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February 2017

Working Paper 2017/01

TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 Tour: Methodology, results and observations


Working Paper 2017/01

TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 Tour: Methodology, results and observations February 2017


Title

Working Paper 2017/01 – TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 Tour: Methodology, results and observations

Published

Copyright © McGuinness Institute, February 2017 ISBN 978-1-98-851802-2 (Paperback) ISBN 978-1-98-851803-9 (PDF) This document is available at www.mcguinnessinstitute.org and may be reproduced or cited provided the source is acknowledged.

Prepared by

The McGuinness Institute, as part of the TacklingPovertyNZ project

Authors

Wendy McGuinness and Ali Bunge

Research team

Freya Tearney, Callum Webb, Sally Hett and Alexander Jones

For further information

McGuinness Institute Phone (04) 499 8888 Level 2, 5 Cable Street PO Box 24222 Wellington 6142 New Zealand www.mcguinnessinstitute.org

Disclaimer

The McGuinness Institute has taken reasonable care in collecting and presenting the information provided in this publication. However, the Institute makes no representation or endorsement that this resource will be relevant or appropriate for its readers’ purposes and does not guarantee the accuracy of the information at any particular time for any particular purpose. The Institute is not liable for any adverse consequences, whether they be direct or indirect, arising from reliance on the content of this publication. Where this publication contains links to any website or other source, such links are provided solely for information purposes and the Institute is not liable for the content of any such website or other source.

Publishing

This publication has been produced by companies applying sustainable practices within their businesses. The body text and cover is printed on DNS paper, which is FSC certified.

The McGuinness Institute is grateful for the work of Creative Commons, which inspired our approach to copyright. This work is available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 New Zealand License. To view a copy of this license visit: www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/nz Thank you to those who have supported the TacklingPovertyNZ project, in particular the New Zealand Treasury, Queenstown Lakes District Council, Manawatu District Council, Rotorua Lakes Council, Gisborne District Council and Far North District Council. Our gratitude is also extended to the former mayor of Queenstown Lakes District, Vanessa van Uden; the former mayor of Manawatu, Margaret Kouvelis; Mayor of Rotorua, Hon Steve Chadwick JP; Mayor of Gisborne, Meng Foon; and the Mayor of the Far North District, Hon John Carter. Potaua Biasiny-Tule, a speaker from Rotorua, translated the framework from English to te reo Mäori, and we would like to thank him for his support. We would also like to extend a particular thank you to the national speakers: Dr Girol Karacaoglu (Head of the School of Government at Victoria University and formerly the New Zealand Treasury’s Chief Economist and Deputy Secretary of Macroeconomics and International Economic Research), Dr Carwyn Jones (senior lecturer in Victoria University’s Faculty of Law) and Dame Diane Robertson (Chair of the Data Futures Partnership and former City Missioner of the Auckland City Mission). Lastly we would like to thank all of the local speakers and workshop participants who worked so hard to build and share ideas on how to tackle poverty, as well as the original TacklingPovertyNZ 2015 workshop participants who returned as interns for the 2016 workshop tour.


Contents 1.0

Introduction_______________________________________________________________________ 1

2.0 Methodology______________________________________________________________________ 2 2.1 Background____________________________________________________________________ 2 2.2 Purpose_______________________________________________________________________ 3 2.3 Defining poverty_______________________________________________________________ 3 2.4 Assumptions___________________________________________________________________ 4 2.5 Outputs_______________________________________________________________________ 4 2.6 Approach _____________________________________________________________________ 5 2.7 Workshop method______________________________________________________________ 5 2.7.1 Pre-workshop____________________________________________________________ 5 2.7.2 Workshop______________________________________________________________ 6 2.7.3 Post-workshop___________________________________________________________ 8 2.8 Limitations____________________________________________________________________ 9 3.0 Results___________________________________________________________________________ 11 3.1 Analysing the pre-workshop survey_______________________________________________ 11 3.2 Analysing the 32 ‘domains’______________________________________________________ 11 3.3 Analysing the 240 ‘hows’________________________________________________________ 12 3.4 Analysing the post-workshop survey results________________________________________ 13 4.0 Observations______________________________________________________________________ 16 4.1 The evolution of the Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework__________________ 16 4.2 Main differences between workshops______________________________________________ 22 4.3 Common themes: The three Es of employment, education and empowerment____________ 23 4.4 Two observations______________________________________________________________ 26 4.5 Next steps____________________________________________________________________ 26

Appendices Appendix 1: TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 one-day workshop tour summary table_____________________ 27 Appendix 2: Photos from the TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 one-day workshop tour___________________ 31 Appendix 3: Workshop Handouts – Exercises 1, 2 and 3_______________________________________ 37 Appendix 4: Analysing the 240 ‘hows’ from the TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 tour – by location_________ 40 Appendix 5: Analysing the 240 ‘hows’ from the TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 tour – by factor___________ 47 Appendix 6: Infographic of Lines within New Zealand________________________________________ 54 Appendix 7: Infographic of Decile 1 and 2 schools by region____________________________________ 55 Appendix 8: Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework: A checklist of the 33 sub-factors_______ 56 Appendix 9: Infographic of A situational overview of the talking tour 2016/ He tüähua o te haerenga körero 2016_________________________________________________________ 59 Appendix 10: Infographic of A regional perspective of the talking tour 2016/ He tirohanga a rohe o te haerenga körero 2016_____________________________________________________ 61 Appendix 11: A warrant of fitness checklist for emergency and social housing______________________ 63


1.0 Introduction Given that five months have passed since the final workshop, we felt it was timely to summarise our processes and describe our initial insights. This working paper outlines the purpose and processes of the 2016 TacklingPovertyNZ tour (the methodology) and chronicles what we heard from the participants who attended each workshop (the results). The paper concludes by providing the Institute’s initial thoughts on tackling poverty (our observations). This includes the creation of a new framework for tackling poverty (what we have called the Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework). We hope that this research helps to improve our collective knowledge of poverty and acts as a call to action – not just to tackle poverty but to eradicate poverty and improve economic and social outcomes for all. Poverty is everyone’s problem, and we have the best resource to counter it – 4.8 million New Zealanders. However, in order to do this we need to move from asking questions of ‘why’ to questions of ‘how’. This paper aims to contribute to the latter. Our approach to the workshop tour was not intended to be prescriptive, but rather intended to help gather ideas on how to tackle poverty. We were not sure what to expect but we wanted to invite feedback from participants along the way and report what we heard. To this end, we created a postworkshop survey to provide participants with a mechanism to shape their ideas after the workshops. We were also keen for participants, through the workshop process, to meet others with similar goals and ideas. It was hoped they might work together in their communities to bring about change, and that publishing the list of ideas collected during the tour might also inspire others (including those in other parts of New Zealand) to try out new or proven ideas. Section 2.0 outlines the workshop methodology. It describes the communities we visited, the purpose of the tour, our initial attempts to define poverty, the assumptions we made, the outputs we hoped to produce, the approach, the workshop method, and all the limitations of which we are aware. The process was evolutionary; we aimed to learn and adapt in response to the locations we visited, bringing the lessons learnt from one workshop to the next. We especially want to thank Queenstown for hosting the first workshop and providing valuable feedback, which formed the foundations for the rest of the tour. Section 3.0 collates the raw information contributed by participants. This section, as much as is possible, excludes the McGuinness Institute’s observations and opinions. We endeavoured to keep this section evidence-based, focusing on what we heard and then trying to make sense of this in terms of analysing the domains (the topics participants decided to discuss in their groups towards the end of each workshop) and analysing the resulting 240 ‘hows’ (suggestions for how to tackle poverty generated in each workshop). Section 4.0 summarises our thinking in terms of what we heard, saw and felt. In this section we discuss the three Es (employment, education and empowerment) and propose a new theory on how to tackle poverty, which we have called the Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework. We close by discussing the idea of creating three demarcation zones. Demarcation zones are geographical areas that have been delegated certain governance powers, creating a space for developing innovative policy. The zones aim to improve outcomes for citizens through the integration of public products and services. The idea is that the zones not only benefit the community in which they exist, but that successful policy initiatives can be adapted and benefits replicated around the country. We have also provided background material in the appendices, as listed on the contents page.1 These resources include workshop exercises and outputs the Institute has produced using the ‘hows’ developed by the participants. This material will clarify the methodology of the tour, as well as presenting and re-grouping the ideas discussed.

1 Appendices, 6, 7, 9 and 10 are infographics which can also be found on the Institute’s website – www.mcguinnessinstitute.org.

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2.0 Methodology 2.1 Background TacklingPovertyNZ is an initiative which began as a three-day policy workshop run by the McGuinness Institute in collaboration with the New Zealand Treasury in December 2015. This workshop saw 36 New Zealanders between the ages of 18 and 25 come together to articulate a youth perspective on the issue of poverty in New Zealand and how we might, as a country, go about tackling it. One of the observations made by participants at the 2015 workshop was that poverty in New Zealand is too complex an issue to be resolved with a one-size-fits-all solution. Instead solutions must be developed and implemented at a local level, as poverty has vastly differing characteristics for people in different areas of New Zealand. Locations for the 2016 tour were determined based on interest from local councils after the 2015 workshop. As a result, workshops were organised in Queenstown, Manawatu, Rotorua, Gisborne, Kaitaia and Kaikohe (see Figure 1 below). Mayor Hon John Carter of the Far North District believed that one workshop would not recognise the diversity of the Far North’s communities, so two workshops were organised in this district. Figure 1: Map of the TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 one-day workshop tour

TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 tour dates Kaikohe (Far North) Friday, 16 September 2016

Kaitaia (Far North)

Kaikohe Memorial Hall, Memorial Avenue, Kaikohe

Thursday, 15 September 2016 Te Ahu, Cnr Matthews Ave & South Rd, Kaitaia Rotorua Friday, 19 August 2016 Concert Chamber, Sir Howard Morrison Performing Arts Centre, 1170 Fenton Street, Rotorua

Manawatu Monday, 15 August 2016 Manfeild Suites, 59 South Street, Feilding Gisborne Wednesday, 31 August 2016 Waikanae Surf Lifesaving Club, Grey Street, Gisborne

Queenstown Tuesday, 29 March 2016 Queenstown Memorial Centre, 1 Memorial St, Queenstown

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2.2 Purpose The purpose of the TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 one-day workshop tour was to build and share ideas on how to tackle poverty in five districts. We asked participants at the workshops to develop specific, actionable suggestions on how to address poverty in their region. We took a blank-canvas approach, chronicling dialogue rather than prescribing outcomes. Our primary task was to listen and then document the ‘hows’ voiced by the community. The narratives we heard on tour will continue to guide our work programme. The purpose of this working paper is threefold: to explain the thinking behind the one-day workshop tour (the methodology), to document the ‘hows’ collected along the way (the results; see the lists in Appendices 3 and 4) and to explain our interpretation of the ‘hows’ we heard (the observations). The Institute’s aim is to help eliminate poverty in New Zealand. In doing so, we hope to contribute to the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 1 to ‘end poverty in all its forms everywhere’. We intend to do this by öö

connecting like-minded people in communities;

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sharing proven, effective ways of tackling poverty;

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encouraging innovative ways of tackling poverty and supporting the testing of these ideas in local communities;

öö

facilitating collaboration and networking between service providers, businesses, communities, individuals, NGOs, and local and national government;

öö

analysing and publishing the lists of the ‘hows’ generated by workshop participants;

öö

inviting feedback from the communities as well as other interested parties; and

öö

contributing to a national conversation on how to tackle poverty in New Zealand.

2.3 Defining poverty The first obstacle in any discussion around poverty is the question of how to define it. Most established definitions of poverty fall short because they place too much emphasis on income. These definitions fail to adequately consider some of the less tangible human needs that constitute a dignified life, such as opportunity, culture, love and self-esteem. Productive dialogue around poverty needs to begin with a shared understanding of what poverty is. To this end, we used two established definitions of poverty: ‘absolute poverty’ as defined by the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and ‘hardship’ as defined by the New Zealand Treasury. öö

‘Absolute poverty’ is when an individual does not have access to the amount of money necessary for meeting basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter (UNESCO, n.d.).

öö

‘Hardship’ poverty is when an individual is constrained by their material circumstances from achieving a minimum ‘decent’ level of wellbeing (New Zealand Treasury, 2012, p. 3).

For the purposes of these workshops, we found it useful to look at absolute and hardship poverty as one end of a continuum of wellbeing. If absolute poverty represents the extreme, and hardship poverty is a step before absolute poverty, then the opposite is a high level of individual and communal wellbeing that is sustainable over the long term (the desirable end of the continuum). This perspective is illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 2: A continuum of wellbeing

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2.4 Assumptions Throughout the TacklingPovertyNZ workshop tour and the post-workshop analysis, the Institute has made a number of assumptions. The following are the key assumptions driving our analysis: 1. If you ask people how to tackle poverty, they will indirectly point out the failings in the current system and suggest improvements or novel solutions to existing problems. 2. If knowledge lies with people and the tools lie with government, the list of ‘hows’ we have collected represents the knowledge of the people and illustrates to government how they might use their tools more effectively. We have also made a number of other assumptions: 3. Poverty does exist in New Zealand and can be tackled. 4. Poverty is a word that means different things to different people. 5. Poverty does not necessarily need to be defined or measured to be tackled. 6. Poverty is often a universal name for a range of symptoms. In much the same way that a fever or rash is a symptom of a virus, poor attendance at school, sicknesses due to poor housing and diet, mental health issues, and incarceration can be symptoms of poverty. Treating symptoms in isolation will not end poverty; a true solution requires a new, integrated approach. 7. The current approach to tackling poverty is not working. Appendix 6 illustrates the significant number of government entities that need to work together to tackle poverty. 8. The statistics show that we have regions of poverty in New Zealand (see Appendix 7). 9. Designing and implementing innovative solutions in small isolated areas is more likely to be successful than trying to develop innovative solutions in large cities (this is based on the observation that businesses tend to develop innovative products and services by bringing together diverse but connected teams). Further, it could be argued that it would be easier to take regional successes to the cities rather than take city successes to the regions. 2.5 Outputs The tour has led to the creation of a number of resources and papers, and there are more on the way. Below are our significant outputs, many of which can be found on the TacklingPovertyNZ website. 1.

A discussion paper on each of the areas visited – five in total (published December 2016).

2.

Working paper 2017/01 – TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 Tour: Methodology, results and observations (this paper, published February 2017). This includes A. B. C.

two infographics (developed during the workshop tour): i. Lines within New Zealand and ii. Decile 1 and 2 schools by region; a list of ‘hows’ from all six workshops; and two infographics (developed after the workshop tour): i. A situational overview of the talking tour 2016/He tüähua o te haerenga körero 2016 and ii. A regional perspective of the talking tour 2016/He rohe tirohanga o te haerenga körero 2016.

3.

A think piece (to be published early 2017).

4.

A Project 2058 report on poverty (to be published late 2017).

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The discussion papers are specific to each area visited, while the working paper presents everything we have learnt on tour, including our analysis of the results. The think piece will illustrate our opinion and what we are thinking about the project going forward, bringing together the broader outcomes. The next step is a more significant report (what the Institute calls a Project 2058 report), which will include further research on poverty and will be published in 2017. 2.6 Approach The Institute chose to take one-day workshops to smaller cities and towns because of the importance of exploring local solutions for tackling poverty; local communities and individuals have untapped ideas and information on who is affected and what does and does not work in their region. The tour was designed to provide a platform for local voices to address poverty by ‘holding a microphone’ up to voices that may not necessarily be heard in mainstream policy analysis. This tour encouraged open discussion at a community level, while the Institute’s function was to facilitate and chronicle the ensuing dialogue. The Institute wanted to preserve the integrity of the voices heard on tour in the post-workshop outputs. To achieve this, the Institute did not publish the ‘hows’ developed at each workshop until all six workshops were complete. We also appointed interns to report on group discussions at each workshop.2 The Institute did not want workshop participants to be influenced by the ‘hows’ developed at previous workshops, nor the authors of the discussion papers to be swayed by the thinking and experiences of other communities. Our aim was to report the unique voices of the participants who attended each workshop so that we had confidence in the common themes and unique characteristics apparent in each area. Thus, where possible, different Institute staff attended each workshop and authored each of the resulting discussion papers. 2.7 Workshop Method This section explains the pre-workshop preparation, the actual process used during a one-day workshop and the post-workshop follow-up. 2.7.1 Pre-workshop The Institute collaborated with local councils to organise the logistics of each workshop, such as the workshop venue and liaisons with local and national speakers. We explain the process briefly below. Promotion The Institute and local councils promoted the workshop by using social media and workshop flyers. We also contacted local service providers such as Child, Youth and Family (CYF), local Rotary Clubs and businesses that may have had clients or members interested in attending the workshop. The Institute sent out a press release to national and local media outlets for each workshop.3 The local councils undertook their own promotion, including sharing the events on their Facebook pages. Facebook was a very effective tool in both Rotorua and Gisborne; conversely, it may explain the low attendance in the Far North, where Internet access is a major challenge. Registration The online registration survey was a generic one used throughout the tour, apart from the Queenstown workshop, where registrations were managed by Queenstown Lakes District Council. It asked participants for information such as age, connection with the location, background about themselves, what poverty in the region looks like to them, and what they wanted to get out of the workshop. These questions assisted in shaping the workshop programme, provided some background to the people interested in the workshop, and gave insight into the poverty landscape of the region. A few days before each workshop, the Institute emailed a workshop programme to those who had registered. Despite this process, each workshop saw a different number of participants turn up on the day. Extra people were welcome to join and the Institute always ensured there were enough seats and 2 Workshop interns were sourced from the 36 participants, aged 18 to 25, who attended the 2015 TacklingPovertyNZ workshop. The interns were flown to the region by the Institute and backpacker accommodation was generally provided by each council. There were a number of reasons why the workshop interns were important to take on tour. They were the initial instigators of the tour and the Institute needed scribes to report on the deeper conversations taking place around each table. It was also our hope that they would take away a deeper understanding of the issues facing regional New Zealand. Many of the workshop interns had not travelled to these regions and many commented on the amazing people they met and the insights they gained. A deeper understanding of all New Zealanders is an excellent outcome and bodes well for New Zealand’s long-term future. The interns’ names are listed in the one-day workshop tour summary table in Appendix 1. 3 Press releases can be read on the McGuinness Institute website – www.mcguinnessinstitute.org/press-releases.

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tables for unregistered arrivals. We were also advised that we needed to provide a phone number on all flyers and promotional material, as many people did not have access to the Internet. This proved to be correct and over the course of the tour we had 25 people register by phone. Resources The Institute used the TacklingPovertyNZ website to post exercises, handouts and resources for use on the day. Stationery and resources were either sent to councils prior to the workshop or were brought by Institute staff on the day of the workshop. At the workshop, each participant was given a copy of the worksheets (see Appendix 3) and there was a resource table where participants could take away the resources they found interesting. A large A2 copy of each exercise was made available for the group work and became part of the presentation from the group back to the plenary. These exercises can be seen in the photographs overleaf. Set-up Each workshop room was set up similarly: speakers were to stand at the front of the room, preferably with a podium and a screen for their slideshow behind them, and tables were to have eight chairs around them (for six participants, one workshop intern to report on the discussion, and a ‘hot-seat’ for speakers to answer questions and contribute to the discussion). 2.7.2 Workshop Each of the one-day workshops followed a similar method. The Queenstown workshop on 29 March 2016 was the first and was designed to test the process of running a one-day workshop on tackling poverty in a specific area. The approach proved successful and we are grateful to the former Mayor of Queenstown Vanessa van Uden, council staff, and the broader community for providing such excellent feedback. The structure of the workshop was designed to ensure the focus was on the key output – the ‘hows’ – and that these were developed by participants. The workshops took a flexible approach to allow for regional variation. At the beginning of the day, participants split into groups of six and were given a colour. A workshop intern was assigned to each group and acted as a note-taker to write down conversations at each table, providing additional information about the group discussions. On occasion, the notes were used to provide further context to the ‘hows’ that needed more information. These notes are available on request. A panel of local and national speakers opened each workshop by putting forward a diverse range of evidence and ideas concerning the landscape of poverty in the area. The panel was joined by a small group of representatives from the TacklingPovertyNZ 2015 cohort, who presented the booklet produced as the primary output of the original workshop.4 After listening to both local and national speakers, groups worked on Exercises 1 and 2 (see Appendix 3). Each group then presented their work to the plenary for feedback. Exercise 1: Maps (the ‘who’) Participants worked in groups to visualise poverty as a map based on their personal understandings and information from speakers. The aim of this exercise was to develop a common understanding among participants of the groups in society that are being affected.

Exercise 1: Participants of the Manawatu workshop mapping the poverty landscape (see Appendix 3).

Exercise 2: Participants of the Rotorua workshop organising their ideas into domains (see Appendix 3).

4 See the TacklingPovertyNZ website for more information – www.tacklingpovertynz.org/tacklingpovertynz-booklet.

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Exercise 2: Post-its (the ‘ideas’) The groups were asked to build on their understandings from Exercise 1 describing why and how poverty affects particular groups. They presented these ideas to the plenary on post-its, which were then placed on the wall. After completing exercises 1 and 2 before lunch, key themes and groups were identified (the Institute has called these ‘domains’) for further discussion in the afternoon. Domains were written up on large pieces of paper and stuck up on the walls of the workshop room. Participants were then given five stickers or ‘tokens’ that correlated to their group colour. Participants then voted by sticking their token on the paper with the domain(s) they considered most significant. Participants could choose whether they used all five tokens to vote for one domain or for different domains. The votes for each domain were then counted. The full list of domains discussed in each area can be found in the workshop summary table in Appendix 1 and analysis of these has been undertaken in Section 3.1.

Participants voting at the Manawatu and Kaitaia workshops.

After the domains had been chosen by the voting process, each table was assigned a domain. Participants selected the domain that they were most interested in pursuing or to which they felt most able to contribute. In some cases, breakaway groups were formed, enabling more in-depth discussion (particularly where groups became too large). Each domain group was then asked to undertake Exercise 3 to determine seven ‘hows’ that would effect change. There was no set number of domains; in Gisborne there were six domains while in Queenstown there were four. Exercise 3: Seven ways (the ‘how’) Each group was asked to develop at least seven specific, actionable suggestions for how to address poverty. Participants were encouraged to develop as many ‘hows’ as they could think of. The workshop concluded with members of the wider public joining to listen to participants as they presented their ‘hows’ back to the plenary. Please note that participants did not separate into domain groups at the Rotorua and Kaikohe workshops. This was because of numbers; the Rotorua workshop was very large and separating would have been disruptive and the Kaikohe workshop was very small and had time constraints. In both cases it seemed more appropriate for participants to continue working in their existing groups with the option to move around if they wished.

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Exercise 3: Groups from the Kaitaia workshop develop their ‘hows’ (see Appendix 3).

2.7.3 Post-workshop The post-workshop process was similar for each area visited. In most cases, this was managed by one Institute staff member so that they only dealt with one workshop. Photographs of each Exercise 3 were published on the TacklingPovertyNZ website, videos of the speakers were reviewed for editing and ideally published on the Institute’s YouTube channel (after being approved by the speaker), the workshop intern notes were collected and read, draft blogs were prepared, and the list of ‘hows’ was prepared following the process below. The list of ‘hows’ This involved three evolutions. Version 1: Photos of Exercise 3 were uploaded on the website under each workshop. Version 2: Exercise 3 was typed up and edited for basic spelling, grammar and punctuation. ‘Hows’ that were duplicated across multiple groups within the same workshop were combined and reworded so that they were more action-focused. There were 28 ‘hows’ from Queenstown, 35 ‘hows’ from Manawatu, 81 ‘hows’ from Rotorua, 122 ‘hows’ from Gisborne, 31 ‘hows’ from Kaitaia and 36 ‘hows’ from Kaikohe. The Institute then emailed Version 2 to the speakers and organisers of the workshop for feedback to ensure our edits were correct and reflected the discussion. Please note that because participants at the Rotorua and Kaikohe workshops did not split into domain groups, the Institute used key themes and groups that we heard at the workshop and grouped the ‘hows’ under domains after the workshop. In addition, at the Gisborne workshop participants started developing ‘hows’ in their original groups before separating into domain groups. These initial ‘hows’ were combined into the domains after the Gisborne workshop. The interns’ notes were used to identify more ‘hows’ that were discussed in groups but were not written into Exercise 3. Version 3: Once feedback on Version 2 was received, the Institute reworked the ‘hows’ to ensure that similar ‘hows’ were further condensed, feedback was incorporated, ‘hows’ were reworded to ensure clarity and direction, and all ‘hows’ developed at the six workshops were formatted the same, including making sure that each ‘how’ had a relevant sub-heading. Version 3 of the ‘hows’ enabled the Institute to ensure that they best reflected discussions at the workshops and summarised regional action points. This process meant that we had 240 ‘hows’ in total: 28 ‘hows’ from Queenstown, 32 ‘hows’ from Manawatu, 44 ‘hows’ from Rotorua, 69 ‘hows’ from Gisborne, 31 ‘hows’ from Kaitaia, and 36 ‘hows’ from Kaikohe.

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Post-workshop survey Version 3 of the relevant ‘hows’ was then put into a post-workshop survey for each area. The link to the survey was emailed to participants, speakers, key organisers and the mayor of the region. It was also accessible from the TacklingPovertyNZ website for anyone to complete. The survey asked respondents to rate each of the ‘hows’ from ‘not a great idea’ to ‘a really interesting idea’, and/or add new ‘hows’ (that may have been missed or that may have been thought of since the workshop). The questions were voluntary and survey respondents could add comments to their responses if they wanted to expand on their answers. In the interest of gaining a broad overview, the surveys were designed to seek feedback from attendees and non-attendees alike. Therefore, the Institute invited those who received the survey to share the weblink with their friends and whänau. Each survey ran for about three weeks. See Section 3.3 for our summary of the results or see the workshop discussion papers for the full results. Discussion paper The results of the surveys guided the resulting discussion papers, which share the main discussion points raised by participants in each region and present the solutions they proposed at the close of the workshops.5 2.8 Limitations Below is a list of all the limitations to the workshops that we are aware of: Results are representative of five regions, not of high density urban areas Our research focuses on five regions. Over this time we were asked to undertake further workshops in other regions and in cities. We decided to focus exclusively on the five regions in 2016 so that our research would reflect the specificities of each workshop and region. Although this could be viewed as a limitation of this work, we see it as a strength. Participants were self-selected and technology access hindered participation To counter the limitation of self-selection, the Institute used the Internet in an attempt to reach a greater number and diversity of participants. The pre- and post-workshop surveys were online, as was much of the marketing, which made use of the McGuinness Institute and TacklingPovertyNZ Facebook pages, as well as local council and community pages. Unfortunately, use of the Internet for marketing and outreach may have had an adverse effect on the diversity of dialogue at all stages of the workshop process. Although the Institute did state on flyers that those wanting to take the post-workshop survey could call the office and we could fill the survey in for them, the number of post-workshop survey respondents was linked to the number of initial online workshop registrations. Regions that had higher numbers of online registrations had high numbers of post-workshop survey respondents and vice versa. Regions with better Internet access tended to have greater attendance at the workshops. The participants who attended were predominantly motivated by the opportunity to have a conversation about how to tackle poverty in their region. Although the conversations that took place and the ‘hows’ that were developed are valuable, they are not representative of all those affected by poverty in New Zealand. Workshops were held during the working week, meaning that those working full time could not easily attend Although we ensured that the workshop dates and times were made available to the public at least a month before the workshop was to be held, running the workshops on weekdays may have limited who could attend; those with weekday jobs would have had to take the day off work and this is often not an option. The Institute is aware that the audience at the workshops was not necessarily representative of all those in the community who wanted to attend the workshops. Some of the people who did not attend the workshops may have been the voices we needed to hear the most.

