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Pig Management & Feeding Guide


Pig Management & Feeding Guide


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PIG MANAGEMENT & FEEDING GUIDE All rights Reserved Š 2015 by Hi-Pro Feeds No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping without permission in writing from Hi-Pro Feeds. For information contact: Hi-Pro Feeds White Marl, St. Catherine Tel: (876) 784-7919-20 e-mail: customerservicehipro@jabgl.com

Information contained in this publication is provided as general advice only. For application to specific circumstances, professional advice should be sought. We have taken all reasonable steps to ensure the information in this handbook is accurate at the time of publication. Any inaccuracies or errors are inadvertent and regrettable.


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Foreword Hi-Pro Feeds & Hi-Pro Farm Supplies’ purpose in producing this publication is to share best practices in pig rearing to improve the profitability of farmers. Good pig farming requires exact attention to detail, knowledge of your herd, and providing what is needed at each stage of production. The price of pork fluctuates based on supply and demand; consequently farmers must control costs, produce, and schedule sales to meet specific market peaks. Do not waste feed! As the most expensive input cost of production, providing the correct feed in the right quantity, at the right stage and time can drastically increase profits. Good management requires adequate record keeping to correctly measure inputs and outputs, for instance feed intake, weight of weaners, and finisher outcome. Pig farmers must know how much feed is consumed, medication used, and labour involved to achieve the desired results.

“Will I be able to sell my pig for more than its cost of production?” When the farmer can answer this question he is simply measuring the cost of input necessary to break even or make a profit. “Profit” is what we are all aiming for. “Profit” is to pay life’s bills. Hi-Pro Feeds helps reduce your risk by using high quality ingredients, and globally recognized safety controls in manufacturing your feed. We add all natural CELMANAX to improve pig health, and our technical team assists farmers through education advice and farm visits. You must do the rest, by always practising good, consistent farm management. On-farm mixing of feed can never get the results of a well managed Hi-Pro feeding program.


iv Hi-Pro Farm Supplies is your best source for medication, including vaccines and deworming agents, and supplies all equipment for the operation of a first rate pig farm. Good housing, sanitation, a proficient breeding program, accurate record keeping, and your constant effort to improve results is the way to profitability. Complementing the Hi-Pro pig feeding program is a team of highly trained professionals that provide technical advice and veterinary support to assist farmers with improving their production efficiency. In the final analysis how pigs are fed and husbandry practices used can directly influence the success of a pig business. With good genetics, HiPro recommended standard husbandry practices, Hi-Pro feed and a feed management guide you will improve both production and profit.


Contents Foreword iii Common Preventable Challenges on the Pig Farms 1 Breeding for Profitable Production 2 Record Keeping 5 NUTRITION Feeding for Profitable Production 7 Hi-Pro Early Start Programme 8 Hi-Pro Pig Pre-Starter 9 Hi-Pro Pig Starter 11 Hi-Pro Pig Grower 12 Hi-Pro Pig Finisher 14 Hi-Pro Sow Gestation 16 Feeding Pregnant & Dry Sows 17 Condition Scoring 18 Hi-Pro Sow Lactation 19 Feeding Service & Junior Boars 21 Feeding Replacement Gilts 21 Feed Storage & Distribution 21 Managing the Herd for Profitable Production 23 Weighing Pigs without a Scale 24 HEALTH & SANITATION Health Problems & Treatments 25 Sanitation 27 Tips to Maintaining a Healthy Pig Herd 28 Piglet Health 28 General Herd Management 29 HOUSING Housing for Profitable Production 33 Farrowing Pen 34 Design & Efficient Layout 34 Flooring 35 Characteristics of Pig Breeds of the Jamaican Herd 37 BREEDING & MARKETING Three-Breed Crossing of Market Pigs 38 Marketing Plan 38 Demand & Distribution 39 Bio-Security 39 TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS Parameters of Production 40 APPENDIX Hi-Pro Recommended Feeding Programme for Grow-Out Phase 41 Glossary 42 Essential Pig Farm Calculations 43 Farm Vaccination Review Sheet 44 Acknowledgements 44

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“As a rule, the sow should wean eight piglets to pay for its upkeep and maintenance. The aim is to average 10 live births per litter.�


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Common Preventable Challenges on the Pig Farm Many common but preventable challenges negatively impact the profitable operation of the pig farm: (a) Low number of piglets born per litter. (b) Below average birth weight of 1.5kg. (c) High pre-weaner mortality. (d) Inexpert breeding of pig stock. (e) Inadequate management of feed. (f) Poor scheduling of culling and replacement. (g) Inadequacy of record keeping. PIGLETS BORN PER LITTER The number of piglets born per litter is significant to sustaining a sow operation and directly impacts farm revenue. As a rule, the sow should wean eight piglets to pay for its upkeep and maintenance. Profit is made on each weaner numbering in excess of eight. The aim is to average 10 live births per litter. To improve litter size: • Observe signs of heat. •

Mate at the optimal time of heat (i.e. Standing Heat).

If necessary mate again 12 - 24 hours after first encounter.

Reduce the sow’s feed directly after mating to lower the possibility of embryonic death.

Apply the *Feeding Schedule for pregnant sows/gilts.

Ensure vaccinations for Parvovirus and other viruses that may reduce total piglets born, increase mummified foetus, and stillbirths are up to date.**

Vitamin A, D, and E Forte should be administered at time of weaning in sows and 5 days prior to service in gilts or 15 days after last recorded heat.**

IMPROVING PIGLET BIRTH WEIGHT Improving size and weight of piglets begins with selecting breeding gilts that exhibit a large, well developed structure. When selecting gilts preference should always be given to those from sows with a history of large litters, adequate milk production, and good motherly instinct. Ideally, gilts should be first mated from 7-10 months depending on the size of the gilt. The weight of the gilt at first mating should be 130-140 kg (286-308 lbs). The standard birth weight is 1.5 kg. Mortality increases with birth weights lower than 1.5 kg as heavier piglets survive better, grow faster, and have significantly better feed conversion. REDUCING PRE-WEANING MORTALITY Crushing, under-sized piglets (runts), and scours are major causes of death among preweaners. Reducing those factors requires improving the housing conditions of nursing sows, improving piglet’s birth weight, and applying appropriate treatment and measures. * see page 17

**Adapted from Carr (1998)


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Breeding for Profitable Production For profitable pig production the best animals should always be used in the on farm breeding programme. Proper recording keeping and selecting replacement gilts and boars from sows that farrowed higher than the average herd litter size and high weaning percentage will ensure continuous herd improvement. 1

2

3

1. Large White 2. Landrace 3. Duroc

MATING Weaned sows should return to heat in 4-10 days; however, post-weaning conditions can be a factor in delaying or advancing oestrus. The visible signs of heat include animals being ridden by other sows or the noticeable impression of being ridden, swollen, pink to pale coloured vulva, restlessness and at times, loss of appetite. Sows should be mated in a separate area with an assigned boar and service recorded. After mating, the sow should be removed from the serving boar to prevent injury from harassment. She can be returned within 24-48 hours for the second mating. Avoid transporting the sow from 3 to 21 days post-service as this may cause distress.** A second mating tends to increase litter size. Pregnant sows will farrow in 114 days. Non-pregnant sows will return to heat in 21 days. CULLING & REPLACEMENT A program of culling and replacement of sows is required to maintain production targets. It is reasonable to cull at least 30 - 40% of the Sow herd each year. Likely candidates for culling are sows that: • • • • • • • • •

Repeatedly produce small litters. Crush piglets. Return to heat over 42 days post weaning (high producers may be difficult breeders). Possess poor body condition. Sows that have produced more than 10 litters over a period of 5 years. Farrowing difficulties. Poor lactation and rearing ability. Poor maternal behavior Presence of Hoof problem **Adapted from Carr (1998)


The rate of replacement required for the Sow herd can be calculated as a multiplied factor of 1.5 and is reasonable in estimating the number of gilts required to be raised or purchased to replace culled sows.

