecules into the void areas. The chemically patterned stamps were prepared by local oxidation of a flat piece of PDMS through a mask, followed by a straightforward chemical functionalization step. 

Figure 2. Atomic force micrographs of 600 nm-wide slits created in gold using chemically patterned flat stamps for the transfer of octadecanethiol (left) and mercaptohexadecanoic acid (right) onto a gold substrate, followed by wet gold etching.

Integrating membrane functionalities with microstructured devices is actively researched in our group. Within the field of microfluidics and microreactors, a limited set of materials and fabrication methods is available. We have developed a new versatile replication method to produce thin polymeric microfluidic devices with tunable porosity. The method is based on phase separation of a polymer solution on a microstructured mold. Compared to existing microfabrication techniques, such as etching and hot embossing, our technique offers four advantages: a) simple and cheap process that can be performed at room temperature outside clean room facilities; b) very broad range of applicable materials (including materials that could not be processed before); c) ability to make thin flexible chips; d) ability to introduce and tune porosity in the chip. By introducing porosity, the channel walls can be used for selective transport of gasses, liquids and solutes. Fast CO2 transport through the channel walls of a porous polymer chip has been demonstrated. Furthermore, we have confirmed that the gas permeation performance of chips can be enhanced dramatically by a decrease in chip thickness and incorporation of porosity. We expect that the development of porous chips can lead to the on-chip integration of multiple unit operations.

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HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: R. B. A. Sharpe, D. Burdinski, J. Huskens, H. J. W. Zandvliet, D. N. Reinhoudt, B.

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: de Jong, J., Ankoné, B., Lammertink, R. G. H., Wessling, M. “New replication

Poelsema, Journal of the American Chemical Society 2005, 127, 10344-10349; "Chemically patterned flat stamps

technique for the fabrication of thin polymeric microfluidic devices with tunable porosity”, Lab on a Chip 2005,

for microcontact printing".

5, 1240-1247. Vogelaar, L., Lammertink, R. G. H., Barsema, J. N., Nijdam, W., Bolhuis-Versteeg, L. A. M., van Rijn, C. J. M., Wessling, M., “Phase separation micromolding: a new generic approach for microstructuring various materials”, Small 2005, 1, 645-655.


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M AT E R I A L S S C I E N C E A N D T E C H N O L O G Y O F P O LY M E R S

Nanostructured optical fields and single molecule

Probing individual non-covalent interactions in

photonics

O T

OPTICAL TECHNIQUES

supramolecular polymers by AFM Research in the group Materials Science and Technology of Polymers is focused on the

The focus of the research in the Optical Techniques group is Nanophotonics;

molecular level understanding, manipulation and control of polymeric materials. Work is

the physics of light in and around nanostructures, single molecules and molecular

carried out in three clusters including (1) engineering and analysis of polymer surfaces

complexes. Careful design of the nanoscale structure is used to control local light fields,

and interfaces, nanotechnology, nanofabrication and self-assembly; (2) morphology

resulting in strong (plasmon) field confinement, “slow” light, and imaging of imaginary

development and molecular order of polymers on the nanoscale; and (3) materials

field components. By spectral shaping, light fields with programmable complex time

chemistry of polymers with defined molecular and mesoscopic structures with special

profiles are created from a single short pulse. Single molecules, nano-particles and

attention to inorganic and organometallic polymers.

quantum dots are the basic ingredients of our specific research directions and

Figure 1: Plasmon waves on a circular grating.

applications: Unlike in traditional polymers, in which monomers are covalently linked to form long chain macromolecules, “reversible or supramolecular polymers” rely on the temporary aggregation of bi-functional low molar mass molecules, via non-covalent interactions, e.g. hydrogen bonds. These materials behave like polymers, while, at the same time, certain typical polymeric properties, such as chain entanglements, are absent. The sharp dependence of the “strength” of reversible, non-covalent molecular interactions on temperature, choice of medium, and concentration opens entirely new ways of controlling material properties.

Figure 1: (a) Schematic of the AFM force pulling experiment between poly(ethylene glycol)-UPy disulfide self-assembled both on Au-coated AFM tip and Au substrate. (b) Master plot of crossover from loading rate independence to loading rate dependence of rupture forces of single (UPy)2 complexes in hexadecane at a reference temperature Tref = 301 K (the dashed line serves to guide the eye).

However, the understanding of many of the unusual properties of supramolecular polymers is still in its early stages, in particular on the single molecule level. Using advanced nanotechnological tools, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) as ultrasensitive force probe, the aggregation behavior of the building blocks of supramolecular polymers connected by hydrogen bonds can be interrogated at the molecular level, as shown by us for the first time [1,2].

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: [1] S. Zou, H. Schönherr and G. J. Vancso, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 956959, "Stretching and Rupturing Individual Supramolecular Polymer Chains by AFM". [2] S. Zou, H. Schönherr, and G. J. Vancso, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 11230-11231, "Force Spectroscopy of Quadruple H-Bonded Dimers by AFM: Dynamic Bond Rupture and Molecular Time-Temperature Superposition".

- Manipulation of spontaneous and stimulated emission - Energy transfer in molecular systems - Ultrafast single molecule detection - Organization & dynamics of proteins on membranes

Field shaping and nanostructures - Local fields, pulses in photonic structures

Figure 2: Band structure of ultrashort pulses in a photonic crystal waveguide.

- Femtosecond pulse shaping - Plasmonic field shaping

Specifically, we measured the rupture force of one individual complex of two quadruply hydrogen-bonded partners in ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone (UPy) supramolecular polymer chains in various media and at various temperatures by AFM (figure 1). Temperaturecontrolled single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) measurements by AFM allowed us to extend the experimentally accessible loading rates and hence to cross regimes from thermodynamic non-equilibrium to quasi-equilibrium states. Central to this new approach is the application of the time-temperature superposition principle to supramolecular bond rupture forces on the single molecule level. In addition, in the presence of building blocks that form reversible polymer chains, individual supramolecular polymer chains with up to 15 repeat units length, switched in series, have been stretched successfully (figure 2). These SMFS experiments have opened a new pathway to elucidate materials properties of H-bonded supramolecular polymers from a true molecular perspective. 

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Near-field optics and single molecular photonics

When light strikes a nanostructured metal surface, waves of charge (plasmons) are excited along specific directions [1]. These waves are strongly confined to the surface and a potential candidate for future nano-plasmonic circuitry (figure 1). Optical waves in a photonic crystal exhibit remarkable properties such as drastically reduced propagation speeds and diverse propagation modes, which can be tuned by varying the nanoscale geometry. The highly confined nature of the light opens up possibilities for nano-optical chips. In collaboration with the FOM Institute AMOLF in Amsterdam and the University of St. Andrews (UK) we study the propagation of pulses through such waveguides [2,3] (figure 2).

Figure 2: Force-extension curves measured between (a) individual UPy units tethered with a PEG spacer to a gold surface and (b) surface immobilized UPy units in the presence of a PEG-containing bifunctional bis-UPy derivative in hexadecane. The fits of the data to the modified freely jointed chain model, which provide evidence for the stretching of one individual PEG filament, are shown as solid lines. The increase in stretching length between (a) (one PEG spacer) and (b) (4 PEG spacers) shows that indeed single supramolecular polymers have been probed.

Figure 3: Power law behavior in the blinking of single molecule emission.

The excitation dynamics of molecules and quantum dots in a polymer matrix indicates the process through which the excitation decays. We have studied the decay of single molecules to discover an unexpected power law behavior [4] that is similar to the one seen for quantum dots (figure 3). In collaboration with the Reinhoudt group (MESA+) we have performed the first pump probe measurements on single molecules [5]. The excitation dynamics in these molecules determine their use as carriers of energy along a molecular photonic wire. 

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HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: [1] H. L. Offerhaus, B. van den Bergen, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, Nanoletters 5(11) 2144-2148 (2005). [2] H. Gersen, T.J. Karle, R.J.P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J.P. Korterik, N.F. van Hulst, T.F. Krauss and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 123901 (2005). [3] H. Gersen, T.J. Karle, R.J.P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J.P. Korterik, T.F. Krauss, N.F. van Hulst and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005). [4] J. P. Hoogenboom, E. M. H. P. van Dijk, J. Hernando, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. García-Parajó, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 097401 (2005). [5] E.M.P.H. van Dijk, J. Hernando, J.-J. García-López, M. Crego-Calama, D.N. Reinhoudt, L. Kuipers, M.F. Garcia-Parajo and N.F. van Hulst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 078302 (2005).


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PHYSICS OF COMPLEX FLUIDS

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS

Charge control in electrowetting-driven microdroplet

Nanofluidics activities

P O F

generation The goal of the Physics of Complex Fluids group is to understand and control the

The group Physics of Fluids is studying various flow phenomenona, in particular those

mechanical properties and structure of fluids on small scales ranging from a few

related with bubbles. We use both experimental, theoretical, and numerical techniques.

nanometers for simple liquids to many micrometers for complex fluids. Based on a

Our main research areas are:

thorough physical understanding, the combination of geometric confinement, interfacial

• Turbulence and Two-Phase Flow

energies, and external (e.g. electric) fields provides a toolbox to manipulate fluids for

• Granular Flow

applications in micro- and nanofluidics, nanotribology, lab-on-a-chip, etc. Within MESA+

• Micro- and Nanofluidics

we are particularly interested in nanofluidics, the behaviour of fluids at the boundary

• Biomedical Application of Bubbles

between continuum flow and molecular motion. Furthermore, we work on electrowetting as a general technology platform for digital microfluidic systems. Figure 1: Last moments of capillary break up.

Electric fields are used to generate liquid droplets in various applications including electrospraying, spray painting, and inkjet printing. Typically, the droplets acquire a fixed charge that is determined by the (DC) electric field needed to generate them. We demonstrated that the charge of droplets can be controlled by using an AC voltage for their generation. We found that the charge is controlled by the final moments of the capillary break-up as the droplet detached from the nozzle. A balance between the AC frequency and an RC time constant set by the diverging ohmic resistance of the breaking capillary neck determines how much charge the droplet acquires. Any value between zero and the maximum value corresponding the DC voltage can be achieved. Electric discharge during capillary break-up can be used to trigger self-excited oscillations of liquid microdroplets in electrowetting: droplets break off a wire and reattach to it at a rate that is determined by their eigen frequency. These self-excited droplet oscillations can be used to promote mixing in microfluidic devices.  Figure 2: Self-excited droplet oscillation (approx. 100 Hz).

In the context of MESA+, the Physics of Fluids group dealt with the behavior of nanobubbles. The micrometer scale is not at all the threshold for the application of the concepts from fluid dynamics: One can go down to even smaller scales, namely, to nanofluidics. In this new field there are various challenges. A crucial question in nanofluidics is on the nature of the boundary conditions. On large length scales the noslip boundary conditions are well established for hundreds of years: the fluid velocity at the wall is zero. On nanoscale this seems to be different. The fluid seems to have finite velocity at the wall, which defines a so-called slip-length b. Typically, hydrophobic surfaces have b 0.01 – 1µm. For micro- and nanofluidic applications a large slip-length is very advantageous. It reduces the hydrodynamic resistance of a pipe, which otherwise increases with the fourth power of the decreasing (inverse) radius, eventually making any fluid dynamical application impossible.

Figure 1: AFM picture of a silan-coated silicium ship. The white dots are surface nanobubbles. On the right a large crevice can be seen which on drag reduction serves as nucleation site.

What is the origin of the finite slip on the surface? This is unfortunately still unknown. It is speculated that the slip may be connected with surface nanobubbles: If there is thin gas layer in between the liquid and the wall, the impression of larger slip can arise. The reason for this of course is that a gas layer allows for much larger velocity gradients. Indeed, atomic force microscopy (AFM) images reveal structures of some nanometer thickness and typical diameters of 100nm. These structures have been associated with surface nanobubbles. However, it is not understood why they are stable and when exactly they occur, and they are a field of active research. Next to the AFM images, we have also performed molecular dynamics simulations in order to find out why nanobubbles do not dissolve. We also examined bubble nucleation at surfaces. Bubble nucleation at surfaces is a poorly understood phenomenon. We did visualization experiments at structured hydrophobic surfaces and compared the results with model calculations, in particular focusing on bubble-bubble interactions. It is demonstrated that in the many bubble case the bubble collapse is delayed due to shielding effects. Finally, we set up a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system on the microscale, in order to be able to measure the effect of various surfaces (roughness, hydrophobicity) on the flow behavior in microchannels.

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Figure 3: Mixing induced by self-excited droplet oscillations.

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HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: F. Mugele and J.-C. Baret, Electrowetting: from basics to applications, J. Phys.

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: Bremond, N., Arora, M., Ohl, C.D., & Lohse, D., Controlled Multibubble Surface

Condens. Matt. 17, R705-R774 (2005). J.-C. Baret and F. Mugele, Electrical discharge in capillary break-up:

Cavitation Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 224501 (2006).

controlling the charge of a droplet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 016106 (2006). F. Mugele, J.-C. Baret, D. Steinhauser: “Microfluidic mixing through electrowetting-induced droplet oscillations”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 204106 (2006).


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PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

SEMICONDUCTOR COMPONENTS

Constructive Technology Assessment

Light from silicon

S C

located in the Science, Technology, Health & Policy Studies (STeHPS) group of the Faculty BBT

STeHPS is a social science research group studying the nature, organization and societal

The research program of Semiconductor Components (SC) deals with silicon technology

embedding (including governance and policy aspects) of various domains of science and

and devices. The silicon technology research focuses on thin film deposition and low-

technology, in particular ICT, genomics and nanotechnology. As from January 2006, the

temperature processing. The device program deals with the integration of new

studies of nanotechnology in society are located half in MESA+ and half in another

components (such as silicon LED’s and elementary particle detectors) into CMOS, and

research institute of the University of Twente, the Institute of Governance Studies. This

advanced device modeling. Through measurements and modeling, a contribution is made

reflects how they form bridge between the science and engineering work of the

to the better understanding and predictability of failure mechanisms inside integrated

University of Twente and the social science work.

circuits. The group has strong ties with Philips, ASM International, and the groups IC-

Interactions with MESA+ started in 2004, when a small part of the funding for Nano-

design and Solid State Physics. STW is the main funding source.

Impuls, and later NanoNed, was devoted to technology assessment and societal aspects of nanotechnology. The NanoNed TA program is coordinated by Arie Rip (STeHPS). In addition to four PhD students and two postdocs in Twente, there are PhD projects in the

Figure 1: Trouble in nanoland The Economist Dec 5th 2002 “Plagued by both pessimism and hype, can nanotechnology grow up?”

Universities of Delft, Groningen and Utrecht. See www.nanoned.nl for further information.

Constructive Technology Assessment is an attempt to introduce broader considerations into scientific and technological developments at an early stage, when the technologies are still under construction. This approach has been pioneered by Arie Rip (STeHPS) and Johan Schot (now at the Technical University Eindhoven), and is now applied in Europe and the USA – under a variety of labels – to nanoscience and technologies. The special challenge is to address embedding in society, with the attendant impacts, at a stage where the technologies themselves are often still mostly science fiction. Socio-technical scenarios are developed, based on analysis of dynamics of relevant ongoing technological developments (including innovation networks) and their linkages with societal contexts. Interactions with nanoscientists and technologists, with industry, government, NGOs and civil society groups are important, for example in workshops in which possible strategies are articulated. Some of these workshops are organized in collaboration with EU Networks of Excellence (Frontiers, Nano2Life). Issues of risk governance and images of nanotechnology (with publics, as well as nanoscientists and technologists themselves) are now also addressed. Nanoscience and technologies evolve in interaction with society, and such co-evolution can be improved by making the interactions explicit and reflexive. This is the goal of Constructive Technology Assesment. There is no assurance that problems of societal acceptance, as with Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), will be avoided this way. But one can definitely do better. 

Integrated circuits and optical telecommunication form the backbone of the digital revolution. The two would have merged long ago if the most convenient semiconductor, silicon, could efficiently emit (infrared) light, so that a microchip is able to initiate optical (tele)communication. But the indirect bandgap of silicon makes light emission unfavorable. Along various lines of experimentation, research groups across the world are looking for ways to create light emitting devices in, or on, silicon. The key parameter of interest is (internal) light emission efficiency: this determines how much power is required to set up communication.