5 All discussion papers can be found on the TacklingPovertyNZ website – www.tacklingpovertynz.org/2016-workshops.

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To counter this, the Institute invited the public to a final presentation of the workshop findings after work hours. The two exceptions were the Far North and Rotorua workshops, where the final presentations started at 4.30 pm to accommodate attendees needing to travel some distance from the workshop on country roads. Regional isolation may have been a limiting factor to attendance This may particularly be the case in Gisborne and the Far North, as it was an item of discussion at both workshops. Iwi participation was stronger in some areas than others This may be because some councils had closer relationships with local iwi. If we were to do this again, we would phone local iwi organisations and make sure they felt welcome. Alternatively we could have held a workshop on a marae. Unique views on how to tackle poverty were not always easy to identify and record If a ‘how’ was not identified or merged with another idea in the domain discussions, it could easily be lost. To help counter this, we had the workshop interns in later workshops write up full notes on what they heard. We also used the post-workshop survey to collect any ideas we may have missed or improve the context of the ‘how’ so that the list best reflected the view of participants. Reflection was not possible on the day Giving people time to reflect on complex policy issues is critical. The workshops were very busy and it became apparent that we needed to get reflections after the workshop. This is why the postworkshop survey was instigated. In general the number of responses were low, but those that were completed provided us with valuable insight. The survey was a useful tool but, in the future, perhaps handing out a link to participants before they leave the workshop would improve response rates.  

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3.0 Results There has been a significant amount of information collected from the tour. In this working paper we focus on the 240 ‘hows’ and the domains that generated them. The remaining observations from the tour will be published in other work later this year. 3.1 Analysing the pre-workshop survey Although we did not release a pre-workshop survey for Queenstown, it was evident from the workshop that participants wanted to learn whether poverty existed in their community and, if so, in what forms. Participants at the Manawatu, Rotorua and Gisborne workshops shared a common agenda. Their pre-workshop surveys revealed interest firstly in learning about existing local initiatives, and secondly in developing action points that they could lead as a community. Their workshops acted as forums for them to connect with like-minded people in their area. Far North participants who completed the pre-workshop survey expressed interest in changing the mind-set of poverty, which they saw as the core of embedded poverty in their community. 3.2 Analysing the 32 ‘domains’ Across the workshops, participants selected their preferred domain of impact from poverty. In the resulting groups, they formulated ‘hows’ to address issues in their chosen domain. Lists of the domains discussed in each region can be found in the summary table of the workshop tour in Appendix 1. Figure 3 illustrates the frequency of discussion on each domain. For example, a group of participants shared ideas on how the ‘business/economy’ domain could tackle poverty in Queenstown, Rotorua and Kaikohe, whereas the domain ‘changing the poverty mind-set’ was only discussed in Kaitaia. Figure 3: Frequency of domains across all workshops

4 3 2 1

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m un ity Bu Ho sin us in es g s/ ec on Ph Y om ou ys ica th y u l a n nd de m r 1 en 2 ta l h ea lth M āo ri Ge og El de ra ph rly ic Ch iso an la gin Gr B o g t an n he Ed dp p uc ar ov en aB er ts on ty ra m isi in ng Co d g se m ra m t nd un ch ica ild Bo re n n/ re po rB Fin ng Go an W ve cin or r n g kin d m eb en g f t t i am ni ilie Ba s/ B ve w or s Ga kin ng g p s a oo nd r d ru g u se rs Ot he r

0

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Number of Bmes workshop parBcipants selected this domain for further discussion

Frequency of domains

Domains

Key findings öö

Community was a common theme across all workshops but became a domain discussed in Queenstown, Rotorua and Kaikohe.

öö

Housing as a topic of discussion was prevalent in Queenstown, Manawatu and Rotorua, and was discussed more generally throughout the tour. Queenstown was unique in that the discussion there centred on quantity whereas Manawatu and Rotorua focused more on quality.

öö

Business and economy were common areas of discussion in Queenstown, Rotorua and Kaikohe.

öö

Youth under the age of 12 were discussed in Manawatu, Rotorua and Gisborne.

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öö

Physical and mental health was a common topic in Manawatu, Gisborne and Kaikohe.

öö

Those interested in discussing Mäori issues came together in Manawatu, Gisborne and Kaitaia. This was felt necessary by participants because poverty is particularly entrenched for Mäori in these areas.

öö

The elderly domain appeared in Manawatu and Gisborne.

öö

Isolation was discussed most frequently in the Far North. It was also discussed more broadly in Gisborne, where a discussion took place about the need for improved social infrastructure related to poverty.

öö

Education was discussed in terms of life skills and outcomes, not just in terms of schools and academic results.

öö

Kaitaia and Kaikohe discussed the need to change the poverty mind-set. This led to a deeper discussion on how to empower communities and families over the long term.

öö

Grandparents raising grandchildren appeared as a domain in Kaitaia but was also an issue that received considerable attention in Kaikohe and Rotorua.

öö

Financing debt only appeared as a domain in Rotorua but concerns around financial literacy were also widely discussed in Gisborne and the Far North.

öö

The need for improved government initiatives was discussed in Rotorua.

öö

Gisborne was the only region to discuss working families/working poor as a domain, but this was also discussed in the Rotorua workshop.

öö

Gisborne was also the only region to discuss ideas on gangs and drug users as a domain, but this was also discussed at the Far North and Rotorua workshops.

3.3 Analysing the 240 ‘hows’ After the six workshops were completed, the Institute wanted to develop a range of different lenses to review the 240 ‘hows’. We were looking for ways to make sense of the 240 ‘hows’ and break them into manageable pieces. The pie charts in Figures 4 and 5 illustrate the number of ‘hows’ produced and the number of participants that attended each workshop. The number of ‘hows’ is roughly proportionate to the number of participants; the two largest workshops, Rotorua and Gisborne, produced the most ‘hows’. The Institute put more work into condensing the ‘hows’ from these workshops as the larger attendance meant some ideas overlapped and were repetitive. The ‘hows’ from the larger workshops were more difficult to refine; this was particularly the case for Rotorua, where participants did not separate into domains but continued working in their groups. This group work produced 129 ‘hows’, which the Institute regrouped into 44 ‘hows’. This process can be found in the one-day workshop tour summary table in Appendix 1 where the number of ‘hows’ in each version is listed. It is important to note that the ‘hows’ varied in detail and depth but were each unique solutions to poverty. Some ideas were raw solutions, while others developed and expanded upon the actionable ways to address poverty. Lists of the 240 ‘hows’ can be found in Appendices 4 and 5.

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Figure 4: Number of ‘hows’ from each workshop

Number of 'hows' from each workshop 36

28 32

31

44 69

Queenstown

Manawatu

Rotorua

Gisborne

Kaitaia

Kaikohe

Figure 5: Number of participants from each workshop (approx.)

Number of par2cipants from each workshop (approx.) 40

60

60 65 75 100

Queenstown

Manawatu

Rotorua

Gisborne

Kaitaia

Kaikohe

3.4 Analysing the post-workshop survey results The detailed post-workshop survey results can be found in TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 Tour: Workshop survey results and in each of the discussion papers. Workshop participants, evening presentation attendees and the general public were invited to complete these surveys, which were designed to refine ideas and collect further feedback on the workshop process. Responses were lower than we had hoped, but this was understandable partly due to technological issues in a number of areas visited, as well not obtaining email addresses upon registration or being unable to read the email addresses that we did receive. This meant the number of respondents varied significantly, with the most being 35 from Rotorua compared to two from Kaikohe. This corresponded with our pre-workshop experience in that Rotorua was relatively Internet savvy, whereas Kaikohe had significant broadband issues. This does not detract from the outputs from the Far North workshops overall but helps to explain the disparities in attendance and survey response numbers. See Figure 6 for the final number of respondents by region.

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Figure 6: Number of respondents to the post-workshop survey

Number of respondents to the post-workshop survey 8 2

20

16 19 35 Queenstown

Manawatu

Rotorua

Gisborne

Kaitaia

Kaikohe

Below we summarise the ideas that received the most interest from survey respondents. Where there is a clear consensus around the best idea, we have listed only that idea. Where there is a group of ‘hows’ that received similarly high levels of support, we have included them all. Queenstown öö

Models: Businesses leading and integrating the values and visions of Queenstown into their business practices. For example, by promoting inclusion, safety, environmental stability, worker rights and responsibilities, and maintaining a beautiful township.

Manawatu öö

Emergency housing: Community trusts, MDC and others to investigate the purchase or repurposing of a house to provide emergency housing for Feilding.

öö

Coordination and collaboration: Bring together all agencies who work with young people to ensure there are no gaps and reduce cross-overs.

öö

Improved access to mental health services: Work with the local DHB to create an integrated mental health facility. Educating our community about how to access services.

Rotorua öö

Providing community services: A 24-hour Social Care Centre; universal access to health services, counselling, rehabilitation centres and housing; and creating a community hub for social solidarity and to share knowledge between generations in gardening, knitting, and creative and computer skills. This will also build social, mental and health awareness.

öö

Establishing emergency shelters: A centre for homeless whänau and a homeless night shelter.

öö

Reforming social housing: Building affordable homes, reviewing accommodation costs, easier criteria for access, compulsory warrants of fitness for housing, and providing housing bonds to working families still struggling due to low paying jobs.

öö

Implement career evenings: Career evenings for businesses with employment vacancies. Community members have the opportunity to attend a four-step training programme to gain the skills to fit the vacancies. The idea comes from the Ruapehu district where it was successfully trialled and saw a high placement of workers.

Gisborne öö

Housing regulations: Reviewing housing regulations to improve housing stock.

öö

Support and rehabilitation: Ensuring more support is there for those dealing with addictions (e.g. a local drug and alcohol court and a local rehabilitation unit in the Gisborne/Tairäwhiti region).

öö

Education: Ensuring appropriate drug education is available in the community. WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 14 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE


öö

Supporting existing groups: Supporting community groups that are already established and encouraging groups to collaborate, support each other and scale-up (e.g. Te Ora Hou, -9+ and Tu Tangata).

Kaitaia öö

Mobile medical centres: Creating mobile medical centres to go to hard to reach places.

öö

Hubs on wheels: Creating hubs on wheels to take services to hard to reach places. For example, playgrounds and toys, a library bus, and a pharmacy.

öö

Intergenerational mentoring: Implementing a programme where retirees mentor youth on life skills such as budgeting, cooking and gardening. For example, Te Hiku Youth Hub.

öö

Normalising the experience: Normalising the experience of grandparents raising grandchildren by approaching the issues with love and encouragement and letting this understanding show through in the language we use to talk about these situations.

öö

Post-education employment: Establishing community-led hubs that link education providers and potential employers with the community. This would facilitate networking and encourage a coordinated approach to addressing problems of local employment after education.

Kaikohe öö

Regulating money ‘loan sharks’: Regulating money ‘loan sharks’ to stop them preying on the vulnerable.

öö

Removing gambling facilities: Closing down gambling facilities like the ‘pokies’ in Kaikohe.

öö

Rural bus services: Implementing rural bus services between rural communities and main towns to allow access to services such as medical appointments.

öö

Driving lessons: Teaching driving in schools so that students can get their licence. This will help combat geographic isolation and reduce the rate of behind-the-wheel offences.

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4.0 Observations The following observations discuss and respond directly to the 240 ‘hows’ collected on tour. Broader analysis of the findings and observations while on tour will appear in a think piece in early 2017 and a full report in late 2017. Narratives of poverty often revert to discussions on individual wealth or lack of income. They do not talk about the impact of poverty on families and communities, nor do they reveal what success looks and feels like for different people and groups. Workshop participants shared their ideas on how they would tackle poverty and connect individuals, families and communities with their dreams and ambitions. Further analysis found that there is another useful way to discuss poverty – with what we have called a Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework. This work is explained further in Section 4.1. Providing social infrastructure is a role of local and regional government, and central government must ensure the correct policy settings are in place to align resources and optimise goals. Future investments into communities affected by poverty must be made more carefully in order to cater to the complexities and distinct challenges of each community. By recognising the differences within our communities, as well as the commonalities, we are better placed not just to tackle poverty but to eradicate it, thereby improving economic and social outcomes for all. 4.1 The evolution of the Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework We looked at a number of ways to simply and articulately represent the ‘hows’ we heard on tour. We looked at organising them in categories such as age or social service; however, these did not seem to fully reflect the conversations we heard. We heard not just a strong desire to tackle poverty but a desire to eliminate poverty entirely. Therefore we need two strategies: a strategy to help people get out of poverty and a strategy to enable people to stay out of poverty. The participants were not just talking about short-term survival and security; they wanted to find durable ways to enable people to escape the cycle of poverty. On reflection, the conversations we heard on the tour reminded us of the psychological theories of Abraham Maslow6 and Frederick Herzberg.7

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Se lf-f ulfi l

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Figure 7: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Self-actualisation: achieving one’s full potential, including creative activities

Esteem needs: prestige and feeling of accomplishment Belongingness and love needs: intimate relationships, friends Safety needs: security, safety Physiological needs: food, water, warmth, rest

6 Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs was first published in 1943; it is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. He argues that our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behaviour. Once that level is fulfilled, the next level up is what motivates us, and so on. See www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html. 7 Frederick Herzberg’s two-factor, or hygiene-motivation, theory was first published in The Motivation to Work in 1959. He concluded that employees have two sets of needs; lower-level needs as an animal (to avoid pain and deprivation) and higher level needs as a human being (to grow psychologically). This model enabled Herzberg to conclude that the opposite of satisfaction is no satisfaction while the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction.

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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explores how individual needs motivate our behaviour (see Figure 7). However, participants considered collective needs and discussed many of the ‘hows’ in terms of the role of family, the community and the nation. In our view, they were introducing another dimension to the selffulfillment needs of Maslow’s hierarchy. This dimension is illustrated by the self-determining communities and self-determining nation factors in Figure 8 below. Herzberg developed the motivation-hygiene theory as a way of understanding employee satisfaction. His theory resonates because the two factors he describes – factors for ‘hygiene’ (i.e. job status and pay) and factors for motivation (i.e. the nature of the work and recognition for the work done) – were not just opposite but distinct from each other. Herzberg thus argued that, to improve employee satisfaction, an employer needs to adopt a two-staged process. Firstly the employer needs to eliminate the dissatisfaction employees are experiencing and then the employer needs to help them find satisfaction. Crucial to this is the understanding that eliminating dissatisfaction does not, on its own, create satisfaction. Fusing these two theories together, the Institute proposes a new two-staged process based on what we have called the Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework. The first stage is to get people out of poverty (achieved by an adequate and efficient supply of sustaining factors). The second stage requires empowering factors to enable people to remain poverty-free for the rest of their lives. Describing sustaining and empowering factors Sustaining factors relate to an individual’s short-term survival and security needs. The aim is to deliver essential products and services to the right people at the right time to quickly move them from the sustaining stage into the empowering stage. The range of products and services are quite small in number and can be standardised and even centralised – see Table 1 overleaf for examples. In most cases, the provider does not require a lot of expertise to deliver these products and services (although obvious exceptions are people like doctors). What they need from government is (i) quality control over a standard set of products and services and (ii) general knowledge about how the system operates. This means the provider can also match the person in poverty to the experts who can help them. Empowering factors relate to the empowerment of an individual, community or nation. They are the factors that help people to stay out of poverty. To move a person out of poverty and keep them out of poverty requires a relationship to be developed over a long period of time. The individual needs secure employment, personalised care and guidance, and providers need to have both time and a high level of expertise in their specialist area and in how to navigate the system. Unlike sustaining factors, empowering factors cannot be managed centrally, as their management needs are unique for each individual. Looking more deeply at the ‘hows’ – creating 5 factors and 33 sub-factors Figure 8: The Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework

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dividual)

erm

ge each

ers

orks and

Factor I: Survival / Oranga

Sustaining factors / Tohu Toitū

Providing emergency products and services for survival. 1.

Food

[5]*

2.

Clothing and shoes

[2]

3.

Bedding

[2]

4.

Shelter (emergency housing)

5.

Accessibility

[10] [2]

Factor II: Security / Tāmau

Providing a sense of short-term security. 6.

Security of income

7.

Security of place (social housing)

8.

Security of health

9.

Security of transport and technology

[20] [6] [24] [9]

Factor III: Self-determining individuals / Tangata Motuhake

Providing skills and tools for individuals to live the life they want. 10. Employment literacy

[5]

11. Education literacy

[13]

12. Health literacy

[12]

13. Financial literacy

[9]

14. Transportation literacy

[4]

15. Technological literacy

[2]

16. Civic literacy

Empowering factors / Tohu Whakamana

y need.

Table 1: An extract detailing the sub-factors from A situational overview of the talking tour 2016/ He tūāhua o te haerenga kōrero 2016

[38]

17. Housing literacy

[2]

Factor IV: Self-determining communities / Hapori Motuhake

Providing social infrastructure to meet specific community needs. 18. Resource allocation

[4]

19. Community decision making

[4]

20. Curriculum, teachers and students

[15]

21. Harmful products and services

[7]

22. Social infrastructure

[22]

23. Community projects

[4]

24. Medical services

In the process of reviewing the ‘hows’, we divided up the 240 ‘hows’ to correspond with sustaining and empowering factors. If a ‘how’ related to both a sustaining and an empowering factor, the ‘how’ was placed into the sustaining factor category. This will skew the research results in favour of the sustaining factors. In the next step of reviewing the ‘hows’, we identified 33 sub-factors (listed in Table 1). Each sub-factor is described in more detail in the checklist in Appendix 8. This process enabled us to further divide these subfactors into additional groups – hence the sustaining factors could be divided into survival factors and security factors. This process was repeated for the empowering factors, dividing ‘hows’ into factors of self-determining individuals, self-determining communities and a selfdetermining nation. See the groups in Table 1. As well as creating a framework for analysis, the 33 sub-factors form a checklist which can be used by communities and individuals to identify what sustaining and empowering factors they have and which they do not have. The sub-factors are terms we have created to align with the voices we heard on tour, and enable us to analyse the ‘hows’. From categorising the ‘hows’ and using the checklist, we were able to produce a pie chart of all the 240 ‘hows’ as well as a pie chart for each workshop. See Figures 9 and 10 in the following pages. The difference between sustaining factors and empowering factors The Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework suggests there are two distinct but complementary ways to tackle poverty – both are necessary, but they demand different processes and management systems to bring about change. Table 2 sets out these key differences. Table 2 illustrates the different processes required to deliver on the factors. For example, sustaining factors are expensive in terms of resources whereas empowering factors are expensive in terms of human capital.

[6]

25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable housing)

[14]

26. Culture of care

[5]

27. Grandparents raising grandchildren

[3]

28. Financial assistance and tax systems

[8]

29. Local economy

[8]

30. Explore innovative ways to package debt

[4]

Factor V: Self-determining nation / Iwi Motuhake Providing a strategic approach that optimises both public good and economic enterprise. 31. Central government strategy to tackle poverty

[5]

32. Mental health services review

[1]

33. Think Tank: takahanga tuatahi – The first footsteps

[1]

* Note: The number in the right column in Table 1 refers to the number of ‘hows’ that relate directly to one of the 33 sub-factors. As some ’hows’ are applicable to more than one sub-factor, the numbers in brackets add up to 276. WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 18 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE


Table 2: An extract defining the sub-factors from A situational overview of the talking tour 2016/ He tūāhua o te haerenga kōrero 2016

Key differences

Sustaining factors / Tohu Toitū

Empowering factors / Tohu Whakamana

Factor 1: Survival Providing emergency products and services for survival.

Factor 3: Self-determining individuals Providing skills and tools for individuals to live the life they want.

Factor 2: Security Providing a sense of short-term security.

Factor 4: Self-determining communities Providing social infrastructure to meet specific community needs. Factor 5: Self-determining nation Providing a strategic approach that optimises both public good and economic enterprise.

Goal

To move individuals quickly from the sustaining stage into the empowering stage.

To retain an individual in the empowering stage for as long as they need.

Time taken

Short-term (days or weeks)

Long-term (years or decades)

Process type

Production line (i.e. logistics and checklists)

Individual approach (i.e. a unique package of needs fit for each individual)

Level of expertise required by the giver and the receiver

Low (must be centralised) Although requires knowledge on how to navigate the system

High (must be decentralised) Requires listening and sorting out what is needed over the long term

Costs to provider

Expensive in terms of resources

Expensive in terms of human capital

Administration

Complex There are many components but the goal is to simplify the system and deal with a large number of individuals efficiently.

Complicated There is a high level of difficulty due to the diverse and unique range each individual has and how best they might be delivered.

Risks

That the system over-supplies to some and under-supplies to others due to a lack of coordination.

That the system over-supplies to some and under-supplies to others due to a lack of coordination.

Some individuals become institutionalised or dependent.

Some suppliers provide out-of-date information.

Ill-intentioned people take advantage of individuals in this space (e.g. loan sharks, drug dealers and perpetrators of intimidation or sexual abuse).

Some suppliers may not be motivated to solve problems.

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There are no checks and balances or measures to evaluate what works and what does not.


The results in totality Figure 9 gives an overall perspective of the ‘hows’ from the tour in its totality. The colours of the segments in each pie chart correspond to the five factors, while the numbers (1–33) refer to the sub-factors. This figure shows that policy analysts should focus on two simultaneous strategies. One strategy involves developing ways to standardise tools to deliver sustaining factors and the other involves supporting communities to design and develop local solutions so that they can focus on empowering factors (see the right-hand column in Appendix 9 for more detail). Figure 9 indicates that the sustaining factors that central government should focus on nationally are: 8. Security of health [24] 6. Security of income [20] 4. Shelter (emergency housing) [10]8 9. Security of transport and technology [9] Figure 9 also indicates that the empowering factors that central government should support locally are: 16. Civic literacy [38] 22. Social infrastructure [22] 20. Curriculum, teachers and students [15] 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable housing) [14] 11. Education literacy [13] 12. Health literacy [12] Factor I: Survival / Oranga 13. Financial literacy [9]

A situational overview thefrom talking tour 2016/ 1. 2016 Food Figure 9: Anof extract A situational overview of the talking tour 2016/ He tūāhua o te haerenga kōrero 2. Clothing and shoes He tūāhua o te haerenga kōrero 2016 3. Bedding

nalysing the 240 ‘hows’

is infographic illustrates how participants of the TacklingPovertyNZ orkshops suggested we might tackle poverty.

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Providing a sense of short-term security. 6.

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High (must be decentralised) Requires listening and sorting out what is needed over the long term Expensive in terms of human capital

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Factor IV: Self-determining communities / Hapori Motuhake

Providing social infrastructure to meet specific community nee 18. Resource allocation

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19. Community decision making

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20. Curriculum, teachers and students

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The results for each community 21. Harmful products and services Sustaining factors / Tohu Toitū Empowering factors / Tohu Whakamana 22. Social infrastructure The six pie charts in Figure 10 overleaf to represent the ‘hows’ from each area in a way that is easy 23. Community projects To move individuals quickly from the sustaining stage into the To retain an individual in the empowering stage for as long as they need. to read, understand and compare. Figure 10 breaks down Figure 9 into the six workshops. The size empowering stage. 24. Medical services Short-term (days or weeks) (years or decades) of each segment represents the numberLong-term of ‘hows’ developed in each community for that factor 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable housing) Production line (i.e. logistics and checklists) Individual approach (i.e. a unique package of needs fit for each individual) and sub-factor. Low (must be centralised) Although requires knowledge on how to navigate the system

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11. Education literacy

16. Civic literacy

Empowering factors / Tohu Whakamana

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17 18

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15. Technological literacy 2

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Please note the numbers in [X] in the column on the right refer to the number of ‘hows’ that relate directly to each of the 33 sub-factors. As some ‘hows’ are applicable to more than one sub-factor, the numbers in square brackets add up to 276.

5

ū Toit hu To II

If you ask people how to tackle poverty they will indirectly point out the failings in the current system and suggest improvements or novel solutions to existing problems. If knowledge lies with people and the tools lie with government, the list of ‘hows’ we have collected represents the knowledge of the people and illustrates to government how they might use their tools more effectively.

4

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29

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27

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rticipants were asked to develop specific, actionable suggestions r how to address poverty. As a result of the tour’s six workshops, 0 ‘hows’ were identified. In the process of reviewing the ‘hows’ e created the Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework. is framework enabled us to divide the 240 ‘hows’ to correspond th sustaining factors (which relate to an individual’s short-term rvival and security needs) and empowering factors (which relate to e empowerment of an individual, community or nation). We then ouped these ‘hows’ to produce 33 sub-factors for analysis (see ht-hand column).

30 31 32 33

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Sustaining factors / Tohu Toitū

Providing emergency products and services for survival.

26. Culture of care

[1

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[2

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Grandparents raising grandchildren [ As Figure 10 shows where each community would like action to be focused, the sustaining27. and 28. Financial assistance and tax systems [ Complicated Complex empowering factors will need to be implemented differently in each area. What is interesting is 29. Local economy [ There is a high level of difficulty due to the diverse and unique range each There are many components but the goal is to simplify the individual has and how best they be delivered.administered but empowering system and deal with a large number individuals efficiently.sustaining 30. Explore innovative ways to package debt [ that, when taken toofan extreme, factors could bemight centrally That the system over-supplies to some in and under-supplies to others Thatfactors the system over-supplies to somebe and under-supplies to could never successfully centralised. (See the tables Appendix 10 for more detail on the Factor V: Self-determining nation / Iwi Motuhak due to a lack of coordination. others due to a lack of coordination. a strategic approach that optimises both public individual communities). The factors with the most listed below each pie chart.Providing Some suppliers provide‘hows’ out-of-date are information. Some individuals become institutionalised or dependent. good and economic enterprise. Expensive in terms of resources

Ill-intentioned people take advantage of individuals in this space (e.g. loan sharks, drug dealers and perpetrators of intimidation or sexual abuse).

Some suppliers may not be motivated to solve problems.

There are no checks and balances or measures to evaluate what works and what does not.

31. Central government strategy to tackle poverty

[

32. Mental health services review

[

33. Think Tank: takahanga tuatahi – The first footsteps

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8 Given that emergency housing was a frequently raised issue in the workshops and has been in the press recently (e.g. the Cross-Party Homelessness Inquiry, see www.homelessnessinquiry.co.nz), an emergency housing checklist is included as Appendix 11.

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 20 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE


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Figure 10: An extract from A regional perspective of the talking tour 2016/ He tirohanga a rohe o te haerenga kōrero 2016 A regional perspective of theperspective talking tourof 2016/ He tirohanga a rohe te haerenga kōrero A regional the talking tour 2016/ Heotirohanga a rohe o te2016 haerenga kōrero 2016

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WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 21

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erspective of the talking 2016/aHe tirohanga a rohe kōrero o te haerenga e talking tour 2016/ He tour tirohanga rohe o te haerenga 2016 kōrero 2016 Manawatu Manawatu Rotorua n Queenstown Rotorua 311 33 1 14 3

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Based on Figure 10, our findings suggest: öö

Queenstown is not in need of sustaining factors (there is no yellow and very little orange on their pie chart).