Example: A 40 sow farm with 30% culling rate (12 culled sows) would need (12 x 1.5) 18 gilts per year as replacement. Note that 6 of the gilts will not be selected.

Table 1 below can be used as a guideline for which sows to cull and which to keep.

TABLE 1: Culling Criteria Target

Potential problems

Weaned/sow/year

> 22

< 19

Weaned/litter

> 9.5

<9

Litters/sow/year

> 2.4

< 2.1

Piglets born live/litter

>10.9

< 10

Stillborn piglets (%)

<5

>8

Mummified piglets (%)

< 0.5

>1

Preweaning mortality (%)

<8

> 12

Nonproductive sow days

< 50

> 75

Weaning to Oestrus days

<7

>9

Farrowing rate (%)

> 85

< 80

Sow mortality (%)

<2

>3

Postweaning loss (%)

<2

>3

Finishing loss (%)

< 1.5

>2

Age at 1st mating (mth.)

< 7.5

>8

3


For

Quality

PIG Solutions Farming


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Record Keeping Farrowing/Finishing Activities Record keeping in pig husbandry is extensive and painstaking but good, adequate records provide the calculated figures that are not only useful in judging farm profitability but also allow the farmer to make necessary administrative decisions. The relevant management data required in evaluating the Sow operation are: • • • • •

Piglets born per litter. Piglets’ weaned/sow/year (saleable pigs). Average number of sows (physical count per month). Number of litters/sow/year. Deaths and Mortality %.

Records of Farrowing House activities should be kept and maintained, including: • • • • •

Piglet performance. Medication administered. Data of weight collected in the Finishing pig operation. Account of sales (income). Account of purchases (expenditure).

While computer programs (such as PORCITEC) are used for documenting and maintaining farm records, hard copies (note books) should be maintained for the following: • • • • • • • • •

Individual Sow Card Sow Calendar Farrowing Charts Feed Use Boar Use Herd Inventory Breeding chart Finishing Pigs Weight Sheet Financial Records


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Nutrition FEEDING FOR PROFITABLE PRODUCTION Feed is the most important component to swine production accounting for over 70% of the cost of production. Because of its importance a comprehensive approach needs to be employed that takes into account factors affecting the nutritional requirements of pigs. These include: • • • • •

Environment: temperature, weather, housing, competition Breed, sex, and genetic background Health status of the herd Presence of molds, toxins, or inhibitors Availability and absorption of dietary nutrients

At Hi-Pro Feeds, we utilize this information in the formulation of all feeds to maximize production. All diets are designed to complement each other and ensure a smooth transition between the phases (Figure 1).

Market

Gestation

Figure 1 Life Cycle Approach to Swine Nutrition – adapted from Patience (2015)

Grow-out

Lactation

Nursery


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Nutrition continued Depending on the stage of production, feed is used for muscle and bone growth, maintenance, reproduction, milk production or deposition of fat. Therefore feeding to increase productivity means feeding pigs according to Hi-Pro’s complete feeding programme: Piglets and Pre-weaners - Sow milk supplemented by Hi-Pro Pre-Starter Weaners - Hi-Pro Pig Starter Finishing pigs - Hi-Pro Pig Grower, Hi-Pro Pig Finisher Pregnant, dry sows, boars and replacement gilts - Hi-Pro Gestation Nursing sows - Hi-Pro Lactation HI-PRO EARLY START PROGRAMME The transition between the mother’s milk and grain feeding is often stressful and is a primary cause of scouring. Hi-Pro Early Start Programme is designed to minimize piglet death, enabling healthy growth and development while achieving target weight. The Early Start Programme includes the use of Piggy Boost® for orphan piglets or piglets belonging to sows with low milk production, Hi-Pro Pre-Starter, and Hi-Pro Starter rations. EarlyStart®, a colostrum rich, complete baby pig supplement, becomes necessary as a supplement to sow’s milk in situations of (a) Poor milk production from the sow (b) an extra-large litter (c) a sick sow (d) a dead sow. Otherwise it is an optional supplement to be used at the farmer’s discretion.

Figure 2 EarlyStart® and Piggy Boost® Supplement


9 TABLE 2: Key Components of the Hi-Pro Early Start Programme Feed Type

Key Features

Feeding Directions

Piggy Boost

Provides immediate energy to help piglets access maternal colostrum. Plant extracts promote increased activity and tonicity stimulation Beneficial bacteria colonization of the gut.

Provide to weak, small and underweight animals within a day or two of birth. Provide to piglets born to mother with more than 15 piglets or poor maternal instinct.

Pig Pre-starter

Contains whey and fish meal and high level of amino acids.

Day 5-42 days or until 11kg or 24lbs body wt.

Pig Starter

Contains highly digestible carbohydrates and protein for maximum weight gain for ease of digestion.

Day 43 to 70-84 days or until 24kg or 53lbs body wt.

HI-PRO PIG PRE-STARTER As piglets get older the nutrients provided by the sow need to be supplemented to ensure maximum growth and gut development. The Hi-Pro Pre-starter is designed to aid maximum growth and is recommended for baby pigs from day 5-42 days old or until the piglet reaches 11kg (22lbs).

TABLE 3a: Hi-Pro Recommended Pre-Starter Feeding Programme Age of Pig

Body wt.

Cumulative Gain

Days

kg

kg

Wk.

Daily Feed Intake, kg Lower - Upper

1

1.5

5

2.2

0.05 - 0.07

6

2.3

0.06 - 0.08

Feed Conversion (FCR)

Husbandry Practice

Hi-Pro Pre-Starter

7

1

2.5

1.00

0.07 - 0.10

1.13

14

2

3.7

1.03

0.10 - 0.15

0.86

21

3

5

1.11

0.15 - 0.20

1.08

28

4

6.8

1.54

0.20 - 0.27

1.06

35

5

9

1.89

0.29 - 0.36

1.15

*slotted floors

Feed Type

Early Wean*


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Nutrition continued Features of Hi-Pro Pre-Starter 1. Assist in the transition from the sowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s milk to plant-based materials 2. High micro-nutrient profile compared to the grower ration, ideal for proper bone and tissue growth 3. A highly digestible protein for increased muscle mass 4. Higher lactose levels compared to other feeds locally available 5. Contains organic acids to reduce scouring 6. Contains essential oils that combat stress, improve gut health and increase feed intake through imprinting 7. Contains Celmanax for optimal weight gain and improved gut health

Benefits of Hi-Pro Pre-Starter 1. Supplements motherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s milk production 2. Increases piglet growth when used as a creep feed which results in higher final weight and dressing percentage 3. Fewer incidences of nutritional scours 4. Increases thriftiness (health) 5. Reduces mortality and morbidity 6. Increases possibility for early weaning (4-5 weeks) Feeding Regime Hi-Pro Pre-Starter should be introduced in small quantities (50g/piglet/day) in a designated creep area, away from the sow when the piglets are 5 days old; this should be gradually increased until the piglets weigh 11kg (350g/piglet/day). Where scouring is observed immediately cut back or temporarily discontinue creep feeding and treat affected piglets until the condition subsides.