Figure 1: The amount of light emission at a certain (infrared) wavelength, for various silicon lightemitting diodes. These diodes were damaged on purpose with a silicon implantation. As a result, the light emission drops dramatically.

Nature published a groundbreaking paper on this subject in 2001, by Ng et al. The authors observed higher-than-expected light emission in ordinary silicon diodes. The authors attributed the enhanced light emission to lattice defects (dislocation loops) introduced in the silicon during the manufacturing process. The theoretical explanation presented in that paper came under fire in later literature. In an attempt to reproduce the results by Ng et al., researchers from the SC-group working in the STW-project “HELIOS” discovered that reference diodes, i.e. diodes without lattice defects, emit even more infrared light! The new findings suggest that pure, bulk silicon can be a much more efficient light emitter than previously assumed, when the non-radiative recombination is successfully suppressed.  Figure 2: The Economist ‘Beyond the nanohype’ Mar 13th 2003

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HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: A. Rip, Verschuivingen in het social conract: wetenschappelijke en

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: Tu Hoang, Phuong LeMinh, Jisk Holleman and Jurriaan Schmitz, The effect of

technologische ontwikkelingen in nieuwe maatschappelijke kaders (Shifts in the social contract between

dislocation loops on the light emission of silicon LEDs, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 105-107 (2006).

science and society: scientific and technological developments in new societal contexts). Pp. 15-24, Boelie Elzen & Wim de Ridder (red.), Innovatie en Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling. Omgaan met een haat-liefde verhouding. Den Haag: Stichting Maatschappij en Onderneming, 2005.


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SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY

S Y S T E M S A N D M AT E R I A L S F O R I N F O R M AT I O N S T O R A G E

Self-assembled receptors

A Spin-Filter for Holes

The Supramolecular Chemistry and Technology group (SMCT) investigates the self-

The goal of the SMI group is to advance the state-of-the-art in information technology,

assembly of molecules into functional nanoscale structures. Fields of applications of

focusing on the sub-fields data storage and nano-electronics. The emphasis is on the

such noncovalent assemblies are nanotechnology, sensor technology, and nuclear

development of radically novel concepts, which are scientifically most challenging and

waste treatment. Current topics include: supramolecular chemistry at interfaces,

may lead to important breakthroughs. At present we focus on magnetic systems and

multivalency in self-assembly, nanolithography, nanoelectronics, single molecule

devices for storage and/or manipulation of information using bits or electronic

chemistry, fluorescent sensor arrays, lab-on-a-chip, and ligands for radionuclei. Most of

components with typical dimensions below 100nm. The nanoscale is required by the

these projects are related to nanotechnology as they strive for the control over the

continued miniaturization, but also offers unique opportunities to exploit phenomena that

preparation, strength, and positioning of individual molecules and supramolecular

appear only at such small dimensions. Current research is on scanning probe based data

assemblies. Recent achievements are: supramolecular liquid crystals, an organic field

storage and on spintronics, both using tiny magnets. Carried out by a multidisciplinary

effect transistor prepared by metal nanotransfer, an array of fluorescent sensors built of small components, bilayer vesicles that bind guest molecules, and a highly selective selfassembled extractant for radioactive radium ion. In 2005, Jurriaan Huskens was appointed as Chair of the new group Molecular Nanofabrication (MNF).

The highest level of sophistication of supramolecular chemistry is found in nature, where elegant noncovalent assemblies make up the machinery that enable and support life functions. There are numerous examples of the successful application of the principles of biomolecular recognition for the design of synthetic receptors. On the other hand, the study of the different degrees of complexity in molecular recognition is also important for the understanding of biomolecular processes. For example, at the active site of the enzymes, strict recognition of the transition state by the enzyme is required (“selective endo-recognition”), whereas the initial protein-protein recognition can be more loose and flexible (“non-selective exo-recognition”). Nevertheless, there are no examples in literature that exploit the diverse levels (i.e. endo/exo, selective/nonselective) of molecular recognition encountered in nature.

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H I G H L I G H T S

S M C T

This year we have reported the first noncovalent receptor (13•(DEB)6) that is able to act simultaneously as an endo and exo receptor for neutral molecules (figure 1). [1] This receptor is formed entirely by self-assembly. It is of nanoscale dimensions, and it functions much like a viral capsid does in nature. The receptor is able to selectively encapsulate a neutral noncovalent trimer (2 3) in the pocket situated in between two subdomains (“floors”) of the receptor (endo-complexation) [2] while simultaneously complexing different neutral guest molecules (3) at the periphery of the assembly (exocomplexation). The receptor is formed by the self-assembly of nine components through 36 cooperative hydrogen bonds. This self-assembly of the receptor and the recognition processes of the guests bring together fifteen molecules with total specificity, approaching the degree of complexity encountered in biorecognition. Furthermore, when it receives the appropriate stimulus the receptor has the ability to selectively release the guest molecules that are complexed in the internal cavity while the guest molecules at the periphery remain complexed to the receptor.

Figure 1. a) Molecular and schematic (side view) representations of the building blocks and the corresponding hydrogen-bonded assemblies 13 •(DEB)6 /13 •(BuCYA)6 and guest molecules 2 and 3. b) Schematic representation of the recognition of guest 2 and 3, and release of 2 by 13 •(DEB)6 /13 •(BuCYA)6 receptors.

research team, the research includes the fundamental physical concepts, the materials and nano-fabrication technology, as well as system design and performance.

S M I

Figure 1: Schematic illustration of Ballistic Electron/Hole Magnetic Microscopy, in which the spin-dependent local transmission of electrons or holes through the ferromagnetic thin films into a semiconductor collector is used to probe the magnetization direction of a nanoscale region.

One effort is to study spintronics at the nanoscale with a modified version of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), in which the tip is used to locally inject electrons (or holes) into a ferromagnetic metal structure grown on a semiconductor substrate (figure 1). The transmission through the ultrathin ferromagnetic layers depends on the spin of the electrons. The first ferromagnet acts as spin-filter producing highly spin-polarized electrons, while the second ferromagnet acts as spin-analyzer. In analogy with optics, the total transmitted current is dependent on the relative orientation of the magnetization vectors of the two ferromagnetic thin films. The transmitted electrons are collected by an extra electrical contact to the back of the semiconductor. Images of the local magnetic configuration can then be constructed by scanning the tip while monitoring the collected current. While spin-filtering of electrons in a ferromagnet is well established, we have demonstrated for the first time the complementary effect for holes, using a p-type Si collector. Besides new fundamental insight into the processes involved in spindependent transmission, it also allows high-resolution magnetic imaging. Figure 2 shows a series of magnetic images of a structure consisting of Co and Ni80Fe20 magnetic films of a few nanometer thick separated by a thin Au layer, grown on p-type Si. In large magnetic field one observes an almost homogeneous magnetic state with high transmission (yellow), corresponding to parallel magnetization. In small magnetic field one observes a mixed magnetic state, in which local regions of parallel magnetization (yellow) and anti-parallel magnetization (dark) coexist. Nanowire-like patterns are spontaneously formed and a spatial resolution of 20nm was obtained. 

Figure 2: Magnetic images of a Co/Au/Ni 80 Fe20 /Au structure on p-type Si for various applied magnetic fields, showing the evolution of the magnetic domain pattern. Larger (smaller) local transmission is obtained in the lighter (darker) regions in which the magnetization of Co and Ni 80 Fe20 is oriented parallel (anti-parallel). Also shown is a local hysteresis loop with arrows indicating the direction of the magnetic field sweep.

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HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: [1] M. A. Mateos-Timoneda, J. M. C. A. Kerckhoffs, M. Crego-Calama,

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: [1] T. Banerjee, E. Haq, M.H. Siekman, J.C. Lodder and R. Jansen, "Spin-filtering

D. N. Reinhoudt, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 3248-3253. [2] J. M. C. A. Kerckhoffs, M. ten Cate,

of hot holes in a metallic ferromagnet", Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 027204 (2005). [2] E. Haq, T. Banerjee, M.H. Siekman,

M. A. Mateos-Timoneda, F. W. B. van Leeuwen, B. H. M. Snellink-Ruël, A. L. Spek, H. Kooijman,

J.C. Lodder and R. Jansen, "Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy", Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 082502 (2005).

M. Crego-Calama, D. N. Reinhoudt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 12697-12708.

[3] R. Jansen, "Nieuwe stap in de spintronica", FOM press release (www.fom.nl), 18 January 2005.


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S O L I D S TAT E P H Y S I C S

T D T

T E S TA B L E D E S I G N A N D T E S T I N G O F NANOSYSTEMS

Quantum Confinement Between Self-organized Pt Nanowires on Ge(001)

VHDL-AMS Fault-Modelling and -Simulation of MicroElectronic / Fluidic Bio Systems

The research of the Solid State Physics group focuses on the preparation and physical

Our research deals with the development of new hardware architectures and circuits,

properties of materials in reduced dimensions. It incorporates surface science based

and associated software, to ensure the quality and dependability of integrated high-

methods to exercise control over materials on a nanometer scale, a search for new

performance multi-domain systems at low costs. These integrated systems incorporate

properties resulting from that size and the development of adequate research tools.

nanoelectronics (voltage/current domain) for control and vast signal processing, in

The research aims at providing fundamental principles for future application in

possible combination with other domains, in our case fluidic (e.g. for bio-chemical

nanotechnology. A broad spectrum of surface –and interface features and properties is

detection) or magnetic (for fast flux logic). The implementation of these systems can be

studied using ultra-sensitive laterally averaging probes and techniques with high spatial

in the form of a single chip or in a System-in-Package. To obtain cost-effective quality

materials of potential interest for future applications inspire the choice of subjects.

and dependability assurance of hybrid integrated systems is considered to be the major

Potential applications include nano-(opto)electronic and nano-magnetic devices and truly new materials, all based on improved understanding of the underlying physics and chemistry on the atomic and molecular scale. Our studies range from state-of-the-art ultra-high-vacuum based, curiosity driven experiments to fundamental strategic ones under ambient conditions.

The existence of one-dimensional (1D) electronic states between self-organized Pt nanowires, that are 1.6 nm or 2.4 nm spaced apart on a Ge(001) surface, is revealed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. These perfectly straight Pt nanowires act as barriers for a surface state (located just below the Fermi level) of the underlying terrace. The energy positions of the 1D electronic states are in good agreement with the energy levels of a quantum particle in a box. In fact, we have a textbook example of the simple quantum mechanical problem of a quantum mechanical particle trapped in a well of finite depth. The energy positions are given by:

bottle neck in the future for their massive commercialization. Figure 1: (a) Differential conductivity (dI/dV) of a Pt nanowires array at 300 K (diamonds) and 77 K (solid line). The Pt nanowires are 1.6 nm spaced apart. (b) Local Density of States ((dI/dV)/(I/V)) of the bare β-terrace (lower curve), troughs between Pt nanowires that are 1.6 nm spaced apart (middle curve) and troughs between Pt nanowires that are 2.4 nm spaced apart. All spectra are recorded at 77 K. For L=1.6 nm only one novel peak at 0.1 eV (n=1) above the Fermi level is observed, whereas for L=2.4 nm two novel peaks are found at 0.04 eV (n=1) and 0.16 eV (n=2) above the Fermi level, respectively.

Figure 1: FEM fluidic routing simulation based on FlowFET devices and DMOS control electronics. Straight and ninety degrees fluidic routing with optimized low recirculation failures.

This was used as vehicle for our primary goal to develop, partly on the basis of FEM simulations, a heterogeneous simulation environment for integrated system designers which can visualize the effects of faults in the fluidic as well as the electronic domain (figure 2) and take appropriate measures subsequently to increase quality and dependability. The work is now being continued in FP6 in the flagship project BioDrop, incorporating nine international partners of which three industries.

The three novel electronic states at 0.10 eV (L=1.6 nm and n=1) , 0.04 eV and 0.16 eV (L=2.4 nm and n=1,2) obey the (n/L) 2 scaling law amazingly well (figure 1). Spatial maps of the differential conductivity of the 1D electronic states conclusively reveal that these states are exclusively present in the troughs between the Pt nanowires (figure 2). Figure 2: Topography (a) and spatial map of the differential conductivity (dI/dV) (b) of an 8 nm x 8 nm area with several Pt nanowires recorded at T=77 K. The differential conductivity is recorded at the energy position of the confined n=1 state. The onedimensional electronic state is exclusively located in the troughs of the Pt nanowires (black arrows refer to the position of the Pt nanowires). The yellow and green circles (ellipses) refer to defects in Pt nanowire and underlying substrate, respectively. The confinement of the electronic state disappears near these defects, as expected.

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For example in the framework of the FP6 Network of Excellence PATENT, several projects have been proposed by us and research carried out in the area of combined microelectronic fluidic devices and arrays. The TDT group has focussed on array architectures using FlowFETs to be used in biomedical applications. After studies on defects and fault modelling in single FlowFETs, the emphasis was extended to arrays, where fluidic routing (and hence fluidic crossing) is essential. Figure 1 shows on top some results of a fluidic crossing where straight fluidic transport is accomplished (red, yellow, and green) and below were a ninety degree routing is established by means of proper microelectronic CMOS-DMOS control. We designed the architecture of a DNA detection array system based on a FlowFET array, which has been specifically optimized for testing and dependability. The architecture uses a capacitive/oscillation-based DNA sensing technique and is controllable via the IEEE 1149.1 Boundary-Scan protocol.

From January 1st 2006, the TDT group will not be part of MESA+ anymore, but continues its activities in the Center of Telematics and Information Technology (CTIT), another spearhead research institute of the University of Twente. 

Figure 2: VHDL-AMS simulation of a micro-electronic fluidic array for DNA detection, based on oscillation detection (last trace) and FEM simulations.

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HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATION: N. Oncel, A. van Houselt, J. Huijben, A.-S. Hallbäck, O. Gurlu, H.J.W. Zandvliet

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: H. Liu, H.G. Kerkhoff, A. Richardson, X. Zhang, P. Nouet and F. Azais, Design and

and B. Poelsema, Quantum confinement between self-organized Pt nanowires on Ge(001), Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,

Test of an Oscillation-Based System Architecture for DNA Sensor Arrays, in Proc. 11th IEEE International

116801 (2005).

Mixed-Signals Testing Workshop, Cannes (France), June 2005, pp. 234-239. H.G. Kerkhoff, X. Zhang, H. Liu, A. Richardson, F. Azais and P. Nouet, VHDL-AMS Fault-Simulation for Testing DNA Bio-Sensing Arrays, IEEE Sensor Conference, Irvine (USA), November 2005, pp. 274-278.


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TRANSDUCERS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Lifelike MEMS

The Transducer Science and Technology (TST) group has a history and focus on microelectro-mechanical sensors and actuators (MEMS). An extensive technological research program and the versatile high quality MESA+ cleanroom facilities allow the group to fabricate and investigate transducers off the beaten paths offered e.g. through

M E S A

foundry processes. Against this background and by virtue of size similarity, MEMS

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P U B L I C A T I O N S

structures enable the group to learn and take inspiration from interesting biological structures.

As an example, the group has participated in the EU project “Cricket Inspired perCeption And Decision Automata (CICADA)” and fabricated drag-force based acoustic flowsensors inspired by mechano-sensory hairs as found on body-extensions (cerci) of crickets. These sensors are interesting bio-mimetic subjects since they are believed to operate at sensitivity levels comparable to thermal noise levels and allow crickets to perform highly successful predator escape reactions. Interestingly, the cricket's mechano-sensors come in large numbers provoking speculation and research on cricket's abilities to perceive spatio-temporal information and frequency content. As a model system, the mechano-sensors are extremely versatile since they help understanding the fluid-dynamics (boundary layer manifestations), mechanical filtering (through the inherent bio-mechanical properties of the hair) and the influence of noise (stochastic resonance) on these highly sensitive sensors. They also serve as an excellent example of robust, arrayed sensors in which fields rather than point- or averaged values are measured. The work on lifelike MEMS in the TST group uses flow- and tactile mechano-sensing as a vehicle for studying new approaches to engineered sensing. We recently produced the first reported artificial hair based sensors with acoustic sensitivity [1]. These sensors use capacitive transduction with appropriate electronic interfacing to measure minute rotations of membranes that are caused by the flow-induced drag-torque on the hairs. The sensors were made using a combination of siliconnitride based surface micromachining and SU-8 processing for hairs with lengths of up to 1 mm. In the near future we hope to extend the operation range of these sensors to fluidic environments aiming for artificial cochlea like sensor arrays.