öö

Kaitaia and Kaikohe, even though they are just over an hour apart by car, have very different needs. Kaitaia, like Queenstown, has very little need for survival factors as these are already catered for. This resonated with what we were told in Kaitaia, such as there being over 40 providers on the main street dealing with basic needs (e.g. food, clothing, bedding etc.). In contrast, Kaikohe desperately needs to address survival factors.

öö

Security factors were considered to be undersupplied for across all areas visited, but, on a more detailed level, security needs are different. For example, security of transport and technology (Subfactor 9) is significant in Kaitaia and, to a lesser extent, in Gisborne and Kaikohe, whereas Manawatu and Queenstown need more security of place through social housing (Sub-factor 7).

öö

Gisborne, Manawatu and Rotorua were the only areas visited to include Factor V: Self-determining nation (illustrated by the green). Many effective initiatives are already in place in these communities, so the inclusion of this factor was arguably a call to central government to contribute to their efforts in a significant and timely manner.

öö

The pie charts indicated consistent themes across all workshops:

(a)

All areas visited wanted improvement in literacy skills (illustrated by the light blue, which takes up at least a quarter of every pie chart) specifically civic literacy was brought up at each workshop.

(b)

All areas visited wanted greater community self-determination (illustrated by the dark blue).

From our six workshops, the Institute found stark differences in each area’s needs. The disparities across the areas illustrate that there is no one-size-fits-all solution. The evidence was clear: the needs of different communities are unique and require local knowledge and local solutions. 4.2 Main differences between workshops The concluding results of the tour were incredibly diverse and at times starkly contrasting. Of the five areas visited on the tour, none exhibited an understanding of poverty in their communities that was directly akin to the others. In a similar vein, every community identified an array of challenges and concerns unique to their local area. The results highlighted two of our assumptions underpinning the tour: that poverty does not need to be universally defined or measured in order to be tackled, and that one size does not fit all in terms of solutions to poverty. Participants at the Queenstown workshop, for example, overwhelmingly identified empowering factors, such as resource allocation and financial assistance, as the most prominent challenges facing their community. Conversely, participants at the Gisborne and Manawatu workshops acknowledged empowering factors and sustaining factors, such as health and income security, in equally high regard. Kaikohe and Kaitaia both identified sustaining factors as an integral part of their communities. However, participants in Kaikohe specifically identified that basic survival needs such as food, bedding and shelter were of crucial importance. By contrast, participants in Kaitaia identified transportation issues as their main short-term security dilemma. These comparisons demonstrate that while communities may share a common desire to eliminate poverty, it is important to differentiate and diagnose the unique complexities that each area must tackle. From travelling the country, it was clear that experiences of poverty exist on a continuum. There were two outliers on the tour. At one end is Queenstown, which is just beginning to see the first signs of poverty and wondering what this is and what it means going forward. The other end of the continuum is the Far North, where the ‘hows’ were discussed in terms of embedded poverty, accompanied by less hope of finding a way out of it. In between were the areas of Manawatu, Rotorua and Gisborne. These communities, through discussing the ‘hows’, showed a shared understanding of poverty and in some cases provided a very clear strategy on how they are going about tackling it. Preparing the pie chart for each workshop illustrated the differences between communities, again emphasising the importance of developing community solutions. Communities that have their sustaining factors met require empowering factors to bring about durable change. Otherwise, WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 22 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE


investing energy and resources in sustaining factors without attending to empowering factors is likely to lead to people slipping back into poverty. We therefore need to invest differently, to provide for the needs of people in poverty more efficiently and effectively. As a general outcome of the tour, the Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework can be applied by communities as a stocktake to measure performance over time. Some communities may have an over-supply or repetition of some factors and a complete under-supply or drought in others. From this, potential solutions can be recognised and the first steps made towards addressing poverty on a local level. 4.3 Common themes: The three Es of employment, education and empowerment The Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework was partly inspired by a conversation with acting Chief Executive Officer of the Far North District Council, Colin Dale. He advocated for the three Es of employment, education and empowerment. We were particularly interested in his choice of the word ‘empowerment’, indicating that employment and education on their own are not enough to tackle poverty. It was noticeable on tour that employment was discussed in terms of wellbeing, and education was discussed in terms of the skills needed to navigate systems (rather than just as an academic pursuit). Below we outline the depth and nuance behind commonly simplified solutions for poverty. Employment is often recognised as the solution, but a job is not enough. öö

The working poor exist. Many people are not able to pay for day-to-day expenses with just one job. Many who attended the workshops made this clear. One person literally ran in to tell us this, while another said she could only attend as she was on ACC with a bad leg injury. Two or more jobs are becoming a necessity due to increasing housing prices and living costs. It is not enough to be employed; you have to be employed by a company that pays a living wage and provides enough hours.

öö

Distance between home and work matters. It is not uncommon that the poorest in society are pushed to the outskirts of cities where transportation costs are high and the associated lack of infrastructure further damages their quality of life. When economic shocks occur, mortgages, rents and transport costs often spike upwards, further disadvantaging those living a long way from work. This is particularly relevant in the areas where owning a car and paying for petrol is the only way to commute to a job.

öö

Large employers have too much influence over community outcomes. Many regions have one employer or industry that dominates the employment market (e.g. forestry). Large employers arguably have more influence over community outcomes but less motivation to engage with the community. One participant described these employers as ‘helicopter employers’: those who do not live in the community but profit from the resources of the land without sufficiently contributing to the wealth of the community. They can bring in prospective employees from outside the community, meaning that local residents miss job opportunities and employers have less incentive to build ongoing relationships and careers with the locals.

öö

Cyclical unemployment is common in some regions. For example, Queenstown has high seasonal employment levels, causing large unemployment when there are fewer tourists passing through. This leads to people either having to leave the region in spring and autumn, or being under immense pressure to find any job in order to get by.

öö

Many locals want to stay in the region. The question then becomes ‘what skills, resources, and role models do these communities need to bring about change on their own terms?’ Importantly, a new narrative is emerging – from one of job and benefit entitlement to one of entrepreneurship and self-reliance. In some communities, people are simply working around the job market to find new ways to contribute and support each other and to avoid having to relocate out of the region.

öö

High quality transport infrastructure is part of the solution. We heard a lot about the negative aspects of isolated communities and the need for those communities to have good roads, safe cars and qualified drivers – hence the desire for driving licences to be part of secondary school education in these regions.

öö

Employment regulations and conditions are an obstacle for young people. The system needs to be flexible in order to give young people a second chance. One participant said that ‘we are snuffing out the fire far too early – we need to find ways to empower and build young people up’. WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 23 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE


Internships and apprenticeships will be key to building robust, empowered communities by giving young people the opportunity to gain experience and qualifications in their chosen industries.

öö

Future technologies are likely to build further divisions between communities, creating areas of poverty in New Zealand. Increasingly, automation and artificial intelligence (AI) are reducing the amount of jobs available in many sectors. It is inevitable that this will result in displacement, especially in less populated areas. We need to be planning for this now.

Education, narrowly interpreted, is not the silver bullet. öö

Youth are being forced to leave the regions for further education. Travel and accommodation are expensive and student loans place a significant burden of debt on families.

öö

Careers advisors are few and far between and do not always have up-to-date information. There were a variety of cases where students had a career planned for the future but, upon graduating secondary school, discovered they had not studied the correct courses in order to pursue that career through tertiary education. Further, careers advisors are often more concerned with traditional careers, leaving young people and their families poorly informed. This tendency is currently doing a disservice to communities and must be addressed.

öö

Principals have too much power in local regions. In some communities, principals and teachers are seen primarily as authority figures. Their authority and influence can be detrimental. Siblings and families may be negatively impacted within the school’s community if a family member has a ‘bad name’.

öö

Life skills are not taught in enough depth. Participants talked about life skills and the many types of literacies needed to navigate life, such as the ability to manage finances. Financial literacy was just one form of literacy our young people raised during discussions as a way of empowering their communities. A holistic approach is required to move the national curriculum to include life skills and, most importantly, to connect young New Zealanders to their dreams and ambitions.

öö

Significant barriers exist for parents navigating the education system. Providing education in the traditional sense is not enough. We found that it was not only education for the child that was required; education for the parents, the whänau and the community mattered equally.

öö

Pressure by gangs to stop attending secondary school. We heard examples of situations in the Far North and Gisborne where it was extremely difficult for year 9 and 10 boys to finish their education due to pressures to go straight into gangs.

öö

Lack of planning by communities to retain talent. Concerns were raised throughout the tour that students who do leave their regions and complete tertiary education do not have jobs to come back to. This leads to a high number of people being overskilled for the jobs which are on offer to them in the regions, and can result in unemployment.

Other issues that resonated: öö

Civic literacy was widely discussed. The tour was seen as someone coming from central government to listen but it was a place for participants to learn from each other and ask questions, particularly of the Chief Economist of the New Zealand Treasury. The need for more education on the role of government, the purpose of taxation, and the rights of people in New Zealand were brought up many times throughout the tour.

öö

Poverty without aroha is difficult to bear, poverty with aroha is bearable. It became apparent that many participants had grown up in poverty but did not recognise it as such at the time. This was because the community that they lived in worked together to help each other in times of hardship, finding ways of making it bearable.

öö

Concern over the establishment and name of the Ministry for Vulnerable Children. Many disliked the term ‘vulnerable children’ as it creates stigma. The importance of labels was especially noted in relation to contributing to a poverty mind-set.

öö

Whänau are critical. While on tour we frequently heard of family members stepping in to help an auntie, a brother or a grandmother, going out of their way to intercede on a family’s behalf.

öö

Poor health and poor wealth go hand in hand. Poverty both leads to and results from poor health. Health issues that result from poverty are often not complex to solve; it may be as simple as having more than one set of sheets, a washing machine, or a dry home. However, health issues WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 24 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE


which lead to poverty can be much more difficult to deal with. Complex and chronic mental health issues such as social isolation, anxiety and depression require specific help from counsellors and other professionals. These services tend not to be readily available in many rural areas and there are often deep stigmas attached to those who seek them.

öö

Poverty puts pressure on people’s mental health. The link between mental health and poverty was discussed a great deal. There was a significant awareness that they feed each other. The challenge is to enable individuals and communities to be aware of and manage their own mental health. This is particularly relevant for the young, who are more likely to respond to stress and/or depression by taking their own life.

öö

Health issues are intertwined with education. The correlation between health and education came through very strongly and there were calls for more early monitoring and support of young children and for parents to learn how to manage a temperature and dress and sanitise sores. It was suggested that sanitary products be provided for free at intermediate and secondary schools and GST on them be removed. We heard of students not attending school because they did not have the necessary sanitary products. Bringing back Plunket books for 0- to 18-year-olds as a central record of health issues (ideally online) was discussed. There were special concerns raised in the Far North about the spread of preventable diseases such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). In Rotorua, the need for doctors to visit kindergartens was discussed. Further, there were discussions about parents having difficulties getting children to the doctor (issues of access in the areas) and, if they did get there, not being able to pay for the prescription (we were told that, although there is a subsidy, it is owned and controlled by the specific chemist. As these children and parents move around, they need to pay for the prescription). We were also told that some parents did not understand or could not read or administer medicines as required.

öö

Social workers did not generally engage with the tour. In exploring this, it may have been because they were uncomfortable or they did not see the tour as important or useful. Those that did attend did not mix widely. However, Rotorua was the exception where social workers participated and in many cases led the discussions.

öö

Providing breakfasts in schools can undermine parents. It might make the provider feel less guilty but does not necessarily empower the recipients. One mother spoke about how the fact that her children needed to go to school to get breakfast was embarrassing – she would much prefer to be given the food so she could put it on her table for her children every morning.

öö

Grandparents cannot raise their grandchildren in definitely. In some communities, grandparents have fully taken over from the parent, with all the financial implications of this. In some cases grandparents are unaware of the transferability of benefits that the child’s parents still receive, which should be spent on the child’s needs. Questions were raised as to what will happen when grandparents get too old to raise their grandchildren and need additional support as they enter their late 70s and 80s.

öö

Making people feel safe by providing accessible and appropriate emergency housing. This came up particularly in Manawatu and Rotorua.

öö

Empowerment was the overarching concept. This concept was often discussed directly or indirectly by participants on both an individual and community level. Via the ‘hows’, participants articulated what they are missing in their communities. Empowerment can be improved through policy settings, but the real change needs to happen on an individual level in local communities. Empowerment should be seen as the biggest and most important goal. From empowerment will come education, health and employment.

öö

Poverty cannot be resolved by using symptom-based solutions. We will not eradicate poverty by addressing issues such as poor mental health or homelessness in isolation. We need to address these issues from a place of empowerment, and give people in poverty the option to make informed choices.

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4.4 Two observations Observation 1: Central government should redesign and improve systems to cater for the sustaining factors. öö

The solution is to simplify and standardise systems to make them easier to navigate. Systems should replicate frameworks that deliver high quality products and services to all. For example, Boeing, My Food Bag, the tax system and the lunch box system in Mumbai.9

Observation 2: Central government should explore new ways to enable local communities to manage the empowering factors. öö

The distinction between how people are moved out of poverty and how people are kept out of poverty was a key finding. It is time to try new ways to tackle poverty and improve wellbeing; the current central government approach is not working as well as it should.

4.5 Next steps The Institute will continue this work throughout 2017, looking to share our findings across the country. See Figure 11 for the work programme for 2017. It is important that the Institute honours the ideas heard throughout the 2016 tour by continuing to share them with our communities. öö

On 21 December 2016, we sent a proposal on demarcation zones to the Rt Hon Bill English.10

öö

During January and February 2017, we are publishing approved videos of each speaker presentation on our YouTube channel.

öö

In February 2017, we will send an invitation to all MPs to meet to discuss this working paper.

öö

From March 2017, we will be returning to the six areas visited to present this working paper and gather further feedback.

öö

In May 2017, we will attend the Community Boards Conference in Methven, where we will share the findings from the tour.

öö

The Institute also has invitations to undertake other workshops in 2017, and we are looking into these proposals.

öö

We will publish our second working paper for 2017, which will bring together a broader landscape of academic research on poverty.

öö

We intend to publish a think piece on the tour which will explore key policy ideas. These ideas may develop into additional proposals late in 2017.

Figure 11: Diagram of TacklingPovertyNZ outputs

9 Mumbai’s dabbawallas pick up and deliver more than 350,000 home cooked lunches per day to office workers across the megacity. The localised efficiency and accuracy of the dabbawalla system has been hailed by business and design schools worldwide. See www.worksthatwork.com/1/dabbawallas. 10 Demarcation zones are one of the key strategic ideas that were generated by the tour. We have proposed establishing three zones to be situated in the Far North, Rotorua and Gisborne districts, led respectively by Mayor Hon John Carter, Mayor Hon Steve Chadwick and Mayor Meng Foon. The zones would be delegated certain governance powers to connect local knowledge and decision making with experimental tools and national resources – the zones would aim to bring about real change in each unique community. The proposal can be found on the TacklingPovertyNZ website – www.tacklingpovertynz.org/publications.

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Appendix 1: TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 one-day workshop tour summary table

Pre-workshop

Queenstown

Manawatu

Rotorua

1. Supporters

Queenstown Lakes District Manawatu District Council Council, Catalyst Trust, The Rees Hotel and Deco Backpackers

Rotorua Lakes Council

2. Council staff

Marie Day (workshop manager)

Dr Richard Templer (CEO) Maria Brenssell (workshop manager)

Rosemary Viskovic (workshop manager) Niki Carling Heather Pearson

3. Pre-survey results summarised

The pre-workshop survey was an addition to the process after the Queenstown workshop. What we understood was that as a major tourism centre in New Zealand, Queenstown has a unique experience of and perspective on poverty. Former mayor Vanessa van Uden explained that the pressures of growth in the area have created an ‘underbelly of poverty’. While the rest of the world sees Queenstown’s veneer of luxury, locals are expressing an increasingly urgent need to look past this at the less marketable reality.

Participants sought to better understand what poverty looks like in Manawatu and to learn how individuals and the community can help alleviate the problem. Participants also saw the need for better community collaboration and networking between local social agencies. Ideas about innovating the system and promoting strength-based or community development approaches were also put forward, especially by listening to those in poverty, engaging with community leaders, and creating better connections between communities, agencies, and local and central government.

Participants wanted to meet other like-minded people and build a better picture of what poverty looks like in Rotorua. They also sought community connections between agencies, services, leaders, and individuals to understand what support is currently available and where gaps need to be filled. Participants saw the need to create innovate community-led initiatives but also wanted to explore programmes occurring in other New Zealand regions, nationally and internationally. Participants also put forward the idea that Rotorua needs to be part of the national conversation and that participants need to provide ideas and possible recommendations for tackling issues at both local and national level.

Number of respondents: 61

Number of respondents: 89

4. Number of service providers in the area*

37

72

118

* Number of NGO and government service providers in the area as at www.familyservices.govt.nz/directory/ 25/11/2016. Please note this is only representative of the quantity, not the quality of service provided.

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Gisborne

Far North – Kaitaia

Far North – Kaikohe

Gisborne District Council

Far North District Council Northland Regional Council

Far North District Council Northland Regional Council

Elke Thompson (workshop manager) Staci Hare

Colin Dale (acting CEO) Ana Mules (workshop manager) Aya Morris Adele Thomson

Colin Dale (acting CEO) Ana Mules (workshop manager) Aya Morris Adele Thomson

Participants sought to connect with other people in the community who are committed to listening to experiences, sharing ideas and creating strategies for tackling poverty in Tairāwhiti. They also wanted to better understand how they could help improve the problem. Participants wanted to recognise who in the community is experiencing poverty, and determine the difference between those living in poverty and those for whom poverty is a consequence of addiction and habits. Participants also sought to enhance existing connections, streamline information and get better access to local data. Participants wanted to create both short-term and long-term integrated, pragmatic, locally-grown solutions, that can influence central and local government policies. These solutions were to have milestones and commitment from cross-agency community groups to oversee and support their implementation.

Participants wanted to understand what is currently being done in Kaitaia and the Far North, and determine where Kaitaia is currently at to create a base-line. Participants also suggested that the workshop would help facilitate networking with like-minded people who want to take action, learn more about the situation, and help get people out of poverty, both as individuals and as a community. They also wanted to create sustainable local solutions to not only help alleviate poverty but also change the mind-set of those in poverty and create a sense of hope and light at the end of the tunnel.

Participants wanted to get more information about poverty in the region and what services are available, while also creating unity, encouraging acceptance and building a more connected community. They also saw the need for better connection between agencies and the community to understand what is currently being done, what is working, where the gaps are and what resources the community has to work with going forward. Respondents also sought to create shared long-term goals to drive action and change, and understand their roles as both individuals and as members of the community. Participants saw communication between the community and businesses as vital to ensure that there was commitment from key drivers of change. Kaikohe respondents also asserted that participants from the workshop should understand their untapped strength – they are key in identifying the core issues and developing solutions as a community.

Number of respondents: 25

Number of respondents: 56

Number of respondents: 25

98

42

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26


Workshop

Queenstown

Manawatu

Rotorua

5. Participants (approx.)

One day workshop attendance Registered: 33 Registered on the day: 19 Not registered: 8 Total: 60

One day workshop attendance Registered: 42 Registered on the day: 4 Not registered: 19 Total: 65

One day workshop attendance Registered: 83 Registered on the day: 10 Not registered: 7 Total: 100

6. National speakers

Dr Girol Karacaoglu Dame Diane Robertson Jennifer Weber

Dr Girol Karacaoglu Dame Diane Robertson

Dr Girol Karacaoglu Dame Diane Robertson

7. Local speakers

Mayor Vanessa van Uden Hine Marchand Niki Mason

Mayor Margaret Kouvelis Natasha Allan Nigel Allan Michelle Cameron Kathryn Cook Amanda Oldfield

Mayor Hon Steve Chadwick JP Potaua Biasiny-Tule Judge Louis Bidois Laurie Watt

8. TacklingPovertyNZ 2015 participants (workshop interns)

Ali Bunge Monique Francois Eden Iati Elizabeth Maddison Caitlin Papuni-McLellan Regan Thwaites

Felix Drissner-Devine Elaina Lauaki-Vea Maddie Little Caitlin Papuni-McLellan

Ali Bunge Anna-Marei Kurei Elaina Lauaki-Vea Caitlin Papuni-McLellan Caroline Simmonds Nathan Williams Xindi Zhang

9. McGuinness Institute staff

Sally Hett Sophie Peat Annie McGuinness Lachlan McGuinness

Freya Tearney Ashley Brown

Sun Jeong

10. Audience (approx.)#

Finale presentation Registered: 24 Attended: 36

Finale presentation Registered: 26 Attended: 20

Finale presentation Registered: 58 Attended: 21

11. Domains (self-selected by participants)

A: Business B: Housing C: Community D: Other

A: Housing B: Youth/under 5s C: Health and wellbeing D: Māori E: Elderly

A: Housing B: Youth C: Community D: Financing debt E: Business F: Government initiatives

12. ‘Hows’ developed

Version 1: 34 Version 2: 28 Version 3 (final): 28

Version 1: 57 Version 2: 35 Version 3 (final): 32

Version 1: 129 Version 2: 81 Version 3 (final): 44

13. High-level observations from participants

Participants observed that the first signs of poverty were starting to become apparent to the community. Four key groups which interact with poverty in different ways were identified: transient workers, tourists, second-home owners and locals.

Participants observed that there is considerable wealth in the community as well as considerable poverty, which meant that poverty is not well understood by the wider community. It is difficult to bring about change without a shared understanding of the challenges.

Participants observed that they collectively had a good understanding of the nature and impact of poverty on the community and how to tackle it. Participants were interested in taking action, as they already knew what the problems were and how to solve them.

# In addition to final participants we decided it was important that we created a place and time for those who could not attend the workshop during the day to attend in the evening (after the workshop). This mean that participants had an audience to present their ideas to and invite feedback from.

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Gisborne

Far North – Kaitaia

Far North – Kaikohe

One day workshop attendance Registered: 43 Registered on the day: 19 Not registered: 13 Total: 75

One day workshop attendance Registered: 19 Registered on the day: 10 Not registered: 31 Total: 60

One day workshop attendance Registered: 20 Registered on the day: 6 Not registered: 14 Total: 40

Dr Girol Karacaoglu Dr Carwyn Jones

Dr Girol Karacaoglu

Dr Girol Karacaoglu

Mayor Meng Foon Virginia Brind Linda Coulston Leighton Evans Jess Jacobs Annette Toupili

Mayor Hon John Carter Blair Kapa-Peters Deidre Otene Ebba Raikes

Mayor Hon John Carter Mark Anderson Jim Luders Tania McInnes Deidre Otene Kelly Yakas

Ali Bunge Felix Drissner-Devine Monique Francois Anna-Marei Kurei Zoe Pushon Caroline Simmonds Nathan Williams

Matthew Bastion Lisa Jagoe Alexander Jones Apurva Kasture Tara Officer Brad Olsen

Matthew Bastion Lisa Jagoe Alexander Jones Apurva Kasture Tara Officer Brad Olsen

Freya Tearney Annie McGuinness Lachlan McGuinness

Sally Hett Freya Tearney Ashley Brown Eleanor Merton

Sally Hett Freya Tearney Ashley Brown Eleanor Merton

Finale presentation Registered: 36 Attended: 33

Finale presentation Registered: 17 Attended: 14

Finale presentation Registered: 15 Attended: 30

A: Working families/working poor B: Gangs and drug users C: Children under 12 D: Health and mental health E: Elderly F: Māori

A: Geographic isolation B: Changing the poverty mind-set C: Education D: Māori E: Grandparents raising grandchildren F: Communication and mapping

A: Economy B: Social services and community C: Rural isolation D: Education E: Health

Version 1: 122 Version 2: 122 Version 3 (final): 69

Version 1: 42 Version 2: 31 Version 3 (final): 31

Version 1: 29 Version 2: 36 Version 3 (final): 36

Participants observed that there were many small initiatives working towards trying to alleviate poverty for particular parts of the community, but these were often not well-known in the wider community. Many participants came at poverty from very different perspectives and at times had conflicting suggestions of how to bring about change.

Participants were highly aware of the presence of poverty in their communities. They were tired of the frequent studies of the situation by outsiders: often researchers and policyanalysts came to the community to analyse the situation, but were never heard from again. Participants talked about how embedded the mind-set of poverty was, and how many people did not have any faith or hope that things would change. Whatever happens next must be followed through and delivered upon.

Participants were highly aware of the presence of poverty in their communities. They observed that some of the issues of deeply embedded poverty stemmed from isolation and disconnection between the community and local businesses. Participants talked about the need to have a hui at a marae in order to ensure the whole community felt invited to take part in the dialogue.

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Appendix 2: Photos from the TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 one-day workshop tour

Queenstown – Tuesday, 29 March

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Manawatu – Monday, 15 August

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Michelle Scott from DCM, Trevor Moeke, Principal Advisor of Crown-Māori Capability at the New Zealand Treasury, and Wendy McGuinness with a baby box from the Baby Box Co. (May 2016)

Rotorua – Friday, 19 August

Pepi pod and baby box at the Rotorua workshop (August 2016)

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Gisborne – Wednesday, 31 August

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Kaitaia – Thursday, 15 September

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Kaikohe – Friday, 16 September

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Appendix 3: Workshop Handouts – Exercise 1, 2 and 3

TacklingPovertyNZ Workshop Exercise 1: Maps (the ‘who’) Task:

Name: .....................................

Visually represent the poverty landscape in your community

Step 1: Consider these two established definitions of poverty: absolute poverty as defined by the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), and hardship poverty as defined by the New Zealand Treasury. •

‘Absolute poverty’ is when an individual does not have access to the amount of money necessary for meeting basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter.

‘Hardship’ poverty is when an individual is constrained by their material circumstances from achieving a minimum ‘decent’ level of wellbeing.

For the purposes of this exercise, imagine these types of poverty as one end of a continuum of wellbeing – at the other end of the continuum is a high level of individual and communal wellbeing that is sustainable over the long term. Step 2: Discuss with your group the different demographic groups that are affected by poverty in your area. Step 3: Fill in the map below by positioning the affected groups you have identified according to their age range and the extremity of their situation. Please use this space to jot notes down during the panel discussion. This worksheet will then provide a useful resource in the group work that follows.

100

Years of age

75

50

25

Absolute poverty

Hardship poverty

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TacklingPovertyNZ Workshop Exercise 2: Post-its (the ‘ideas’) Task:

Name: .....................................

Think about how and why poverty affects different groups in different ways and how change could come about

Step 1: Fill in the left-hand column with the affected groups identified in Exercise 1. Step 2: Discuss with your group the issues that these groups are faced with because of poverty. Fill in the right-hand column with your ideas and observations on how change could come about. Step 3: Write your ideas and observations on post-its to present to the plenary and display on the wall. Please use this space to jot notes down during the panel discussion. This worksheet will then provide a useful resource in the group work that follows. Affected group (from Exercise 1)

How and why they are affected

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TacklingPovertyNZ Workshop Exercise 3: Seven ways (the ‘how’) Task:

Name: .....................................