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Figure 3

Figure 4

Creep feeders should be placed in pens away from sow

Piglet Creep Feeder

HI-PRO PIG STARTER The Hi-Pro Pig Starter ration has higher quality carbohydrate and protein sources and higher amino acid profile when compared to the Hi-Pro Grower ration. A 14-day period between weaning (6 weeks) and Start Up (8 weeks) of the Finisher programme is essential for the gut of newly weaned pigs to fully adjust to digesting grain-based Hi-Pro Pig-Starter. Changing rations must be accomplished over 4-5 days by gradually decreasing the old feed (Hi-Pro Pre-Starter) while increasing the amount of the new feed (Hi-Pro Pig Starter). Change of ration should not coincide with the stressful period of weaning.

TABLE 3b: Hi-Pro Recommended Starter Feeding Programme Age of Pig

Body wt.

Cumulative Gain

Days

kg

kg

Wk.

Daily Feed Intake, kg Lower - Upper

Feed Conversion (FCR)

42

6

11

1.71

0.35 - 0.44

1.54

49

7

15

3.43

0.48 - 0.60

1.05

56

8

20

4.29

0.64 - 0.80

1.12

63

9

24

3.43

0.77 - 0.96

1.68

Feed Type

Hi-Pro Pig Starter

Features of Hi-Pro Pig Starter 1. Contains organic acids to reduce scouring 2. Contains essential oils that combat stress and improve gut health 3. Contains Celmanax for optimal weight gain and improved gut health

Husbandry Practice

Wean

Finisher Period Start


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Nutrition continued Benefits of Hi-Pro Pig Starter 1. Increases weight gain performance of piglets/weaners 2. Increases Average Daily Gain (ADG) of weaners and early Finisher pigs 3. Lowers incidences of gut oedema and scours 4. Decreases piglet mortality Feeding Regime Hi-Pro Starter should be fed ad-lib (freely given) beginning at day 43 or when the piglets have attained a body weight of 11kg until they have reached a target weight of 40kg by day 70-84. Note that switching from Hi-Pro Pre-Starter to Hi-Pro Starter should occur over a transition period of 3 days when the amount of pre-starter fed is gradually reduced while the amount of Hi-Pro Starter is gradually increased.

HI-PRO PIG GROWER

Hi-Pro Pig Grower is recommended for Finishing-Growing pigs from Week 13 -19 with a starting target weight of 46kg and a finishing weight of 82-84kg. The combination of premixes made specifically for tropical conditions and the balanced level of amino acid makes this feed ideal for our hot and humid climate.


TABLE 3c: Hi-Pro Recommended Grower Feeding Programme Age of Pig

Body wt.

Cumulative Gain

Days

kg

kg

Wk.

Daily Feed Intake, kg Lower - Upper

Feed Conversion (FCR)

70

10

30

5.14

0.99 - 1.20

1.40

77

11

35

4.98

1.16 - 1.40

1.69

84

12

40

5.44

1.36 - 1.60

1.76

91

13

46

5.72

1.60 - 1.83

1.92

98

14

52

5.85

1.80 - 2.06

2.12

105

15

58

6.04

2.02 - 2.30

2.29

112

16

64

6.10

2.23 - 2.55

2.51

119

17

70

6.15

2.44 - 2.79

2.73

126

18

76

6.18

2.66 - 3.04

2.95

133

19

82

6.23

2.88 - 3.29

3.17

Feed Type

13 Husbandry Practice

Hi-Pro Pig Grower

Features of Hi-Pro Grower 1. Contains Celmanax for optimal weight gain and improved gut health 2. Contains specially formulated vitamin and mineral premixes designed specifically for the Tropics (available exclusively in Hi-Pro feeds). 3. Formulated to meet the amino acid requirements of local pigs. Benefits of Feeding Hi-Pro Pig Grower 1. Maximizes lean muscle development for excellent lean gain per day and economic Feed Conversion (FCR) 2. Rapid physical development of pigs 3. Faster growth towards slaughter weight Feeding Regime Finisher pigs can be fed Hi-Pro Pig-Grower on an ad-lib basis to maximize weight gain and reach market earlier making more pig space available. Ad-lib feeding and the increased availability of space can increase the number of pigs reared per year, improve uniformity, and reduce incidences of fighting, feed wastage, and competition. We recommend housing pigs in groups of 10 to 12 to reduce competition at the feeders and for better visual inspection by farm crew. Self-feeders for ad-lib feeding are available from Hi-Pro Farm Supplies.


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Nutrition continued In addition to feeding any one of our three available grower rations, pigs should be dewormed half-way into the 16-week growing out period using a recommended broad spectrum Anthelminthic.

HI-PRO PIG FINISHER Hi-Pro Pig Finisher is recommended for Finisher pigs nearing market weight at Week 20-24. Starting weight should be 82-84 kg. Pigs compensate for the abrupt reduction in digestible protein by converting earlier stored fat into energy for growth. The result is less fatty pork and an increase in meat percentage.

TABLE 3d: Hi-Pro Recommended Finisher Feeding Programme Age of Pig

Body wt.

Cumulative Gain

Days

kg

kg

Wk.

Daily Feed Intake, kg Lower - Upper

Feed Conversion (FCR)

140

20

88

6.15

3.09 - 3.54

3.45

147

21

94

6.07

3.31 - 3.78

3.74

154

22

101

6.04

3.52 - 4.02

3.99

161

23

107

5.99

3.73 - 4.26

4.27

168

24

112

5.82

3.93 - 4.49

4.63

Feed Type

Husbandry Practice

Hi-Pro Pig Finisher

Features of Hi-Pro Pig Finisher 1. Contains Celmanax for optimal weight gain and improved gut health 2. Formulated to meet digestible amino acid requirements for lean growth 3. Contains specially formulated vitamin and mineral premix designed specifically for Finisher pigs (available exclusively in Hi-Pro Feeds)


Benefits of Hi-Pro Pig-Finisher 1. Optimal performance in live weight gain up to market 2. Promotes the conversion of excess body fat 3. Supports lean growth 4. Improves carcass quality 5. Improves economic cost of feeding Feeding Regime The aim in feeding Finisher Ration to pigs is to attain maximum growth to reach market weight on or under 24 weeks without reducing carcass value. Providing consumers with high quality, lean pork is largely dependent on breed, type of ration fed, and husbandry management. Periodic weighing of pigs during the finishing programme is valuable in assessing weight gain, evaluating performance, correcting anomalies and making midstream corrective decisions. Pigs should be weighed at the Start-up (Starting Weight) and then weekly, monthly, at change of rations, and at market using a scale or measuring tape.