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Figure 1: Schematic representation of the operation principle of drag-force based acoustic flow-sensors as developed in the TST group. The drag-forces on the hair cause a tilting of the membrane which is resolved by a differential capacitve read-out.

ANNUAL

REPORT

2005 Figure 2: SEM picture of a realised array of hairsensors. The hairs are fabricated from two succesively spin-coated and developed layers of SU-8 epoxy.

The technology to make the sensors is just one part of the research. Equally important and interesting are the investigations in transduction principles, array interfacing technologies, electromechanical signal processing (using parametric oscillation and amplification), beneficial use of noise (stochastic resonance) to enhance low-sensitivity and alternative digital sensing schemes that allow easy electronic interfacing. Ultimately highly adaptive sensor arrays with advanced field-sensing capabilities are the goal [2]. This research is safeguarded by grants from the EU (FP-6 project “Cilia”: Customized Intelligent Life-inspired Arrays) and NWO (Vici, BioEARS: Bio-inspired Engineering of ARray Sensors) allowing us to spend in total over 20 man years of research on Lifelike MEMS in the coming 5 years.

HIGHLIGHTED PUBLICATIONS: [1] M. Dijkstra, J. van Baar, R. Wiegerink, T. Lammerink, J. de Boer and G. Krijnen, “Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets”, J. Micromech. and Microeng, Vol-15, pg S132-S138, 2005. [2] Gijs J.M. Krijnen, Marcel Dijkstra, John J. van Baar, Siripurapu S. Shankar, Winfred J. Kuipers, Rik J.H. de Boer, Dominique Altpeter, Theo S.J. Lammerink, Remco Wiegerink, “MEMS based hair flow-sensors as model systems for acoustic perception studies”, Nanotechnology 17, No 4 (28 February 2006) S84-S89.

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PUBLICATIONS

M E S A + S C I E N T I F I C P U B L I C AT I O N S 2 0 0 5 PhD-thesis

PHD-THESES UT ■ Ariando, A.. Josephson Junction Arrays with d-wave-induced pi-phase-shifts. UT Universiteit Twente

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(Enschede). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ir. J.W.M. Hilgenkamp, & Prof. H. Rogalla. ■ Bostan, C.G. (2005, februari 25). Design and fabrication of Quasi-2D photonic crystal components based on silicon-on-insulator technology. UT Universiteit Twente (142 pag.) (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. A. Driessen, & Dr.ir. R.M. de Ridder. ■ Bret, B.P.J. (2005, juli 14). Multiple light scattering in porous gallium phosphide. UT Universiteit Twente (144 pag.) (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. A. Lagendijk. ■ Brivio, M. (2005, februari 25). Real-time studies of chemical reactions in lab-on-a-chip devices. UT Universiteit Twente. Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt, & Dr. W. Verboom. ■ Brouwer, E.A.M. (2005, juli 07). Electric field assisted adsorption of nanocolloidal gold particles: Characterisation and deposition kinetics. UT Universiteit Twente (136 pag.) (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. B. Poelsema. ■ Deladi, S. (2005, maart 04). MEMS Generated and AFM-based Surface Modification. UT Universiteit Twente (137 pag.) (Enschede: S. Deladi). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. M.C. Elwenspoek, & Dr.ir. G.J.M. Krijnen. ■ Dijk, E.M.H.P. van (2005, februari 11). Single nanoparticles: ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection. UT Universiteit Twente (143 pag.) (Enschede: Erik M.H.P. van Dijk). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. N.F. van Hulst, & Dr. M.F. Garcia Parajo. ■ Feng, C. (2005, december 15). Fabrication of Robust (Bio)interfaces Based on Reactive Polymer Films: Surface Confinement, Reactivity and Pattern Fabrication on Multiple Length Scales. UT Universiteit Twente (181 pag.) (Enschede: PrintPartners Ipskamp). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. G.J. Vancso. ■ Fernández, L.J. (2005, december 14). A capacitive RF Power Sensor Based on MEMS Technology. UT Universiteit Twente (134 pag.) (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. M.C. Elwenspoek, & Dr.ir. R.J. Wiegerink. ■ Fornaini, A.. X-RAY IMAGING AND READOUT OF A TPC WITH THE MEDIPIX CMOS ASIC. UT Universiteit Twente (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ing. B. van Eijk, & J.L. Visschers. ■ Geuzebroek, D.H. (2005, oktober 28). Flexible optical network components based on densely integrated microring resonators. UT Universiteit Twente (142 pag.) (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. A. Driessen. ■ Godeke, A. (2005, juli 15). Performance Boundaries in Nb3Sn Superconductors. UT Universiteit Twente (210 pag.) (Enschede: Ipskamp, Enschede). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. H.H.J. ten Kate, D.C. Larbalestier, & Dr.ir. B. ten Haken. ■ Hempen, C.M. (2005, juli 14). Detection Strategies for Bioassays Based on Liquid Chromatography, Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry. UT Universiteit Twente (198 pag.) (Enschede: Print Partners Ipskamp). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. U. Karst. ■ Herber, S. (2005, mei 13). Development of a hydrogel-based carbon dioxide sensor - a tool for diagnosing gastrointestinal ischemia. UT Universiteit Twente (164 pag.) (Enschede: Febodruk B.V.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ir. P. Bergveld, prof.dr.ir. A. van den Berg, & Dr.ir. W. Olthuis. ■ Hiremath, K.R. (2005, oktober 14). Coupled Mode Theory Based Modeling and Analysis of Circular Optical Microresonators. UT Universiteit Twente (125 pag.) (Zutphen: Wohrmann). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. E. van Groesen, & Dr. M. Hammer. ■ Hozoi, A. (2005, maart 17). Edge Effects and Submicron Tracks in Magnetic Tape Recording. UT Universiteit Twente (165 pag.) (Enschede: Wöhrmann Printservice, Zutphen). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. J.C. Lodder, & Dr.ir. J.P.J. Groenland. ■ Kolhatkar, J.S. (2005, januari 27). Steady-state and Cyclo-stationary RTS Noise in MOSFETs. UT Universiteit Twente (102 pag.) (Enschede, The Netherlands: Print Partners Ipskamp). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. H. Wallinga, & dr.ir. C. Salm.

Kooi, B.J. (2005, juni 23). The Gyracc - An integrated sensor for 3D rate of turn and acceleration. UT Universiteit Twente (177 pag.) (Zutphen: Wohrmann Print Service). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ir. P. Bergveld, Prof.dr.ir. P.H. Veltink, & Dr.ir. W. Olthuis. ■ Korczagin, I. (2005, februari 10). Poly(ferrocenylsilanes) in Micro- and Nanofabrication. UT Universiteit Twente (158 pag.) (Enschede: PrintPartners Ipskamp). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. G.J. Vancso. ■ Leeuwen, F.W.B. van (2005, maart 31). Selective extraction of naturally occurring radioactive Ra2+ from aqueous waste streams. UT Universiteit Twente. Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt, & Dr. W. Verboom. ■ Leinse, A. (2005, mei 27). Polymeric microring resonator based electro-optic modulator. UT Universiteit Twente (154 pag.) (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. A. Driessen, & dr. M.B.J. Diemeer. ■ Liesener, A. (2005, mei 20). Mass Spectrometric Detection of Enzymatic Bioassays. UT Universiteit Twente (189 pag.) (Enschede: Print Partners Ipskamp). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. U. Karst. ■ Lith, J. van (2005, februari 04). Novel integrated optical sensing platforms for chemical and immunosensing. UT Universiteit Twente (169 pag.) (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr. P.V. Lambeck, prof.dr. T.J.A. Popma, & dr. H.J.W.M. Hoekstra. ■ Mateos timoneda, M.A. (2005, april 22). Functional chiral hydrogen-bonded assemblies. UT Universiteit Twente. Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt, & Dr. M. Crego Calama. ■ Postma, F.M. (2005, juli 01). Epitaxial Oxide Spintronic Structures: Ferromagnets and Semiconductors. University of Twente (177 pag.) (Zutphen: Wöhrmann Print Service). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. J.C. Lodder, & dr. R. Jansen. ■ Sarajlic, E. (2005, mei 13). Electrostatic Microactuators Fabricated by Vertical Trench Isolation Technology. UT Universiteit Twente (185 pag.) (Enschede: E. Sarajlic). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. M.C. Elwenspoek, & Dr.ir. G.J.M. Krijnen. ■ Sowariraj, M.S.B. (2005, juni 09). Full Chip Modelling of ICs under CDM Stress. UT Universiteit Twente (170 pag.) (Enschede, The Netherlands: Print Partners Ipskamp). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. F.G. Kuper, & prof.dr.ir. A.J. Mouthaan. ■ Speets, E.A. (2005, april 01). Deposition of metal islands, metal clusters and metal containing single molecules on self-assembled monolayers. UT Universiteit Twente. Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt, & Dr. B.J. Ravoo. ■ Tomczak, N. (2005, mei 18). Single Light Emitters in the Confinement of Polymers. UT Universiteit Twente (164 pag.) (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. G.J. Vancso, & Prof.dr. N.F. van Hulst. ■ Ul Haq, E. (2005, september 15). Nanoscale spin-dependent transport of electrons and holes in Si/ferromagnet structures. University of Twente (178 pag.) (Enschede: Wöhrmann Printservice, Zutphen). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. J.C. Lodder, & dr. R. Jansen. ■ Uranus, H.P. (2005, april 14). Guiding light by and beyond the total internal reflection mechanism. UT Universiteit Twente (210 pag.) (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. E. van Groesen, & dr. H.J.W.M. Hoekstra. ■ Vermaak, H.J. (2005, december 07). Design-for-Delay Testability Techniques for High-Speed Digital Circuits. UT Universiteit Twente (189 pag.) (Transvaal, South Africa). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. Th. Krol. ■ Vroonhoven, E. van (2005, november 04). Remarkable Interface Activity: A LEEM Study of Ge(001) and Ag/Pt(111) at High Temperature. UT Universiteit Twente (156 pag.) (Enschede). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr.ir. B. Poelsema. ■ Vrouwe, E.X. (2005, april 15). Quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis for inorganic ion analysis at the point of care. UT Universiteit Twente (172 pag.) (Enschede: Febodruk B.V.). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ir. A. van den Berg, & dr. R. Luttge. ■ Wel, A.P. van der (2005, april 15). MOSFET LF noise under Large Signal Excitation: Measurement, Modelling and Application UT Universiteit Twente/STW (147 pag.) (Enschede: Febo druk). Prom./coprom.: prof.dr.ir. B. Nauta, & Dr.ing. E.A.M. Klumperink. ■

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Wiegerinck, G.F.M. (2005, juni 23). Improving Sorption Compressors for Cryogenic Cooling. UT Universiteit Twente (136 pag.) (Universiteit Twente). Prom./coprom.: Prof .dr.ir. H.J.M. ter Brake, & Prof. H. Rogalla. ■ Zou, S(han) (2005, februari 10). Exploring Individual Supramolecular Interactions and StimuliResponsive Polymers by AFM-Based Force Spectroscopy. UT Universiteit Twente (154 pag.) (Enschede: PrintPartners Ipskamp). Prom./coprom.: Prof.dr. G.J. Vancso. ■

ACADEMIC JOURNAL REFEREED

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Journal articles ■ Alatas, H., Iskandar, A., Tjia, M.O., & Valkering, T.P. (2005). Optical sensing and switching device based on finite deep nonlinear Bragg grating with a mirror. Journal of nonlinear optical physics & materials, 14(2), 259-272. ■ Annema, A.J., Nauta, B., Langevelde, R. van, & Tuinhout, H. (2005). Analog Circuits in Ultra-Deep SubMicron CMOS. IEEE journal of solid-state circuits, 40(1), 132-143. ■ Ariando, A., Darminto, D., Smilde, H.J.H., Leca, V., Blank, D.H.A., Rogalla, H., & Hilgenkamp, H. (2005). Phase-sensitive order parameter symmetry test experiments utilizing Nd2-xCexCuO4-y/Nb zigzag junctions. Physical review letters, 94, 167001. ■ Arora, M., Junge, L., & Ohl, C.D. (2005). Cavitation cluster dynamics in shock-wave lithotripsy: Part I. Ultrasound in medicine and biology, 31, 827-839. ■ Bagnaia, P., & Barisonzi, M. (2005). Construction of the Inner Layer Barrel Drift Chambers of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at the LHC. Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. Section A, Accelerators, spectrometers, detectors and associated equipment, 546, 481-497. ■ Banerjee, T., Ul Haq, E., Siekman, M.H., Lodder, J.C., & Jansen, R. (2005). Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy on metal-semiconductor interfaces. IEEE transactions on magnetics, 41(10), 2642-2644. ■ Banerjee, T., Som, T., Kanjilal, D., & Moodera, J.S. (2005). Effect of ion irradiation on the characteristics of magnetic tunnel junctions. European physical journal. Applied physics, 32, 115-118. ■ Banerjee, T., Ul Haq, E., Siekman, M.H., Lodder, J.C., & Jansen, R. (2005). Spin-filtering of hot holes in a metallic ferromagnet. Physical review letters, 94(027204), 027204-1-027204-4. ■ Bauer, G.E.W., Tserkovnyak, Y., Brataas, A., Ren, J., Xia, K., Zwierzycki, M., & Kelly, P.J. (2005). Spin accumulation and decay in magnetic Schottky barriers. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 72, 155304-1-155304-5. ■ Bechger, L., Lodahl, P., & Vos, W.L. (2005). Directional Fluorescence Spectra of Laser Dye in Opal and Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals. Journal of physical chemistry B, 109, 9980-9988. ■ Benito lopez, F., Verboom, W., Kakuta, M., Gardeniers, J.G.E., Egberink, R.J.M., Oosterbroek, R.E., Berg, A. van den, & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Optical fiber-based-o-line UV/V is spectroscopic monitoring of chemical reaction kinetics under high pressure in a capillary microreactor. Chemical communications, 2857-2859. ■ Berg, Th.H. van den, Luther, S., Lathrop, D.P., & Lohse, D. (2005). Drag reduction in bubbly Taylor-Couette turbulence. Physical review letters, 94, 044501-1-044501-4. ■ Blankert, B., Hayen, H., Leeuwen, S.M. van, Karst, U., Bodoki, E., Lotrean, S., Sandulescu, R., Mora Diez, N., Dominguez, O., Arcos, J., & Kauffmann, J.-M. (2005). Electrochemical, Chemical and Enzymatic Oxidations of Phenothiazines. Electroanalysis, 17, 1501-1510. ■ Bliokh, K.Y., & Freilikher, V. (2005). Topological spin transport of photons: Magnetic monopole gauge field in Maxwell’s equations and polarization splitting of rays in periodically inhomogenaous media. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 72(3), 035108-1-035108-10. ■ Blom, M.T., Chmela, E., Heyden, F.H.J. van der, Oosterbroek, R.E., Tijssen, R., Elwenspoek, M.C., & Berg, A. van den (2005). A differential viscosity detector for use in miniaturized chemical separation systems. Journal of microelectromechanical systems, 14(1), 70-80.