Develop seven specific, actionable ways to address the issues

Step 1: Brainstorm with your group possible ways to address the ideas that come under the domain you have chosen. Record your thinking in the left-hand column. Step 2: Narrow your ideas down into seven actions or ‘hows’. These actions could be pursued at a local or national level (please specify). You will present these to the plenary and then to the public in the evening presentation. Please use this space to jot notes down during the panel discussion. This worksheet will then provide a useful resource in the group work that follows. Ideas and possible actions (specific ideas from Exercise 2) Seven ‘hows’

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Appendix 4: Analysing the 240 ‘hows’ from the TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 tour – by location Location Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne

Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne

Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne

'How'

Factors I to V

Type of sub-factor

Creating a ‘sharing meal’ system. Encouraging community governance to reduce bureaucracy (e.g. a community washing machine could be installed at a school, allowing support for struggling families). Creating affordable emergency housing (e.g. through transportable shipping containers). Improving re-integration after prison sentences, particularly for women. i.) Job opportunities – Increasing job opportunities by ensuring social enterprises provide jobs to those who mainstream employers might not consider. ii.) Housing – Increasing access to quality housing, including creating a bank of emergency accommodation, supported housing for those in need, and halfway houses for people coming out of prison. Implementing ongoing local funding for working families and working poor. Creating a dress-up shop to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, such as for a job interview. Increasing paid parental leave. Creating: a smooth pay system; an income to cover the essentials; and increased holiday pay to help seasonal workers in the off-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal workers could volunteer over the off-season but would be paid by WINZ). Implementing a lower tax-rate for employers who offer employees a living wage and redundancy packages. Increasing the minimum wage. Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan which ensures availability of skilled seasonal workers and implements targeted training for Tairawhiti region. This would also increase job security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries such as forestry and horticulture). Removing stand-down period in jobs. (From Work and Income New Zealand: ‘A stand down is a period, of up to a maximum of two weeks, where the client cannot receive a benefit payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourservices/what-is-a-stand-down.html) Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – designed to provide fully tax-funded jobs and short-term jobs for those at risk of long-term unemployment. Creating home-help jobs with extended hours. This service will create jobs in the community while also providing prolonged support for the elderly. Reviewing housing regulations to improve housing stock. Ensuring more support is there for those dealing with addictions (e.g. a local drug and alcohol court and a local rehabilitation unit in the Gisborne/Tairawhiti region). Creating and implementing an emergency police contact or panic button for elderly, and encouraging GPs to know who their elderly patients are and who is living alone. Improving service delivery for hard to access groups such as homeless or mentally ill (e.g. through innovation, social media, building relationships not just delivering services and by listening not directing). Creating a mobile health clinic. Improving access to therapy and counselling for homeless. Improving antenatal care. Creating a Plunket booklet for the elderly; a simplified, universal booklet for elderly to inform them of where to go for help. Raising awareness of abused elderly (e.g. advertisements on television, radio and newspapers). Reviewing and potentially increasing funding and resources for the elderly (e.g. through lowering medical and prescription costs, reviewing the ‘living pension’, creating a superannuation scheme like Australia’s, and eliminating rate penalties and GST for 65+ yearolds). Encouraging more interaction between the young and elderly (e.g. through elderly teaching young people life skills and young people teaching elderly technological skills; by integrating retirement homes and nurseries; encouraging single mums to volunteer with the elderly; creating a space for elderly to read to the blind and teach young people how to read; and implementing an ‘adopt a Grandparent service’). Bringing the Hub to the community instead of the community to the Hub. Encouraging whanaungatanga (relationship, kinship, sense of family connection) (e.g. getting a ride to town with neighbours, getting neighbours to do your shopping, or having a Saturday driving service). Encouraging employers to provide transport for employees to and from work. Encouraging SuperGrans to create a ‘Superbus’ which facilitates transportation for elderly. Re-teaching life skills and educating families so that all can contribute (e.g. through a family mentor).

Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival

1. Food 2. Clothing and shoes

Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival

4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing)

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of income 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of income 6. Security of income

Keeping youth engaged in learning for longer by creating more modern trade apprenticeships, encouraging outdoor education programmes and supporting initiatives such as CACTUS (Combined Adolescent Challenge Training Unit Support). Creating programmes that combat loneliness and encourage elderly to live interactive and active lifestyles (e.g. implementing a programme where elderly can interact with animals and creating walking, swimming and tai chi groups). Ensuring appropriate drug education is available in the community.

Factor III: Self-determining individuals

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of income 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of income, 8. Security of health and 22. Social infrastructure 7. Security of place (social housing) 8. Security of health

Factor II: Security

8. Security of health

Factor II: Security

8. Security of health

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

8. Security of health 8. Security of health 8. Security of health 8. Security of health

Factor II: Security

8. Security of health

Factor II: Security

8. Security of health

Factor II: Security

8. Security of health and 22. Social infrastructure

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

9. Security of transport and technology 9. Security of transport and technology

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals

9. Security of transport and technology 9. Security of transport and technology 10. Employment literacy, 11. Education literacy, 12. Health literacy, 13. Financial literacy, 14. Transportation literacy, 15. Technological literacy, 16. Civic literacy and 17. Housing literacy 11. Education literacy

Factor III: Self-determining individuals

12. Health literacy

Factor III: Self-determining individuals Creating incentives to save and encouraging financial literacy by creating short-term saving Factor III: Self-determining schemes to help with budgeting (e.g. Christmas Clubs or saving for car registration). individuals Ensuring financial training is a part of any job so that employees learn financial literacy. Factor III: Self-determining individuals Encouraging employees and employers to contribute to KiwiSaver. Factor III: Self-determining individuals Encouraging Pacific Islanders to seek help both within and outside the Pacific Island Factor III: Self-determining Community, and encouraging employers to provide information about support services and individuals networks available to the Pacific Island community. Supporting community groups that are already established and encouraging groups to Factor III: Self-determining collaborate, support each other and scale-up (e.g. Te Ora Hou, -9+ and Tu Tangata). individuals Healing for Tairawhiti cultural oppression by 2019, by: restoring mana; unveiling the truth of Factor III: Self-determining Māori history in Tairawhiti; restoring identity; restoring indigenous healing; restoring individuals connectedness; and embracing traditional practices. Addressing lost identities and rethinking what being Māori means, by creating a sense of Factor III: Self-determining belonging through cultural education. Drugs, alcohol and gangs are not who Māori are. individuals Correcting the institutionalised racism of colonisation that results in the over-representation Factor III: Self-determining of Māori in negative statistics (e.g. Māori incarceration, Māori mortality rates, more medical individuals tests conducted for non-Māori).

12. Health literacy

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13. Financial literacy 13. Financial literacy 13. Financial literacy 16. Civic literacy

16. Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy

16. Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy


Location Gisborne Gisborne

'How'

Factors I to V

Gisborne

Creating system. with whanau, and ensuring Māori-to-Māori are in Increasinga ‘sharing effectivemeal’ engagement conversationcommunity rather than governance just Māori-to-non-Māori, especially(e.g. in the implementation of any Encouraging to reduce bureaucracy a community washing ‘hows’. machine could be installed at a school, allowing support for struggling families). Ensuring affordable children and families have access tothrough information about education. Creating emergency housing (e.g. transportable shipping containers). Improving re-integration after prison sentences, particularly for women. i.) Job Strengthening family relationships and role modelling ‘better ways’ to interact as a family. opportunities – Increasing job opportunities by ensuring social enterprises provide jobs to This should include ‘teaching parents hownot to consider. teach.’ ii.) Housing – Increasing access to those who mainstream employers might Creating a youthincluding centre/safe zone for children. quality housing, creating a bank of emergency accommodation, supported housing for those in need, and halfway houses for people coming out of prison. Encouraging Māori male primary teachers. Implementingmore ongoing local funding forschool working families and working poor. Creating a dress-up shop to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, such as Having earlier intervention and support for struggling students by building trusting for a job interview. relationships between Increasing paid parentalpeople leave.and providers. Making systems adaptable to individual needs by implementing a strength-based Creating: a smooth pay system; an income to cover the essentials; and increased holiday educational system and updating theoff-season. delivery ofThis thatcould system 2017system and the(e.g. long-term. pay to help seasonal workers in the be for a WINZ seasonal Taking fluoride out of the water in Gisborne. workers could volunteer over the off-season but would be paid by WINZ).

Gisborne Gisborne

Implementing a lower tax-rate for employers who offer employees a living wage and Taxing sugar packages. to discourage unhealthy eating. redundancy

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Increasing the minimum wage. Reviewing access to alcohol licencing. Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan which ensures availability of skilled seasonal workers and implements targeted training for Tairawhiti region. This would also increase job Improving prescription drug management. security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries such as forestry and horticulture). Creating a local rehabilitation centre, which would include meeting rooms, specialists and Removing stand-down period in jobs. (From Work and Income New Zealand: ‘A stand down car parking. is a period, of up to a maximum of two weeks, where the client cannot receive a benefit Creating support homes for those with mental illness. payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourservices/what-is-a-stand-down.html) Accepting the scale of the problems, especially by the community at large. Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – designed to provide fully tax-funded jobs and short-term jobs for those at risk of long-term Improving access to, and affordability of, early childhood education (ECE) by identifying unemployment. children who are not attending childcare, checking in with parents and caregivers and asking Creating home-help jobs with extended hours. This service will create jobs in the why the 20 hours free early childhood education and care scheme is not being used and community while also providing prolonged support for the elderly. then addressing these needs. Reviewing housing regulations to improve housing stock. Factor II: Security Listening to the experience of gang whanau and involving whanau – from the beginning to Factor IV: Self-determining Ensuring more support is there for those dealing with addictions (e.g. a local drug and Factor II: Security the end – and letting them set goals. communities alcohol court and a local rehabilitation unit in the Gisborne/Tairawhiti region). Drawing upon the Norwegian prison model of local prisons to decrease impact on whanau. Factor IV: Self-determining Creating and implementing an emergency police contact or panic button for elderly, and Factor II: Security communities encouraging GPs to know who their elderly patients are and who is living alone. Creating a one-stop shop where services collaborate to share information (potentially Factor IV: Self-determining Improving service delivery for hard to access groups such as homeless or mentally ill (e.g. Factor II: Security though a database) but also ensure confidentially. This integrated approach would assist in communities through innovation, social media, building relationships not just delivering services and by removing structural and institutionalised poverty and would put a stop to siloed support listening not directing). systems. Creating a mobile health clinic. Factor II: Security Reviewing current services and bringing services directly to gang families and wananga, and Factor IV: Self-determining Improving to therapy (e.g. and counselling homeless. Factor II: Security ensure theyaccess are whanau-led Ruia Sistersfor in Red and Notorious). communities Improving Factor II: Security Initiating a antenatal Maara Kaicare. programme – the Te Puni Kōkiri Maara Kai Programme provides Factor IV: Self-determining Creating aassistance Plunket booklet for the elderly; a simplified, bookletcommunity for elderly to Factor II: Security financial to community groups wanting to setuniversal up sustainable garden communities inform them to go for help. projects, suchofaswhere fruit forests. Raising awareness of abused elderly (e.g. on patients television, and Factor II: Security Ensuring service providers change the wayadvertisements they engage with byradio asking ‘what Factor IV: Self-determining newspapers). matters to you’, not ‘what’s the matter with you’, improving responsive services by removing communities Reviewing and potentially increasing funding and resources for the elderly (e.g. through Factor II: Security judgement, and encouraging tolerance and empathy by building trust and understanding. lowering medical and prescription costs, reviewing the ‘living pension’, creating a superannuation scheme like Australia’s, and eliminating rate providers penalties and for 65+ Increasing accountability of health professionals and service and GST facilitate theyear- Factor IV: Self-determining olds). possibility of retraining. communities Encouraging interaction theflats young elderly through teaching Factor IV: II: Security Building moremore Kaumātua Flats between (Kaumātua are and available for(e.g. people who elderly are 65 years and Factor Self-determining young people life skills and young people teaching elderly technological skills; by integrating over). Building these houses will create jobs and also provide housing for elderly. communities retirement encouraging to volunteer the the elderly; Celebratinghomes successand andnurseries; encouraging collectivesingle living mums arrangements (e.g. with through ‘20 Factor IV: Self-determining creating model a space– for elderly to read to area the blind andnannies, teach young people how to read; and houses’ build 20 units in one so that papas, ‘empty nesters’, young communities implementing an ‘adopt Grandparent parents, and whanau areanot isolated). service’). Bringing thethe Hub to thefinancial community instead of the community to GST the Hub. II: Security Innovating current system by reducing or removing on essential items (e.g. Factor Factor IV: Self-determining Encouraging whanaungatanga (relationship, kinship, sense of family (e.g. to low- communities Factor II: Security sanatiary), cutting dishonour charges for lower income families, and connection) providing access getting ride to town with neighbours, getting neighbours to do your shopping, or having a interestaloans. Saturdayupdriving service). Setting a Seasonal Workers Union. Factor IV: Self-determining Encouraging employers to provide transport for employees to and from work. Factor II: Security communities Encouraging SuperGrans to create a ‘Superbus’ which facilitates transportation for elderly. Factor IV: II: Security Promoting awareness of small business centre grants. Self-determining Re-teaching life skills and educating families so that all can contribute (e.g. through a family communities Factor III: Self-determining Implementing an external review of the mental health system and mental health services. Factor V: Self-determining nation mentor). individuals This review would ensure that the right people are in the right roles, that staff have the appropriate workload and pay, and could potentially increase funding for mental health. A review would also ensure central government acknowledge the need for change. Ensuringyouth the benefit follows the child the parents. will provide I: Survival Keeping engaged in learning forrather longerthan by creating moreThis modern trade extra Factor III: Self-determining support in situations such as grandparents raisingprogrammes grandchildren and children who are apprenticeships, encouraging outdoor education and supporting initiatives individuals constantly on the(Combined move fromAdolescent one familyChallenge member to the next. such as CACTUS Training Unit Support). Prioritising the improvement of living conditions stop the spread diseases I: Survival Creating programmes that combat loneliness andtoencourage elderlyoftopreventable live interactive and Factor III: Self-determining such MRSA (Methicillin-resistant aureus). Thiscan would also with improve the activeaslifestyles (e.g. implementing aStaphylococcus programme where elderly interact animals individuals rates at whichwalking, developmental milestones are reached for children under five. and creating swimming and tai chi groups). Increasingappropriate the availability emergency housing. in the community. Factor III: I: Survival Ensuring drugofeducation is available Self-determining individuals Implementing rural bus services between rural communities and main towns to allow Factor I: Survival Creating to save and encouraging financial literacy by creating short-term saving Factor III: Self-determining access toincentives services such as medical appointments. schemes tothe help with budgeting (e.g. Christmas Clubs orthe saving car registration). individuals Increasing size of the police force to enable around clockfor availability in the local Factor II: Security Ensuring financial training is a part of any job so that employees learn financial literacy. Factor III: Self-determining area. individuals Establishing mobile GP centres in high schools to facilitate greater access for those who may Factor II: Security Encouraging and employers to contribute to KiwiSaver. Factor III: Self-determining only travel toemployees town for school. individuals Increasing the availability of mental health support and counselling. Factor II: Security Encouraging Pacific Islanders to seek helpand both within and Pacific Island Self-determining Providing special support for the elderly those with ageoutside relatedthe illnesses. Factor III: II: Security Community, and encouraging employers to petrol provide information aboutwhose support services and individuals Securing funding to enable WINZ to supply vouchers for those movements are Factor II: Security networks to the Pacific Islandtocommunity. restricted available by their location and ability buy petrol. Supporting community groups thatfor arethose already established and encouraging to Factor Implementing a mentoring system who are struggling in the existinggroups education Factor III: III: Self-determining Self-determining collaborate, support each other and scale-up (e.g. Te Ora Hou, -9+ and Tu Tangata). individuals system. individuals Healing Tairawhiti oppression by:and restoring mana; unveiling the truth Ensuringfor that teacherscultural are diverse enoughbyto2019, engage provide strong role models for of Factor Factor III: III: Self-determining Self-determining Māori history in Tairawhiti; restoring restoring indigenous healing; individuals their students who are in the processidentity; of developing their own identities andrestoring may also have individuals connectedness; and absent embracing one or more parent fromtraditional their lives.practices. This will reduce the creation of ‘educational Addressing identities being Māori a sense of Factor III: Self-determining refugees’ – lost students who and droprethinking out whenwhat transitioning frommeans, primarybytocreating secondary or from belonging through cultural education. Drugs, alcohol and gangs are not who Māori are. individuals secondary to tertiary education. Correctinga the institutionalised racism oftocolonisation thatencompasses results in the all over-representation Factor III: III: Self-determining Self-determining Adopting long-term, holistic approach education that levels and ages, Factor of Māori in negative statisticsand (e.g.life Māori Māoriand mortality rates, more medical individuals including in-home education skillsincarceration, such as gardening managing personal or individuals tests conducted for non-Māori). household finances, as well as more formal education.

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Kaikohe Gisborne

Kaikohe Gisborne

Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe

Type of sub-factor

Factor III: I: Survival Self-determining individuals Factor I: Survival

1. 16.Food Civic literacy 2. Clothing and shoes

Self-determining Factor III: I: Survival individuals Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security

11.Shelter Education literacy housing) 4. (emergency 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 11. Education literacy

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 41 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

16. Civic literacy 20.Security Curriculum, teachers and students 6. of income 6. Security of income 20. Curriculum, teachers and students 6. Security of income 20.Security Curriculum, teachers and students 6. of income 21. Harmful products and services 6. Security of income 21. Harmful products and services 6. Security of income 21. Harmful products and services 6. Security of income 22. Social infrastructure 22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income 22. Social infrastructure 22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income 22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income, 8. Security of health and 22. Social infrastructure 7. Security of place (social housing) 22. Social infrastructure 8. Security of health 22. Social infrastructure 8. Security of health 22. Social infrastructure 8. Security of health

8. Security of health 22. Social infrastructure 8. Security of health 8. of health 23.Security Community projects 8. Security of health 8. health 24.Security Medicalofservices 8. Security of health 24. Medical services 8. of health and 22. Social 25.Security Home ownership, rentals and shared infrastructure housing (affordable housing) 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable housing) 9. ofassistance transport and 28.Security Financial and technology tax systems 9. Security of transport and technology 28. Financial assistance and tax systems 9. Security of transport and technology 9. of transport and technology 29.Security Local economy 10. Employment literacy, 11. Education 32. Mental literacy, 12.health Healthservices literacy,review 13. Financial literacy, 14. Transportation literacy, 15. Technological literacy, 16. Civic literacy and 17. Housing literacy 1. Food, 2. Clothing and shoes, 3. Bedding, 11. Education literacy 4. Shelter (emergency housing) and 5. Accessibility 3. Bedding and 4. Shelter (emergency 12. Health literacy housing) 4. housing) 12.Shelter Health(emergency literacy 5. Accessibility 13. Financial literacy 7. Security of place (social housing) 13. Financial literacy 8. Security of health 13. Financial literacy 8. Security of health 16.Security Civic literacy 8. of health 9. Security of transport and technology 16. literacy 11. Civic Education literacy 16. literacy 11. Civic Education literacy 16. Civic literacy 16. literacy 11. Civic Education literacy, 12. Health Literacy and 13. Financial literacy


Location Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne

Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe

Gisborne Kaikohe

Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne

Kaikohe Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne

Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Kaitaia Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia

'How'

Factors I to V

Creating aeducation ‘sharing meal’ system.about living healthy lifestyles, to reduce the risk of health programmes problems such as diabetes. Encouraging community governance to reduce bureaucracy (e.g. a community washing Providingcould free car thoseallowing on the benefit. machine be registration installed at afor school, support for struggling families). Creating affordable emergency housing (e.g. through transportable shipping containers). Encouraging grassroots community with networks of likeminded Improving re-integration after prisoncollaboration sentences, particularly for women. i.) Jobagencies and groups to ensure that localjob solutions are driven by community will improve opportunities – Increasing opportunities by ensuring socialmembers. enterprisesThis provide jobs to resilience sharing about how tomight worknot within constraints. those whoand mainstream employers consider. ii.) Housing – Increasing access to Changing the education to better culture,accommodation, spirituality and morality to quality housing, includingsystem creating a bankaddress of emergency supported strengthen person’s wairua This will encourage a love housing for athose in need, and(spirit/soul). halfway houses for people coming outofoflearning prison. and produce creative, critical thinkers andfor innovators. Implementing ongoing local funding working families and working poor. Providing pastoral care for prisoners on parole to aid their reintegration and reducesuch the as Creating a dress-up shop to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, chances reoffending. for a job of interview. Increasing paid parental leave. Creating: a smooth pay system; an income to cover the essentials; and increased holiday pay to help seasonal workers in the off-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal Teaching driving in schools so the thatoff-season students can theirbelicense. will help combat workers could volunteer over butget would paid byThis WINZ). geographic isolation and reduceforthe rate of ‘behind the employees wheel’ offences. Implementing a lower tax-rate employers who offer a living wage and Using research to understand what forms of education are effective for the community in redundancy packages. order to build develop existing models. For example, research the value of peer Increasing the and minimum wage. education. This is a way of working with available resources to achieve education reform. Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan which ensures availability of skilled seasonal Increasing participation in early childhood to strengthen workers and implements targeted training education for Tairawhiti region. Thisfamily wouldand alsocommunity increase job ties, providing one-on-one connections creating networks support. This security because jobs wouldpersonal reflect demand (e.g. and through looking at localofindustries suchisas modelled in Te Kohekohe, which benefits from a focus on the positive and a hands-off forestry and horticulture). approach by the Ministry of Education. Removing stand-down period in jobs. (From Work and Income New Zealand: ‘A stand down Educating the power of weeks, labellingwhere their the students ensuring that they value is a period,teachers of up to about a maximum of two clientand cannot receive a benefit the potential of their students regardless of those students’ backgrounds. This will help payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourcombat the erosion of self-esteem and resulting problems including mental health issues services/what-is-a-stand-down.html) like depression and suicide, addiction problems and involvement in the criminal justice Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – system. designed to provide fully tax-funded jobs and short-term jobs for those at risk of long-term Increasing accountability in the teaching profession to ensure that teachers are evaluated unemployment. based onhome-help the visible outcomes in the lives of their rather than justinfocusing on test Creating jobs with extended hours. Thisstudents, service will create jobs the scores of questionable relevance.prolonged support for the elderly. community while also providing Closing down gambling facilitiestolike the pokies in Kaikohe. Reviewing housing regulations improve housing stock.

Type of sub-factor

Factor III: I: Survival Self-determining individuals Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor I: Survival Self-determining Factor III: I: Survival individuals

1. 12.Food Health literacy 2. Clothing and shoes 14. Transportation literacy 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 16.Shelter Civic literacy 4. (emergency housing)

Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor Self-determining Factor III: II: Security individuals

16. Civic literacy

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities

6. Security of income 10.Security Employment literacy, 11. Education 6. of income literacy, 12. Health literacy, 13. Financial literacy, 14.ofTransportation literacy, 15. 6. Security income Technological literacy, 16. Civic literacy 6. Security of income and 17. Housing literacy 14. Transportation literacy 6. Security of income 20. Curriculum, teachers and students 6. Security of income 6. Security of income 20. Curriculum, teachers and students

Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities

6. Security of income 20. Curriculum, teachers and students

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security

20. Curriculum, teachers and students

Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining

Ensuring more support is there for those dealing with addictions (e.g. a local drug and Making alcohol unavailable in Kaikohe by closing down liquor stores in the area. alcohol court and a local rehabilitation unit in the Gisborne/Tairawhiti region). Creating and implementing an emergency police contact or panic button for elderly, and Regulating money ‘loan sharks’ to stop them preying on the vulnerable. encouraging GPs to know who their elderly patients are and who is living alone. Improving service delivery for hard to access groups such as homeless or mentally ill (e.g. Improving the quality of the existing roading network in the Far North and evaluating the through innovation, social media, building relationships not just delivering services and by possibility of expanding it. listening not directing). Changing the culture of social services from a contest approach to one of cooperation and Creating a mobile health clinic. shared goals. This could be achieved by decentralising WINZ and other agencies of Improving access to therapy and counselling for homeless. importance to allow the sharing of information between professionals, and improve Improving antenatal care. connectivity and accessibility. Creating a Plunket booklet the services elderly; athat simplified, universal booklet for elderly to Creating an initiative withinfor social increases connectivity between providers inform them of where goindicators for help. can be identified and acted upon from birth and and consumers so thatto risk communities Raising awareness of abused elderly Factor II: Security throughout an individual’s adult life. (e.g. advertisements on television, radio and newspapers).in-home visits by health professionals to reduce the impact of rural isolation Normalising Factor IV: Self-determining Reviewing and potentially increasing funding and resources for the elderly (e.g. through Factor II: Security and remove barriers to receiving adequate health care. communities lowering medical and prescription costs, reviewing the ‘living pension’, creating a Encouraging door knocking and meetings between neighbours in local communities to Factor IV: Self-determining superannuation scheme Australia’s, and eliminating rate penaltiescould and GST for 65+ facilitate connections andlike meaningful relationships. Social gatherings be held at year- communities olds). or clubrooms. marae Encouraging more interaction between young and elderly (e.g.from through teaching Factor II: Security Increasing community ownership of thethe local economy by buying localelderly businesses, Factor IV: Self-determining young people lifebusiness skills and young people teachingcooperative elderly technological promoting local ownership and through banking. skills; by integrating communities retirement homes and nurseries; encouraging single mums to volunteer with the elderly; Forming collective buying arrangements in the community to overcome price increases in Factor IV: Self-determining creating space for to read to in theItaly blind and teach people how read; who and the area.aModels forelderly this system exist and Cuba andyoung involve a group ofto buyers communities implementing anand ‘adopt Grandparentinservice’). prioritise people theaenvironment their purchasing decisions. Bringing to the community instead of the community thelocal Hub.economy while also Factor II: Security Exploringthe theHub potentials of natural resource innovation to growtothe Factor IV: Self-determining Encouraging whanaungatanga (relationship, kinship, sense of family connection) (e.g. Factor II: Security reinforcing shared values of environmentalism and appreciation for the land. communities getting a ride to town with neighbours, getting neighbours to do your shopping, or having a Developing older areas of town to stop money leaving the area and going to larger centres, Factor IV: Self-determining Saturday driving and to reduce theservice). presence of empty buildings which in turn contribute to the poverty mind- communities Encouraging employers to provide transport for employees to and from work. Factor II: Security set of the town. Encouraging SuperGrans to create a ‘Superbus’ which facilitatesthe transportation II: Security Ensuring stronger regulations for 'big business' by empowering local councilfor to elderly. stand up Factor IV: Self-determining Re-teaching life skills educating families that all can contribute through a family communities Factor III: Self-determining to ‘big business’ (suchand as The Warehouse andsoother businesses on the(e.g. Australia/NZ mentor). Stockmarket) by imposing stronger regulations, possibly based on the size of the floor plan individuals for the proposed business. The operation of ‘big business’ in the local community needs to be on the town’s terms. Exploring innovative ways to package debt such as mortgages, higher-purchase agreements, Factor IV: Self-determining Keeping youth learningloans. for longer by help creating more modern trade Factor III: Self-determining cash loans, car engaged costs andinstudent This will break cycles of debt and generational communities apprenticeships, individuals benefit reliance. encouraging outdoor education programmes and supporting initiatives such as CACTUS (Combined Adolescent Challenge Training Unit Support). Creating a ward of the state grant (a grant for someone who is placed under the protection Factor II: Security Creating thathas combat loneliness andpotential. encourage to live of a legalprogrammes guardian) which long-term savings Forelderly example, theinteractive state couldand Factor III: Self-determining active money lifestyleson(e.g. implementing a programme elderly can interact withcould animals invest behalf of the person which then where generates interest, the money then individuals andtaken creating swimming chian groups). be out walking, by the person whenand theytaiare adult. Ensuring appropriate drug education available in the community. Self-determining Establishing community-led hubs thatislink education providers and potential employers with Factor III: II: Security individuals the community. This will facilitate networking and encourage a coordinated approach to Creating incentives and encouraging financial literacy by creating short-term saving Factor III: Self-determining addressing problemstoofsave local employment after education. schemes to help with budgeting Christmas Clubs to or use saving for carservices registration). individuals Encouraging the community and(e.g. health professionals e-health to allow Factor II: Security Ensuringpeople financial is aofpart of any job so For thatexample, employees learn financial literacy. Factor III: Self-determining isolated to training make use digital solutions. enabling the communication of patient data between different healthcare professionals and allowing both the requesting individuals Encouraging and employers to contribute to KiwiSaver. Factor III: Self-determining of diagnostic employees tests and treatments and receiving the results to be done electronically. individuals Encouraging Islanders to seek helptoboth andplaces. outsideFor theexample Pacific Island Self-determining Creating hubsPacific on wheels to take services hardwithin to reach playgrounds Factor III: II: Security Community, and encouraging employers to provide information about support services and individuals and toys, a library bus and a pharmacy. networks available to the Island community. Approaching internet andPacific telecommunication providers such as Spark, Vodafone and Factor II: Security Supporting community groups that are the already established and encouraging groups to Factor III: Self-determining Chorus to better resource and connect Far North. collaborate, support each other and scale-up (e.g. Te were Ora Hou, -9+ and Tu Tangata). individuals Reinstating the community and landline phones that removed based on the Factor II: Security Healing for Tairawhiti cultural by 2019, by: the restoring the truth of Factor III: Self-determining assumption that everyone wasoppression using mobiles, despite lack ofmana; mobileunveiling coverage. Māori history in Tairawhiti; identity; restoring restoring (for Factor individuals Creating internet hubs withrestoring satellite broadband to serveindigenous and be runhealing; by the community II: Security connectedness; andmarae, embracing traditional practices. example in schools, halls). This would allow people to Skype into multiple Addressing lost identities and rethinking what being Māori means, by creating a sense of Factor III: Self-determining appointments. belonging education. alcohol andand gangs are not who Māori are. individuals Shifting thethrough focus ofcultural education to valueDrugs, vocational skills apprenticeships. This will Factor III: Self-determining Correcting institutionalised racism of colonisation that results the over-representation Factor III: Self-determining ensure thatthe education is relevant for jobs that are available in ruralincommunities. For individuals of Māori in negativepractical statisticssecondary (e.g. Māori incarceration, Māori in mortality rates, medical individuals example, including standards and courses areas such as more welding. tests conducted for non-Māori). Implementing a programme where retirees mentor youth on life skills such as budgeting, Factor III: Self-determining cooking and gardening. For example Te Hiku Youth Hub. individuals