Figure 5 Finishers in Slatted Pens

15


16

Nutrition continued HI-PRO SOW GESTATION Hi-Pro Sow Gestation is fed to sows in the reproductive cycle between weaning of the piglets and next farrowing. Sow Gestation is also the ideal ration for replacement gilts and service boars. Benefits of Hi-Pro Gestation Sow Ration 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Provides ample nutrition for sow and gilt maintenance and production Improves reproductive performance, litter size, and milk production Extends the productive life of sows and boars Improves boar performance Facilitates proper sexual maturation of replacement gilts and boars High in fibre for proper gut function during pregnancy

The amount of Hi-Pro Sow Gestation fed should be based on the stage of the reproductive cycle (E.g. Flushing to increase ovulation and conception; Steaming up to support rapid growth of foetus). Feed ration must be reduced as the farrowing date approaches.

Figure 6 Dry and Pregnant Sows


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FEEDING PREGNANT & DRY SOWS For profitable production, it is important to manage feed intake of sows to ensure they do not gain or lose too much weight between litters. Managing this critical component of the business increases the reproductive lifetime of sows and reduces the cost of operation. Using the recommending feeding program in conjunction with Body Conditioning Scores (BCS) will reduce sow culling, pregnancy difficulties, and increase the number of piglets born and weaned. Pregnant sows should be fed Hi-Pro Sow Gestation according to the stage of pregnancy as highlighted in Table 4.

TABLE 4: Feeding Recommendations for Replacement Gilts and Dry Sows Activity

Day

Days to Farrow

Feed Amount (kg)

Post Conception

1-20

112-92

2.2

Check for Heat

21

91

2.2

Pregnancy Test

28-35

84-77

2.2

Recheck for Heat

42

70

2.5

Steaming Up

82

30

2.5-3.0

Deworming

103

9

2.5-3.0

Mange Treatment

105

7

2.5-3.0

Reduce Feed

109

3

2.0

Farrowing

112-115

0

No feed

The Body Condition of sows between farrowing may range from excessively-thin (bones visible) to excessively-fat (bones cannot be felt). Condition Score evaluation of sows will help determine the amount of feed required (Figure 7). If excessivelythin â&#x20AC;&#x201C; increase feed amount and if excessively-fat â&#x20AC;&#x201C; decrease amount (Table 2). It is extremely important to monitor the condition score of sows during pregnancy as this affects the number of piglets born alive and weaned. Using the condition score card for gestation (Figure 7) to adjust feed intake will maximize the number of piglets born per sow.


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Nutrition continued Figure 7 Body Condition Score for Replacement Gilts and Sows

1

2

3

4

5

Score

Last Rib Backfat Depth (mm)

Condition

Body Shape

1

<15

Emaciated

Hips, spine prominent to the eye

2

15-18

Thin

Hips, spine easily felt without pressure

3

18-20

Ideal

Hips, spine felt only with firm pressure

4

20-23

Fat

Hips, spine cannot be felt

5

>23

Obese

Hips, spine heavily covered

This scoring process should be done at least three times, once at mating and at least twice before the sow farrows. We recommend that sows be checked at Day 30 and Day 80 after being bred by two individuals and the scores averaged since condition scoring is subjective. These scores should be recorded on the sowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s individual record card which also contains body weight and medications given. Feed intake of replacement gilts and sows should be adjusted according to their body condition score using the base level of feed intake (the amount normally given to the animal) to increase or decrease feed accordingly.


TABLE 5: Guidelines for adjusting feed given to gilts and sows during gestation Condition Score

Back fat level (mm)

Feeding level (kg)

1

<1.5

Base feeding level + 1

2

1.5-1.8

Base feeding level + 0.5

3

1.8-2

Base feeding level

4

2-2.3

Base feeding level - 0.5

5

>2.3

Base feeding level - 1

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HI-PRO SOW LACTATION Hi-Pro Sow Lactation is a complete feed for nursing or lactating sows. It has higher energy, vitamin and mineral levels compared to the Sow Gestation ration to support milk production and rebreeding and preferably should be fed two days after farrowing until piglets are weaned. Features of Hi-Pro Sow Lactation 1. Formulated to increase milk production â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Higher calcium and energy content than Gestation Ration 2. Formulated to meet digestible amino acid requirements for milk production 3. Higher vitamin and micro-minerals levels compared to grower and gestation feeds to meet sow and piglet requirements 4. Acidified to boost immune system and imprint piglets which in turn increases piglet feed intake at weaning

Figure 8 Lactating Sow with Nipples


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Nutrition continued Benefits of Hi-Pro Sow Lactation The lactating sow eats for body maintenance and milk production and the larger the litter the greater the nutrient requirement. 1. Meets the sow’s requirement for a high energy diet 2. Maintains the sow’s optimal body condition during suckling (nursing) 3. Increases milk production compared to other feeds in the Hi-Pro feeding programme General Guidelines for Feeding Lactation Sows One of the greatest challenges in feeding the nursing sow is maximizing feed intake during a period when her natural inclination is to refuse feed or decrease feed intake. This however should not be encouraged since low feed intake leads to low nutrient intake which causes: • Lower weaning weights • Loss of sow body condition • Increased sow culling • Impaired rebreeding and subsequent decrease in litter size We recommend that you never limit feed to sows; instead producers should estimate feed consumption patterns and adjust diets accordingly. As a general rule, sows need 2.5kg to maintain body weight and 0.25 to 0.5kg of feed for every piglet they have. As with the other phases of production, record feed intake or chart daily consumption.

TABLE 6: Feeding Strategy for Lactating Sows Number of 2 kg (4lb) scoops to feed at each feeding from day 0 to 2 of lactation (Gestation Ration) Feeding Feed in feeder

AM

PM

Empty

1

1

< 1 kg

0

0.5

> 1 kg

0

0

Number of 2 kg (4lb) scoops to feed at each feeding from day 2 to weaning (Lactation Ration) Feeding Feed in feeder

AM

Noon

PM

Empty

2

2

2

< 1 kg

1

1

1

> 1 kg

0

0

1


FEEDING THE SERVICE & JUNIOR BOAR

21

Mature Service Boars in good body condition should be offered Hi-Pro Sow Gestation at 2.5 kg/day for peak performance. Young or Junior Boars (8-15 months old) should be fed 3.0 kg per day for growth and to prevent overdevelopment. Over feeding the service boar results in obesity, laziness, and the production of poor quality semen that leads to poor conception in sows. FEEDING THE REPLACEMENT GILTS Replacement Gilts are usually selected on the basis of growth performance and external features. Gilts can be selected at age 2-3 months and removed to separate rearing, or at 5-6 months from the Finishing pig pen. The ration is then changed from Hi-Pro Finisher to Hi-Pro Gestation at a daily rate of 2.5 kg up to breeding to prevent overdevelopment of the replacement female.

Figure 9 Gilts 6-8 Months

FEED STORAGE & DISTRIBUTION Storage Bulk bins and storage areas for bag feed should be adequate to facilitate separating feeds by type and use, and to differentiate new and old feed- First in, first out! Store feed separately from chemicals and other products prohibited for animal feed. Storage areas and containers must be kept clean and dry and appropriate pestcontrol measures implemented where necessary. Avoid cross-contamination.