PUBLICATIONS

■ Bluemink, J.J., Nierop, E. van, Luther, S., Deen, N.G., Magnaudet, J., Prosperetti, A., & Lohse, D. (2005). Asymmetry-induced particle drift in a rotating flow. Physics of fluids, 17, 072106-1-072106-5. ■ Bremond, N.P., & Villermaux, E. (2005). Bursting thin liquid films. Journal of fluid mechanics, 524, 121-130. ■ Bremond, N.P., Arora, M., Ohl, C.D., & Lohse, D. (2005). Cavitating bubbles on patterned surfaces. Physics of fluids, 17, 091111-091111. ■ Bremond, N.P., Arora, M., Ohl, C.D., & Lohse, D. (2005). Cavitation on surfaces. Journal of physics. Condensed matter, 17, s3603-s3608. ■ Brink, J. van den, Brocks, G., & Morpurgo, A.F. (2005). Electronic correlations in oligo-thiophene molecular crystals. Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials, 290-291, 294-297. ■ Brinkman, A., & Hilgenkamp, J.W.M. (2005). Electron-hole coupling in high-Tc cuprate superconductors. Physica C, 422, 71-75. ■ Brivio, M., Tas, N.R., Goedbloed, M.H., Gardeniers, J.G.E., Verboom, W., Berg, A. van den, & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). A MALDI-chip integrated system with a monitoring window. Lab on a chip, 5(4), 378-381. ■ Brivio, M., Liesener, A., Oosterbroek, R.E., Verboom, W., Karst, U., Berg, A. van den, & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Chip-based on-line nanospray MS method enabling study of the kinetics of isocyanate derivatization reactions. Analytical chemistry, 77(21), 6852-6856. ■ Brivio, M., Oosterbroek, R.E., Verboom, W., Berg, A. van den, & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Simple chip-based interfaces for on-line monitoring of supramolecular interactions by nano-ESI MS. Lab on a chip, 5, 1111-1122. ■ Brouwer, E.A.M., Kooij, E.S., Hakbijl, M., Wormeester, H., & Poelsema, B. (2005). Deposition kinetics of nanocolloidal gold particles. Colloids and surfaces, 267(1-3), 133-138. ■ Bruinink, C.M., Nijhuis, C.A., Peter, M., Dordi, B., Crespo biel, O., Auletta, T., Mulder, A., Schönherr, H., Vancso, G.J., Huskens, J., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Supramolecular Microcontact Printing and Dip-Pen Nanolithography on Molecular Printboards. Chemistry: a European journal, 11, 3988-3996. ■ Bruzzone, P., Bagnasco, M., Bessette, D., Ciazynski, D., Formisano, A., Gislon, P., Hurd, F., Ilyin, Y., Martone, R., Martovetsky, N., Muzzi, L., Nijhuis, A., Rajainmäki, H., Sborchia, C., Stepanov, B., Verdini, L., Wesche, R., Zani, L., Zanino, R., & Zapretilina, E. (2005). Test Results of the ITER PF Insert Conductor short Sample in SULTAN. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15, 1351-1354. ■ Bystrova, S., Aarnink, A.A.I., Holleman, J., & Wolters, R.A.M. (2005). Atomic Layer Deposition of W1.5N Barrier Films for Cu Metallization. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 152(7), G522-G527. ■ Cacciapaglia, R., Casnati, A., Mandolini, L., Reinhoudt, D.N., Salvio, R., Sartori, A., & Ungaro, R. (2005). Calix(4)arene-based Zn2+ complexes as shape- and size-selective catalysts of ester cleavage. Journal of non-crystalline solids, 70, 5398-5402. ■ Cacciapaglia, R., Casnati, A., Manolini, L., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Di-and trinuclear Zn2+ complexes of calyx. Journal of organic chemistry, 70, 1-7. ■ Calzavarini, E., Lohse, D., Toschi, F., & Tripiccione, R. (2005). Rayleigh and Prandtl number scaling in the bulk of Rayleigh-Bénard turbulence. Physics of fluids, 17, 055107-1-055107-7. ■ Cambi, A., Koopman, M., & Figdor, C.G. (2005). How C-type lectins detect pathogens. Cellular microbiology, 7(4), 481-488. ■ Campbell, M., Chefdeville, M.A., Colas, P., Colijn, A.P., Forniani, A., Giomataris, Y., Graaf, H. van der, Heijne, E.H.M., Kluit, P., Llopart, X., Schmitz, J., Timmermans, J., & Visschers, J.K. (2005). The detection of single electrons by means of a Micromegas-covered Medipix2 pixel CMOS readout circuit. Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. Section A, Accelerators, spectrometers, detectors and associated equipment, 540, 295-304. ■ Cate, M.G.J. ten, & Crego Calama, M. (2005). Binding of small guest molecules to multivalent receptors. Journal of organic chemistry, 70, 8443-8453. ■ Cate, M.G.J. ten, Omerovic, M., Oshovsky, G., Crego Calama, M., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Selfassembly and stability of double rosette nanostructures with biological functionalities. Organic and biomolecular chemistry, 3, 3727-3733.

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■ Connolly, E.J., Timmer, B.H., Pham, H.T.M., Groeneweg, J., Sarro, P.M., Olthuis, W., & French, P. (2005). A porous SiC ammonia sensor. Sensors and actuators B (Chemical), 109, 44-46. ■ Corbellini, F., Leeuwen, F.W.B. van, Beijleveld, H., Kooijman, H., Spek, A.L., Verboom, W., Crego Calama, M., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Multiple ionic interactions for noncovalent synthesis of molecular capsules in polar solar. New journal of chemistry, 2, 242-253. ■ Corbellini, F., Knegtel, R.M.A., Grootenhuis, P.D.J., Crego Calama, M., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Watersoluble molecular capsules: self-assembly and binding properties. Chemistry: a European journal, 11(1), 298-307. ■ Craus, C.B., Onoue, T., Ramstöck, K., Geerts, W.J.M.A., Siekman, M.H., Abelmann, L., & Lodder, J.C. (2005). A read and write element for magnetic probe recording. Journal of physics D: applied physics, 38(3), 363-370. ■ Crespo biel, O., Jukovic, A., Karsson, M., Reinhoudt, D.N., & Huskens, J. (2005). Multivalent aggregation of cyclodextrin gold nanoparticles and adamantyl-terminated guest molecules. Israel journal of chemistry, 45, 353-362. ■ Crespo biel, O., Peter, M., Bruinink, C.M., Ravoo, B.J., Huskens, J., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Multivalent host-guest interactions between ss-cyclodextrin self-assembled monolayers and poly (isobutene-altmaleic acid)s modified with hydrophobic guest moeties. Chemistry: a European journal, 11, 2426-2432. ■ Crespo biel, O., Dordi, B., Reinhoudt, D.N., & Huskens, J. (2005). Supramolecular layer-by-layer assembly: alternating adsorpions of guest - and host-functionalized molecules and particles using multivalent supramolecular interactions. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127, 7594-7600. ■ Dam, T.V.A., Olthuis, W., & Bergveld, P. (2005). A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement. Sensors and actuators B (Chemical), 111, 494-499. ■ Davydova, N.V., Diekmann, O., & Gils, S.A. van (2005). On circulant populations.I. The algebra of semelparity. Linear algebra and its applications, 398, 185-243. ■ Deladi, S., Berenschot, J.W., Tas, N.R., Boer, M.J. de, Krijnen, G.J.M., & Elwenspoek, M.C. (2005). Fabrication of micromachined Foutain Pen with in-situ characterization possibility of nanoscale surface modification. Journal of micromechanics and microengineering, 528-534. ■ Deladi, S., Berenschot, J.W., Boer, M.J. de, Krijnen, G.J.M., Tas, N.R., & Elwenspoek, M.C. (2005). In situ characterization technique for nanotribological investigations. Review of scientific instruments, 016102. ■ Devred, A., & Ouden, A. den (2005). Status of the Next European Dipole (NED) activity of the collaborated accelerator research in Europe. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15(2), 1106-1112. ■ Dhallé, M.M.J., Weeren, H. van, Wessel, W.A.J., Ouden, A. den, Kate, H.H.J. ten, Husek, I., Kovac, P., Schlachter, S., & Goldacker, W. (2005). Scaling the reversible strain response of MgB2 conductors. Superconductor science and technology, 18(12), S253-S260. ■ Diekmann, O., Davydova, N.V., & Gils, S.A. van (2005). On a boom and bust year class cycle. Journal of difference equations and applications, 4(5), 327-335. ■ Dijk, E.M.H.P. van, Hernando, J., Garcia lopez, J.J., Crego Calama, M., Reinhoudt, D.N., Kuipers, L., Garcia Parajo, M.F., & Hulst, N.F. van (2005). Single-Molecule Pump-Probe Detection Resolves Ultrafast Pathways in Individual and Coupled Quantum Systems. Physical review letters, 94(7), 078302-1-078302-4. ■ Dijk, E.M.H.P. van, Hernando, J., Garcia Parajo, M.F., & Hulst, N.F. van (2005). Single-molecule pumpprobe experiments reveal variations in ultrafast energy redistribution. Journal of chemical physics, 123(6), 1-8.

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■ Dijkstra, M., Baar, J.J.J. van, Wiegerink, R.J., Lammerink, T.S.J., Boer, J.H. de, & Krijnen, G.J.M. (2005). Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets. Journal of micromechanics and microengineering, 15, 132-138. ■ Doku, G.N., Verboom, W., Reinhoudt, D.N., & Berg, A. van den (2005). On-microchip multiphase chemistry - a review of microreactor design principles and reagent contacting modes. Tetrahedron, 61, 2733-2742. ■ Dolgov, O.V., Mazin, I.I., Golubov, A., Savrasov, S.Y., & Maksimov, E.G. (2005). Critical temperature and giant isotope effect in presence of paramagnons. Physical review letters, 95, 257003. ■ Dolgov, O.V., Kremer, R.K., Kortus, J., Golubov, A., & Shulga, S.V. (2005). Thermodynamics of Two-Band Superconductors: The Case of MgB2. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 72, 024504. ■ Driel, A.F. van, Allan, G., Delerue, C., Lodahl, P., Vos, W.L., & Vanmaekelbergh, D. (2005). FrequencyDependent Spontaneous Emission Rate from CdSe and CdTe Nanocrystals: Influence of Dark States. Physical review letters, 95(236804), 1-4. ■ Dziomkina, N., Hempenius, M.A., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Symmetry Control of Polymer Colloidal Monolayers and Chrystals by Electrophoretic Deposition onto Patterned Surfaces. Advanced materials, 17, 237-239. ■ Dötsch, H., Bahlmann, N., Zhuromskyy, O., Hammer, M., Wilkens, L., Gerhardt, R., Popkov, A.F., & Hertel, P. (2005). Applications of magnetooptical waveguides in integrated optics: review. Journal of the Optical Society of America B (Optical physics), 22(1), 240-253. ■ Eck, H.J.N. van, Ouden, A. den, Goedheer, W.J., Groot, B. de, Lopes Cardozo, N.J., & Kleyn, A.W. (2005). A 3 T magnet system for MAGNUM-PSI. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15(2), 1303-1306. ■ Eijkel, J.C.T., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Nanofluidics: what is it and what can we expect from it? Microfluidics and nanofluidics. ■ Eijkel, J.C.T., Bomer, J.G., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Osmosis and pervaporation in polyimide submicron microfluidic channel structures. Applied physics letters, 87(11). ■ Eijkel, J.C.T., Dan, B., Reemeijer, H.W., Hermes, D.C., Bomer, J.G., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Strongly accelerated and humidity-independent drying of nanochannels induced by sharp corners. Physical review letters, 95. ■ Eijkel, J.C.T., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Water in micro- and nanofluidics sytems described using the water potential. Lab on a chip, 5, 1202-1209. ■ Eijnden, N.C. van den, Nijhuis, A., Ilyin, Y., Wessel, W.A.J., & Kate, H.H.J. ten (2005). Axial tensile stress strain characterisation of ITER Model Coil tpe Nb3Sn strands in TARSIS. Superconductor science and technology, 18, 1523-1532. ■ Engelen, R.J.P., Karle, T.J., Gersen, H., Korterik, J.P., Krauss, T.F., Kuipers, L., & Hulst, N.F. van (2005). Local probing of Bloch mode dispersion in a photonic crystal waveguide. Optics express, 13(12), 4457-4464. ■ Eshuis, P.G., Meer, R.M. van der, Weele, J.P. van der, & Lohse, D. (2005). Granular Leidenfrost effect: Experiment and theory of floating particle clusters. Physical review letters, 95, 258001-1-258001-4. ■ Esquivel, R., & Svetovoy, V. (2005). Nonlocal thin films in calculations of the Casimir force. Physical review B Condensed matter, 72 / 4. ■ Euser, T.G., & Vos, W.L. (2005). Spatial homogeneity of optically switched semiconductor photonic crystals and of bulk semiconductors. Journal of applied physics, 97(43102), 1-7. ■ Faber, E.J., Smet, L.C.P.M. de, Olthuis, W., Zuilhof, H., Sudholter, E.J.R., Bergveld, P., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Si-C Linked Organic Monolayers on Crystalline Silicon Surfaces as Alternative Gate Insulators. ChemPhysChem, 6, 2153-2166. ■ Falvey, P, Lim, C.W., Darcy, R., Revermann, T., Karst, U., Giesbers, M., Marcelis, A.T.M., Lazar, A., Coleman, A.W., Reinhoudt, D.N., & Ravoo, B.J. (2005). Bilayer Vesicles of Amphiphilic Cyclodextrins: Host Membranes That Recognize Guest Molecules. Chemistry: a European journal, 11, 1171-1180.

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■ Farrera, J.A., Hidalgo-Fernandez, P., Hannink, J.M., Huskens, J., Rowan, A.E., Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M., & Nolte, R.J.M. (2005). Divalent ligand for intramolecular complex formation to streptavidin. Organic and biomolecular chemistry, 3, 2393-2395. ■ Feng, C., Vancso, G.J., & Schönherr, H. (2005). Interfacial Reactions in Confinement: Kinetics and Temperature Dependence of the Surface Hydrolysis of Polystyrene-Block-Poly(tert-butyl acrylate) Thin Films. Langmuir, 21, 2356-2363. ■ Feng, C., Zhang, Z., Förch, R., Knoll, W., Vancso, G.J., & Schönherr, H. (2005). Reactive Thin Polymer Films as Platforms for the Immobilization of Biomolecules. Biomacromolecules, 6, 3243-3251. ■ Fernández, L.J., Berenschot, J.W., Sese, J., Wiegerink, R.J., Flokstra, J., Jansen, H.V., & Elwenspoek, M.C. (2005). Fabrication of thick silicon nitride blocks for integration of RF devices. Electronics letters, 41(3), 124-5. ■ Fontenele Araujo Jr., F., Grossmann, S., & Lohse, D. (2005). Wind reversals in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. Physical review letters, 94, 084502-1-084502-4. ■ Formisano, A., Ilyin, Y., Muzzi, L., Martone, R., Gislon, P., Nijhuis, A., Polak, M., Sborchia, C., & Stepanov, B. (2005). DC and transient current distribution analysis from self-field measurements on ITER PFIS conductor. Fusion engineering and design, 75-79, 11-15. ■ Fornaini, A., Campbell, M., Chefdeville, M.A., Colas, P., Colijn, A.P., Graaf, H. van der, Giomataris, Y., Heijne, E.H.M., Kluit, P., Llopart, X., Schmitz, J., Timmermans, J., & Visschers, J.L. (2005). The detection of single electrons using a Micromegas gas amplificaton and a Medipix2 CMOS pixel readout. Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. Section A, Accelerators, spectrometers, detectors and associated equipment, 546, 270-273. ■ Galinon, C., Tewolde, K., Loloee, R., Chiang, W.-C., Olson, S., Kurt, H., Pratt, W.P., Bass, J., Xu, P.X., Xia, K., & Talanana, M. (2005). Pd/Ag and Pd/Au interface specific resistances and interfacial spin flipping. Applied physics letters, 86, 182502-1-182502-3. ■ Garcia Parajo, M.F., Hernando, J., Sanchez-Mosteiro, G., Hoogenboom, J.P., Dijk, E.M.H.P. van, & Hulst, N.F. van (2005). Energy transfer in single molecular photonic wires. ChemPhysChem, 6, 819-827. ■ Gersen, H., Karle, T.J., Engelen, R.J.P., Bogaerts, W., Korterik, J.P., Hulst, N.F. van, Krauss, T.F., & Kuipers, L. (2005). Direct Observation of Bloch Harmonics and Negative Phase Velocity in Photonic Crystal Waveguides. Physical review letters, 94(12), 123901-1-123901-4. ■ Gersen, H., Karle, T.J., Engelen, R.J.P., Bogaerts, W., Korterik, J.P., Hulst, N.F. van, Krauss, T.F., & Kuipers, L. (2005). Real-Space Observation of Ultraslow Light in Photonic Crystal Waveguides. Physical review letters, 94(7), 073903-1-073903-4. ■ Geuzebroek, D.H., Klein, E.J., Kelderman, H., Baker, N., & Driessen, A. (2005). Compact WavelenghtSelective Switch for Gigabit Filtering in Access Networks. IEEE photonics technology letters, 17(2), 336-338. ■ Gils, S.A. van, Krupa, M., & Szmolyan, P (2005). Asymptotic expansions using blow-up. Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik, 56(3), 369-397. ■ Giordano, L., Vermeij, R.J., & Jares-Erijman, E.A. (2005). Synthesis of indole-containing diheteroarylethenes. New probes for photochromic FRET (pcFRET). Arkivoc, 2005(Part xii), 268-281. ■ Godeke, A., Jewell, M.C., Fisher, C.M., Squitieri, A., Lee, P.J., & Larbalestier, D.C. (2005). The Upper Critical Field of Filamentary Nb3Sn Conductors. Journal of applied physics, 97, 093909. ■ Goldobin, E., Susanto, H., Koelle, D., Kleiner, R., & Gils, S.A. van (2005). Oscillatory eigenmodes and stability of one and two arbitrary fractional vortices in long Josephson 0-pi-junctions. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 71, 104519-104525. ■ Grüner, B., Mikulasek, L., Baca, J., Cisarova, I., Böhmer, V., Danila, C., Reinoso garcia, M.M., Verboom, W., Reinhoudt, D.N., Casnati, A., & Ungaro, R. (2005). Cobalt bis(dicarbollides)(1-) covalently attached to the calyx[4]arene platform: the first combination of organic bowl-shaped matrices and inorganic metallaborane cluster anions. European journal of inorganic chemistry, 2022-2039. ■ Grüttner, C., Böhmer, V., Casnati, A., Dozol, J.F., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Dendrimer-coated magnetic particles for radionuclide separation. Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials, 293, 559-566.