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 42 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

6. Security of income, 8. Security of health and 22. Social infrastructure 21.Security Harmfulofproducts and services 7. place (social housing) 8. Security of health 21. Harmful products and services 8. Security of health 21. Harmful products and services 8. Security of health 22. Social infrastructure 22. Social infrastructure 8. Security of health 8. Security of health 8. Security of health 8. of health 22.Security Social infrastructure 8. Security of health 24. Medical services 8. Security of health 26. Culture of care 8. of health and 22. Social 29.Security Local economy infrastructure 29. Local economy 9. of transport and technology 29.Security Local economy 9. Security of transport and technology 29. Local economy 9. Security of transport and technology 9. of transport and technology 29.Security Local economy 10. Employment literacy, 11. Education literacy, 12. Health literacy, 13. Financial literacy, 14. Transportation literacy, 15. Technological literacy, 16. Civic literacy andDebt 17. Housing literacy 30. consolidation 11. Education literacy 6. Security of income 12. Health literacy

12. Health literacy 6. Security of income and 29. Local economy 13. Financial literacy 8. Security of health 13. Financial literacy 13. Financial literacy 16.Security Civic literacy 9. of transport and technology 9. Security of transport and technology 16. Civic literacy 9. Security of transport and technology 16. Civic literacy 9. Security of transport and technology 16. Civic literacy 11. Education literacy 16. Civic literacy 12. Health literacy and 13. Financial literacy


Location

Kaitaia Gisborne Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Gisborne Kaitaia Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Gisborne Kaitaia Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne

Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Kaitaia Gisborne Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia

Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia

Gisborne Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Manawatu Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu

'How'

Introducing a mentoring Creating a ‘sharing meal’ system system.between local people to connect them as a community. For example using Te Ahu Centre, hubs, and marae bureaucracy as meeting points. Encouraging community governance to reduce (e.g. a community washing Focussingcould on engaging the community, and inspiring collective consciousness and machine be installed at a school, allowing support for struggling families). responsibility to create systemic change. We need the strong community leaders/movers Creating affordable emergency housing (e.g. through transportable shipping containers). and shakers to lead community engagement. Improving re-integration after prison sentences, particularly for women. i.) Job Improving historical education, particularly around Te Tiriti o Waitangi, including context opportunities – Increasing job opportunities by ensuring social enterprises provide jobs to around themainstream Treaty and the actual text of the those who employers might notdocument. consider. ii.) Housing – Increasing access to Improving civic education by including TinoofRangitiratanga narratives in thesupported school quality housing, including creating a bank emergency accommodation, curriculum. This would helpand ourhalfway people houses find a voice and a purpose, and housing for those in need, for people coming out ofwould prison.also develop Māori leadership to getlocal our people the table with the decision-makers. Implementing ongoing fundingatfor working families and working poor. Making Reo and the history of Aotearoa compulsory teacher that educators CreatingTea dress-up shop to provide professional clothesinfor those training without so clothes, such as can on a respectful understanding of Māori culture. for apass job interview. Changing the drinking and party culture in the Far North and encouraging people to connect Increasing paid parental leave. back to their Māori culture. Creating: a smooth pay system; an income to cover the essentials; and increased holiday Implementing media strategies to cover aspects such as social media awareness. This will pay to help seasonal workers in the off-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal ensure that messages are specific and relevant to the community and will create awareness workers could volunteer over the off-season but would be paid by WINZ). with print media, radio, and TV. Implementing a lower tax-rate for employers who offer employees a living wage and Changing the perception of Māoridom by adopting a Māori lens and starting a Mātauranga redundancy packages. Māori revival. This would improve knowledge of areas such as the Wai 262 claim and Increasing the minimum wage. wānanga (cultral traditions and tribal lore). Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan which ensures availability of skilled seasonal Ensuring that research about the Far North is conducted by locals in Kaitaia, and is useful for workers and implements targeted training for Tairawhiti region. This would also increase job local communities. security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries such as Making education self-directed and self-ruled, with a focus on consequences and outcomes, forestry and horticulture). by teaching life skills, financial literacy, positive classroom behaviours and mentoring. Removing stand-down period in jobs. (From Work and Income New Zealand: ‘A stand down is a period, of up to a maximum of two weeks, where the client cannot receive a benefit Moving away from a supply and demand model of tertiary education by incentivising payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourtertiary institutions to function in both urban centres and rural locations. For example i) By services/what-is-a-stand-down.html) making tertiary education hubs which partner with larger, more-established institutions – Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – these would be essentially smaller versions of university and would rely on access to designed to provide fully tax-funded jobs and short-term jobs for those at risk of long-term internet more than in-person staff, and ii) By sourcing government funding to write-off debt unemployment. for tertiary educators who choose to work in rural areas. Creating home-help jobs with extended hours. This service will create jobs in the Targeting education in the home, with both student and caregiver, to enable prevention community while also providing prolonged support for the elderly. rather than intervention. Reviewing housing regulations to improve housing stock. Creating a role for a coordinator to provide pastoral care for students transitioning from Ensuring moreeducation. support is These there for thosestaff dealing with addictions (e.g.communities, a local drug and rural to urban support would come from rural so they alcohol court local rehabilitation the Gisborne/Tairawhiti are better ableand to aunderstand the needsunit andinculture of rural students. region). Creating and implementing an emergency police contact or panic button for elderly, and Using school buses as public transport during school hours. encouraging GPs to know who their elderly patients are and who is living alone. Improving service delivery for hard to access groups such as homeless or mentally ill (e.g. Collating and developing a directory of social services that are available, and presenting this through innovation, social media, building relationships not just delivering services and by in the ‘Awhi pages’, which would be given to locals and be accessible online. listening not directing). Taking hui about tackling poverty to those who are most severely affected and Creating a mobile disenfranchised tohealth gatherclinic. their perspectives about solutions relevant to them. Improving access to to the therapy and counselling forrather homeless. Ensuring funding community is constant than sporadic. Improving antenatal care. a Plunket booklet for thetoelderly; a simplified, Creating mobile medical centres go to hard to reach universal places. booklet for elderly to inform them of where to go for help. Raising of to abused (e.g.community advertisements onrequired television, radio andon a Creatingawareness a Koha card recordelderly 30 hours service from those newspapers). benefit. For example driving kuia and kaumatua to activities to give back to the community. Reviewing and potentially increasing funding and resources for the elderly (e.g. through Normalising the experience of grandparents raising grandchildren by approaching the issues lowering and prescription the ‘living show pension’, creating a language with love medical and encouragement and costs, lettingreviewing this understanding through in the superannuation scheme likesituations. Australia’s, and eliminating rate penalties and GST for 65+ yearwe use to talk about these olds). Providing grandparents with information and re-educating them about available support Encouraging interaction the the young andof elderly (e.g.For through elderly teaching services, the more current educationbetween system and needs children. example through young people life skills young people teaching elderly technological skills; by integrating using one-on-one case and workers and face-to-face meetings. retirement homes and support nurseries; mumsoftograndparents volunteer with the elderly; Providing wraparound byencouraging assessing thesingle capability to ensure that creating a space for elderly to read to blind andwhether teach young howemotional to read; and they receive assistance appropriate tothe their needs, that people is physical, or implementing an ‘adopt a Grandparent financial. For example i) ensuring accessservice’). to transport services for a grandparent who cannot Bringing to thecounselling communityservices insteadto of athe communitywho to the Hub. drive, andthe ii) Hub providing grandparent needs emotional support and also making this available to their family.kinship, sense of family connection) (e.g. Encouraging whanaungatanga (relationship, getting a ride neighbours, to do your at shopping, or having a Supporting Iwitointown theirwith quest for equity. getting Hostingneighbours and provision of food community events. Saturday driving service). Encouraging employers to provide transport for employees to gardens and fromand work. food gardening education in schools, community food tables. Encouraging a ‘Superbus’ whichtofacilitates transportation for elderly. Investigating SuperGrans the purchasetoorcreate repurposing of a house provide Emergency Housing for Feilding by Community Trusts, MDC families and others. Re-teaching life skills and educating so that all can contribute (e.g. through a family Ensuring mentor). community trusts and MDC investigate options for transitional housing. Identifying a champion to work with central government agencies and local community groups to co-ordinate support services for the homeless. Linking local op-shops with health centres, provide clothing education and advice. Keeping youth engaged in learning for longer by creating more modern trade apprenticeships, encouraging outdoor education programmes andthe supporting Getting the McGuinness Institute to review the policy settings for existing initiatives such as CACTUS (Combined Challenge Training Unit Support). accommodation supplementAdolescent to determine if it could be improved. Creating programmes that combat lonelinessstandards and encourage to live interactive Consulting with community about minimum for all elderly accommodation not just and active lifestyles (e.g. implementing a programme where elderly can interact with animals rentals. and creating walking, swimming tai chi Lobbying for free healthcare andand dental caregroups). (this should be means tested). Ensuring appropriate drug is available in the community. Developing a central list of education people who can help develop end of life plans. Implementing students/elderly mentoring at schools, churches, clubs and the library. Creating incentives to save and encouraging financial literacy by creating short-term saving Identifying skill-based work identified for elderly, community networks and pets. schemes to mentoring help with budgeting (e.g.with Christmas or saving for car Connecting programmes schoolsClubs to ensure support forregistration). at risk students. Ensuring financial training is a part of any job so that employees learn financial literacy.

Factors I to V

Self-determining Factor III: I: Survival individuals Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor Self-determining Factor III: II: Security individuals Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals

Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security

Type of sub-factor

16.Food Civic literacy 1. 2. Clothing and shoes 16. Civic literacy

4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 16. Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy 6. Security of income 16.Security Civic literacy 6. of income 16.Security Civic literacy 6. of income 6. Security of income 16. Civic literacy 6. Security of income 16. Civic literacy 6. Security of income 6. Security of income 16. Civic literacy 20. Curriculum, teachers and students 6. Security of income

Factor IV: Self-determining communities

20. Curriculum, teachers and students

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities

6. Security of income, 8. Security of health 20. Curriculum, teachers and students and 22. Social infrastructure 7. Security of place (social housing) 20. Curriculum, teachers and students 8. Security of health

Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities

8. Security of health 22. Social infrastructure

Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities

8. Security of health 22. Social infrastructure 22. Social infrastructure and 23. 8. Security ofprojects health Community 8. of health 23.Security Community projects 8. Security of health 8. health 24.Security Medicalofservices 8. 26.Security Cultureof ofhealth care 8. of health 27.Security Grandparents raising grandchildren

27. Grandparents raising grandchildren 8. Security of health and 22. Social infrastructure 27. Grandparents raising grandchildren

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor I: Survival

9. Security of transport and technology 9. Security of transport and technology 1. Food

Factor II: Security I: Survival Factor II: Security I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining Factor I: Survival individuals Factor I: Survival

9. transport and technology 1. Security Food, 12.ofHealth literacy 9. of transporthousing) and technology 4. Security Shelter (emergency 10. Employment literacy, 11. Education 4. Shelter (emergency housing) literacy, 12. Health literacy, 13. Financial literacy, 14. Transportation literacy, 15. 4. Shelter (emergency housing) Technological literacy, 16. Civic literacy and 17. Housing literacy 6. Security of income and 8. Security of 11. Education literacy health 7. Security of place (social housing)

Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security

Factor III: Self-determining II: Security individuals Factor II: Security Self-determining Factor III: II: Security individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals Factor III: Self-determining Factor III: Self-determining individuals individuals Working with DHB to create an integrated mental health facility. Educating our community Factor III: Self-determining Encouraging employees and employers to contribute to KiwiSaver. Factor III: Self-determining about how to access services. individuals individuals Increasing the number of visits from Plunket (or similar) from 8 to 20 and teaching Factor III: Self-determining Encouraging Pacific Islanders to seek help both within and outside the Pacific Island Factor III: Self-determining parenting skills. individuals Community, and encouraging to centre provideof: information about support services and Factor individuals Creating a community index atemployers information clubs, volunteers, services. Possibly III: Self-determining networks available also deliver online. to the Pacific Island community. individuals Supporting community groups that are already established and encouraging groups to Factor Creating community connectedness through public facilities (library, centres, WiFi). Factor III: III: Self-determining Self-determining collaborate, support each other and scale-up (e.g. Te Ora Hou, -9+ and Tu Tangata). individuals individuals Healing for Tairawhiti cultural oppression by 2019, by: restoring mana; unveiling the truth of Factor III: Solving Māori problems by being Māori, strengthen community connections. Factor III: Self-determining Self-determining Māori history in Tairawhiti; restoring identity; restoring indigenous healing; restoring individuals individuals connectedness; and embracing practices. Consulting, communicating and traditional reflecting in the context of the audience. Factor III: Self-determining Addressing lost identities and rethinking what being Māori means, by creating a sense of Factor III: Self-determining individuals belongingcurrent through cultural education. alcoholare and gangstoare who Māori are. individuals Ensuring government support Drugs, mechanisms known allnot Manawatu healthcare Factor III: Self-determining Correcting the institutionalised of colonisation thatcosts. results in the over-representation Factor III: Self-determining providers. Investigate third partyracism contributions to reduce individuals of Māori in negative statistics Māori incarceration, Māori mortality individuals Ensuring those who work with(e.g. Māori understand and observe Tikanga. rates, more medical Factor III: Self-determining tests conducted for non-Māori). individuals

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 43 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

12.Security Health literacy 7. of place (social housing) 8. Security of health 12.Security Health literacy 8. of health 8. Security of health 13. Financial 8. Security ofliteracy health 11. Education literacy 13. Financial literacy 12. Health literacy 13. Financial literacy 12. Health literacy 16. Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy 16. 16. Civic Civic literacy literacy 16. 16. Civic Civic literacy literacy 16. Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy


Location Manawatu Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Manawatu Manawatu Manawatu Gisborne Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Manawatu Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Queenstown Gisborne Gisborne Queenstown

Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Gisborne Queenstown

Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne

Queenstown Gisborne Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown

'How'

Factors I to V

Type of sub-factor

Ensuring asolutions sustainable Creating ‘sharing are meal’ system. by using whanaungatanga, manaakitanga, tikanga, aroha, whakapapa and te reo. governance to reduce bureaucracy (e.g. a community washing Encouraging community machine could be installed at a school, allowing support for struggling families). Creating affordable emergency housing (e.g. through transportable shipping containers). Improving re-integration after prison sentences, particularly for women. i.) Job Working with Horizons on their public transport strategy. social Encourage sharedprovide vehicles, opportunities – Increasing job opportunities by ensuring enterprises jobs to scooter access and driving services.might not consider. ii.) Housing – Increasing access to those who mainstream employers Linking public services together to ensure a wrap-around service is provided. quality housing, including creating a bank of emergency accommodation, supported housing for those in need, and halfway houses for people coming out of prison. Identifying bestongoing buildinglocal providers and Manawatu. Implementing funding forpractice workinginfamilies and working poor. Creating a dress-up shop to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, such as Budgeting services, community options for housing, lobby for shared housing not resulting for a job interview. in a drop inpaid benefits. Increasing parental leave. Lobbying via LGNZ for legislation to be changed to allow local government to partner with Creating: a smooth pay system; an income to cover the essentials; and increased holiday others in social housing. pay to help seasonal workers in the off-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal Taking strength-based to assessing capabilities. Ensure social housing is workersa could volunteer approach over the off-season but would be paid by WINZ). constructed and renovated to be accessible (especially for those with disabilities). Implementing a lower tax-rate for employers who offer employees a living wage and Approaching all poverty situations with aroha. Remove the stigma and the blame and allow redundancy packages. healing. Increasing the minimum wage. Creating community plans to help refugees, immigrantsm and prisoners. Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan which ensures availability of skilled seasonal workers and implements targeted training for Tairawhiti region. This would also increase job Bringing together all agencies who work with young people to ensure there are no gaps and security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries such as reduce cross-overs. forestry and horticulture). Working with central government to track children’s wellbeing from birth to adulthood. Removing stand-down period in jobs. (From Work and Income New Zealand: ‘A stand down is a period, of up to a maximum of two weeks, where the client cannot receive a benefit Addressing the problem of short-term tenancies by speaking to the Ministry of Business, payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourInnovation and Employment about changing the way the tenancy form is formatted to services/what-is-a-stand-down.html) suggest the possibility of long-term tenancy. Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – Ensuring schools showcase the way forward. Ideas included putting inclusion into practice, designed to provide fully tax-funded jobs and short-term jobs for those at risk of long-term engaging more widely in the community and letting the community know what is implicitly unemployment. and explicitly happening in the wider community. Creating home-help jobs with extended hours. This service will create jobs in the Creating a family room where parents can have a cup of tea, use WiFi and volunteer. community while also providing prolonged support for the elderly. Reviewing housing regulations to improve housing stock. Establishing a clear set of values around cohesion. These values should be owned by the Ensuring more support is there for community, those dealingbased with around addictions (e.g. a local drug community, representing all of the living standards and and future alcohol court and a local rehabilitation unit in the Gisborne/Tairawhiti region). growth. Creating and implementing an emergency police contact or panic button for elderly, and Utilising the youth council more effectively. Ideas included building civic knowledge in the encouraging GPs to know who their elderly patients are and who is living alone. wider community among youth and learning by doing (giving them real projects with actual Improving service delivery for hard to access groups such as homeless or mentally ill (e.g. financial resources). through innovation, social media, building relationships not just delivering services and by Ensuring businesses lead and integrate their values and visions of Queenstown into their listening not directing). business practices. For example, promoting inclusion, safety, environmental stability, worker Creating mobile health clinic. rights anda responsibilities and maintaining a beautiful township). Improving access to therapy andrights counselling for homeless.(e.g. better communication Ensuring employees know their and responsibilities Improving antenatal care. and/or union representation). Creating Plunket bookletguidance for the elderly; a simplified, universal booklet elderly to Providingacomprehensive under the Health and Safety Act 2016.forFor example, inform them go for help.a Business or Undertaking (PCBU)' in Queenstown Lakes outlining howofa where 'PersontoConducting Raising awareness abused elderly on television, radio and might best provideof a 'primary duty of(e.g. care'advertisements to staff members. newspapers). assessing businesses for treatment of employees in poverty. Are there poor Independently Reviewing and potentially and resources forcould the elderly through employers in QLD and whoincreasing are they? funding For example, the council review(e.g. employees lowering medical prescription costs,easily reviewing the ‘living experiences, haveand a complaints system accessible, blindpension’, visits etc.creating a superannuation schemebylike Australia’s, Ideas and eliminating rate penalties and GST forassurance 65+ yearImproving gatekeeping immigration. included improving airport security, olds).visitors have funds on arrival to leave, provide proof of income and health support that Encouraging more interaction between theZealand young and elderly (e.g. through elderly teaching (i.e. health insurance rather than use New ACC). young people life skills house and young people elderly by integrating Charging Queenstown owners whoteaching do not live in or technological rent out theirskills; property for at retirement homes and nurseries; encouraging single mums to volunteer with the elderly; least nine months a year higher rates to fund social and affordable housing initiatives. creating aaspace for elderly to readfor to the blind and teach young peoplepeople how toare read; and Providing fast track legal process small misdemeanours. Currently required implementing an ‘adoptfora Grandparent to stay in Queenstown months (oftenservice’). reliant on charitable services). This leads to Bringing the Hub the available community instead of the community the Hub. such services not to being to New Zealanders who needto these services. Encouraging whanaungatanga (relationship, sense of New familyZealand connection) (e.g. Reviewing temporary visa conditions so that kinship, visitors entering are not relying getting a ride to town with neighbours, getting neighbours to do your shopping, having a on charitable services (e.g. food, clothing and accommodation), medical servicesor (e.g. Saturday driving service). ACC) or jobs to pay for flights home. Encouraging to provide for employees from work. Exploring theemployers idea of creating a newtransport form of money throughtoa and Queenstown Lakes trading CARD. This could use cryptography secure thewhich transactions and to control thefor creation Encouraging SuperGrans to create ato‘Superbus’ facilitates transportation elderly.of new monetary social exchanges. Re-teaching lifeunits skillsthrough and educating families so that all can contribute (e.g. through a family Building mentor).stronger relationships with schools, harnessing talents and skills, building on assets not deficits, linking schools to local business (building and empowering human capital).

Self-determining Factor IV: I: Survival communities Factor I: Survival

19.Food Community decision making 1. 2. Clothing and shoes

Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor V: Self-determining nation Factor II: Security

4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 22. Social infrastructure

Creating community hubs. Ideas included an open space for conversation, a physical space (e.g. community hall), a in digital space, website as a newsletter to give Keeping youth engaged learning foralonger byoperating creating more modern trade information aboutencouraging communityoutdoor events and when/where to get involved. apprenticeships, education programmes and supporting initiatives Building business and community relations. Ideas include sponsorship of community events such as CACTUS (Combined Adolescent Challenge Training Unit Support). and volunteer groups, that training days,loneliness interactions schools,elderly apprenticeships and other Creating programmes combat andwith encourage to live interactive and gateways into businesses. active lifestyles (e.g. implementing a programme where elderly can interact with animals Raising commercial rates and then using as groups). additional funding for building and and creating walking, swimming and tai chi accommodation projects. Ensuring appropriate drug education is available in the community. Working harder to collect and analyse local data and information on housing. Creating incentives to save and encouraging financial literacy by creating short-term saving Exploring different house ownership to give families thefor opportunity to own schemes to help with budgeting (e.g.models Christmas Clubs or saving car registration). housing. This would provide ‘stepping individuallearn home ownership. Ensuring financial training is a part of anystone’ job sotowards that employees financial literacy. Exploring ideas such as requiring businesses of a certain size to provide: housing for workers as part of their resource consent (this would involve working with the local council); free Encouraging employees and employers to contribute to KiwiSaver. buses; and paying staff from when they leave/arrive home. Changing zoning andIslanders intensification localand councils would get a percentage of Encouraging Pacific to seekrules helpwhereby both within outside the Pacific Island the increase and in property valueemployers that has come about as a result ofabout re-zoning. Thisservices money and Community, encouraging to provide information support could be used for building and accommodation projects. networks available to the Pacific Island community. Establishing a community development officer. Ideas included Supporting community groups that are already established andfacilitating/supporting encouraging groups to volunteer groups, collecting feedback, helping(e.g. withTesubmissions, trust and collaborate, support each other and scale-up Ora Hou, -9+building and Tu values, Tangata). knowledge, recognising council's achievements andby: challenges. Healing for Tairawhiti cultural oppression by 2019, restoring mana; unveiling the truth of Creating a tax in levy on the profits of established firms, which will then be distributed Māori history Tairawhiti; restoring identity; restoring indigenous healing; restoringto help fund their chosen community such as practices. housing, transportation, education or social connectedness; and embracinggoal traditional services. Addressing lost identities and rethinking what being Māori means, by creating a sense of Establishing a levy or targeted tax on the tourism industry, in order provide belonging through cultural education. Drugs, alcohol and gangs are to notfund whoand Māori are. the necessary to support theofarea as a tourist destination something Correctinginfrastructure the institutionalised racism colonisation that results in –the over-representation Queenstown relies on. of Māori in negative statistics (e.g. Māori incarceration, Māori mortality rates, more medical Generating comparative data on social services and health costs in Queenstown. tests conducted for non-Māori).

Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor III: Self-determining Factor IV: Self-determining individuals communities Factor III: Self-determining Factor IV: Self-determining individuals communities Factor III: Self-determining Factor IV: Self-determining individuals communities Factor III: Self-determining individuals IV: Self-determining Factor III: communities individuals

22. Social infrastructure 25.Security Home ownership, 6. of income rentals and shared housing (affordable 6. Security of incomehousing) 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable 6. Security of incomehousing) 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared 6. Security of income housing (affordable housing) 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable housing) 6. Security of income 26. Culture of care

6. Security of income 31. Central government strategy to tackle 6. Security of income poverty Factor V: Self-determining nation 31. Central government strategy to tackle poverty Factor V: Self-determining nation 31. Central government strategy to tackle Factor II: Security 6. Security of income poverty Factor II: Security 7. Security of place (social housing) Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals

6. Security of income 16. Civic literacy

Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals

6. Security of income, 8. Security of health 16. Civic literacy and 22. Social infrastructure 7. Security of place (social housing) 16. Civic literacy 8. Security of health

Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security

8. Security of health 16. Civic literacy

Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals Factor III: II: Security Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor IV: Self-determining individuals communities

Factor IV: III: Self-determining communities individuals Factor III: Self-determining Factor IV: Self-determining individuals communities Factor III: Self-determining Factor IV: Self-determining individuals communities Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor IV: Self-determining communities

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 44 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

8. Security of health 16. Civic literacy 8. Security of health 8. of health 16.Security Civic literacy 8. Security of health 8. of health 16.Security Civic literacy 8. Security of health 16. Civic literacy 8. Security of health 18. Resource allocation 8. Security of health and 22. Social infrastructure 18. Resource allocation 18. Resource allocation 9. Security of transport and technology 9. of allocation transport and technology 18.Security Resource

9. of transport technology 19.Security Community decisionand making 9. Security of transport and technology 10. Employment literacy, 11. Education 20. Curriculum, teachers and literacy, 12. Health literacy, 13.students Financial literacy, 14. Transportation literacy, 15. Technological literacy, 16. Civic literacy 22. infrastructure andSocial 17. Housing literacy 11. Education literacy 23. Community projects 12. Health literacy 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable 12. Health literacy housing) 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable 13. Financial literacyhousing) 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable 13. Financial literacyhousing) 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing ( affordable 13. Financial literacyhousing) 25. Civic Homeliteracy ownership, rentals and shared 16. housing (affordable housing) 26. of care 16. Culture Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy 28. Financial assistance and tax systems 16. Civic literacy 28. Financial assistance and tax systems 16. Civic literacy 28. Financial assistance and tax systems


Location

Queenstown Gisborne Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua

Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne

Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua

Gisborne Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua

'How'

Investigating ACC claims the QLD area to ensure tax generated funds are used by those Creating a ‘sharing meal’in system. who pay ACCcommunity (not for tourists with private insurance). There (e.g. was uncertainty aswashing to the Encouraging governance to reduce bureaucracy a community extent of could the loophole and also concerns over unequal machine be installed at a school, allowing supportGP forcosts. struggling families). Developing unique measures ofhousing success (e.g. or failure to be considered for Queenstown as a Creating affordable emergency through transportable shipping containers). tourism hub. Improving re-integration after prison sentences, particularly for women. i.) Job Replacing the flowers in roundabouts with fruit and vegetables; providing free kai for kids opportunities – Increasing job opportunities by ensuring social enterprises provide jobs to distributed from the local community centres (not fromii.)within the –school gates); and to those who mainstream employers might not consider. Housing Increasing access campaigning to love food, creating hate waste. quality housing, including a bank of emergency accommodation, supported Creating a Centre Homeless Whanauhouses and a homeless shelter. housing for those for in need, and halfway for peoplenight coming out of prison. Allocating the empty houses in the region to families waiting the Housing Implementing ongoing local funding for working families and on working poor. NZ waitlist (which is currently a three-year wait). Funding will be necessary to get some of these Creating a dress-up shop to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, such as houses to a living standard. This should come from Housing NZ. for a jobup interview. Providing apaid temporary Increasing parentaladdress leave. for people to start the benefit process. Creating volunteering which enables the unemployed to and volunteer (for holiday a certain Creating: a smooth payinitiatives system; an income to cover the essentials; increased number of hours) in return forinreceiving things such as financial support to get photo ID pay to help seasonal workers the off-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal taken or to buy a suit and tie; and establish a Daytime Educational Drop In Centre to provide workers could volunteer over the off-season but would be paid by WINZ). clear pathways for whanau who want help and retraining. Implementing a lower tax-rate for employers who offer employees a living wage and Providing rehab grants for offenders who spent time in prison and community detention redundancy packages. centres. The does not have to be in the form of money but could aid integration with Increasing thegrant minimum wage. support programmes, which could provide work and livingavailability skills training. Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan which ensures of skilled seasonal Increasing the hourly rate to a minimum $18Tairawhiti per hour;region. and community benefitjob workers and implements targeted trainingoffor This wouldspecific also increase entitlement to cover living costs. security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries such as Careers for businesses with employment vacancies. Community members have forestry evenings and horticulture). the opportunity to attend a four-step programme to gain theZealand: skills to‘Afitstand the down Removing stand-down period in jobs. training (From Work and Income New vacancies. idea from of Ruapehu, where it was trialled andasaw a high is a period,The of up to comes a maximum two weeks, where thesuccessfully client cannot receive benefit placement of workers. payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourProviding a subsidy to encourage businesses to hire people on the benefit (instead of services/what-is-a-stand-down.html) overseas labourers). Redirecting government benefits (Project towardsEmployment subsidising aProgramme) long-term – Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme solution allow workers to enter the to gainjobs skills,forconfidence andofability to designedwill to provide fully tax-funded jobsworkforce and short-term those at risk long-term support their families. unemployment. Changing the way employment contractshours. are done. Creating home-help jobs with extended This service will create jobs in the community while also providing prolonged support for the elderly. Building affordable homes; reviewing accommodation costs; easier criteria for access; Reviewing housing regulations to improve housing stock. compulsory warrants of fitness for housing; and providing housing bonds to working Ensuring more support is there for those dealing with addictions (e.g. a local drug and families still struggling due to low paying jobs. alcohol court and a local rehabilitation unit in the Gisborne/Tairawhiti region). Support in the home long term; consistent support for workers; and support for those with Creating and implementing an emergency police contact or panic button for elderly, and identified needs (culturally appropriate services). encouraging GPs to know who their elderly patients are and who is living alone. Providing a universal caregiver wage. Improving service delivery for hard to access groups such as homeless or mentally ill (e.g. Pick elderly up and take them to hui meetings; visit themnot in their homes; and involve them through innovation, social media, building relationships just delivering services and by with rangatahi e.g. reading buddy or schools adopting grandparents. listening not directing). Providingafree legalhealth adviceclinic. for the elderly. Creating mobile Changing the wayto wetherapy teach inand schools from theory to practical ‘hands on’ learning; having Improving access counselling for homeless. smaller teacher/student ratios in classrooms; working with whānau; and having teacher Improving antenatal care. aides and social workers at all school. Creating a Plunket booklet for the elderly; a simplified, universal booklet for elderly to Changing how we motivate youth by having inspiring kaumatua mentors in schools; having inform them of where to go for help. adults who listen; learning styles catered to – aiming to create students who love to learn; Raising awareness of abused elderly (e.g. advertisements on television, radio and providing youth courses for all students that focus on building individual strengths; and newspapers). ensuring local funding for scholarships. Reviewing and potentially increasing funding and resources for the elderly (e.g. through Teaching Te Arawa, Te Reo (Whakapapa), employment skills, addiction education and life lowering medical and prescription costs, reviewing the ‘living pension’, creating a skills (cooking, life planning, budgeting, gardening, sewing, emotional and financial literacy); superannuation scheme like Australia’s, and eliminating rate penalties and GST for 65+ yearteaching the values of education, community, healthy relationships, self and family; olds). teaching real life stories (e.g. talks from recovered drug and alcohol addicts, drink driving Encouraging more interaction between the young and elderly (e.g. through elderly teaching outcomes and pregnancy (including fetal alcohol syndrome) outcomes). young people life skills and young people teaching elderly technological skills; by integrating Showing parents how to actively love their children; and registering and working to become retirement homes and nurseries; encouraging single mums to volunteer with the elderly; a UNICEF NZ Child Friendly City. creating a space for elderly to read to the blind and teach young people how to read; and Councils to notify the community of upcoming events and services by contributing to implementing an ‘adopt a Grandparent service’). school/community newsletters and websites and improving their website for easy access to Bringing the Hub to the community instead of the community to the Hub. information. Encouraging whanaungatanga (relationship, kinship, sense of family connection) (e.g. Showcasing through social marketing, good examples of initiatives that are working in the getting a ride to town with neighbours, getting neighbours to do your shopping, or having a community. Saturday driving service). Encouraging socially responsible businesses (good corporate citizens): Employment/training Encouraging employers to provide transport for employees to and from work. opportunities; commitment to employing local people; and businesses adopting a local Encouraging SuperGrans to create a ‘Superbus’ which facilitates transportation for elderly. community centre. Re-teaching skills and educating families thatpages all canfor contribute (e.g. through a family Ensuring keylife directory services are on social so media easy access. mentor). Making it compulsory for social service providers to let clients know what they are entitled to. We need easy access to services that work for the people. The ability to reflect, understand and identify beliefs; move away from the ‘one size fits all Keeping youth engaged in learning for longer by creating more modern trade way of thinking’; and establish a collective together, creating good relationships. apprenticeships, encouraging education programmes supporting Allowing communities to makeoutdoor decisions about how to allocateand funds; funding initiatives initiatives for such as CACTUS (Combined Adolescent Challenge Training Unit Support). community and iwi; creating independent evaluations of local social services to make sure Creating programmes that combat loneliness and encourage elderly to live interactive that the impacts/KPIs are met; and funding for medical, police and community servicesand active lifestyles (e.g.due implementing a programme where elderly can interact with animals specific to Rotorua to visitor pressures on services. and creating walking,schools swimming and tai chi groups). Promoting boarding for teenage years. Ensuring appropriate drug education is available in the community.

Factors I to V

Type of sub-factor

Self-determining Factor IV: I: Survival communities Factor I: Survival

28.Food Financial assistance and tax systems 1. 2. Clothing and shoes

Factor IV: Self-determining Factor I: Survival communities Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival

29.Shelter Local economy 4. (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 1. Food

Factor I: Survival Factor II: I: Survival Factor Security

4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Security Shelter (emergency 6. of income housing)

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor II: II: Security Security Factor Factor II: II: Security Security Factor

6. Security Security of of income income 6. 6. Security Security of of income income 6.

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of income 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of income 6. Security of income 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor Factor II: II: Security Security

6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security Security of of income, income and 10. Employment 6. 8. Security of health literacy and 22. Social infrastructure 7. Security of place (social housing) 7. Security of place (social housing) and 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared 8. Security of health housing (affordable housing) 8. Security of health 8. Security of health

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

8. Security of health 8. Security of health 8. Security of health

Factor II: II: Security Security Factor Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security

8. Security Security of of health health 8. 11.Security Education literacy 8. of health 8. Security of health 8. Security of health 11. Education literacy

Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals

8. Security of health 11. Education literacy, 12. Health Literacy and 13. Financial literacy

Factor II: Security

8. Security of health and 22. Social infrastructure 12. Health literacy

Factor II: II: Security Security Factor Factor II: Security

Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: III: Self-determining Self-determining Factor individuals individuals Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor IV: Self-determining Factor III: Self-determining communities individuals Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor III: Self-determining individuals

Factor IV: Self-determining Factor III: Self-determining communities individuals Ensuring schools reflect the reality of their communities by making it easier for parents to Factor IV: Self-determining Creating incentives to save and encouraging financial literacy by creating short-term saving Factor III: Self-determining afford what’s needed. For example, allowing canvas shoes from Kmart ($4) instead of communities schemes to help with budgeting (e.g.($20). Christmas Clubs or saving for car registration). individuals leather shoes from The Warehouse Ensuring trainingand is a empowerment part of any job so learn financial literacy. Factor IV: III: Self-determining Providingfinancial agency support forthat soloemployees parents (focusing on strength based Factor Self-determining individuals services and fathering programmes); providing a minimum five-day stay in hospital for new communities Encouraging employees and employers to contribute to KiwiSaver. Factor III: Self-determining mums to help them on their journey to motherhood; providing additional government individuals funding to District Health Boards to ensure everyone has support for first 1000 days of a Encouraging Pacificthe Islanders seek help within and outside the Pacific Factor III: Self-determining child’s life (valuing role of to mother and both father); providing free childcare for Island all preCommunity, and encouraging toaprovide information about support services and individuals schoolers, not just subsidized;employers establishing universal caregiver allowance; ensuring needs networks disability available and to the Pacific Islandand community. assessed carer support; providing residential respite for carer’s children. Supporting community groups that are already established and encouraging groups to Factor Getting rid of all liquor and lotto shops in poor areas. Factor III: IV: Self-determining Self-determining collaborate, support each other and scale-up (e.g. Te Ora Hou, -9+ and Tu Tangata). individuals communities Healing for Tairawhiti cultural oppression by 2019, by: restoring mana; unveiling the truth of Factor III: Self-determining A 24-hour Social Care Centre; universal access to health services, counselling, rehabilitation Factor IV: Self-determining Māori history in Tairawhiti; restoring identity; restoring healing; individuals centres and housing; and creating a community hub forindigenous social solidarity andrestoring to share communities connectedness; and embracing practices. knowledge between generationstraditional in gardening, knitting, creative and computer skills. This Addressing lost identities and rethinking what being Māori means, by creating a sense of Factor III: Self-determining will also build social, mental and health awareness. belongingbarriers throughtocultural Drugs, restrictions. alcohol and gangs are not who Māori are. individuals Breaking extendeducation. service providers Factor IV: Self-determining Correcting the institutionalised racism of colonisation that results in the over-representation communities Factor III: Self-determining of Māori in negative statisticswithin (e.g. Māori incarceration, mortality rates, more medical Factor individuals Introducing better processes the ACC departmentMāori to make it easier for disabled IV: Self-determining tests conducted for non-Māori). people. communities

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 45 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

8. Security of health

16. Civic literacy 9. Security of transport and technology 9. Security of transport and technology 16. Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy 9. Security of transport and technology 9. Security of transport and technology 10. Civic Employment 16. literacy literacy, 11. Education literacy, 12. Health literacy, 13. Financial literacy, 14. literacy, 15. 13. FinancialTransportation literacy Technological literacy, 16. Civic literacy andCommunity 17. Housingdecision literacy making 19. 11. Education literacy 19. Community decision making 12. Health literacy 20. Curriculum, teachers and students 12. Health literacy 20. Curriculum, teachers and students 13. Financial literacy 13. literacy 20. Financial Curriculum, teachers and students and 25. Medical services 13. Financial literacy 16. Civic literacy

16. literacy 21. Civic Harmful products and services 16. 22. Civic Socialliteracy infrastructure 16. Civic literacy 22. Social infrastructure 16. Civic literacy 24. Medical services


Location Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne

Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne

Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne

'How'

Factors I to V

Papakainga – as a long-term accommodation option. (Papakainga is a form of housing Creating a ‘sharing meal’ system. developmentcommunity which occurs on multiply-owned or ancestral Traditionally, the Encouraging governance to reduce Maori bureaucracy (e.g. aland. community washing literal meaning of Papakainga ‘a nurturing place machine could be installed at ahousing school,is, allowing support for struggling families). to returnaffordable to’). Creating emergency housing (e.g. through transportable shipping containers). Telling HNZre-integration to step up andafter stopprison sellingsentences, houses. particularly for women. i.) Job Improving opportunities – Increasing job opportunities by ensuring social enterprises provide jobs to Changing stigma of poverty by might creating culture that for –our most vulnerable. those whothe mainstream employers nota consider. ii.) cares Housing Increasing access to Being inhousing, poverty including doesn’t mean you’re uneducated or notaccommodation, contributing to your community. quality creating a bank of emergency supported Changing the WINZ assistance processfor to people be morecoming informed, have background housing for those infinancial need, and halfway houses out of prison. checks on whoongoing they support, pay to assist clients families and do follow ups onpoor. their service. Implementing local funding for working and working Reforming the tax system. Creating a dress-up shop to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, such as

Self-determining Factor IV: I: Survival communities Factor I: Survival

Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining Factor I: Survival communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor Self-determining Factor IV: II: Security communities for a job interview. Capping debt. Factor IV: Self-determining Increasing paid parental leave. Factor II: Security communities Creating: a smooth pay system; an income to cover the essentials; and increased holiday Factor II: Security Revisiting laws for students to protect them from the burden of debt and providing interestFactor IV: Self-determining pay to help seasonal workers in the off-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal free loans. communities workers could volunteer over the off-season but would be paid by WINZ). Establishing more regulations money who lending and our financial system. Factor Self-determining Implementing a lower tax-ratearound for employers offer employees a living wage and Factor IV: II: Security communities redundancy packages. Creating a Central Government Factor V: Self-determining nation Increasing the minimum wage. Strategy: targeting poverty – 2025 NZ poverty free – where Factor II: Security implementation and information is fed at the local and regional level. Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan which ensures availability of skilled seasonal Factor II: Security Creating government policies that value and support kin care. Factor V: Self-determining nation workers and implements targeted training for Tairawhiti region. This would also increase job security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries such as Establishing Te Kopai Tuatahi – The first footsteps: A think tank to continue the work and Factor V: Self-determining nation forestry and horticulture). ideas that have been discussed. This would get funding for research, with the findings Removing stand-down period in jobs. (From Work and Income New Zealand: ‘A stand down Factor II: Security accessible to all. is a period, of up to a maximum of two weeks, where the client cannot receive a benefit payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourservices/what-is-a-stand-down.html) Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – Factor II: Security designed to provide fully tax-funded jobs and short-term jobs for those at risk of long-term unemployment. Creating home-help jobs with extended hours. This service will create jobs in the Factor II: Security community while also providing prolonged support for the elderly. Reviewing housing regulations to improve housing stock. Factor II: Security Ensuring more support is there for those dealing with addictions (e.g. a local drug and Factor II: Security alcohol court and a local rehabilitation unit in the Gisborne/Tairawhiti region). Creating and implementing an emergency police contact or panic button for elderly, and Factor II: Security encouraging GPs to know who their elderly patients are and who is living alone. Improving service delivery for hard to access groups such as homeless or mentally ill (e.g. Factor II: Security through innovation, social media, building relationships not just delivering services and by listening not directing). Creating a mobile health clinic. Factor II: Security Improving access to therapy and counselling for homeless. Factor II: Security Improving antenatal care. Factor II: Security Creating a Plunket booklet for the elderly; a simplified, universal booklet for elderly to Factor II: Security inform them of where to go for help. Raising awareness of abused elderly (e.g. advertisements on television, radio and Factor II: Security newspapers). Reviewing and potentially increasing funding and resources for the elderly (e.g. through Factor II: Security lowering medical and prescription costs, reviewing the ‘living pension’, creating a superannuation scheme like Australia’s, and eliminating rate penalties and GST for 65+ yearolds). Encouraging more interaction between the young and elderly (e.g. through elderly teaching Factor II: Security young people life skills and young people teaching elderly technological skills; by integrating retirement homes and nurseries; encouraging single mums to volunteer with the elderly; creating a space for elderly to read to the blind and teach young people how to read; and implementing an ‘adopt a Grandparent service’). Bringing the Hub to the community instead of the community to the Hub. Factor II: Security Encouraging whanaungatanga (relationship, kinship, sense of family connection) (e.g. Factor II: Security getting a ride to town with neighbours, getting neighbours to do your shopping, or having a Saturday driving service). Encouraging employers to provide transport for employees to and from work. Factor II: Security Encouraging SuperGrans to create a ‘Superbus’ which facilitates transportation for elderly. Factor II: Security Re-teaching life skills and educating families so that all can contribute (e.g. through a family Factor III: Self-determining mentor). individuals

Keeping youth engaged in learning for longer by creating more modern trade apprenticeships, encouraging outdoor education programmes and supporting initiatives such as CACTUS (Combined Adolescent Challenge Training Unit Support). Creating programmes that combat loneliness and encourage elderly to live interactive and active lifestyles (e.g. implementing a programme where elderly can interact with animals and creating walking, swimming and tai chi groups). Ensuring appropriate drug education is available in the community.

Factor III: Self-determining individuals

Type of sub-factor 25.Food Home ownership, rentals and shared 1. housing (affordable housing) 2. Clothing and shoes 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 25.Shelter Home (emergency ownership, rentals and shared 4. housing) housing (affordable housing) 26. Culture of care 28. Financial assistance and tax systems 6. Security of income 28.Security Financial 6. ofassistance income and tax systems 30.Security Debt consolidation 6. of income 6. Security of income 30. Debt consolidation 30.Security Debt consolidation 6. of income 31.Security Central of government 6. income strategy to tackle poverty 6. Security of income 31. Central government strategy to tackle poverty 33. Think Tank: Te Kopai Tuatahi – The first footsteps 6. Security of income

6. Security of income

6. Security of income, 8. Security of health and 22. Social infrastructure 7. Security of place (social housing) 8. Security of health 8. Security of health 8. Security of health

8. Security of health 8. Security of health 8. Security of health 8. Security of health 8. Security of health 8. Security of health

8. Security of health and 22. Social infrastructure

9. Security of transport and technology 9. Security of transport and technology

9. Security of transport and technology 9. Security of transport and technology 10. Employment literacy, 11. Education literacy, 12. Health literacy, 13. Financial literacy, 14. Transportation literacy, 15. Technological literacy, 16. Civic literacy and 17. Housing literacy 11. Education literacy

Factor III: Self-determining individuals

12. Health literacy

Factor III: Self-determining individuals Creating incentives to save and encouraging financial literacy by creating short-term saving Factor III: Self-determining schemes to help with budgeting (e.g. Christmas Clubs or saving for car registration). individuals Ensuring financial training is a part of any job so that employees learn financial literacy. Factor III: Self-determining individuals Encouraging employees and employers to contribute to KiwiSaver. Factor III: Self-determining individuals Encouraging Pacific Islanders to seek help both within and outside the Pacific Island Factor III: Self-determining Community, and encouraging employers to provide information about support services and individuals networks available to the Pacific Island community. Supporting community groups that are already established and encouraging groups to Factor III: Self-determining collaborate, support each other and scale-up (e.g. Te Ora Hou, -9+ and Tu Tangata). individuals Healing for Tairawhiti cultural oppression by 2019, by: restoring mana; unveiling the truth of Factor III: Self-determining Māori history in Tairawhiti; restoring identity; restoring indigenous healing; restoring individuals connectedness; and embracing traditional practices. Addressing lost identities and rethinking what being Māori means, by creating a sense of Factor III: Self-determining belonging through cultural education. Drugs, alcohol and gangs are not who Māori are. individuals Correcting the institutionalised racism of colonisation that results in the over-representation Factor III: Self-determining of Māori in negative statistics (e.g. Māori incarceration, Māori mortality rates, more medical individuals tests conducted for non-Māori).

12. Health literacy

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 46 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

13. Financial literacy 13. Financial literacy 13. Financial literacy 16. Civic literacy

16. Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy

16. Civic literacy 16. Civic literacy


Appendix 5: Analysing the 240 ‘hows’ from the TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 tour – by factor Factors I to V

Type of sub-factor

'How'

Location

Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival

1. Food 1. Food

Creating a ‘sharing meal’ system. Gisborne Supporting Iwi in their quest for equity. Hosting and provision of food at community events. Manawatu

Factor I: Survival

1. Food

Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival

1. Food, 12. Health literacy 1. Food, 2. Clothing and shoes, 3. Bedding, 4. Shelter (emergency housing) and 5. Accessibility 2. Clothing and shoes

Replacing the flowers in roundabouts with fruit and vegetables; providing free kai for kids distributed from the local community centres (not from within the school gates); and campaigning to love food, hate waste. Encouraging food gardening education in schools, community gardens and food tables. Ensuring the benefit follows the child rather than the parents. This will provide extra support in situations such as grandparents raising grandchildren and children who are constantly on the move from one family member to the next. Encouraging community governance to reduce bureaucracy (e.g. a community washing machine could be installed at a school, allowing support for struggling families). Prioritising the improvement of living conditions to stop the spread of preventable diseases such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). This would also improve the rates at which developmental milestones are reached for children under five. Creating affordable emergency housing (e.g. through transportable shipping containers). Improving re-integration after prison sentences, particularly for women. i.) Job opportunities – Increasing job opportunities by ensuring social enterprises provide jobs to those who mainstream employers might not consider. ii.) Housing – Increasing access to quality housing, including creating a bank of emergency accommodation, supported housing for those in need, and halfway houses for people coming out of prison. Increasing the availability of emergency housing. Investigating the purchase or repurposing of a house to provide Emergency Housing for Feilding by Community Trusts, MDC and others. Ensuring community trusts and MDC investigate options for transitional housing. Identifying a champion to work with central government agencies and local community groups to co-ordinate support services for the homeless. Creating a Centre for Homeless Whanau and a homeless night shelter. Allocating the empty houses in the region to families waiting on the Housing NZ waitlist (which is currently a three-year wait). Funding will be necessary to get some of these houses up to a living standard. This should come from Housing NZ. Implementing rural bus services between rural communities and main towns to allow access to services such as medical appointments. Implementing ongoing local funding for working families and working poor. Creating a ward of the state grant (a grant for someone who is placed under the protection of a legal guardian) which has long-term savings potential. For example, the state could invest money on behalf of the person which then generates interest, the money could then be taken out by the person when they are an adult. Creating a dress-up shop to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, such as for a job interview. Increasing paid parental leave. Creating: a smooth pay system; an income to cover the essentials; and increased holiday pay to help seasonal workers in the off-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal workers could volunteer over the off-season but would be paid by WINZ). Implementing a lower tax-rate for employers who offer employees a living wage and redundancy packages. Increasing the minimum wage. Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan which ensures availability of skilled seasonal workers and implements targeted training for Tairawhiti region. This would also increase job security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries such as forestry and horticulture). Removing stand-down period in jobs. (From Work and Income New Zealand: ‘A stand down is a period, of up to a maximum of two weeks, where the client cannot receive a benefit payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourservices/what-is-a-stand-down.html) Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – designed to provide fully tax-funded jobs and short-term jobs for those at risk of long-term unemployment. Providing a temporary address for people to start the benefit process. Creating volunteering initiatives which enables the unemployed to volunteer (for a certain number of hours) in return for receiving things such as financial support to get photo ID taken or to buy a suit and tie; and establish a Daytime Educational Drop In Centre to provide clear pathways for whanau who want help and retraining. Providing rehab grants for offenders who spent time in prison and community detention centres. The grant does not have to be in the form of money but could aid integration with support programmes, which could provide work and living skills training. Increasing the hourly rate to a minimum of $18 per hour; and community specific benefit entitlement to cover living costs. Careers evenings for businesses with employment vacancies. Community members have the opportunity to attend a four-step training programme to gain the skills to fit the vacancies. The idea comes from Ruapehu, where it was successfully trialled and saw a high placement of workers. Providing a subsidy to encourage businesses to hire people on the benefit (instead of overseas labourers). Redirecting government benefits towards subsidising a long-term solution will allow workers to enter the workforce to gain skills, confidence and ability to support their families. Changing the way employment contracts are done.

Factor I: Survival

Rotorua

Manawatu Kaikohe

Gisborne

Factor I: Survival

3. Bedding and 4. Shelter (emergency housing)

Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival

4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing)

Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival

4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing)

Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival

4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing)

Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival

4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing)

Factor I: Survival

5. Accessibility

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of income 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of income 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of income 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of income 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy 6. Security of income and 29. Local Establishing community-led hubs that link education providers and potential employers with economy the community. This will facilitate networking and encourage a coordinated approach to addressing problems of local employment after education. 6. Security of income and 8. Linking local op-shops with health centres, provide clothing education and advice. Security of health 6. Security of income, 8. Security of Creating home-help jobs with extended hours. This service will create jobs in the health and 22. Social infrastructure community while also providing prolonged support for the elderly.

Rotorua

Factor II: Security

7. Security of place (social housing) Reviewing housing regulations to improve housing stock.

Gisborne

Factor II: Security

7. Security of place (social housing) Increasing the size of the police force to enable around the clock availability in the local area. 7. Security of place (social housing) Getting the McGuinness Institute to review the policy settings for the existing accommodation supplement to determine if it could be improved. 7. Security of place (social housing) Consulting with community about minimum standards for all accommodation not just rentals.