22

Nutrition continued Feed Distribution Farmers must ensure the correct feed type is given to the right pigs. Feed should not be carried with other material to avoid contamination. On-farm feed transport including vehicles, carts, wheelbarrows, buckets, and other equipment should be cleaned periodically, particularly when used to deliver and distribute medication and other treatments. Feed Allocation At 70 - 75% of production cost feed generally represents the single biggest cost item on pig farms. Cutting back on feed can negatively affect production and profit. Consequently, any practical measure taken to prevent wastage (i.e. spillage, over and under feeding) will improve farm results. Every pig farm should have a SCALE to accurately weigh feed allotted to individuals or groups of animals. Accurately weighing feed contributes to feed efficiency and enables the accurate economic assessment (FCR, feed cost/gain) necessary to take appropriate management decisions. The unit of measurement appropriate for simple calculation is metric – a unit divisible by 10. Daily weight gain is measured in GRAMS (g), total weight gain – in KILOGRAMS (kg), and feed used in kilograms. Drinking Water Our local climate means pigs’ water intake is relatively high making it absolutely necessary to provide adequate, cool, clean drinking water for the herd. Water should be free of contaminants like dirt, bacteria (E-Coli), salt and toxic materials. It is more efficient to provide water through piped sources by way of different sized metal nipples to control water flow. Dedicated water troughs are unnecessary in the dry sow or finishing pig houses and where it becomes necessary animals can be watered in the feed trough.

Figure 10

Figure 11

Pig Nipples

Automatic Watering Troughs


MANAGING THE HERD FOR PROFITABLE PRODUCTION

23

Gilt Management Replacement Gilts can be bred at 8 months old at the 3rd Heat, and should attain a weight of 90-110 kg. Selecting the Replacement Gilt Future female parent stock is chosen partly based on visible external features that would indicate the potential for good reproductive performance. Gilts are judged for probable (a) Good Production (b) Long Productive Life, and (c) Good Daily Gain of offspring. Good Production Gilts with 15-16 well-developed, evenly place teats (nipples) indicate the potential to raise large litters. Long Productive Life A productive life of 5 years that produces 10 litters is desirable. Gilts should walk strongly, have strong looking legs-an advantage during mating, and good conformation (body size). Good Daily Gain Good Daily Gain, a genetic trait conveyed to offspring, is recognized in Finisher pigs that achieve ADG of 600 g over the Finishing period. A large-bodied, well-developed, broad sow will produce larger and faster growing pigs.


24

Weighing Pigs without a Scale 1. Obtain a fabric measuring tape or a piece of string to use as a measure. If using string mark the dimensions on the string and then measure the dimensions using a steel tape measure. 2. Place the tape/string under the pig just behind the front legs and measure the circumference of the pigs girth in metres. This measurement is known as the Heart Girth (see graphic below) 3. Then measure the Length of the pig along its back from the base of its ears to the base of its tail, again in metres (see graphic below)

Heart Girth Measure the cirumference just behind the forelegs

Length Measure from the base of the ear to the base of the tail

Then use the following formula: Square the Heart Girth to get the Girth Result. Now Multiply the Girth Result by the Length and MULTIPLY by 69.3 You now have the weight of your pig in Kg.

Example: Porky Pig has a Heart Girth of 1.27 meters and a Length of 1.02 meters. Squaring the Heart Girth (1.27 x 1.27) = 1.6129 = Girth Result Multiply the Girth Result (1.6129) by the Length (1.02) and Multiply by 69.3 = 114 Kg. This procedure is reported to be accurate to within 3%.


25

Health & Sanitation The predominant health conditions affecting the local pig industry include Scours (Diarrhea), Gut Oedema among young pigs, Erysipelas and Mycoplasma among older animals. SCOURS E. Coli (Escherichia coli) is believed to be the root cause of most diarrhea occurring on the pig farm although Clostridium and Salmonella bacteria and certain viruses contribute to scours. E. COLI SCOURS (birth diarrhea) Symptoms 1. Watery, yellowish diarrhea, offensive smelling dung, 2. Pigs usually are dirty, weak and sick. Mortality 0 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 100% Treatment Administer diarrhea medication and consult your Hi-Pro Veterinarian Prevention 1. Maintain clean farrowing pens. 2. Vaccinate sows 6 and 3 weeks before farrowing if necessary. 3. Provide booster medication.


26

Health & Sanitation continued WHITE SCOURS (fat diarrhea) This condition occurs in piglets at 2-4 weeks old. E. Coli, changes in the consistency of sowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s milk (milk converted from body fat), and the introduction to pelleted feed usually cause diarrhea. Symptoms 1. Pasty, fatty faeces 2. Piglets appear pale when condition last over 3-5 days Treatment 1. First line therapy includes oral antibiotics; if diarrhea persists, injectable antibiotics may be used, after consulting with your veterinarian. 2. Electrolytes in water Prevention Proper feeding of the sow will prevent spontaneous conversion of body fat for milk production.

GUT OEDEMA Gut oedema often occurs immediately after piglets are weaned and is chiefly caused by E. Coli bacteria. The condition is especially severe during the period of stress following weaning from the sow. Gut oedema may also caused by: rehousing, mixing with other pigs accompanied by feed change, wrong type of feed (Grower), vaccination, castration. Symptoms 1. Rough, standing hair coat. 2. Sudden lack of appetite. 3. Swollen eyelids. 4. Death Control Drastic reduction in feed amount at weaning; never introduce new ration at this time and provide medication in water. Treatment Affected pigs rarely recover. Treat with antibiotics, give purgative (Epsom Salt) and restrict feed intake.

SWINE ERYSIPALAS An infectious condition (caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae) that is identified by fever and pigs showing diamond-shaped skin lesions, arthritis, abortion, and sudden death. If pigs exhibit signs of Swine Erysipalas, contact your Hi-Pro veterinarian immediately for diagnosis and treatment. Erysipelas can be prevented by implementing a vaccination programme approved by your Hi-Pro Veterinarian.


27 PARASITES A number of parasites live on or in the skin of the pig (i.e. mange, mites, lice) and internally (i.e. worms) depriving the pig farmer financially more than other health factors combined. Losses due to parasites are hard to estimate but can be calculated in reduced daily gain, high feed conversion, overall poor animal health, and death. External Parasites Mange (Sarcoptes scabei): Invisible to the naked eye, these bloodsucking mites burrow into the skin causing lesions, blisters, scabs, wrinkles and loss of hair creating the condition known as Mange. The continuous itching of the animal identifies the presence of mange mites. Mites can be transferred from infested sow to piglet, sow to sow in group housing, or spread by farmer’s footwear and clothing. Mites can live in rough cast pen walls. A number of treatments for the control of mites are available. These include Amitraz (Triatix®, Bovitraz®), and Coumaphos (Asuntol 20% ®). Consult your veterinarian for the development of an effective medication program. Internal Parasites Even more destructive are hidden parasites inside the body of the pig. Roundworm (Ascaris), Lungworm (Metastrongylosis), Tapeworm (Taenia solium), Stomach worm (Hyostrongylus) are especially harmful and are of significant economic loss to the farmer. Control Parasite Lungworm

Effective Treatment Ivermectin (Ivomec®), Fenbendazole, Flubendazole

Roundworm Ivermectin, Fenbenazole, Flubendazole, Piperazine (Polywormerzine®) Tapeworm

Flubendazole

Stomach worms

Fenbendazole, Ivermectin

Deworming schedule Finisher Pigs – Monthly up until 30 days before slaughter Pregnant Sows – Deworm at 30 days after conception, 10-14 days before farrowing, and at weaning Gilts & Sows – 14 days before mating and 10-14 days before farrowing Boars – Every Six (6) Months, twice/ year

SANITATION The chance of infection is high around the pig house; however, disease should not be an important economic factor once measures for proper sanitation are maintained. Proper sanitation greatly reduces the conditions that facilitate entry of diseases. So: •

Maintain good hygiene in and around pig facilities

Farrowing pens should be cleaned, disinfected and brushed with white lime prior to occupation by the sow

Occupied pens must be cleaned daily of dung and disinfected by bleach or other suitable disinfectant (Virkon S ) with much attention given to the farrowing house.