PUBLICATIONS

■ Gu, S., Wu, Q.L., Ren, J., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Mechanical Properties of a Single Electrospun Fiber and

its Structures. Macromolecular rapid communications, 26, 716-720. Gu, S., Ren, J., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Process Optimization and Emperical Modelling for Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Nanofiber Precursor of Carbon nanofibers. European polymer journal, 41, 25592568. ■ Hadjersi, T., Kooij, E.S., Yamamoto, N., Sakamaki, K., Takai, H., & Gabouze, N. (2005). Photoluminescence and AFM characterisation of photochemically etched highly resistive n-type silicon. Physica status solidi. C, 2(9), 3375-3378. ■ Hadjersi, T., Gabouze, N., Yamamoto, N., Sakamaki, K., Takai, H., Ababou, A., & Kooij, E.S. (2005). Photoluminescence from undoped silicon after chemical etching combined with metal plating. Physica status solidi. C, 2(9), 3384-3388. ■ Hammer, M., & Stoffer, R. (2005). PSTM / NSOM modeling by 2-D quadridirectional eigenmode expansion. Journal of lightwave technology, 23(5), 1956-1966. ■ Haussler, D., Spiecker, E., Yang, S., Jaeger, W., Störmer, M., Bormann, R., & Zwicker, G. (2005). TEM characterization of La/B4C multilayer systems by the geometric phase method. Physica status solidi A, 202, 2299-2308. ■ Hempen, C.M., Liesener, A., & Karst, U. (2005). Fluorescence and Mass Spectrometric Detection Schemes for Simultaneous Enzymatic Conversions: Method Development and Comparison. Analytica chimica acta, 543, 137-142. ■ Hempen, C.M., Leeuwen, S.M. van, Luftmann, H., & Karst, U. (2005). Liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric investigation on the reaction products in the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of ophenylenediamine by hydrogen peroxide. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 382, 234-238. ■ Hens, Z., Kooij, E.S., Allan, G., Grandidier, B., & Vanmaekelbergh, D. (2005). Electrodeposited nanocrystalline PbSe quantum wells: synthesis, electrical and optical properties. Nanotechnology, 16(4), 339-343. ■ Herber, S., Bomer, J.G., Bergveld, P., & Berg, A. van den (2005). A Miniaturized Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor Based on Sensing of pH-Sensitive Hydrogel Swelling with a Pressure Sensor. Biomedical microdevices, 7(3), 197-204. ■ Hiremath, K.R., Hammer, M., Stoffer, R., Prkna, L., & Ctyroky, J. (2005). Analytical approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides. Optical and quantum electronics, 37(1-3), 37-61. ■ Hitt, D., & Prosperetti, A. (2005). Viscous forces on acoustically levitated gas bubbles. Nonlinear analysis theory, methods and applications, 63(5-7), 1517-1527. ■ Hoekstra, H.J.W.M., & Elrofai, H.B.H. (2005). Theory of optical spontaneous emission rates in layered structures. Physical review E Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics, 71(4), —-. ■ Hoevers, H.F.C., Ridder, M.L., Germeau, A., Bruijn, M.P., Korte, P.A.J. de, & Wiegerink, R.J. (2005). Radiative ballistic phonon transport in silico-nitride membranes at low temperatures. Applied physics letters, 86. ■ Hof, A.J., Kovalgin, A.Y., Woerlee, P.H., & Schmitz, J. (2005). On the Oxidation Kinetics of Silicon in Ultradiluted H2O and D2O Ambient. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 152(9), 133-137. ■ Hof, A.J., Hoekstra, E., Kovalgin, A.Y., Schaijk, R. van, Baks, W.M., & Schmitz, J. (2005). The Impact of Deuterated CMOS processing on Gate Oxide Reliability. IEEE transactions on electron devices, 52(9), 2111-2115. ■ Homsy, A., Koster, S., Eijkel, J.C.T., Berg, A. van den, Lucklum, F., Verpoorte, E., & Rooij, N.F. de (2005). A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump. Lab on a chip, 5(4), 466-471. ■ Honschoten, J.W. van, Svetovoy, V., Krijnen, G.J.M., & Elwenspoek, M.C. (2005). Optimization of a Thermal Flow Sensor for Acoustic Particle Velocity Measurements. Journal of microelectromechanical systems, volume 14(no. 3), 436-443. ■

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■ Hoogenboom, J.P., Dijk, E.M.H.P. van, Hernando, J., Hulst, N.F. van, & Garcia Parajo, M.F. (2005). PowerLaw-Distributed Dark States are the Main Pathway for Photobleaching of Single Organic Molecules. Physical review letters, 95(097401), 097401-1-097401-4. ■ Hoogenboom, R., Huskens, J., & Schubert, U.S. (2005). Grid forming metal coordinating macroligands: synthesis, complexation and morphology. ACS symposium series, 928, 62-71. ■ Hopman, W.C.L., Pottier, P., Yudistira, D., Lith, J. van, Lambeck, P.V., De La Rue, R.M., Driessen, A., Hoekstra, H.J.W.M., & Ridder, R.M. de (2005). Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building block for refractometric optical sensors. IEEE journal of selected topics in quantum electronics, 11(1), 11-16. ■ Hueger, E., Wormeester, H., & Osuch, K. (2005). Alloying of Pd thin films with Nb(001). Journal of electron spectroscopy and related phenomena, 148(2), 79-89. ■ Hueger, E., Wormeester, H., & Osuch, K. (2005). Subsurface miscibility of metal overlayers with V, Nb and Ta substrates. Surface science, 580(1-3), 173-194. ■ Hueting, R.J.E., & Toorn, R. van der (2005). Analysis of the Kirk Effect in Silicon-Based Bipolar Transistors With a Nonuniform Collector Profile. IEEE transactions on electron devices, 52(11), 2489-2495. ■ Huisstede, J.H.G., Werf, K.O. van der, Bennink, M.L., & Subramaniam, V. (2005). Force detection in optical tweezers using backscattered light. Optics express, 13(4), 1113-1123. ■ Ilyin, Y., Nijhuis, A., Abbas, W., Bruzzone, P., Stepanov, B., Gislon, P., Muzzi, L., & Zani, L. (2005). Effect of Cyclic Loading and Conductor Layout on Contact Resistance of Full-Size ITER PFCI Conductors. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15, 1359-1362. ■ Ilyin, Y., Nijhuis, A., Kate, H.H.J. ten, Bruzzone, P., & Stepanov, B. (2005). Reconstruction of current imbalance in full-size ITER NbTiCICC by self-field measurements. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15, 1391-1394. ■ Janik, H., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). The Influence of Hard Segment Crosslinking on the Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Segmented Poly(ester-urethanes). Polymers = Polimery, 50, 139-142. ■ Jong, J. de, Rijn, C.J.M. van, Visser, T., Versteeg, L.A.M., Kapantaidakis, G., Koops, G.H., & Wessling, M. (2005). High performance micro-engineered hollow fiber membranes by smart spinneret design. Journal of membrane science, 256, 209-215. ■ Joseph, A.A., Sese, J., Flokstra, J., & Kerkhoff, H.G. (2005). Structural Testing of HYPRES Niobium Process. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15(2), 106-109. ■ Kalkman, J., Kuipers, L., Gersen, H., & Polman, A. (2005). Coupling of Er ions to surface plasmons on Ag. Applied physics letters, 86, 041113/1-041113/3. ■ Kerckhoffs, J.M.C.A., Ten Cate, M.G.J., Mateos-Timoneda, M.A., Van Leeuwen, W.B.F., Snellink-Ruel, B.H.M., Spek, A.L., Kooijman, H., Crego Calama, M., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Selective self-organization of guest molecules in self-assembled molecular boxes. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127, 12697-12708. ■ Kerkhoff, H.G. (2005). The Test Search for True Mixed-Signal Cores. Microelectronics journal, 35, 1103-1111. ■ Khomyakov, P.A., Brocks, G., Karpan, V., Zwierzycki, M., & Kelly, P.J. (2005). Conductance calculations for quantum wires and interfaces: Mode matching and Green’s functions. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 72, 035450-1-035450-13. ■ Kikuchi, N., Murillo Vallejo, R., & Lodder, J.C. (2005). AHE measurements of very thin films and nanosized dots. Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials, 287, 320-324. ■ Kikuchi, N., Murillo Vallejo, R., & Lodder, J.C. (2005). Anomalous Hall-effect measurement study on Co/Pt nanosized dot. Journal of applied physics, 97(10J713), 10J713-1-10J713-3. ■ Kikuchi, N., Murillo Vallejo, R., Lodder, J.C., Mitsuzuka, K., & Shimatsu, T. (2005). Magnetization Process of High Anisotropy Copt Nanosized Dots. IEEE transactions on magnetics, 41(10), 3613-3615. ■ Kirtley, J.R., Tsuei, C.C., Ariando, A., Smilde, H.J.H., & Hilgenkamp, H. (2005). Antiferromagnetic ordering in arrays of superconducting pi-rings. Physical review B Condensed matter, 72, 214521.

PUBLICATIONS

■ Klein, E.J., Geuzebroek, D.H., Kelderman, H., Sengo, G., Baker, N., & Driessen, A. (2005). Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators. IEEE photonics technology letters, 17(11), 23582360. ■ Koenderink, A.F., Lagendijk, A., & Vos, W.L. (2005). Optical extinction due to intrinsic structural variations of photonic crystals. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 72(153102), 1-4. ■ Koenderink, A.F., & Vos, W.L. (2005). Optical properties of real photonic crystals: anomalous diffuse transmission. Journal of the Optical Society of America B (Optical physics), 22, 1075-1084. ■ Kohlheyer, D., Besselink, G.A.J., Lammertink, R.G.H., Schlautmann, S., Unnikrishnan, S., & Schasfoort, R.B.M. (2005). Electroosmotically controllable multi-flow microreactor. Microfluidics and nanofluidics, 1, 242-248. ■ Kole, P.R., Vries, R.J. de, Poelsema, B., & Zandvliet, H.J.W. (2005). Free energies of steps on (111) fcc surfaces. Solid state communications, 136(6), 356-359. ■ Kolhatkar, J.S., Hoekstra, E., Hof, A.J., Salm, C., Schmitz, J., & Wallinga, H. (2005). Impact of Hot-Carrier Degradation on the Low-Frequency Noise in MOSFETs Under Steady-State and Periodic Large-Signal Excitation. IEEE electron device letters, 26(10), 764-766. ■ Konings, S., Miguel, J., Schlatter, H., Luigjes, H., Goedkoop, J., & Gadgil, V.J. (2005). Lock in of magnetic stripe domains to pinning lattices produced by focused ion-beam patterning. Journal of applied physics, 98, 054306-1-054306-4. ■ Kortus, J., Dolgov, O.V., Kremer, R.K., & Golubov, A. (2005). Band Filling and Interband Scattering Effects in MgB2: Carbon versus Aluminum Doping. Physical review letters, 94, 027002. ■ Kortus, J., Dolgov, O.V., Kremer, R.K., & Golubov, A. (2005). Reply to the comment: Band Filling and Interband Scattering Effects in MgB2. Physical review letters, 95, 099702. ■ Kovac, P., Masti, M., Lehtonen, J., Kopera, L., Kawano, K., Abell, S., Metz, A., & Dhallé, M.M.J. (2005). Comparison and analysis of Hall probe scanning, magneto-optical imaging and magnetic knife measurements of Bi-2223/Ag tape. Superconductor science and technology, 18, 805-812. ■ Kovac, P., Melisek, T., Dhallé, M.M.J., Ouden, A. den, & Husek, I. (2005). Critical currents of MgB2 wires prepared in situ and ex situ subjected to axial stress. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 18, 1374-1379. ■ Kovac, P., Husek, I., Melisek, T., Dhallé, M.M.J., Muller, M., & Ouden, A. den (2005). The effect of shape and deformation in ex situ MgB2-W/Fe composite wires. Superconductor science and technology, 18, 615-622. ■ Kovalgin, A.Y., Hof, A.J., & Schmitz, J. (2005). An approach to modeling of silicon oxidation in a wet ultradiluted ambient. Microelectronic engineering, 80, 432-435. ■ Krioukov, E., Klunder, D.J.W., Driessen, A., Greve, J., & Otto, C. (2005). Two-photon fluoresence excitation using an integrated optical microcavity; a promising tool for biosensing of natural chromophores. Talanta, 65, 1086-1090. ■ Kuroda, T., Itoh, K., Katagiri, K., Goldacker, W., Haessler, W., Haken, B. ten, Kiuchi, M., Noto, K., Ochiai, S., Otabe, S., Shin, H.S., Sosnowski, J., Weijers, H.W., Wada, H., & Kumakura, K. (2005). Bending strain effect on critical current of Bi-2223 superconductor tapes-report of international round-robin-test. Physica C, 425(3-4), 111-120. ■ Laan, D.C. van der, Dhallé, M.M.J., Naveira, L.M., Eck, H.J.N. van, Metz, A., Schwartz, J., Davidson, M., Haken, B. ten, & Kate, H.H.J. ten (2005). Direct experimental analysis of the relation between the grain structure and the distribution of critical current density in BYa2Cu3Ox coated conductors. Superconductor science and technology, 18, 299-306. ■ Laan, D.C. van der, Dhallé, M.M.J., Eck, H.J.N. van, Metz, A., Haken, B. ten, Kate, H.H.J. ten, Naveira, L.M., Davidson, M., & Schwartz, J. (2005). Two- and three-dimensional connectivity and current distribution in YBa2Cu3Ox-coated conductors. Applied physics letters, 86(3), 32512-1-3.