Kaikohe

Factor II: Security

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 47 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

Kaikohe

Gisborne Gisborne

Kaikohe Manawatu Manawatu Manawatu Rotorua Rotorua

Kaikohe Gisborne Kaitaia

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne

Gisborne

Rotorua Rotorua

Rotorua

Rotorua Rotorua

Rotorua

Kaitaia

Manawatu Gisborne

Manawatu Manawatu


Factors I to V II:Survival Security Factor I: Factor I: Survival II:Survival Security Factor I:

Factor I: Survival Factor Security Factor II: I: Survival Factor II: Security Factor I: Survival Factor II: Security Factor I: Survival Factor II: Security II:Survival Security Factor I: II:Survival Security Factor I: Factor II: Security Factor II: Security II:Survival Security Factor I: Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor Security Factor II: I: Survival Factor I: II:Survival Security Factor Factor I: II:Survival Security Factor Factor II: Security Factor I: Survival Factor II: Security Factor II: II: Security Security Factor Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor Factor II: II: Security Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security

Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals Factor II: Security

Factor III: II: Security Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: II: Security Self-determining individuals Factor III: II: Security Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals

Type of sub-factor

'How'

7. Food Security of place (social housing) Addressing the problem short-term tenancies by speaking to the Ministry of Business, 1. Creating a ‘sharing meal’of system. Innovation and Employment changing theand wayprovision the tenancy formatiscommunity formatted to 1. Food Supporting Iwi in their quest about for equity. Hosting of food events. suggest the possibility of long-term tenancy. 7. Food Security of place (social housing) Replacing Building affordable homes; reviewing accommodation costs; easier criteriafree for access; 1. the flowers in roundabouts with fruit and vegetables; providing kai for kids and 25. Home ownership, rentals compulsory warrants of fitness for housing; and providing housing working distributed from the local community centres (not from within the bonds school to gates); and and shared housing (affordable families still struggling duehate to low paying jobs. campaigning to love food, waste. housing 1. Food, )12. Health literacy Encouraging food gardening education in schools, community gardens and food tables. 8. healthand shoes, 3. Ensuring support is there those dealing addictions (e.g. local drug and 1. Security Food, 2. of Clothing Ensuring more the benefit follows thefor child rather thanwith the parents. This willaprovide extra alcohol and a local unitraising in the Gisborne/Tairawhiti region).who are Bedding, 4. Shelter (emergency supportcourt in situations suchrehabilitation as grandparents grandchildren and children 8. Securityand of health Creating and emergency police contact or panic button for elderly, and 5. Accessibility housing) constantly onimplementing the move fromanone family member to the next. encouraging community GPs to knowgovernance who their elderly patients are and (e.g. who ais community living alone.washing 2. Clothing and shoes Encouraging to reduce bureaucracy 8. Security of health Improvingcould service to access groups suchfor as struggling homeless families). or mentally ill (e.g. machine be delivery installedfor at ahard school, allowing support through innovation, social media, building relationships not just delivering services diseases and by 3. Bedding and 4. Shelter Prioritising the improvement of living conditions to stop the spread of preventable listening not directing). (emergency housing) such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). This would also improve the 8. Security of health Creating a mobile health clinic.milestones are reached for children under five. rates at which developmental 8. Shelter Security(emergency of health housing) Improvingaffordable access toemergency therapy andhousing counselling homeless. 4. Creating (e.g. for through transportable shipping containers). 8. Shelter Security(emergency of health housing) antenatal care.after prison sentences, particularly for women. i.) Job 4. Improving re-integration 8. Security of health Creating a Plunket booklet job for the elderly; a simplified, universal booklet forprovide elderly jobs to to opportunities – Increasing opportunities by ensuring social enterprises informwho them of where toemployers go for help. those mainstream might not consider. ii.) Housing – Increasing access to quality housing, including creating a bank of emergency accommodation, supported 8. Security of health Raising awareness of abused elderly (e.g. advertisements on television, radio and housing for those in need, and halfway houses for people coming out of prison. newspapers). 8. Shelter Security(emergency of health housing) Reviewing and potentiallyof increasing funding and resources for the elderly (e.g. through 4. Increasing the availability emergency housing. lowering medical and prescription costs, reviewing theto‘living pension’, creating a for 4. Shelter (emergency housing) Investigating the purchase or repurposing of a house provide Emergency Housing superannuation schemeTrusts, like Australia’s, eliminating rate penalties and GST for 65+ yearFeilding by Community MDC andand others. olds). 4. Shelter (emergency housing) Ensuring community trusts and MDC investigate options for transitional housing. 8. of health housing) Establishing GP centres high schools to facilitateagencies greater access forcommunity those who may 4. Security Shelter (emergency Identifying amobile champion to work in with central government and local only travel to town forsupport school. services for the homeless. groups to co-ordinate 8. Shelter Security(emergency of health housing) Increasinga Centre the availability of mental health support and counselling. 4. Creating for Homeless Whanau and a homeless night shelter. 8. Shelter Security(emergency of health housing) Providing special support for in thethe elderly with age related 4. Allocating the empty houses regionand to those families waiting on the illnesses. Housing NZ waitlist 8. Security of health Encouraging the community andwait). health professionals to use e-health allow (which is currently a three-year Funding will be necessary to getservices some oftothese isolated people to make use of This digital solutions. example, the communication houses up to a living standard. should comeFor from Housingenabling NZ. of patient data between different healthcare professionals and allowing both the requesting 5. Accessibility Implementing rural bus services between rural communities and main towns to allow of diagnostic tests such and treatments and receiving the results to be done electronically. access to services as medical appointments. 6. Security of income Implementing ongoing local funding for working families and working poor. 8. Security Security of of income health Lobbyingafor freeofhealthcare and dental care shouldwho be means tested). 6. Creating ward the state grant (a grant for(this someone is placed under the protection 8. Security of health Developing a centralwhich list ofhas people who can help potential. develop end life plans. of a legal guardian) long-term savings Forofexample, the state could invest money on behalf of the person which generates interest, could then 8. Security of health Implementing students/elderly mentoring atthen schools, churches, clubsthe andmoney the library. be taken out by the person theyfor areelderly, an adult. 8. Security of health Identifying skill-based work when identified community networks and pets. 6. Security of income Creating a dress-up shop to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, such as 8. health Support in the home long term; consistent support for workers; and support for those with for a job interview. identified needs (culturally appropriate services). 6. Increasing parental leave. wage. 8. Security of income health Providing apaid universal caregiver 6. Creating: a smooth pay system; to cover the essentials; and increased holiday 8. Security of income health Pick elderly up and take them toan huiincome meetings; visit them in their homes; and involve them pay torangatahi help seasonal workers in theoroff-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal with e.g. reading buddy schools adopting grandparents. workers could volunteer over 8. Security of health Providing free legal advice for the the off-season elderly. but would be paid by WINZ). 6. a lower tax-ratebetween for employers who offer employees living wage andteaching 8. Security Security of of income health and 22. Social Implementing Encouraging more interaction the young and elderly (e.g. athrough elderly redundancy packages. infrastructure young people life skills and young people teaching elderly technological skills; by integrating 6. Security of income Increasing the minimum wage. encouraging single mums to volunteer with the elderly; retirement homes and nurseries; 6. Security of income Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan whichand ensures of skilled seasonal creating a space for elderly to read to the blind teachavailability young people how to read; and workers and implements training for Tairawhiti region. This would also increase job implementing an ‘adopt atargeted Grandparent service’). security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries such as 9. Security of transport and Bringing the Hub to the community instead of the community to the Hub. forestry and horticulture). technology 6. Removing stand-down period in jobs. (From Work and Income New Zealand: ‘A stand 9. Security of income transport and Encouraging whanaungatanga (relationship, kinship, sense of family connection) (e.g. down is a period, of to uptown to a maximum of two weeks, the client receive a or benefit technology getting a ride with neighbours, getting where neighbours to docannot your shopping, having a payment.’ Source:service). http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourSaturday driving services/what-is-a-stand-down.html) 9. Security of transport and Encouraging employers to provide transport for employees to and from work. 6. Security of income Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – technology designed to provide fully to tax-funded jobs and short-term jobs fortransportation those at risk offor long-term 9. Security of transport and Encouraging SuperGrans create a ‘Superbus’ which facilitates elderly. unemployment. technology 6. Providingfunding a temporary address fortopeople start the benefit 9. Security of income transport and Securing to enable WINZ supplytopetrol vouchers forprocess. those whose movements are 6. Security of income Creating initiatives whichto enables the unemployed to volunteer (for a certain technology restrictedvolunteering by their location and ability buy petrol. number of hours) in return for receiving things such as financial to getplaygrounds photo ID 9. Security of transport and Creating hubs on wheels to take services to hard to reach places.support For example taken or toa library buy a suit and establish a Daytime Educational Drop In Centre to provide technology and toys, busand andtie; a pharmacy. clear pathways for whanau who want help andproviders retraining. 9. Security of transport and Approaching internet and telecommunication such as Spark, Vodafone and 6. Security of income Providing for and offenders who time in prison and community detention technology Chorus to rehab bettergrants resource connect thespent Far North. centres. Thethe grant does notand havelandline to be inphones the form ofwere money but could aid integration with 9. Security of transport and Reinstating community that removed based on the support programmes, which could provide work and living skillsoftraining. technology assumption that everyone was using mobiles, despite the lack mobile coverage. 6. Increasing the hourly a minimum of $18 per hour;and andbe community benefit 9. Security of income transport and Creating internet hubsrate withtosatellite broadband to serve run by thespecific community (for entitlement to covermarae, living costs. technology example in schools, halls). This would allow people to Skype into multiple appointments. 6. Security of income and 10. Careers evenings for businesses with employment vacancies. Community members have Employment literacy the opportunity to attend a four-stepfamilies trainingsoprogramme gain the skills to fit thea family 10. Employment literacy, 11. Re-teaching life skills and educating that all canto contribute (e.g. through vacancies. Education literacy, 12. Health mentor). The idea comes from Ruapehu, where it was successfully trialled and saw a high placement of workers. literacy, 13. Financial literacy, 14. Transportation literacy, 15.10. 6. Security of income and Providing a subsidy to encourage businesses to hire people on the benefit (instead of Technological literacy, 16. Civic Employment literacy overseas labourers). Redirecting government benefits towards subsidising a long-term literacy and 17. Housing literacy solution will allow workers to enter the workforce to gain skills, confidence and ability to support their families. 10. Employment literacy, 11. Providing pastoral care for prisoners on parole to aid their reintegration and reduce the 6. Securityliteracy, of income 10. Changing way employment contracts are done. Education 12.and Health chances ofthe reoffending. Employment literacy literacy, 14. literacy, 13. Financial Transportation literacy, 15.29. Local Establishing community-led hubs that link education providers and potential employers with 6. Security of income and Technological literacy, 16. Civic economy the community. This will facilitate networking and encourage a coordinated approach to literacy and 17. Housing literacy addressing problems of local employment after education. 6. of income Linking op-shops health centres, provide clothing education advice. 11.Security Education literacy and 8. Keepinglocal youth engagedwith in learning for longer by creating more modernand trade Security of health apprenticeships, encouraging outdoor education programmes and supporting initiatives 6. Security of income, 8. Security of such Creating home-help jobs with extended Challenge hours. ThisTraining serviceUnit will create jobs in the as CACTUS (Combined Adolescent Support). health and 22.literacy Social infrastructure Ensuring community while also providing prolonged support for theabout elderly. 11. Education children and families have access to information education. 7. of place (social housing) Strengthening Reviewing housing regulations to improve stock. 11.Security Education literacy family relationships and rolehousing modelling ‘better ways’ to interact as a family. This should include ‘teaching parents how to teach.’ 7. of place (social housing) Increasing sizeofofeducation the policetoforce tovocational enable around availability inThis thewill local 11.Security Education literacy Shifting thethe focus value skills the andclock apprenticeships. area. that education is relevant for jobs that are available in rural communities. For ensure 7. Security of place (social housing) Getting McGuinness Institute to review the policy settings in forareas the existing example,the including practical secondary standards and courses such as welding. accommodation supplement to determine it could improved. 11. Education literacy Implementing a mentoring system for thoseif who are be struggling in the existing education 7. Security of place (social housing) Consulting system. with community about minimum standards for all accommodation not just rentals.

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 48 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

Location Queenstown Gisborne Manawatu Rotorua

Manawatu Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe Manawatu Manawatu Kaikohe Manawatu Kaikohe Rotorua Kaikohe Rotorua Kaitaia Kaikohe Gisborne Manawatu Kaitaia Manawatu Manawatu Manawatu Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Kaikohe Rotorua Kaitaia Kaitaia Rotorua Kaitaia Rotorua Kaitaia Rotorua Gisborne

Rotorua

Kaikohe Rotorua Kaitaia

Manawatu Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe Kaitaia Manawatu Kaikohe Manawatu


Factors I to V

Type of sub-factor

Self-determining Factor III: I: Survival individuals Factor I: Survival

11.Food Education literacy 1. 1. Food

Factor I: Survival

1. Food

Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor I: Survival Factor Self-determining Factor III: I: Survival individuals

11. Education literacy 1. Food, 12. Health literacy 11. Education literacy 1. Food, 2. Clothing and shoes, 3. Bedding, 4. Shelter (emergency housing) and 5. Accessibility 11.Clothing Education 2. andliteracy shoes

Factor III: Self-determining Factor I: Survival individuals Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals

3. Bedding and 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 11. Education literacy, 12. Health Literacy 13. Financial literacy 4. Shelterand (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 11. Education literacy, 12. Health Literacy and 13. Financial literacy

Factor I: Survival Factor Self-determining Factor III: I: Survival individuals

4. Shelter (emergency housing) 12.Shelter Health(emergency literacy 4. housing)

Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining Factor I: Survival individuals Factor III: Self-determining Factor I: Survival individuals Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: Self-determining Factor I: Survival individuals Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals

4. Shelter (emergency housing) 12.Shelter Health(emergency literacy 4. housing)

Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals

12.Shelter Health(emergency literacy 4. housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 12. Health literacy 12. Health literacy 5. Accessibility 12. Health literacy 6. Security of income 6. Security of income 12. Health literacy and 13. Financial literacy 13. Financial literacy 6. Security of income 13. Financial literacy 6. Security of income 13. Financial literacy 6. Security of income 13. Financial literacy 6. of income 14.Security Transportation literacy 6. of income 14.Security Transportation literacy 6. Security of income

Factor III: Self-determining individuals

16. Civic literacy

Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security

6. of income 16.Security Civic literacy

Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals

16. Civic literacy

Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: II: Security Self-determining individuals

16. Civic literacy 6. Security of income

6. of income 16.Security Civic literacy 6. Security of income 16. Civic literacy 6. of income 16.Security Civic literacy

Factor III: II: Security Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals

6. of income 16.Security Civic literacy

Factor III: II: Security Self-determining individuals Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: II: Security Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals

6. of income and 10. 16.Security Civic literacy Employment literacy 16. Civic literacy

Factor III: II: Security Self-determining individuals

6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy 16. Civic literacy

6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy 16. Civic literacy 6. Security of income and 29. Local economy 16. Civic literacy 6. Security of income and 8. Security health 16. Civic of literacy 6. Security of income, 8. Security of health and 22. Social infrastructure 16. Civic literacy 7. of place (social housing) 16.Security Civic literacy 7. Security of place (social housing) 16. Civic literacy 7. Security of place (social housing) 7. of place (social housing) 16.Security Civic literacy

'How' Ensuring teachers aresystem. diverse enough to engage and provide strong role models for Creating athat ‘sharing meal’ their students are quest in thefor process ofHosting developing own of identities may alsoevents. have Supporting Iwiwho in their equity. and their provision food at and community one or more parent absent from their lives. This will reduce the creation of ‘educational refugees’ –the students drop out when from primary to secondary Replacing flowerswho in roundabouts withtransitioning fruit and vegetables; providing free kai or forfrom kids secondary to tertiary education. distributed from the local community centres (not from within the school gates); and Connecting mentoring programmes with schools to ensure support for at risk students. campaigning to love food, hate waste. Encouraging food gardening education in schools, community gardens and food tables. Changing the way we teach in schools from theory to parents. practical This ‘hands learning; Ensuring the benefit follows the child rather than the willon’ provide extrahaving smaller in classrooms; working with whānau; having teacher supportteacher/student in situations suchratios as grandparents raising grandchildren andand children who are aides and social at allone school. constantly on theworkers move from family member to the next. Changing how we motivate youth by having inspiring kaumatua in schools; having Encouraging community governance to reduce bureaucracy (e.g.mentors a community washing adults who listen; catered to – aiming to create studentsfamilies). who love to learn; machine could be learning installed styles at a school, allowing support for struggling providing youth courses for all students that focus on building individual strengths; and Prioritising the improvement of living conditions to stop the spread of preventable diseases ensuring local (Methicillin-resistant funding for scholarships. such as MRSA Staphylococcus aureus). This would also improve the Adopting a long-term, holistic milestones approach toare education encompasses levels and ages, rates at which developmental reachedthat for children underall five. includingaffordable in-home education and life skills such as gardening and managing or Creating emergency housing (e.g. through transportable shippingpersonal containers). household finances, as well as more formal education. Improving re-integration after prison sentences, particularly for women. i.) Job Teaching Te Arawa, Te Reo (Whakapapa), employment skills, addiction education and lifeto opportunities – Increasing job opportunities by ensuring social enterprises provide jobs skills (cooking, life planning, budgeting, sewing, emotional and financial literacy); those who mainstream employers mightgardening, not consider. ii.) Housing – Increasing access to teachinghousing, the values of education, healthy relationships, self and family; quality including creatingcommunity, a bank of emergency accommodation, supported teachingfor realthose life stories (e.g. from houses recovered drug and alcohol addicts, drink driving housing in need, andtalks halfway for people coming out of prison. outcomes pregnancy of (including fetalhousing. alcohol syndrome) outcomes). Increasing and the availability emergency Creating programmes that combat loneliness and encourage elderly to live interactive Investigating the purchase or repurposing of a house to provide Emergency Housing forand active lifestyles (e.g. implementing programme Feilding by Community Trusts, MDCaand others. where elderly can interact with animals and creating walking,trusts swimming and tai chi groups). Ensuring community and MDC investigate options for transitional housing. Ensuring appropriate drug education is available in the community. Identifying a champion to work with central government agencies and local community groups to co-ordinate support services for the homeless. Creating programmes about living lifestyles, to reduce the risk of health Creating education a Centre for Homeless Whanau and healthy a homeless night shelter. problems such as diabetes. Allocating the empty houses in the region to families waiting on the Housing NZ waitlist Working with DHB to create an integrated mental health facility. Educating our community (which is currently a three-year wait). Funding will be necessary to get some of these about how to access services. houses up to a living standard. This should come from Housing NZ. Increasing the number of visits from Plunket (or similar) from 8 to 20 and teaching Implementing rural bus services between rural communities and main towns to allow parenting skills. access to services such as medical appointments. Showing parents how to actively love their children; and registering and working to become Implementing ongoing local funding for working families and working poor. a UNICEF NZ Child Friendly City. Creating a ward of the state grant (a grant for someone who is placed under the protection Implementing a programme where retirees mentor youth on life skills such as budgeting, of a legal guardian) which has long-term savings potential. For example, the state could cooking and gardening. For example Te Hiku Youth Hub. invest money on behalf of the person which then generates interest, the money could then Creating incentives to save and encouraging financial literacy by creating short-term saving be taken out by the person when they are an adult. schemes to help with budgeting (e.g. Christmas Clubs or saving for car registration). Creating a dress-up shop to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, such as Ensuring financial training is a part of any job so that employees learn financial literacy. for a job interview. Increasing paid parental leave. Encouraging employees and employers to contribute to KiwiSaver. Creating: a smooth pay system; an income to cover the essentials; and increased holiday pay to help seasonal workers in service the off-season. This be aknow WINZwhat system (e.g. Making it compulsory for social providers to could let clients they areseasonal entitled workers couldeasy volunteer the off-season be paid by WINZ). to. We need access over to services that workbut forwould the people. Implementing a lower tax-rate for employers who offer employees a living wage and Providing free car registration for those on the benefit. redundancy packages. Increasingdriving the minimum wage. Teaching in schools so that students can get their license. This will help combat Consulting stakeholders develop planofwhich ensures availability of skilled seasonal geographic isolation andto reduce thearate ‘behind the wheel’ offences. workers and implements targeted training for Tairawhiti region. This would also increase job Encouraging Pacific Islanders to seek help both within and outside the Pacific Island security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries suchand as Community, and encouraging employers to provide information about support services forestry and horticulture). networks available to the Pacific Island community. Removing stand-down jobs. Work and Income Zealand: groups ‘A standtodown Supporting communityperiod groupsinthat are(From already established andNew encouraging is a period, ofsupport up to aeach maximum of two weeks,(e.g. where the Hou, client-9+ cannot receive a benefit collaborate, other and scale-up Te Ora and Tu Tangata). payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourHealing for Tairawhiti cultural oppression by 2019, by: restoring mana; unveiling the truth of services/what-is-a-stand-down.html) Māori history in Tairawhiti; restoring identity; restoring indigenous healing; restoring Putting people back marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – connectedness; and on embracing traditional practices. designed tolost provide fully tax-funded jobswhat and short-term jobs for those at risk of long-term Addressing identities and rethinking being Māori means, by creating a sense of unemployment. belonging through cultural education. Drugs, alcohol and gangs are not who Māori are. Providing athe temporary address for people to start the benefit process. Correcting institutionalised racism of colonisation that results in the over-representation Creating initiatives which enables the unemployed to volunteer a certain of Māori volunteering in negative statistics (e.g. Māori incarceration, Māori mortality rates,(for more medical number of hours)for innon-Māori). return for receiving things such as financial support to get photo ID tests conducted taken or to buy a centre/safe suit and tie;zone and establish a Daytime Educational Drop In Centre to provide Creating a youth for children. clear pathways for whanau who want help and retraining. Providing grants for offenders spentand timeensuring in prisonMāori-to-Māori and communityare detention Increasingrehab effective engagement withwho whanau, in centres. The grant to be in the form of money but could aid integration conversation ratherdoes thannot justhave Māori-to-non-Māori, especially in the implementation ofwith any support programmes, which could provide work and living skills training. ‘hows’. Increasing thegrassroots hourly rate to a minimum of $18 per hour; and community specific benefit Encouraging community collaboration with networks of likeminded agencies and entitlement to cover groups to ensure thatliving local costs. solutions are driven by community members. This will improve Careers evenings for businesses employment vacancies. Community members have resilience and sharing about howwith to work within constraints. the opportunity to attend a four-step training programme to gain theand skillsmorality to fit the Changing the education system to better address culture, spirituality to vacancies. The idea comes from Ruapehu, This where was successfully and and saw a high strengthen a person’s wairua (spirit/soul). willitencourage a love trialled of learning placement of workers. produce creative, critical thinkers and innovators. Providing a subsidy to encourage businesses topeople hire people on thethem benefit of For Introducing a mentoring system between local to connect as (instead a community. overseas labourers). government benefits towards subsidising a long-term example using Te AhuRedirecting Centre, hubs, and marae as meeting points. solution will allow workers to enter the workforce to gain skills, confidence and ability to Focussing on engaging the community, and inspiring collective consciousness and support their families. responsibility to create systemic change. We need the strong community leaders/movers Changing thetoway are done. and shakers leademployment community contracts engagement. Improving historical education, particularly around Te Tiriti o Waitangi, including context Establishing community-led hubs text that of link education providers and potential employers with around the Treaty and the actual the document. the community. This will facilitate networking and encourage a coordinated approach to Improving civic education by including Tino Rangitiratanga narratives in the school addressing problems of local employment after education. curriculum. This would help our people find a voice and a purpose, and would also develop Linkingleadership local op-shops provide education and advice. Māori to getwith our health peoplecentres, at the table withclothing the decision-makers. Making Te Reo and the history of Aotearoa compulsory in teacher training so that educators Creating jobsunderstanding with extendedof hours. service will create jobs in the can pass home-help on a respectful MāoriThis culture. community while also providing support for the elderly. Changing the drinking and party prolonged culture in the Far North and encouraging people to connect back to their Māori culture. Reviewing housing regulations housing stock. Implementing media strategiesto toimprove cover aspects such as social media awareness. This will ensure that messages are specific and relevant to the community and will create awareness Increasing the sizeradio, of theand police with print media, TV. force to enable around the clock availability in the local area. Changing the perception of Māoridom by adopting a Māori lens and starting a Mātauranga Getting the McGuinness Institute review theofpolicy for the Māori revival. This would improveto knowledge areas settings such as the Waiexisting 262 claim and accommodation to tribal determine wānanga (cultral supplement traditions and lore). if it could be improved. Consulting with community minimum forbyalllocals accommodation notisjust Ensuring that research aboutabout the Far North isstandards conducted in Kaitaia, and useful for rentals. local communities.