28

Health & Sanitation continued TIPS TO MAINTAINING A HEALTHY PIG HERD To maintain a healthy herd, farmers should: •

Feed all classes of pigs with good quality, well-balanced Hi-Pro Feeds.

Provide adequate supply of cool, clean drinking water.

Maintain proper sanitation in and around the pig house.

Reduce Stress factors such as: inadequate ventilation, draught, inadequate food and water, and poor sanitation.

Prevent overcrowding.

Reduce draftiness while providing good air circulation within the pig house

Figure 10 Hi-Pro Veterinarian inspecting piglet

PIGLETS’ HEALTH Determining the Health Status of Piglets The health status of piglets can be determined by observing their colour, the condition of the hair and dung, and their general thriftiness or activity.


Piglets are healthy when:

29

Colour: At 3 weeks those of the white breeds are pink to reddish; over 3 weeks are light pink with reddish backline. Hair: Hair is short and thin, smooth and lying backward. Sick piglets show rough, standing hair with dull colour. Activity: There is reaction to abnormal noise/movement around the pen. Sick piglets tend to lie atop each other, scream or separate from the others, and hardly react to any form of disturbance. Dung: Dung is solid. Watery, yellow or reddish, bad smelling dung is undesirable and a sign of sickness.

GENERAL HERD MANAGEMENT FOR PROFITABLE PIG PRODUCTION Open (Non-Pregnant) Sow •

Sows should produce at least 2 litters of pigs every year.

Sows whose piglets have been weaned should be checked daily for heat.

Sows may come on heat within 4-10 days of weaning the piglets, and be bred accordingly.

Pregnant Sows •

Deworm 10-14 days before the due farrowing date.

Treat (wash) for Mange 7 days before due farrowing.

Reduce feed 3 days to farrowing giving no more than 2.0 kg/day.

The Sow will farrow within 24 hours of the appearance of milk in the front teats.

Weaner Pigs •

Do not feed on the day of weaning.

Provide medication in drinking water as prescribed.

Gradually resume the feeding of Hi-Pro Pig Starter.

Piglets •

Be present at farrowing.

Assist sow only if it becomes necessary.

Clip needle teeth, cut navel cord, administer iron supplement, and establish birth weight of piglets. Administer Piggyboost® as soon as possible after birth and repeat five hours later.

Mark piglets according to farm identification system.

Castrate piglet boars not required in the breeding program at 14-21 days old.

Introduce small quantity of Hi-Pro Pre-Starter in the Creep area at 5 days old. Piglets should weigh 2.2kg.

Standard weaning of piglets is at 6 weeks at target weight of over 10.5 kg. Early weaning at 3-5 weeks requires baby pig supplement, Earlystart (see page 6).

Vaccination programme can be implemented after weaning at 7 weeks. Contact your local veterinarian for this programme (see Vaccination Review Sheet in Appendix, page 44).


30

Health & Sanitation continued Figure 12 A

Iron & Vitamins

E

Vaccines

B

Parasite Control

F

Sanitizers

C

Epsom Salts

G

De-wormers

D

External Medication

H

Identification

A

B

D

E

F

G

H

Health & Sanitation Products

C


The Ideal Source for all your Veterinary

& needs!

Farm Sanitation


Registration available at


33

Housing HOUSING PIGS FOR PROFITABLE PRODUCTION There are established guidelines in constructing pig house facilities. Farmers must first determine: 1. The long-term carrying capacity of the unit 2. How floor space should be allocated and outfitted 3. The best stocking rate to achieve maximum utilization. Space requirements are based on the type of operation. A complete Sow farm producing piglets and growing out Finishers requires farrowing quarters, weaner pens, finishing pens, a dry sow holding area, gilt pens, Boar stalls, feed and equipment storage, and an administrative area. Pig houses should be of an appropriate size to prevent underutilization or overcrowding. FLOOR SPACE REQUIREMENT Floor space for the different classes of pigs; SOWS WEANERS FINISHERS GILTS

- 2m2 - 0.2m2 - 0.85m2 - 0.85m2

15-20/pen 8-10/pen 8-10/pen 4-6/pen

Example: A holding pen for 20 sows at 2m2 would require an area of 40m2 of dimensions 5m x 8m; or alternatively 5.5m x 7.2m.


34

Housing continued Figure 12

Slatted Farrowing Pen

FARROWING PEN The basic farrowing pen is usually an individual stall measuring 2.25m x 2.50m with a fixed or mobile farrowing crate enclosed by guard rails that restrains the sow to reduce crushing or injury of piglets. Proper flooring, particularly in the farrowing / weaner pens, can significantly lower disease onset, add to the safety of piglets, reduce mortality, and increase the number of pigs raised. DESIGN & EFFICIENT LAYOUT The physical layout of the pig house should facilitate efficient management of the unit. There is no mandatory design and layout so facilities should be constructed based on available capital and what is viable. On a Sow-Weaner-Finisher farm the farrowing facilities should be sited on the windward side with other sections in the downwind. The layout therefore, would be set in order of Piglets - Weaners - Sow and Boar Pens - and Finisher Pens.

Figure 13 Weaner Feeder

Figure 14 Individual Sow Feeder


The length of feeding troughs is dependent on the carrying capacity of an individual pen. E.g. Weaners require 15 cm length of feed trough space per animal in Restricted Feeding while a Finisher pig weighing up to 90 kg is allowed 28 cm of space to feed comfortably. Less space (7 cm/animal) is required in Ad Lib feeding Finishers.

35

Using feed troughs / hoppers in the pig house will greatly reduce wastage and reduce feed costs. FLOORING Little attention is paid to the type of floor in the housing of commercial pigs and on many farms it is the familiar concrete surface of varying finishes. Unfortunately the concrete floor can cause lameness and can also be a reservoir of pathogens even with proper cleaning. The pig pen should facilitate a reduction in common leg problems and improve general health and hygiene. Floors must be level, smooth but not slippery, and maintained to prevent injury or suffering to pigs, whether standing or lying down. The floor must be suitable for the size and weight of pigs and must form a firm, even and stable surface. SLATTED FLOOR

Fully slatted (plastic) is: •

Easy to wash and dry

Better for best separating pigs and dung

Quick drying

Water-resistant

Figure 15 Plastic Slat

Disadvantages •

Generally the most expensive type of flooring

May lead to sole bruising and scraped knees in piglets

Cause more damage when wet

Partial Slatted Floor •

Provides a dedicated (solid) lying area

Better drainage in farrowing pens than solid flooring Disadvantages •

Solid area can quickly become messy and if ventilation is poor or airflow is incorrect pigs will dung in the wrong area.