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Latempa, R., Parlato, L., Peluso, G., Pepe, G.P., Ruotolo, A., Barone, A., & Golubov, A. (2005). Proximity effect in NiCu-based Josephson tunnel junctions. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15(2), 133 Part 1. ■ Le Minh, P., Gokcan, H., Lodder, J.C., & Jansen, R. (2005). Magnetic tunnel transistor with a silicon hotelectron emitter. Journal of applied physics, 98(076111), 076111 (1)-076111 (3). ■ Leeuwen, F.W.B. van, Beijleveld, H., Miermans, J.H., Huskens, J., Verboom, W., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Ionizable (this)calix(4)crowns as highly selective 226RA2+ ionophores. Analytical chemistry, 77, 4611-4617. ■ Leeuwen, F.W.B. van, Verboom, W., Shi, X, Davis, J.T., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Selective 226RA2+ionophores provided by self-assembly of guanosine and isoguanosine deratives. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 126, 16575-16581. ■ Leeuwen, F.W.B. van, Verboom, W., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Selective extraction of naturally occurring radioactive Ra2+. Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, 35, 753-761. ■ Leeuwen, F.W.B. van, Miermans, J.H., Bijleveld, H., Tomasberger, T., Davis, J.T., Verboom, W., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Selective removal of 226Ra2+ from gas-field-produced waters. Environmetal science and technology (electronic), 39, 5455-5459. ■ Leeuwen, F.W.B. van, Beijleveld, H., Velders, A.H., Huskens, J., Verboom, W., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Thiacalix(4)arene derivatives as radium ionophores: a study on the requirements for Ra2+ extraction. Organic and biomolecular chemistry, 3, 1993-2001. ■ Leeuwen, S.M. van, Blankert, B., Kauffmann, J.-M., & Karst, U. (2005). Prediction of Clozapine Metabolism by on-line Electrochemistry/Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 382, 742-750. ■ Lehtonen, J., Masti, M., Nast, R., Schmidt, C., Goldacker, W., Leghissa, M., Oomen, M.P., Hussennether, V., Arndt, T.J., Bruzek, C.E., Allais, A., Dhallé, M.M.J., Haken, B. ten, Kate, H.H.J. ten, & Jorda, J.L. (2005). AC coil, reactor and cable demonstrations of low AC loss elementary and assembled BSCCO conductors. Superconductor science and technology, 18(4), 400-406. ■ Lehtonen, J., Masti, M., Joronen, J., Zabara, O., Schmidt, C., Goldacker, W., Leghissa, M., Oomen, M.P., Arndt, T.J., Bruzek, C.E., Dhallé, M.M.J., Haken, B. ten, Kate, H.H.J. ten, Zaragoza, A., Opagiste, C., & Jorda, J.L. (2005). Characterization of low AC loss elementary and assembled BSCCO conductors. Superconductor science and technology, 18(4), 461-469. ■ Leinse, A., Diemeer, M.B.J., Rousseau, A., & Driessen, A. (2005). A novel high-speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI. IEEE photonics technology letters, 17(10), 2074-2076. ■ Lerou, P.P.M., Veenstra, T.T., Burger, J.F., & Brake, H.J.M. ter (2005). Optimization of counterflow heat exchanger geometry through minimization of entropy generation. Cryogenics, 45, 659-669. ■ Liesener, A., & Karst, U. (2005). Assessing Protease Activity Pattern by Means of Multiple Substrate Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Assays. Analyst, 130, 850-854. ■ Liesener, A., & Karst, U. (2005). Flow Chromatography for the Reduction of Matrix Effects in Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry-Based Enzyme Assays. Journal of separation science, 28, 1658-1665. ■ Liesener, A., & Karst, U. (2005). Monitoring Enzymatic Conversions by Mass Spectrometry - A Critical Review. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 382, 1451-1464. ■ Liesener, A., Perchuc, A.M., Schöni, R., Wimer, M., & Karst, U. (2005). Screening for Proteolytic Activities in Snake Venom by Means of a Multiplexing ESI-MS Assay Scheme. Rapid communications in mass spectrometry, 19, 2923-2928. ■ Lim, C.W., Ravoo, B.J., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Dynamic multivalent recongnition of cyclodextrin vesicles. Chemical communications, 5627-5629. ■ Lint, W.B.S. de, & Benes, N.E. (2005). Separation properties of y-alumina nanofiltration membranes compared to charge regulation model predictions. Journal of membrane science, 248, 149-159. ■

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■ Lisfi, A., Nguyen, L.T., Lodder, J.C., Williams, C.M., Corcoran, H., Chang, P., Johnson, A., & Morgan, W. (2005). Analysis and contribution of stress anisotropy in epitaxial hard ferrite thin films. Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials, 290-291(2005), 219-222. ■ Lisfi, A., Williams, C.M., Johnson, E., Nguyen, L.T., Lodder, J.C., Corcoran, H., Chang, P., & Morgan, W. (2005). Spin reorientation in single-crystal CoFe2 O4 thin films. Journal of physics. Condensed matter, 17, 1399-1404. ■ Lisowski, W.F., Keim, E.G., Berg, A.H.J. van den, & Smithers, M.A. (2005). Structural and chemical evolution of single-wall carbon nanotubes under atomic and molecular deuterium interaction. Carbon, 43, 1073-1083. ■ Lith, J. van, Lambeck, P.V., Hoekstra, H.J.W.M., Heideman, R.G., & Wijn, R.R. (2005). The segmented waveguide sensor: Principle and Experiments. Journal of lightwave technology, 23(1), 355-363. ■ Lodahl, P., Mosk, A.P., & Lagendijk, A. (2005). Spatial quantum correlations in multiple scattered light. Physical review letters, 95(173901), 1-4. ■ Lodahl, P., & Lagendijk, A. (2005). Transport of quantum noise through random media. Physical review letters, 94(153905), 1-4. ■ Lohse, D. (2005). Sonoluminescence - Cavitation hots up. Nature, 434, 33-34. ■ Luther, S., Rensen, J.M., Berg, Th.H. van den, & Lohse, D. (2005). Data analysis for hot film-anemometry in turbulent bubbly flow. Experimental thermal and fluid science, 7, 821-826. ■ Mannini, M., Bonacchi, D., Zobbi, L., Piras, F.M., Speets, E.A., Caneschi, A., Cornia, A., Magnani, A., Ravoo, B.J., Reinhoudt, D.N., Sessoli, R., & Gatteschi, D. (2005). Advances in single-molecule magnet surface patterning through microcontact printing. Nano letters, 5, 1435-1438. ■ Marmottant, P.G.M., Meer, S.M. van der, Emmer, M., Versluis, A.M., Jong, N. de, Hilgenfeldt, S., & Lohse, D. (2005). A model for large amplitude oscillations of coated bubbles accounting for buckling and rupture. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118(6), 3499-3505. ■ Marmottant, P.G.M., Versluis, M., Jong, N. de, Hilgenfeldt, S., & Lohse, D. (2005). High-speed imaging of an ultrasound-driven bubble in contact with a wall: “ Narcissus” effect and resolved acoustic streaming Experiments in fluids. ■ Marton, B., Ven, L.G.J. van der, Otto, C., Uzunbajakava, N., Hempenius, M.A., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). A Depth-Resolved Look at the Network Development in Alkyd Coatings by Confocal Raman Microscopy. Polymer, 46, 11330-11339. ■ Martovetsky, N., Bruzzone, P., Stepanov, B., Wesche, R., Gung, C.Y., Minervini, J., Takayasu, M., Goodrich, L., Ekin, J.W., & Nijhuis, A. (2005). Effect of conduit material on CICC performance under high cycling loads. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15, 1367-1370. ■ Mateo Timoneda, M.A., Crego Calama, M., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Controlling the amplification of chirality in hydrogen-bonded assemblies. Supramolecular chemistry, 17, 67-79. ■ Mateos timoneda, M.A., Kerckhoffs, J.M.C.A., Crego Calama, M., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Ditopic complexation and release of neutral guest molecules by a hydrogen-bonded “endo-exo” receptor. Angewandte Chemie, International Edition in English, 44, 3248-3253. ■ Mathews, M., Postma, F.M., Lodder, J.C., Jansen, R., Rijnders, A.J.H.M., & Blank, D.H.A. (2005). Stepinduced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films. Applied physics letters, 87(242507), 242507(1)-242507(3) ■ Maury, P.A., Escalante, M., Huskens, J., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Directed assembly of nanoparticles onto polymer imprinted or chemically patterned templates fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Advanced materials, 17, 2718-2723. ■ Maury, P.A., Peter, M., Mahalingam, V., Reinhoudt, D.N., & Huskens, J. (2005). Patterned self-assembled monolayers on silicon oxide prepared by nanoimprint lithography and their applications in nanofabrication. Advanced functional materials, 15, 451-457.

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■ Meer, D.W. van der, Milazzo, D., Sanguineti, A., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Oriented Crystallization and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Nucleated on Fibrillated Polytetrafluorethylene Scaffolds. Polymer engineering and science, 45, 458-468. ■ Mela, P., Onclin, S., Goedbloed, M.H., Levi, S., Garcia Parajo, M.F., Hulst, N.F. van, Ravoo, B.J., Reinhoudt, D.N., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Monolayer-functionalized microfluidics devices for optical sensing of acidity. Lab on a chip, 5(2), 163-170. ■ Mensink, E., Klumperink, E.A.M., & Nauta, B. (2005). Distortion Cancellation by Polyphase Multipath Circuits. IEEE transactions on circuits and systems I: fundamental theory and applications, 52(9), 17851794. ■ Mijatovic, D., Brinkman, A., Veldhuis, D., Hilgenkamp, J.W.M., Rogalla, H., Rijnders, A.J.H.M., Blank, D.H.A., Pogrebnyakov, A.V., Redwing, J.M., Xu, S.Y., Li, Q., & Xi, X.X. (2005). SQUID magnetometer operating at 37K based on nanobridges in epitaxial MgB2 thin films. Applied physics letters, 87(192505). ■ Mijatovic, D., Eijkel, J.C.T., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Technologies for nanofluidic systems: top-down vs. bottom-up - a review. Lab on a chip, 5(5), 492-500. ■ Mikkelsen, R., Weele, J.P. van der, Meer, R.M. van der, Hecke, M. van, & Lohse, D. (2005). Small-number statistics near the clustering transition in a compartementalized granular gas. Physical review E Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics, 71(4), 041302-1-0412302-12. ■ Moerland, R.J., Hulst, N.F. van, Gersen, H., & Kuipers, L. (2005). Probing the negative permittivity perfect lens at optical frequencies using near-field optics and single molecule detection. Optics express, 13(5), 1604-1614. ■ Molen, K.L. van der, Klein Koerkamp, K.J., Enoch, S., Segerink, F.B., Hulst, N.F. van, & Kuipers, L. (2005). Role of shape ans localized resonances in extraordanary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes: Ecperiment and theory. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 72(045421), 1-9. ■ Mosk, A.P. (2005). Atomic Gases at Negative Kinetic Temperature. Physical review letters, 95(040403), 1-4. ■ Mulder, A., Huskens, J., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Complexation of charged porphyrins by charged and metal-chelated EDTA-tethered ss-cyclodextrin dimmers: a thermodynamnic study on the influence of tether charge and flexibility on binding affinity. European journal of organic chemistry, 838-846. ■ Mulder, A., Onclin, S., Peter, M., Hoogenboom, J.P., Beijleveld, H., Maat, J. ter, Garcia Parajo, M.F., Ravoo, B.J., Huskens, J., Hulst, N.F. van, & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Molecular printboards on silicon oxide: lithographic patterning of cyclodextrin monolayers with multivalent, fluorescent guest molecules. Small, 1, 242-253. ■ Munoz-Pinedo, C., Green, D.R., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Confocal restricted-height imaging of suspension cells (CRISC) in a PDMS microdevice during apoptosis. Lab on a chip, 5, 628-633. ■ Murillo Vallejo, R., Wolferen, H.A.G.M. van, Abelmann, L., & Lodder, J.C. (2005). Fabrication of patterned magnetic nanodots by laser intereference lithography. Microelectronic engineering, 78-79(2005), 260265. ■ Nedelcu, O., Barber, R.W., Kerkhoff, H.G., Emerson, D.R., Muller, R., & Wouden, E.J. van der (2005). Modeling of Micro-Electronic Fluidic Systems. Romanian journal of information science and technology, 8(4), 363-370. ■ Nguyen, L.T., Tichelaar, F.D., & Lodder, J.C. (2005). Growth of oblique sputtered Co and CoCrPt thin films for high-density tape recording. Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials, 290-291(2005), 1294-1297. Nicolau, J.B., & Groesen, E. van (2005). Hybrid analytic-numeric calculation method for light through a bounded planar dielectric. Journal of nonlinear optical physics and materials, 14, 161-176. ■ Nijhuis, A., Wessel, W.A.J., Knoopers, H.G., Ilyin, Y., Kate, H.H.J. ten, & Della Corte, A. (2005). Compressive pre-strain in Nb3Sn strand by steel tube and effect on the critical current measured on standard ITER barrel. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15, 3466-3469.

PUBLICATIONS

Nijhuis, A., Eijnden, N.C. van den, Ilyin, Y., Putten, E.G. van, Veening, G.J.T., Wessel, W.A.J., Ouden, A. den, & Kate, H.H.J. ten (2005). Impact of Spatial Periodic Bending and Load Cycling on the Critical Current of a Nb3Sn Strand. Superconductor science and technology, 18, S273-S283. ■ Nijhuis, A., Ilyin, Y., Abbas, W., Kate, H.H.J. ten, Ricci, M.V., & Della Corte, A. (2005). Impact of void fraction on mechanical properties and the evolution of coupling loss in ITER Nb3Sn conductors under cyclic transverse loading. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15(2), 1633-1636. ■ Nijhuis, C.A., Yu, F., Knoll, W., Huskens, J., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Multivalent dendrimers at molecular printboards: influence of dendrimer structure on binding strength and stoichiometry and their electrochemically induced desorption. Langmuir, 21, 7866-7876. ■ Nikolaev, I., Lodahl, P., & Vos, W.L. (2005). Quantitative analysis of directional spontaneous emission spectra from light sources in photonic crystals. Physical review A (Atomic, molecular, and optical physics), 71(053813), 1-10. ■ Nurhuda, M., & Groesen, E. van (2005). Effects of delayed Kerr nonlinearity and ionozation on the filamentary ultra-short laser pulses in air. Physical review E Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics, 71, 066502. ■ Offerhaus, H.L., Bergen, B van den, Escalante, M., Segerink, F.B., Korterik, J.P., & Hulst, N.F. van (2005). Creating Focused Plasmons by Noncollinear Phasematching on Functional Gratings. Nano letters, 5(11), 2144-2148. ■ Olthuis, W. (2005). Chemical and physical FET-based sensors or variations on an equation. Sensors and actuators B (Chemical), 105((1)), 96-103. ■ Olthuis, W., Schippers, B., Eijkel, J.C.T., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Energy from streaming current and potential. Sensors and actuators B (Chemical), 111-112, 385-389. ■ Oláh (CT), A., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Characterization of Adhesion at Solid Surfaces: Development of an Adhesion-Testing Device. European polymer journal, 41, 2803-2823. ■ Oláh (CT), A., Hillborg, H., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Hydrophobic Recovery of UV/Ozone Treated Poly(dimethylsiloxane): Adhesion Studies by Contact Mechanics and Mechanism of Surface Modification. Applied surface science, 239, 410-423. ■ Oncel, N., Hallbäck, A.S.V.M., Zandvliet, H.J.W., Speets, E.A., Ravoo, B.J., Reinhoudt, D.N., & Poelsema, B. (2005). Coulomb Blockade of small Pd Clusters. Journal of chemical physics, 123(4). ■ Oncel, N., Hallbäck, A.S.V.M., Zandvliet, H.J.W., Speets, E.A., Ravoo, B.J., Reinhoudt, D.N., & Poelsema, B. (2005). Coulomb blockade of small Pd clusters. Virtual journal of nanoscale science and technology, 12(7). ■ Oncel, N., Houselt, A. van, Huijben, J., Hallbäck, A.S.V.M., Gurlu, O., Zandvliet, H.J.W., & Poelsema, B. (2005). Quantum confinement between self-organized Pt nanowires on Ge(001). Virtual journal of nanoscale science and technology, 12(12). ■ Oncel, N., Houselt, A. van, Huijben, J., Hallbäck, A.S.V.M., Gurlu, O., Zandvliet, H.J.W., & Poelsema, B. (2005). Quantum confinement between self-organized Pt nanowires on Ge(001). Physical review letters, 95(11). ■ Onclin, S., Ravoo, B.J., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Engineering silicon oxide surfaces using selfassembled monolayers. Angewandte Chemie, International Edition in English, 44, 2-24. ■ Onclin, S., Huskens, J., Ravoo, B.J., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Molecular boxes on a molecular printboard: encapsulation of anionic dyes in immobilized dendrimers. Small, 1, 852-857. ■ Onoue, T., Siekman, M.H., Abelmann, L., & Lodder, J.C. (2005). Heat-assisted magnetic probe recording on a CoNi/Pt multilayered film. Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials, 287(2005), 501-506. ■ Park, B.G., Banerjee, T., Min, B.C., Sanderink, J.G.M., Lodder, J.C., & Jansen, R. (2005). Temperature dependence of magnetocurrent in a magnetic tunnel transistor. Journal of applied physics, 98(103701), 103701(1)-103701(4). ■

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■ Peter, M., Lammertink, R.G.H., Hempenius, M.A., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Electrochemistry of SurfaceGrafted Stimulus-Responsive Monolayers of Poly(gerrocenyldimethylsilane) on Gold. Langmuir, 21, 51155123. ■ Phang In Yee, I. (2005). Malaysia can’t thrive while it excludes minority talent. Nature, 437, 518-518. ■ Podt, M., Gottardi, L., Waard, A. de, Frossati, G., & Flokstra, J. (2005). Development of a SQUID Readout System for the MiniGRAIL. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15, 785-788. ■ Pope, L.H., Bennink, M.L., Leijenhorst-Groener, K.A. van, Nikova, D.N., Greve, J., & Marko, J. (2005). Single chromatin fiber stretching reveals physically distinct populations of disassembly events. Biophysical journal, 88, 3572-3583. ■ Postma, S., Walle, P. van der, Offerhaus, H.L., & Hulst, N.F. van (2005). Compact high-resolution spectral phase shaper. Review of scientific instruments, 76(123105), 1-4. ■ Prosperetti, A. (2005). A second-order method for three-dimensional particle flow simulations. Journal of computational physics, 210(1), 292-324. ■ Radovanovic, S., Annema, A.J., & Nauta, B. (2005). A 3 Gb/s optical detector in standard CMOS for 850 nm optical communication. IEEE journal of solid-state circuits, 40(8), 1706-1717. ■ Reinoso garcia, M.M., Dijkman, A., Verboom, W., Reinhoudt, D.N., Malinowska, E., Wojciechowska, D., Pietrzak, M., & Selucky, P. (2005). Metal complexation by tripodal N-Acyl(thio)urea and picolin(thio)amide compounds: synthesis/extraction and potentiometric studies. European journal of organic chemistry, 2131-2138. ■ Reinoso garcia, M.M., Verboom, W., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Solvent estraction of actinides and lanthanides by CMP(O)-and N-acyl(thio)urea-tetrafunctionalized cavitands: strong synergistic effect of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ions. Solvent extraction and ion exchange, 23, 425-437. ■ Rensen, J.M., Luther, S., Vries, J. de, & Lohse, D. (2005). Hot-film anemometry in bubbly flow: Bubbleprobe interaction. International journal of multiphase flow, 31, 285-301. ■ Rensen, J.M., Luther, S., & Lohse, D. (2005). The effect of bubbles on developed turbulence. Journal of fluid mechanics, 538, 153-187. ■ Rijnders, A.J.H.M., & Blank, D.H.A. (2005). Build your own superlattice. Nature, 433, 369-370. ■ Rijpma, A.P., & Brake, H.J.M. ter (2006). Cryogenic thermometry with a common diode: Type BAS16. Cryogenics, 46, 68-69. ■ Rijpma, A.P., Brake, H.J.M. ter, Vries, E. de, Holland, H.J., & Rogalla, H. (2005). Low-frequency magnetic interference in a SQUID gradiometer caused by a Cryotiger gas-mixture cooler. Cryogenics, 45, 317-322. ■ Roerdink, M., Hempenius, M.A., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Large Area Ordering at Room Temperature in Thin Films of Poly(isoprene-block-ferrocenylsilane)s for Nanofabrication. Chemistry of materials, 17, 1275-1278. ■ Roussy, A.M.M., Shunmugavel, K. Ir., Oomen, I., Ortlepp, T., Sujiono, E.H., Brinkman, A., & Rogalla, H. (2005). HTS pulse-stretcher and second order modulator: design and first results. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15, 457. ■ Rozkiewicz, D.I., Ravoo, B.J., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Reservible covalent patterning of selfassembled monolayers on gold an silicon oxide surfaces. Langmuir, 21, 7866-7876. ■ Ryan, D.T., Li, L., Huang, X, Bray, J.W., Laskaris, E.T., Sivasubramaniam, K., Gadre, A.D., Fogerty, J.M., Harley, E.J., Otto, A., & Ouden, A. den (2005). Critical current degradation in HTS wires due to cyclic mechanical strain. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15(2), 3684-3687. ■ Saravanan, S., Berenschot, J.W., Krijnen, G.J.M., & Elwenspoek, M.C. (2005). A novel surface micromachining process to fabricate AIN unimorph suspensions and its application for RF resonators. Sensors and actuators A (Physical). ■ Savels, T., Mosk, A.P., & Lagendijk, A. (2005). Light scattering from three-level systems: The T matrix of a point dipole with gain. Physical review A (Atomic, molecular, and optical physics), 71(043814), 1-7.

PUBLICATIONS

■ Schmuhl, R., Nijdam, W., Sekulic, J., Roy Chowdhury, S., Rijn, C.J.M. van, Berg, A. van den, Elshof, J.E. ten, & Blank, D.H.A. (2005). Si-supported mesoporous and microporous oxide interconnects as electrophoretic gates for application in microfluidic devices. Analytical chemistry, 77(1), 178-184. ■ Sekulic, J., Elshof, J.E. ten, & Blank, D.H.A. (2005). Selective pervaporation of water through a nonselective microporous titania membrane by a dynamically induced molecular sieving mechanism. Langmuir, 21(2), 508-510. ■ Sekulic, J., Elshof, J.E. ten, & Blank, D.H.A. (2005). Separation mechanism in dehydration of water/organic binary liquids by pervaporation through microprorous silica. Journal of membrane science, 254, 267-274. ■ Setten, M.J. van, Wijs, G.A. de, Popa, V.A., & Brocks, G. (2005). Ab initio study of Mg(AlH4)2. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 72, 073107-1-073107-4. ■ Sharpe, R.B.A., Burdinski, D., Huskens, J., Zandvliet, H.J.W., Reinhoudt, D.N., & Poelsema, B. (2005). Chemically patterned flat stamps for microcontact printing. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127, 10344-10349. ■ Shovsky, A., & Schönherr, H. (2005). New Combinatorial Approach for the Investigation of Kinetics and Temperature Dependence of Surface Reactions in Thin Organic Films. Langmuir, 21, 4393-4399. ■ Smilde, H.J.H., Golubov, A., Ariando, A., Rijnders, A.J.H.M., Dekkers, J.M., Harkema, S., Blank, D.H.A., Rogalla, H., & Hilgenkamp, H. (2005). Admixtures to d-Wave Gap Symmetry in Untwinned YBa2Cu3O7 Superconducting Films Measured by Angle-Resolved Electron Tunneling. Physical review letters, 95, 257001. ■ Soest, F. van, Wolferen, H.A.G.M. van, Hoekstra, H.J.W.M., Ridder, R.M. de, Worhoff, K., & Lambeck, P.V. (2005). Laser interference lithography with highly accurate interferiometric alignment. Japanese journal of applied physics part 1 Regular papers and short notes, 44(9A), 6568-6570. ■ Sowariraj, M.S.B., Jong, Peter C. de, Salm, C., Mouthaan, A.J., & Kuper, F.G. (2005). A 3-D Circuit Model to evaluate CDM performance of ICs Microelectronics reliability, 45, 1425-1429. ■ Speets, E.A., Dordi, B., Ravoo, B.J., Oncel, N., Hallbäck, A.S.V.M., Zandvliet, H.J.W., Poelsema, B., Rijnders, A.J.H.M., Blank, D.H.A., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Noble metal nanoparticles deposited on selfassembled monolayers using Pulsed Laser Deposition show coulomb blockade at room temperature. Small, 1(4), 395-398. ■ Stoffer, R., Hiremath, K.R., Hammer, M., Prkna, L., & Ctyroky, J. (2005). Cylindrical integrated optical microresonators: Modeling by 3-D vectorial coupled mode theory. Optics communications, 256(1-3), 46-67. ■ Sturm, J.M., Zinine, A., Wormeester, H., Poelsema, B., Bankras, R.G., Holleman, J., & Schmitz, J. (2005). Imaging of oxide charges and contact potential difference fluctuations in atomic layer deposited AI2O3 on Si. Journal of applied physics, 97(063709). ■ Sturm, J.M., Zinine, A., Wormeester, H., Bankras, R.G., Holleman, J., Schmitz, J., & Poelsema, B. (2005). Laterally resolved electrical characterisation of high-K oxides with non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy. Microelectronic engineering, 80, 78-81. ■ Sturm, J.M., Zinine, A., Wormeester, H., Poelsema, B., Bankras, R.G., Holleman, J., & Schmitz, J. (2005). Nanoscale topography-capacitance correlation in high-K films: Interface heterogeneity related electrical properties. Journal of applied physics, 98(076104). ■ Suomalainen, S., Vainionpää, A., Tengvall, O., Hakulinen, T., Karirinne, S., Guina, M., Okhotnikov, O.G., Euser, T.G., & Vos, W.L. (2005). Long-wavelength fast semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors using metamorphic growth on GaAs substrates. Applied physics letters, 87(121106), 1-3. ■ Suryanto, A., Groesen, E. van, & Hammer, M. (2005). Weakly non-paraxial effects on the propagation of (1+1)D spatial solitons in inhomogeneous Kerr media. Journal of nonlinear optical physics and materials, 14, 203-219. ■ Susanto, H., Goldobin, E., Koelle, D., Kleiner, R., & Gils, S.A. van (2005). Controllable plasma energy bands in a 1D crystal of fractional Josephson vortices. Physical review B Condensed matter, 74, 174510-174513.

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■ Susanto, H., & Gils, S.A. van (2005). Existence and stability analysis of solitary waves in a tricrystal junction. Physics letters. Section A, 338, 239-246. ■ Svetovoy, V., & Esquivel, R. (2005). Nonlocal impedances and the Casimir entropy at low temeratures. Physical review E Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics, 72 / 3(Part 2). ■ Tan, F.S., Kelderman, H., & Driessen, A. (2005). Ültra Compact spectral slicer devices based on microring resonators. Journal of nonlinear optical physics and materials, 14(2), 273-279. ■ Tanaka, Y., Asano, Y., Golubov, A., & Kashiwaya, S. (2005). Anomalous features of the proximity effect in triplet superconductors. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 72, 140503. ■ Tao, G., Scarpa, A., Marwijk, Leo van, Dijk, Kitty van, & Kuper, F.G. (2005). Applying the fWLR concept to Stress induced leakage current in non-volatile memory processes. Microelectronics reliability, 44, 1269-1273. ■ Tiggelaar, R.M., Berenschot, J.W., Boer, J.H. de, Sanders, R.G.P., Gardeniers, J.G.E., Oosterbroek, R.E., Berg, A. van den, & Elwenspoek, M.C. (2005). Fabrication and characterization of high-temperature microreactors with thin film heater and sensor patterns in silion nitride tubes. Lab on a chip, 5(3), 325-336. ■ Tiggelaar, R.M., Berenschot, J.W., Male, P. van, Oosterbroek, R.E., Gardeniers, J.G.E., Croon, M.H.J.M. de, Schouten, J.C., Berg, A. van den, & Elwenspoek, M.C. (2005). Fabrication of a high-temperature microreactor with integrated heater and sensor patterns on an ultrathin silicon membranes. Sensors and actuators A (Physical), 119, 196-205. ■ Timmer, B.H., Olthuis, W., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Ammonia sensors and their applications - a review. Sensors and actuators B (Chemical), 107(2), 666-677. ■ Tocha, E., Stefanski, T., Schönherr, H., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Development of a High Velocity Accessory for Atomic Force Microscopy-Based Friction Measurements. Review of scientific instruments, 76, 083704-1-083704-7. ■ Tocha, E., Schönherr, H., Vancso, G.J., & Siebelt, N. (2005). Influence of Grain Size and Humidity on the Nanotribological Properties of Wear-Resistant Nanostructured ZrO2 Coatings. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 88, 2498-2503. ■ Tomczak, N., Hulst, N.F. van, & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Beaded Electrospun Fibers for Photonic Applications. Macromolecules, 38(18), 7863-7866. ■ Tomczak, N., Schönherr, H., Vancso, G.J., & Feng, C. (2005). Compositional Mapping of Polymer Surfaces by Chemical Force Microscopy Down to the Nanometer Scale: Reactions in Block Copolymer Microdomains. Macromolecular symposia, 230, 149-157. ■ Tong, D.H., Gielens, F.C., Gardeniers, J.G.E., Jansen, H.V., Berenschot, J.W., Boer, M.J. de, Boer, J.H. de, Rijn, C.J.M. van, & Elwenspoek, M.C. (2005). Microsieve supporting palladium-silver alloy membranes and application to hydrogen separation. Journal of microelectromechanical systems, 14, 113-123. ■ Tong, D.H., Berg, A.H.J. van den, Gardeniers, J.G.E., Jansen, H.V., Gielens, F.C., & Elwenspoek, M.C. (2005). Preparation of palladium-silver aloy films by a dual sputtering technique and its application in hydrogen separation membrane. Thin solid films, 479, 89-94. ■ Tong, D.H., Jansen, H.V., Gadgil, V.J., Bostan, C.G., Berenschot, J.W., Rijn, C.J.M. van, & Elwenspoek, M.C. (2005). Slicon nitride nanosieve membrane. Nano letters, 4(2), 283-287. ■ Tudos, A.J., & Schasfoort, R.B.M. (2005). BioArrays Europe 2005. Expert review of molecular diagnostics, 5(6), 851-856. ■ Ul Haq, E., Banerjee, T., Siekman, M.H., Lodder, J.C., & Jansen, R. (2005). Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. Applied physics letters, 86(082502), 082502 (1)-082502 (3). ■ Ulbricht, A., Duchateau, J.L., Fietz, W.H., Ciazynski, D., Fillunger, H., Fink, S., Heller, R., Maix, R., Nicollet, S., Raff, S., Salpietro, E., Zahn, G., Zanino, R., Bagnasco, M., Besette, D., Bobrov, E., Bonicelli, T., Bruzzone, P., Darweschsad, M.S., Decool, P., Dolgetta, N., Della Corte, A., Formisano, A., Grünhagen, A., Hertout, P., Herz, W., Huguet, M., Hurd, F., Ilyin, Y., Komarek, P., Libeyre, P., Marchese, V., Marinucci, C., Martinez, A., Martone, R., Martovetsky, N., Michael, P.C., Mitchell, N., Nijhuis, A., Nöther, G., Nunoya, Y., Polak, M., Portone, A., Savoldi Richard, L., Spadoni, M., Süßer, M., Turtú, S., Vostner, A., Takahashi, Y., Wüchner, F., & Zani, L. (2005). The ITER toroidal field model coil project. Fusion engineering and design, 73(2-4), 189-327.