Pigs tend to have more lesions than those housed on solid floors but fewer than those on fully slatted floors

Figure 16 Partial Slat


36

Housing continued Solid Concrete Floor •

Least cost method of flooring

More frequently used in Jamaica

Frequently used with a bedding material.

Durable

Fewer issues with lameness than those pigs housed on slatted floors Disadvantages •

Drainage can be a problem if the slope is not correct

Can lead to knee abrasions in suckling piglets

Poorly-laid concrete can become slippery and/or rough and harbour bacteria

Fully slatted Concrete Floor •

Cheaper than plastic slats

Often used for heavier pigs as they have good weight bearing properties Disadvantages •

Slower to dry than plastic slats

Partially absorbent, leading to a risk of residue

Slats can be eroded by liquid feed and acidic chemicals.

Finisher pigs tend to develop more bursitis (inflammation) on concrete slats than those housed on solid floors

Figure 17 Concrete Slat


CHARACTERISTICS OF PIG BREEDS OF THE JAMAICAN HERD

37

LARGE WHITE Long bodied white breed of pig with erect ears, a meat type animal that is of high fertility and good meat quality.

LANDRACE Widely used in breeding programs, mainly as the mother breed, the Landrace is a white coloured, large bodied, meat type pig with distinctive drooping ears.

DUROC The breed is reddish-brown in colour, has slightly drooping ears and is frequently used in crossbreeding programs. Duroc sows are excellent mothers that raise relatively smaller litters of large, thrifty piglets. Its meat is of rich marbling, tender and juicy when cooked

LARGE WHITE x LANDRACE (F1) Single crossed hybrid (F1) pig (LW x LR) provides the best characteristics of both parent breeds, demonstrates increase fertility, milk yield and mothering ability (raise more thrifty pigs). These high producing F1 sows have excellent body size, half way drooping ears.

TERMINAL CROSS (LW x LR) x DUROC The terminal cross DU x (LW x LR) is commonly the end product of the crossbreeding program for meat. This pig is genetically confirmed with the high growth characteristics of the Large White and Landrace as well as the high meat quality characteristics of the Duroc breed. Most pigs resulting from this 3-Way crossbreeding are slaughtered for its high quality carcasses.


38

Breeding & Marketing

Large White Boar Duroc Boar

X X

Landrace Sow

Landrace Large White Sow

Triple Cross Finisher

= LEAN MEAT!

MARKETING PLAN Further restructuring of the Jamaican pig industry should include the registration of farms and the cataloguing of the national breeding herd. Farms should be organized into specialized units of production from which clear marketing plans can be developed. The specialized farm is based on the operatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s training and technical competence to manage a 1. BREEDER FARM (maintaining a nucleus, pure breed herd), 2. MULTIPLIER FARM (producing Weaners and F1 sows) and 3. FINISHING FARM (growing out F2 terminal cross pigs). Consequently, the sale and movement of live animals would be predominantly between the farms and the various markets. Contract arrangements would create a fair degree of stability in supply and price.


DEMAND & DISTRIBUTION

39

The demand for pork by processors continues to increase whereas local supply is inconsistent. The quantity and quality pork required particularly during September to January are inadequate and supply favours importation. The Market for pork is through processors, public markets, butcheries, meat shops, supermarkets, restaurants, jerkers, the hotel industry, and slaughter houses.

BIOSECURITY Biosecurity is the implementation of measures that reduce the risk of disease agents being introduced and spread on the pig farm. Common routes of transmission for infectious agents include direct pig-to-pig contact, vehicles and equipment, people carrying disease causing germs on footwear, clothing, and hands. People must adopt a set attitude and practices that reduces the risk of infecting the herd. Biosecurity measures should be used to avoid the entry of pathogens into a herd from external sources. Establishing effective physical barriers – i.e. partitions and walls - to segregate animals reduces the potential for infected pigs to contaminate the rest of the herd. Materials, vehicles, equipment that have to enter and leave farms must be thoroughly cleansed of dirt and other contaminants to remove pathogens. A significant aspect of biosecurity is disinfection which, when properly applied, will incapacitate any pathogen that is present on materials that have already been cleaned. •

Replacement pigs should come from known safe sources and should be quarantined, or at least physically separated from pigs on the farm for at least 4 – 6 weeks.

Prevent stray animals from entering the farm by fencing the premises or erecting a protective barrier to prevent their access to the pig house.

Keep visitors to a minimum and restrict entry of authorized visitors to the pig house. If they are required to enter have protective clothing, coveralls and footwear that are kept on the farm available before entering the pig house, and more so if they are coming from or visiting other pig farms.

Controlling rodent, flies and other vectors, and carriers of pathogens, is also a function of biosecurity

Erect a “Keep Out” sign to warn people away.


40

Technical Applications SET PARAMETERS FOR CLASSES OF JAMAICAN PIGS Parameter

Minimum Value

Litter/Sow/Year (Litter Index)

2.00

Average Litter Size

10

Birth Weight (kg)

1.5

Piglet Mortality (%)

<15

Piglets Weaned/Litter

8.5

Weaning Weight (kg)

10.0

Weaner Mortality (%)

5

8 Week Weight (kg)

13.0

Finishing Weight (kg)

82.0

Average Daily Gain (g)

600

Feed Conversion Ration (FCR)

3.21

FEED CONSUMPTION BY CLASSES OF PIGS Piglet

Day 4-24

5.8

Weaner

Day 43-56

5.3

Finishing

Week 9-12

38.0 132.0 150.0

Sow

Boar

Gestation/Dry

690.0 (per yr.)

Nursing

380.0 (per yr.) 920 ((per yr.))


41

Appendix Hi-Pro Recommended Feeding Programme for Grow-out Phase Age of Pig

Body wt.

Cumulative Gain

Cumulative Feed Intake

Days

kg

lb

kg

kg

1

1.5

3.31

5

2.2

4.85

6

2.3

5.07

Wk.