PUBLICATIONS

Uranus, H.P., Hoekstra, H.J.W.M., & Groesen, E. van (2005). Finite element and perturbative study of buffered leaky planar waveguides. Optics communications, 253(1-3), 99-108. ■ Uranus, H.P., Hoekstra, H.J.W.M., & Groesen, E. van (2005). Modeling of quasi-guiding light within the lower refractive index core layer(s). Journal of the Indonesian Mathematical Society, 11(2), 101-119. ■ Valero, A., Merino, F., Wolbers, F., Luttge, R., Vermes, I., Andersson, S.M.H., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Apoptotic cell death dynamics of HL60 cells studied using a microfluidic cell trap device. Lab on a chip, 5(1), 49-55. ■ Vallée, R.A.L., Tomczak, N., Vancso, G.J., Kuipers, L., & Hulst, N.F. van (2005). Fluorescence Lifetime Fluctuations of Single Molecules Probe Local Density Fluctuations in Disordered Media: A Bulk Approach. Journal of chemical physics, 122, 11474-1-11474-9. ■ Vancso, G.J., Hillborg, H., & Schönherr, H. (2005). Chemical Composition of Polymer Surfaces Imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy and Complementary Approaches. Advances in polymer science, 182, 55-129. ■ Veldhuis, C.H.J., Biesheuvel, A., Wijngaarden, L. van, & Lohse, D. (2005). Motion and wake structure of spherical particles. Nonlinearity, 18(1), C1-C8. ■ Vellekoop, I.M., Lodahl, P., & Lagendijk, A. (2005). Determination of the diffusion constant using phasesensitive measurements. Physical review E Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics, 71(05660), 1-11. ■ Vogel, M. (2005). Sampling of airborne pollutants: strategies and developments. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 381(1), 84-86. ■ Vonk, V., Konings, S., Barthe, L., Gorges, B., & Graafsma, H. (2005). Pulsed laser deposition chamber for in-situ X-ray diffraction. Journal of synchrotron radiation, 12, 833-834. ■ Vonk, V., Konings, S., Hummel, G.J. van, & Harkema, S. (2005). The atomic surface structure of SrTiO3 (001) studied with synchrotron X-rays. Surface science, 595, 183-193. ■ Vroonhoven, E. van, Zandvliet, H.J.W., & Poelsema, B. (2005). A Quantitative Evaluation of the Dimer Concentration during the (2x1)-(1x1) Phase Transition on Ge(001). Surface science letters, 574(2-3), L23-L28. ■ Vrouwe, E.X., Luttge, R., Olthuis, W., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Microchip analysis of lithium in blood using moving boundary electrophoresis and zone electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 26, 3032-3042. ■ Waard, A. de, Benzain, Y., Frossati, G., Gottardi, L., Mark, H. van der, Flokstra, J., Podt, M., Bassan, M., Minenkov, Y., Moleti, A., Rocchi, A., Fafone, V., & Pallottino, G.V. (2005). MiniGRAIL progress report 2004. Classical and quantum gravity, 22, S215-S219. ■ Wang, Z., Ackaert, J.G.G., Salm, C., Kuper, F.G., & De Backer, E. (2005). Plasma Charging Damage Reduction in IC Processing by A Self-balancing Interconnect. Microelectronics reliability, 44, 1503-1507. ■ Weeren, H. van, Eijnden, N.C. van den, Wessel, W.A.J., Lezza, P., Schlachter, S., Dhallé, M.M.J., Ouden, A. den, Haken, B. ten, & Kate, H.H.J. ten (2005). Adiabatic normal zone development in MgB2 superconductors. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15(2), 1667-1670. ■ Weijers, H.W., Haken, B. ten, Kate, H.H.J. ten, & Schwartz, J. (2005). Field dependence of the critical current and its relation to the anisotropy of BSCCO conductors and coils. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15(2), 2558-2561. ■ Wel, A.P. van der, Klumperink, E.A.M., Hoekstra, E., & Nauta, B. (2005). Relating Random Telegraph Signal Noise in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Transistors to Interface Trap Energy Distribution. Applied physics letters, 87. ■ Wensink, H., Benito-Lopez, F., Hermes, D.C., Verboom, W., Gardeniers, J.G.E., Reinhoudt, D.N., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Measuring reaction kinetics in a lab-on-a-Chip by microcoil NMR. Lab on a chip, 5, 280284. ■ Wiegerinck, G.F.M., Burger, J.F., Holland, H.J., Hondebrink, E., Brake, H.J.M. ter, & Rogalla, H. (2006). A sorption compressor with a single sorber bed for use with a Linde-Hampson cold stage. Cryogenics, 46, 9-20. ■ Witte, P.T., Roy Chowdhury, S., Elshof, J.E. ten, Sloboda-Rozner, D., Neumann, R., & Alsters, P.L. (2005). Highly efficient recycling of a “sandwich” type polyoxometalate oxidation catalyst using solvent resistant nanofiltration. Chemical communications, 1206-1208. ■

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(2005). Field effect control of electro-osmotic flow in microfluidic networks. Colloids and surfaces A Physicochemical and engineering aspects, 267, 110-116. ■ Woudenberg, F.C.M., Sager, W.F.C., Elshof, J.E. ten, & Verweij, H. (2005). Nanostructured barium titanate thin films from nanoparticles obtained by an emulsion precipitation method. Thin solid films, 471(1-2), 134139. ■ Yin, Z.Z., & Prosperetti, A. (2005). ‘Blinking bubble’ micropump with microfabricated heaters. Journal of micromechanics and microengineering, 15(9), 1683-1691. ■ Yin, Z.Z., & Prosperetti, A. (2005). Microfluidic “blinking” bubble pump. Journal of micromechanics and microengineering, 15(3), 643-651. ■ Ymeti, A., Kanger, J.S., Greve, J., Besselink, G.A.J., Lambeck, P.V., Wijn, R.R., & Heideman, R.G. (2005). Integration of microfluidics with a four-channel integrated optical Young interferometer immunosensor. Biosensors and bioelectronics, 20, 1417-1421. ■ Yntema, D.R., Druyvesteyn, W.F., & Elwenspoek, M.C. (2006). A Four Particle Velocity Sensor Device Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. ■ Yokoyama, T., Tanaka, Y., Golubov, A., Inoue, J., & Asano, Y. (2005). Influence of magnetic impurities on charge transport in diffusive-normal-metal/superconductor junctions. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 71, 094506. ■ Yokoyama, T., Tanaka, Y., & Golubov, A. (2005). Resonant peak of density of states in normal metal / diffusive ferromagnet / superconductor junctions. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 72, 052512. ■ Yokoyama, T., Tanaka, Y., Golubov, A., & Asano, Y. (2005). Theory of thermal and charge transport in diffusive normal metal / superconductor junctions. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 72, 214513. ■ Zandvliet, H.J.W. (2005). Perspective “Genetic algorithm for finding the reconstruction of semiconductor surfaces”. Surface science, 577(2-3), 93-94. ■ Zandvliet, H.J.W., Dijk, F.R. van, & Poelsema, B. (2005). Thermal roughening of (001) surfaces. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 72(11). ■ Zanino, R., Bagnasco, M., Bellina, F., Bonicelli, T., Della Corte, A., Di Zenobio, A., Formisano, A., Heller, R., Ilyin, Y., Marchese, V., Martone, R., Muzzi, L., Nijhuis, A., Polak, M., Ribani, P.L., Salpietro, E., Savoldi Richard, L., Turtú, S., Verdini, L., & Zahn, G. (2005). Current Distribution Measurement on the ITER-type NbTi Bus Bar III. IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 15(2), 1407-1410. ■ Zhang, Q., Ichiki, K., & Prosperetti, A. (2005). On the computation of ensemble averages for spatially non-uniform particle systems. Journal of computational physics, 212(1), 247-267. ■ Zhang, Z., Zou, S(han), Vancso, G.J., Grijpma, D.W., & Feijen, J. (2005). Enzymatic Surface Erosion of Poly(trimethylene carbonate) Films Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy. Biomacromolecules, 6, 3404-3409. ■ Zimmerman, R.S., Basabe desmonts, M.L., Baan, F.H. van der, Reinhoudt, D.N., & Crego Calama, M. (2005). A combinatiorial approach to surface-confined cation sensors in water. Journal of materials chemistry, 77, 4611-4617. ■ Zou, S(han), Schönherr, H., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Force Spectroscopy of Quadruple H-Bonded Dimers by AFM: Dynamic Bond Ruptures and Molecular Time-Temperature Superposition. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127, 11230-11231. ■ Zou, S(han), Schönherr, H., & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Stretching and Rupturing Individual Supramolecular Polymer Chains by AFM. Angewandte Chemie, International Edition in English, 44, 956-959. ■ Zwierzycki, M., Tserkovnyak, Y., Kelly, P.J., Brataas, A., & Bauer, G.E.W. (2005). First-principles study of magnetization relaxation enhancement and spin transfer in thin magnetic films. Physical review B Condensed matter and materials physics, 71, 064420-1-064420-11.

PUBLICATIONS

Books - author Bruccoleri, F., Klumperink, E.A.M., & Nauta, B. (2005). Wideband Low Noise Amplifiers Exploiting Thermal Noise Cancellation. Dordrecht. Netherlands: Kluwer/Springer. ■ Pustelny, T., Lambeck, P.V., & Gorecki, C. (2005). Integrated Optics: Theory and Applications (Volume 5956). Bellingham, Washington 98227-0010 U.S.A.: SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering. ■

Books - chapter ■ Andersson, S.M.H., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Micro- and Nanotechnology for Genomics. In M Graef, de & T. Verrips (Eds.), Genomics 2030 - Part of Everyday Life (pp. 36-40). Den Haag: STT/Beweton. ■ Bennink, M.L., Leuba, S.H., & Zlatanova, J. (2005). Analysis of protein/DNA interactions by optical tweezers: application to chromatin fibers. In E. Golemis & P. Adams (Eds.), Protein-protein interactions, a molecular cloning manual (pp. 1-14). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ■ Beusink, J.B., & Schasfoort, R.B.M. (2005). Development of a PDMS Spotting Device for Confined Protein Arrays. In M. de Graef (Ed.), Genomics 2030: Part of Everyday Life (pp. 86-87). Den Haag: STT Bewton. ■ Crego Calama, M., Reinhoudt, D.N., Garcia-Lopez, J.J., & Kerckhoffs, J.M.C.A. (2005). Self-assembly of hydrogen-bonded nanostructures in solution and self-organization on surfaces. In Ed. W. Huck (Ed.), Nanoscale Assembly: Chemical Techniques (pp. 65-78). ■ Crego Calama, M., Ten Cate, M.G.J., & Reinhoudt, D.N. (2005). Templation in noncovalent of hydrogenbonded rosettes. In Topic in current chemistry (pp. 285-316). ■ Eshuis, P.G., Meer, R.M. van der, Weele, J.P. van der, & Lohse, D. (2005). The granular Leidenfrost effect. In R. Garcia Rojo, H.J. Hermann, & S. McNamara (Eds.), Powders and grains (pp. 1155-1158). Leiden, the Netherlands: A.A. Balkema Publishers. ■ Gardeniers, J.G.E., & Berg, A. van den (2005). Microfabrication and integration. In J. Kutter & Y. Fintschenko (Eds.), Separation methods in microanalytical systems (pp. 55-106). Boca Raton, USA: CRC Taylor & Francis. ■ Lodder, J.C., & Nguyen, L.T. (2005). FePt Thin Films: Fundamentals and Applications. In K.H.J. Buschow, R.W. Cahn, M.C. Flemings, E.J. Kramer, & S. Mahajan (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, (EMSAT) (pp. 1-10). ■ Lohse, D. (2005). Bubble puzzles. In S. Knols, D. Redeker, & G. van Maanen (Eds.), NWOSpinozapremies 2005 (pp. 36-49). Den Haag: NWO. ■ Lohse, D. (2005). Bubble puzzles. In Natuurkundige voordrachten, Nieuwe Reeks (pp. 33-44). Alphen aan de Rijn: Drukkerij vis offset. ■ Lohse, D. (2007). Sonoluminescence. In Jonathan Weil (Ed.), McGRAW-HILL Encyclopedia of Science & Technology (10). New York: McGraw-Hill Professional. ■ Segeren, L.H.G.J., Siebum, B., Karssenberg, F.G., Berg, J.W.A. van den, & Vancso, G.J. (2005). Microparticle Adhesion Studies by Atomic Force Microscopy. In J. Drelich & K.L. Mittal (Eds.), Atomic Force Microscopy in Adhesion Studies (pp. 309-344). Leiden: VSP. PATENTS ■

Acar, M., Nauta, B., & Leenaerts, D.M.W. (29-09-2005). “Frequency Divider”. no WO2005091506.

■ Beek, R.C.H. van de, Klumperink, E.A.M., Nauta, B., & Vaucher, C.S. (08-06-2005). “Phase Locked Loop”.

no EP 1537669. ■ Groothedde, W. ir., Klumperink, E.A.M., Nauta, B., Eschauzier, R.G., & Rijn, N. (08-02-2005). Two-wire interface for digital microphones. no US6853733. ■ Heideman, R.G., Lambeck, P.V., & Veldhuis, G.J. (18-10-2005). Integrated Optical lightguide device. no USA.6,956,982.

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ABOUT MESA+

MESA+ GOVERNING BOARD Scientific Advisory Board and Management in 2005

■ Ianuzzi, D., Deladi, S., & Elwenspoek, M.C. (29-11-2005). Optical device comprising a cantilever and method of fabrication and use thereof. no. ■ Kohlheyer, D., & Schasfoort, R.B.M. (08-07-2005). System and method for separating, analysing, detecting and/or determining particles in a liquid sample flow. no EP 05076569.2. ■ Nauta, B. (20-10-2005). “Line Driver with Adaptive Output Impedance”. no DE 69826806T. ■ Nauta, B., Beek, R.C.H. van de, & Vaucher, C.S. (15-12-2005). “Phase Locked loop with Reduced Clock Jitter”. no AT311040T. ■ Schinkel, D., & Nuijten, A.C.M. (27-07-2005). Data Converter. no EP1556953. ■ Sprenkels, A.J., Jenneboer, A.J.S.M., Venema, K., Berg, A. van den, & Vos, W.M. (22-11-2005). Sampling device for in vivo sampling of liquids from the gastrointestinal tract, process for the production thereof and mould or mask for use in the production process. no 05111070.8-. ■ Yeshurun, Y., Hefetz, M., Berenschot, J.W., Boer, M.J. de, Altpeter, D.M., & Boom, G. (02-08-2005). Polymer Microneedles. no 6, 924.087.

MESA+ Governing Board Prof.dr.ir. A. Bliek Dr. G.J. Jongerden Ir. J.J.M. Mulderink Dr. A.J. Nijman Prof.dr. J.A. Put Ir. M. Westermann Prof.dr.ir. A.J. Mouthaan

Dean Faculty Science and Technology Project Manager/Group head Solar Cells R&D (CSO) Akzo Nobel Chemicals Research, Arnhem Chairman of the Foundation for Development of Sustainable Chemistry Director Research Strategy & Business Development Philips NatLab, Eindhoven Director Performance Materials DSM Research, Geleen President of GigaPort Next Generation Network Dean Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science

MESA+ Scientific Advisory Board Dr. J.G. Bednorz Prof. H. Fujita Prof. M. Möller Dr. H. Rohrer Prof. F. Stoddart Prof. E. Thomas Prof. E. Vittoz Prof. G. Whitesides

IBM Zürich Research Laboratory, Switzerland University of Tokyo, Japan Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH), Germany IBM Zürich Research Laboratory, Switzerland University of California, USA Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM), Switzerland Harvard University, USA

MESA+ Management Prof.dr.ir. D.N. Reinhoudt Dr. C.J.M. Eijkel

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Scientific Director Technical-Commercial Director

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H O W T O C O N TA C T M E S A +

The MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology is located on the campus of the University of Twente in Enschede, in the eastern region of the Netherlands, right on the border with Germany.

Directions to MESA+ By car: Take the A35 direction Enschede exit Enschede-West and follow signposts to Universiteit. By train / by bus: You can reach the university from the railway stations at Hengelo, Enschede and Drienerlo. There is a bus in the direction of the university about every half an hour. For more information on public transport, please call the campus: 0031 (0) 53 489 9111. By Internet: www.mesaplus.utwente.nl E-mail: info@mesaplus.utwente.nl

Colophon Editing: MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, Kees Eijkel, Lucy Engelen, Ingrid Kuster and Annerie van Steijn-Heesink Design: Zone2design, Eric Rozema Photography: Slightly Tilted, Martin Bosker, Jan Hesselink

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Traffic: Communication Department, Karin Middelkamp Printed by: te Sligte


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MESA+ Annual report 2005