lb

Feed conversion Feed:Gain

Feed Type

Husbandry Practice

lb

Pre-Starter

7

1

2.5

5.51

1.00

2.20

0.28

0.62

1.13

14

2

3.7

8.16

1.03

2.27

0.60

1.32

0.86

21

3

5

11.02

1.11

2.46

1.49

3.28

1.08

28

4

6.8

14.99

1.54

3.40

2.69

5.93

1.06

35

5

9

19.84

1.89

4.16

4.32

9.52

1.15

42

6

11

24.25

1.71

3.78

6.48

14.29

1.54

49

7

15

33.07

3.43

7.56

9.12

20.11

1.05

56

8

20

44.09

4.29

9.45

12.72

28.04

1.12

63

9

24

52.91

3.43

7.56

17.52

38.62

1.68

70

10

30

66.14

5.14

11.34

23.28

51.32

1.40

77

11

35

77.16

4.98

10.98

30.48

67.20

1.69

84

12

40

88.18

5.44

12.00

38.88

85.72

1.76

91

13

46

100.78 5.72

12.60

48.48

106.88

1.92

98

14

52

113.68 5.85

12.90

59.45

131.07

2.12

105

15

58

127.00 6.04

13.32

71.83

158.35

2.29

112

16

64

140.44 6.10

13.44

85.65

188.83

2.51

119

17

70

154.00 6.15

13.56

100.94

222.54

2.73

126

18

76

167.62 6.18

13.62

117.71

259.50

2.95

133

19

82

181.36 6.23

13.74

135.96

299.73

3.17

140

20

88

194.92 6.15

13.56

155.70

343.26

3.45

147

21

94

208.30 6.07

13.38

176.92

390.04

3.74

154

22

101

221.62 6.04

13.32

199.60

440.03

3.99

161

23

107

234.82 5.99

13.20

223.72

493.22

4.27

168

24

112

247.66 5.82

12.84

249.29

549.58

4.63

Early Wean*

Starter

Wean

Finisher Period Start Grower

Finisher


42

Appendix continued GLOSSARY ADG: Average Daily Gain is weight gain each day from birth to market weight. AD-LIB FEEDING: Feeding system where pigs are allowed to eat at will, on demand, as opposed to restricted feeding where individual animals are fed weighed amounts once or twice per day. Special troughs/hoppers are employed that dispense feed in small qualities. Feed placed in the hoppers must be weighed and recorded. BOAR: The male pig being actively used for breeding. CONDITION SCORE: The process of determining the physical appearance (body condition) of the sow which is represented by numbers that signify the state of thinness or fatness of the animal. CREEP AREA: Area accessible to piglets but not the sow where supplement is fed. CREEP FEED: Starter ration for piglets, high in protein usually from sugar and milk protein for high energy. CREEP FEEDING: The introduction of solid food to piglets in the farrowing crate to partially compensate to declining sow milk production and to smooth the transition to a grain diet. FINISHER PIG: Pigs in the growing phase between weaning (Start Up) and market, usually up to 6 months. LITTER: All the offspring of a single farrowing FLUSHING: An increase in feed amount over the normal level given to the sow immediately after weaning of the piglets to stimulate and increase ovulation. PIGLET: Newly born pigs up to weaning from the sow. START UP: The process occurring 14 days after weaning (at 8 weeks) in which weaners are grouped in pens and fed until market weight, a period usually 16 weeks. SOW: Adult female pig after farrowing a litter of piglets. WEANING: The action of removing the piglets from the sow (or the sow from the piglets) to be reared separately, usually at 6 weeks old. WEANER: A piglet recently remove from the sow (usually at 6 weeks) to be reared separately until reclassified as a Finisher. STANDING HEAT: The precise time of oestrus when the sow/gilt is most receptive to the serving boar and stands quietly to be mated. This can be tested by pressing down on the back of the sow. Standing Heat is confirmed if she stands still and arches her back. STEAMING UP: The increase in feed amount given at the stage of greatest development of the foetus during the last trimester of pregnancy.


43

ESSENTIAL PIG FARM CALCULATIONS The primary objective of pig farmers is to achieve a reasonable financial return on investments in feed cost, other costs, sufficient to compensate their time and effort. Consequently, pig farmers should constantly monitor herd data on the Sow - (Average Litter Size, Mortality, Weaned/Sow/year, Litter/Sow/Yr. For Finishing Pigs – (ADG, Feed Conversion). Average Litter Size (Herd)

= Total Number of Piglet Born Number of Litter

Mortality/Litter = Total Piglet Born – Total Piglet Death Number of Litter Mortality% = Total Death (birth to 8 weeks) X 100 Total Born Piglet Weaned/Sow/Year Litter/Sow/Year

= Total Born Alive – Total Death (birth – 8 weeks) Average No. of Sow

= Total Number of Litters Average No. of Sow

Average number of sow = physical count in Jan, Feb, Mar divide by 3 months et al becoming a 12 month rolling average after a year. ADG (accumulated) I pig = Last Weight – Starting Weight Number of Days ADG (accumulated) Group = Total Weight – Total Starting Weight Number of Pigs x Number of Days FCR = Total Amount of Concentrate Fed Total Liveweight Gain


44

Appendix continued FARM VACCINATION REVIEW SHEET Production Stage

Product Name

Administration Method

Dosage

Date Administered

Veterinarian

Withdrawal Period

Adapted from the Pork Quality Assurance Guide, Level III (1994)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Formulations for the productive husbandry treatment proposed in the handbook are based on clear understanding of the nature and behavior of pigs in terms of early growth, production capability and the conditions required for best manifestation. Hi-Pro Feeds extends special thanks to Claude Wilson (Pig Production Specialist), Dr. Tanika Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor Dennie (Nutritionist), Dr. Fred Hanley (Research & Development), Dr. Lenworth McCalla (Veterinarian), Conley Salmon (Facilitator), Dayne Patterson (Hi-Pro Ace), Vanessa Benjamin Chattrie (Hi-Pro Pharmacy), Denise Johnson (Editorial), Kristian Naylor (Graphic Arts Assistance, Photography) and Nicholas McClure (Art Director & Graphic Designer). We acknowledge St. John Bosco Pig Farm and Spanish Grain Pig Farms for their contribution and support in the preparation of this manuscript.


NOTES


NOTES


Recommended Feeding Programme

Age of Pig

Body wt.

Cumulative Gain

Days

kg

kg

Wk.

Daily Feed Intake, kg Lower - Upper

1

1.5

5

2.2

0.05 - 0.07

6

2.3

0.06 - 0.08

Feed Conversion (FCR)

Feed Type

Husbandry Practice

Hi-Pro Pre-Starter

7

1

2.5

1.00

0.07 - 0.10

1.13

14

2

3.7

1.03

0.10 - 0.15

0.86

21

3

5

1.11

0.15 - 0.20

1.08

28

4

6.8

1.54

0.20 - 0.27

1.06

35

5

9

1.89

0.29 - 0.36

1.15

42

6

11

1.71

0.35 - 0.44

1.54

49

7

15

3.43

0.48 - 0.60

1.05

56

8

20

4.29

0.64 - 0.80

1.12

63

9

24

3.43

0.77 - 0.96

1.68

70

10

30

5.14

0.99 - 1.20

1.40

77

11

35

4.98

1.16 - 1.40

1.69

84

12

40

5.44

1.36 - 1.60

1.76

91

13

46

5.72

1.60 - 1.83

1.92

98

14

52

5.85

1.80 - 2.06

2.12

105

15

58

6.04

2.02 - 2.30

2.29

112

16

64

6.10

2.23 - 2.55

2.51

119

17

70

6.15

2.44 - 2.79

2.73

126

18

76

6.18

2.66 - 3.04

2.95

133

19

82

6.23

2.88 - 3.29

3.17

140

20

88

6.15

3.09 - 3.54

3.45

147

21

94

6.07

3.31 - 3.78

3.74

154

22

101

6.04

3.52 - 4.02

3.99

161

23

107

5.99

3.73 - 4.26

4.27

168

24

112

5.82

3.93 - 4.49

4.63

Early Wean*

Hi-Pro Pig Starter

Wean

Finisher Period Start Hi-Pro Pig Grower

Hi-Pro Pig Finisher

Hi-Pro Pig Farmers Booklet 2015  

Handy reference guide for the effective rearing of pigs

Hi-Pro Pig Farmers Booklet 2015  

Handy reference guide for the effective rearing of pigs

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