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 49 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

Location Kaikohe Gisborne Manawatu Rotorua Manawatu Manawatu Rotorua Kaikohe Rotorua Gisborne Kaikohe Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua

Kaikohe Gisborne Manawatu Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Kaikohe Rotorua Rotorua Manawatu Manawatu Kaikohe Rotorua Gisborne Kaitaia Kaitaia Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne

Rotorua Kaikohe Rotorua Kaikohe

Rotorua Kaitaia Kaitaia Rotorua Kaitaia Kaitaia Kaitaia Manawatu Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Kaitaia Kaikohe Kaitaia Manawatu Manawatu Kaitaia


Factors I to V

Type of sub-factor

Factor III: I: Survival Self-determining individuals Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: Self-determining I: Survival individuals Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor III: Self-determining Factor I: Survival individuals Factor III: Self-determining Factor I: Survival individuals

1. 16.Food Civic literacy 1. Food 16. Civic literacy 1. Food 16. Civic literacy

Factor III: Self-determining Factor I: Survival individuals Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals

16.Shelter Civic literacy 4. (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 16. Civic literacy

Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor I: Survival Factor III: Self-determining Factor I: Survival individuals

16.Food, Civic 12. literacy 1. Health literacy 1. Food, 2. Clothing and shoes, 3. 16. Civic literacy Bedding, 4. Shelter (emergency housing) and 5. Accessibility 16.Clothing Civic literacy 2. and shoes 16. Civic literacy 3. Bedding and 4. Shelter (emergency housing)

16. Civic literacy 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 16. Civic literacy 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 16. Civic literacy 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 16. Civic literacy 4. Shelter (emergency housing)

Factor III: Self-determining Factor I: Survival individuals

16. Civic literacy 5. Accessibility

Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining Factor II: Security individuals

6. Security of income 16. Civic literacy 6. Security of income

Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: Self-determining individuals Factor II: Security Factor III: II: Security Factor Self-determining individuals Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities

16. Civic literacy 6. Security of income 16. Civic literacy 6. Security of income 6. of income 16.Security Civic literacy 18. Resource allocation 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities

6. of allocation income 18.Security Resource 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities

6. of allocation income 18.Security Resource

Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security

19. Community decision making 6. Security of income

Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities

20. Curriculum, teachers and 6. Security of income students 20. Curriculum, teachers and 6. Security of income and 10. students Employment literacy 20. Curriculum, teachers and students 20. Curriculum, teachers and 6. Security of income and 10. students Employment literacy 20. Curriculum, teachers and students 6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy 6. of income andand 29. Local 20.Security Curriculum, teachers economy students

Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor II: Security

18. Resource allocation

19. Community decision making 6. Security of income 6. of income 19.Security Community decision making 19. Community decision making 6. Security of income

Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities

6. Security of income and 8. Security of health 6. of income, 8. Security of 20.Security Curriculum, teachers and health and 22. Social infrastructure students

Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor II: Security

7. of place (socialand housing) 20.Security Curriculum, teachers students 7. of place (socialand housing) 20.Security Curriculum, teachers students 7. Security of place (social housing)

Factor II: Security

7. Security of place (social housing)

'How' ‘sharing meal’ system. Creating a community index at information centre of: clubs, volunteers, services. Possibly also deliver Iwi online. Supporting in their quest for equity. Hosting and provision of food at community events. Creating community connectedness through public facilities (library, centres, WiFi). Replacing the flowers in roundabouts with fruit and vegetables; providing free kai for kids Solving Māori problems being Māori, strengthen community connections. distributed from the localbycommunity centres (not from within the school gates); and campaigning to love food, hate waste. Consulting, communicating and reflecting in the context of the audience. Encouraging food gardening education in schools, community gardens and food tables. Ensuring the benefit follows the child rather than the parents. This will provide extra Ensuring government support mechanisms are known toand all Manawatu healthcare support incurrent situations such as grandparents raising grandchildren children who are providers. third party to to reduce costs. constantly Investigate on the move from onecontributions family member the next. Ensuring those who workgovernance with Māori to understand and observe Tikanga. Encouraging community reduce bureaucracy (e.g. a community washing machine could be installed at a school, allowing support for struggling families). Ensuring schools showcase the way forward. Ideas included putting inclusion into practice, Prioritising the improvement of living conditions to stop the spread of preventable diseases engaging more(Methicillin-resistant widely in the community and lettingaureus). the community know what is implicitly such as MRSA Staphylococcus This would also improve the and explicitly in themilestones wider community. rates at whichhappening developmental are reached for children under five. Creating affordable a family room where parents have a cup transportable of tea, use WiFi and volunteer. Creating emergency housingcan (e.g. through shipping containers). Improving re-integration after prison sentences, particularly for women. i.) Job Establishing a clear set of values around cohesion. These values should be owned theto opportunities – Increasing job opportunities by ensuring social enterprises providebyjobs community, representing all of the might community, based around living–standards future those who mainstream employers not consider. ii.) Housing Increasingand access to growth.housing, including creating a bank of emergency accommodation, supported quality Utilising thethose youthincouncil effectively. Ideas buildingout civic in the housing for need, more and halfway houses forincluded people coming of knowledge prison. wider community among youth and learning by doing (giving them real projects with actual Increasing the availability of emergency housing. financial resources). Investigating the purchase or repurposing of a house to provide Emergency Housing for Ensuring businesses lead and integrate values and visions of Queenstown into their Feilding by Community Trusts, MDC andtheir others. business practices. For example, promoting inclusion, safety, environmental stability, worker Ensuring community trusts and MDC investigate options for transitional housing. rights and responsibilities and maintaining a beautiful township). Identifying a champion to work with central government agencies and local community Ensuring employees know their rights and responsibilities (e.g. better communication groups to co-ordinate support services for the homeless. and/or union representation). Creating a Centre for Homeless Whanau and a homeless night shelter. Providing comprehensive guidance under the Health and Safety Act 2016. For example, Allocating the empty houses in the region to families waiting on the Housing NZ waitlist outlining how a 'Person Conducting a Business or Undertaking (PCBU)' in Queenstown Lakes (which is currently a three-year wait). Funding will be necessary to get some of these might best provide a 'primary duty of care' to staff members. houses up to a living standard. This should come from Housing NZ. Independently assessing businesses for treatment of employees in poverty. Are there poor Implementing rural bus services between rural communities and main towns to allow employers in QLD and who are they? For example, the council could review employees access to services such as medical appointments. experiences, have a complaints system easily accessible, blind visits etc. Implementing ongoing local funding for working families and working poor. Councils to notify the community of upcoming events and services by contributing to Creating a ward of the state grant (a grant for someone who is placed under the protection school/community newsletters and websites and improving their website for easy access to of a legal guardian) which has long-term savings potential. For example, the state could information. invest money on behalf of the person which then generates interest, the money could then Showcasing through social marketing, good examples of initiatives that are working in the be taken out by the person when they are an adult. community. Creating a dress-up shop to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, such as Encouraging socially responsible businesses (good corporate citizens): Employment/training for a job interview. opportunities; commitment to employing local people; and businesses adopting a local Increasing parental leave. communitypaid centre. Creating: a smooth payservices system;are an income cover pages the essentials; and increased holiday Ensuring key directory on socialtomedia for easy access. pay to help seasonal workers in the off-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal workers could volunteer over the off-season but would be paid by WINZ). Improving gatekeeping by immigration. Ideas included improving airport security, assurance Implementing a lower for to employers who offer living wagesupport and that visitors have fundstax-rate on arrival leave, provide proofemployees of incomeaand health redundancy packages.rather than use New Zealand ACC). (i.e. health insurance IncreasingQueenstown the minimum wage. Charging house owners who do not live in or rent out their property for at Consulting stakeholders develop a plan which ensures availabilityhousing of skilled seasonal least nine months a yearto higher rates to fund social and affordable initiatives. workers and implements targeted Tairawhiti region. This would alsoare increase job Providing a fast track legal process training for smallfor misdemeanours. Currently people required security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries to stay in Queenstown for months (often reliant on charitable services). This leads tosuch as forestry and horticulture). such services not being available to New Zealanders who need these services. Removing stand-down period in jobs.so (From and IncomeNew NewZealand Zealand: ‘Anot stand down Reviewing temporary visa conditions that Work visitors entering are relying is acharitable period, of services up to a maximum two weeks, where the client cannot a benefit on (e.g. food,of clothing and accommodation), medicalreceive services (e.g. payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourACC) or jobs to pay for flights home. services/what-is-a-stand-down.html) Ensuring solutions are sustainable by using whanaungatanga, manaakitanga, tikanga, aroha, Putting people on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – whakapapa andback te reo. designed tax-funded jobs and short-term jobsafor those at risk of long-term Exploring to theprovide idea offully creating a new form of money through Queenstown Lakes trading unemployment. CARD. This could use cryptography to secure the transactions and to control the creation of Providing a temporary address for people to start the benefit process. new monetary units through social exchanges. Creating volunteering initiatives which enablesbeliefs; the unemployed volunteer (forsize a certain The ability to reflect, understand and identify move awaytofrom the ‘one fits all number of hours) in return for receiving things such creating as financial support to get photo ID way of thinking’; and establish a collective together, good relationships. taken or to buy a suit and tie; and establish a Daytime Dropfunding In Centre to provide Allowing communities to make decisions about how toEducational allocate funds; initiatives for clear pathways want help evaluations and retraining. community andfor iwi;whanau creatingwho independent of local social services to make sure Providing rehab grantsare formet; offenders who spent time in prison that the impacts/KPIs and funding for medical, policeand andcommunity communitydetention services centres.to The grant does notvisitor have pressures to be in the of money but could aid integration with specific Rotorua due to onform services. support programmes, which could provide work and living skills training. Encouraging more Māori male primary school teachers. Increasing the hourly rate to a minimum of $18 per hour; and community specific benefit entitlement tointervention cover living costs. Having earlier and support for struggling students by building trusting Careers evenings for businesses with employment vacancies. Community members have relationships between people and providers. the opportunity to attend a training to gaina the skills to fit the Making systems adaptable tofour-step individual needsprogramme by implementing strength-based vacancies. The idea comes from Ruapehu, where it was successfully and saw a high educational system and updating the delivery of that system for 2017trialled and the long-term. placement of workers. Using research to understand what forms of education are effective for the community in Providing a subsidy to encourage businesses to hire people on the the benefit (instead order to build and develop existing models. For example, research value of peerof overseas labourers). Redirecting government benefits towards subsidising a long-term education. This is a way of working with available resources to achieve education reform. solution will allow workers to enter the workforce to gain skills, confidence and ability to Increasing participation in early childhood education to strengthen family and community support their families. ties, providing one-on-one personal connections and creating networks of support. This is Changing employment modelled the in Teway Kohekohe, whichcontracts benefits are fromdone. a focus on the positive and a hands-off approach by the Ministry of Education. Establishing community-led thatoflink education employers with Educating teachers about thehubs power labelling theirproviders students and and potential ensuring that they value the community. This will facilitate networking and encourage a coordinatedThis approach to potential of their students regardless of those students’ backgrounds. will help addressing problems of local employment after education. combat the erosion of self-esteem and resulting problems including mental health issues Linking local op-shops with health centres, provide education advice. like depression and suicide, addiction problems andclothing involvement in theand criminal justice system. Creating jobs with This service willthat create jobs inare theevaluated Increasinghome-help accountability in theextended teachinghours. profession to ensure teachers community also providinginprolonged for the elderly. based on thewhile visible outcomes the lives ofsupport their students, rather than just focusing on test scores of questionable relevance. Reviewing housingself-directed regulations to improve housing Making education and self-ruled, withstock. a focus on consequences and outcomes, by teaching life skills, financial literacy, positive classroom behaviours and mentoring. Increasing thefrom size of the police to enable theeducation clock availability in the local Moving away a supply and force demand model around of tertiary by incentivising area. institutions to function in both urban centres and rural locations. For example i) By tertiary Getting the McGuinness Institute to review the policy settings for the existing making tertiary education hubs which partner with larger, more-established institutions – accommodation supplement to determine could be improved. these would be essentially smaller versionsifofituniversity and would rely on access to Consulting withthan community for all accommodation not just debt internet more in-personabout staff,minimum and ii) By standards sourcing government funding to write-off rentals. for tertiary educators who choose to work in rural areas.

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 50 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

Location Gisborne Manawatu Manawatu Manawatu Rotorua Manawatu Manawatu Kaikohe Manawatu Manawatu Gisborne Queenstown Kaikohe Queenstown Gisborne Gisborne Queenstown

Queenstown Kaikohe Manawatu Queenstown Manawatu Manawatu Queenstown Rotorua Queenstown Rotorua Queenstown Kaikohe Gisborne Rotorua Kaitaia Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Rotorua Queenstown Gisborne Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown Gisborne Queenstown

Manawatu Gisborne Queenstown Rotorua Rotorua Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Rotorua Gisborne Kaikohe Rotorua Kaikohe Rotorua Kaitaia Kaikohe

Manawatu Gisborne Kaikohe

Gisborne Kaitaia Kaikohe Kaitaia Manawatu Manawatu


Factors I to V

Type of sub-factor

Factor IV: I: Survival Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival

1. 20.Food Curriculum, teachers and students 1. Food 20. Curriculum, teachers and students 1. Food

Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor IV: I: Survival Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor I: Survival communities

20. Curriculum, teachers and students 1. Food, 12. Health literacy 1. 2. Clothing and shoes, 20.Food, Curriculum, teachers and 3. Bedding, 4. Shelter (emergency students and 5. teachers Accessibility housing) 20. Curriculum, and 2. Clothing and shoes students

Factor IV: I: Survival Self-determining communities

3. and 4. Shelterand 20.Bedding Curriculum, teachers (emergency students andhousing) 25. Medical services

Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival

4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing)

Factor IV: Self-determining communities Self-determining Factor IV: I: Survival communities Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining Factor I: Survival communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor I: Survival communities Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor I: Survival communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities

21. Harmful products and services 21.Shelter Harmful products and services 4. (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 21. Harmful products and services 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 21.Shelter Harmful products and services 4. (emergency housing) 21.Shelter Harmful products and services 4. (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 21. Harmful products and services 21.Accessibility Harmful products and services 5. 22.Security Social infrastructure 6. of income 6. Security of income 22. Social infrastructure 22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income 22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income 22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income

Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities

6. Security of income 22. Social infrastructure

Factor IV: Self-determining communities

22. Social infrastructure

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income

Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

22. Social infrastructure

6. Security of income 22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income

22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income 22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income 6. Security of income

Factor IV: Self-determining communities

22. Social infrastructure

Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities

6. of income 22.Security Social infrastructure

Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security

22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income 22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy 22. Social infrastructure 22. Social infrastructure 6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy 22. Social infrastructure

'How' Creating aeducation ‘sharing meal’ Targeting in thesystem. home, with both student and caregiver, to enable prevention rather than Iwi intervention. Supporting in their quest for equity. Hosting and provision of food at community events. Creating a role for a coordinator to provide pastoral care for students transitioning from rural to urban education. These support staff would come from rural communities, sokids they Replacing the flowers in roundabouts with fruit and vegetables; providing free kai for are better able understand the needs and culture of rural students. distributed fromtothe local community centres (not from within the school gates); and Building stronger relationships schools, harnessing talents and skills, building on assets campaigning to love food, hate with waste. not deficits, linking schools toeducation local business (building and empowering human Encouraging food gardening in schools, community gardens and foodcapital). tables. Ensuring the benefit schools follows the child rather than the parents. This will provide extra Promoting boarding for teenage years. support in situations such as grandparents raising grandchildren and children who are constantlyschools on thereflect move from one family member to the next. Ensuring the reality of their communities by making it easier for parents to Encouraging to reduce bureaucracy (e.g.Kmart a community washing afford what’scommunity needed. Forgovernance example, allowing canvas shoes from ($4) instead of machine couldfrom be installed at a school, allowing support for struggling families). leather shoes The Warehouse ($20). Prioritising the improvement living conditions stop the spread of preventable Providing agency support andofempowerment for to solo parents (focusing on strengthdiseases based such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant aureus).five-day This would improve services and fathering programmes);Staphylococcus providing a minimum stayalso in hospital forthe new rates attowhich developmental milestones are reached providing for children under five. mums help them on their journey to motherhood; additional government Creating affordable emergency housing (e.g.everyone through has transportable containers). funding to District Health Boards to ensure support forshipping first 1000 days of a child’s life (valuing the role of mother and father);particularly providing free childcarei.)for Improving re-integration after prison sentences, for women. Joball preschoolers, not –just subsidized; a universal caregiver allowance; provide ensuringjobs needs opportunities Increasing job establishing opportunities by ensuring social enterprises to assessed and carer support; andnot providing residential respite for carer’s children. those whodisability mainstream employers might consider. ii.) Housing – Increasing access to quality housing,out including creating a bank of emergency accommodation, supported Taking fluoride of the water in Gisborne. housing for those in need, and halfway houses for people coming out of prison. Taxing sugar toavailability discourageofunhealthy eating. Increasing the emergency housing. Investigating the purchase or repurposing of a house to provide Emergency Housing for Reviewing access to alcohol licencing. Feilding by Community Trusts, MDC and others. Ensuring community trusts and MDC investigate options for transitional housing. Closing down gambling to facilities like the pokies in Kaikohe.agencies and local community Identifying a champion work with central government groups to co-ordinate support services for the homeless. Making alcohol unavailable in Kaikohe byand closing down liquor in the area. Creating a Centre for Homeless Whanau a homeless nightstores shelter. Allocating the empty houses in the region to families waiting on the Housing NZ waitlist Regulating money ‘loan sharks’ to stopFunding them preying the vulnerable. (which is currently a three-year wait). will beon necessary to get some of these houses up to a living standard. This should come from Housing NZ. Getting rid of all liquor lotto between shops in poor Implementing rural busand services rural areas. communities and main towns to allow access to services such as medical appointments. Improving prescription drug funding management. Implementing ongoing local for working families and working poor. Creating a ward of the state grant (a grant for someone who is placed under the protection Creating a local rehabilitation centre, which would include meeting rooms, and of a legal guardian) which has long-term savings potential. For example, thespecialists state could car parking. invest money on behalf of the person which then generates interest, the money could then Creating homes forwhen thosethey withare mental illness. be taken support out by the person an adult. Creating a dress-up shop to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, such as Accepting the scale of the problems, especially by the community at large. for a job interview. Increasing paid parental leave. Improving access to, and affordability of, early childhood education (ECE) by identifying Creating: a smooth pay system; an income to cover the essentials; and increased holiday children who are not attending childcare, checking in with parents and caregivers and asking pay to help seasonal workers in the off-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal why the 20 hours free early childhood education and care scheme is not being used and workers could volunteer over the off-season but would be paid by WINZ). then addressing these needs. Implementing a lower tax-rate for employers who offer employees a living wage and Listening to the experience of gang whanau and involving whanau – from the beginning to redundancy packages. the end – and letting them set goals. Increasing the minimum wage. Drawing upon the Norwegian prison model of local prisons to decrease impact on whanau. Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan which ensures availability of skilled seasonal workers and implements targeted training for Tairawhiti region. This would also increase job Creating a one-stop shop where services collaborate to share information (potentially security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries such as though a database) but also ensure confidentially. This integrated approach would assist in forestry and horticulture). removing structural and institutionalised poverty and would put a stop to siloed support Removing stand-down period in jobs. (From Work and Income New Zealand: ‘A stand down systems. is a period, of up to a maximum of two weeks, where the client cannot receive a benefit Reviewing current services and bringing services directly to gang families and wananga, and payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourensure they are whanau-led (e.g. Ruia Sisters in Red and Notorious). services/what-is-a-stand-down.html) Improving the quality of the existing roading network in the Far North and evaluating the Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – possibility of expanding it. designed to provide fully tax-funded jobs and short-term jobs for those at risk of long-term Changing the culture of social services from a contest approach to one of cooperation and unemployment. shared goals. This could be achieved by decentralising WINZ and other agencies of Providing a temporary address for people to start the benefit process. importance to allow the sharing of information between professionals, and improve Creating volunteering initiatives which enables the unemployed to volunteer (for a certain connectivity and accessibility. number in return receiving things as financial support to get photo ID Creating of anhours) initiative withinfor social services that such increases connectivity between providers taken or to buy asosuit and establish Daytime Educational Dropfrom In Centre provide and consumers thatand risktie; indicators can bea identified and acted upon birth to and clear pathways for whanauadult who want throughout an individual’s life. help and retraining. Providing rehab grants for offenders who spent time in prison and community detention Using school buses as public transport during school hours. centres. The grant does not have to be in the form of money but could aid integration with support programmes, which could provide work and living skillsavailable, training.and presenting this Collating and developing a directory of social services that are Increasing hourly rate to a minimum perand hour; community specific benefit in the ‘Awhithe pages’, which would be givenofto$18 locals be and accessible online. entitlement cover living costs.public transport strategy. Encourage shared vehicles, Working withtoHorizons on their Careers access evenings fordriving businesses with employment vacancies. Community members have scooter and services. the opportunity to attend a four-step training programmeservice to gainisthe skills to fit the Linking public services together to ensure a wrap-around provided. vacancies. The idea comes from Ruapehu, where it was successfully trialled and saw a high placement of workers. Creating community hubs. Ideas included an open space for conversation, a physical space Providing a subsidy to encourage businesses to hire peopleason the benefitto (instead (e.g. community hall), a digital space, a website operating a newsletter give of overseas labourers). Redirecting government benefits towards subsidising a long-term information about community events and when/where to get involved. solution will allow workers to enter the workforce to gain skills, confidence and ability to A 24-hour Social Care Centre; universal access to health services, counselling, rehabilitation support and theirhousing; families.and creating a community hub for social solidarity and to share centres Changing the way employment are done. knowledge between generationscontracts in gardening, knitting, creative and computer skills. This

Location Gisborne Kaitaia Manawatu Kaitaia Rotorua Queenstown Manawatu Kaikohe Rotorua Rotorua Gisborne Kaikohe Rotorua

Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Kaikohe Manawatu Kaikohe Rotorua Rotorua Kaikohe Rotorua Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Kaitaia Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe Gisborne Kaikohe Rotorua Rotorua Kaikohe Rotorua Kaitaia Kaitaia Rotorua Manawatu Rotorua Manawatu Queenstown Rotorua Rotorua

6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy will also build social, mental and health awareness. 6. Security of income and 29. Local Establishing community-led hubs that link education providers and potential employers with 22. Social infrastructure Breaking barriers to extend service providers restrictions. economy the community. This will facilitate networking and encourage a coordinated approach to addressing problems of local employment after education. 22. Social infrastructure and 23. Taking hui about tackling poverty to those who are most severely affected and 6. Security ofprojects income and 8. Linking local op-shops withtheir health centres, provide clothing education advice. Community disenfranchised to gather perspectives about solutions relevant toand them. Security of health 23. Community projects Initiating a Maara Kai programme – the Te Puni Kōkiri Maara Kai Programme provides 6. Security of income, 8. Security of financial Creating home-help jobs with extended Thistoservice create jobs in the garden assistance to community groupshours. wanting set upwill sustainable community health and 22. Social infrastructure projects, community while also forests. providing prolonged support for the elderly. such as fruit

Rotorua

23. Community projects Ensuring funding to the community is constant rather than sporadic. 7. Security of place (social housing) Reviewing housing regulations to improve housing stock.

Kaitaia Gisborne

Kaitaia Rotorua Kaitaia Manawatu Gisborne Gisborne

23. Community projects Building business and community relations. Ideas include sponsorship of community events Queenstown 7. Security of place (social housing) and Increasing the groups, size of the policedays, forceinteractions to enable around the clock availability in the Kaikohe volunteer training with schools, apprenticeships andlocal other area. gateways into businesses. 7. Security of place ( social housing ) Getting the McGuinness Institute to review the policy settings for the existing Manawatu 24. Medical services Ensuring service providers change the way they engage with patients by asking ‘what Gisborne accommodation supplement to matter determine it could be improved. matters to you’, not ‘what’s the withifyou’, improving responsive services by removing 7. Security of place (social housing) judgement, Consulting with minimum standards all accommodation not just Manawatu and community encouragingabout tolerance and empathy byfor building trust and understanding. rentals.

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 51 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE


Factors I to V Self-determining Factor IV: I: Survival communities Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor Self-determining Factor IV: I: Survival communities Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities

Type of sub-factor

Increasing accountability of health professionals and service providers and facilitate the Creating a ‘sharing meal’ system. possibility retraining. SupportingofIwi in their quest for equity. Hosting and provision of food at community events. Normalising in-home visits by health professionals to reduce the impact of rural isolation and remove adequate health care. Replacing thebarriers flowerstoinreceiving roundabouts with fruit and vegetables; providing free kai for kids Creating mobile to gocentres to hard (not to reach distributed frommedical the localcentres community fromplaces. within the school gates); and campaigning to love food, hate waste. 24. Medical services Introducing better processes within the ACC department to make it easier disabled 1. Food, 12. Health literacy Encouraging food gardening education in schools, community gardens andfor food tables. people. the benefit follows the child rather than the parents. This will provide extra 1. Food, 2. Clothing and shoes, 3. Ensuring 25. Home4.ownership, rentals and Building more Kaumātua (Kaumātua flats are grandchildren available for people who are 65 are years and Bedding, Shelter (emergency support in situations suchFlats as grandparents raising and children who shared housing affordable housing) over). Building these houses and also provide and 5. (Accessibility housing) constantly on the move fromwill onecreate familyjobs member to the next. housing for elderly. 2. Clothing and shoes Encouraging community governance to reduce bureaucracy (e.g. a community washing 25. Home ownership, rentals and Celebrating success and encouraging arrangements (e.g. through the ‘20 machine could be installed at a school,collective allowingliving support for struggling families). shared housing ( affordable housing ) houses’ model build 20 unitsofinliving one conditions area so thattonannies, nesters’, diseases young 3. Bedding and 4. Shelter Prioritising the –improvement stop thepapas, spread‘empty of preventable parents, and whanau are not isolated). (emergency housing) such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). This would also improve the 25. Home ownership, rentals and Identifying bestdevelopmental building providers and practice in Manawatu. rates at which milestones are reached for children under five. shared housing (affordable housing) Creating affordable emergency housing (e.g. through transportable shipping containers). 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) Improving re-integration after prison sentences, particularly for women. i.) Job 25. Home ownership, rentals and Budgeting services, community options for housing, lobbysocial for shared housing not resulting opportunities – Increasing job opportunities by ensuring enterprises provide jobs to shared housing (affordable housing) those in a drop benefits. employers might not consider. ii.) Housing – Increasing access to whoinmainstream quality housing, including creating a bank of emergency accommodation, supported 25. Home ownership, rentals and Lobbying viathose LGNZinforneed, legislation to be changed to people allow local government to partner with housing for and halfway houses for coming out of prison. shared housing (affordable housing) Increasing others in social housing. of emergency housing. 4. Shelter (emergency housing) the availability 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable housing)

Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining

5. Accessibility 25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable housing) 6. Security of income 6. of income rentals and 25.Security Home ownership,

communities

shared housing (affordable housing)

Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities

25. Home ownership, rentals and 6. Security of income shared housing (affordable housing)

Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities

6. of income rentals and 25.Security Home ownership, 6. Security of income shared housing (affordable housing)

Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: II: Security Factor Self-determining

6. of income rentals and 25.Security Home ownership, shared housing (affordable housing) 6. Security of income 6. 26.Security Cultureof ofincome care

communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities

26. Culture of care 6. Security of income

Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities

26. Culture of care 6. Security of income 6. of income 27.Security Grandparents raising grandchildren

Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities

27. Grandparents raising 6. Security of income grandchildren

Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities

27. Grandparents raising 6. Security of income grandchildren

Factor II: Security

6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy 28. Financial assistance and tax systems 6. Security of income and 10. Employment literacy and tax 28. Financial assistance systems 28. Financial assistance and tax 6. Security of income and 10. systems Employment literacy 6. ofassistance income and 29.tax Local 28.Security Financial and economy systems

Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor II: Security Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor II: Security communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities Factor IV: II: Security Self-determining communities

'How'

24.Food Medical services 1. 1. Food 24. Medical services 1. Food 24. Medical services

26. Culture of care 26. Culture of care 6. Security of income

Location Gisborne Manawatu Kaikohe Rotorua Kaitaia Rotorua Manawatu Kaikohe Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne Kaikohe Manawatu Gisborne Gisborne Manawatu

Manawatu Kaikohe Manawatu Manawatu

Investigating the purchase or repurposing of a house to provide Emergency Housing for Taking a strength-based approach to assessing capabilities. Ensure social housing is Feilding by Community Trusts, MDC and others. constructed and renovated to be accessible (especially for those with disabilities). Ensuring community trusts and MDC investigate options for transitional housing. Manawatu Identifying a champion to work with central government agencies and local community Manawatu Raising commercial rates and then using as additional funding for building and Queenstown groups to co-ordinate support services for the homeless. accommodation projects. Creating a Centre for Homeless Whanau and a homeless night shelter. Rotorua Allocating the empty houses in the region to families waiting on the Housing NZ waitlist Rotorua Working harder to collect and analyse local data and information on housing. Queenstown (which is currently a three-year wait). Funding will be necessary to get some of these houses up to a living standard. This should come from Housing NZ. Implementing rural bus services between rural communities and main towns to allow Kaikohe Exploring different house ownership models to give families the opportunity to own Queenstown access to services such as medical appointments. housing. This would provide a ‘stepping stone’ towards individual home ownership. Implementing ongoing local funding for working families and working poor. Gisborne Creating wardsuch of the grantbusinesses (a grant forofsomeone under the protection Exploringaideas asstate requiring a certainwho size is toplaced provide: housing for workers Kaitaia Queenstown of legal whichconsent has long-term savings potential. Forwith example, thecouncil); state could as apart ofguardian) their resource (this would involve working the local free invest money on behalf of the person which then generates interest, the money could then buses; and paying staff from when they leave/arrive home. be taken out by the person when they are an adult. Changing zoning and intensification rules whereby local councils would get a percentage of Queenstown Creating a dress-up shopvalue to provide professional clothes for those without clothes, such as Gisborne the increase in property that has come about as a result of re-zoning. This money for a job could be interview. used for building and accommodation projects. Increasing paid leave. Gisborne Papakainga – asparental a long-term accommodation option. (Papakainga is a form of housing Rotorua Creating: a smooth system; an income to cover the and increased holiday Gisborne development whichpay occurs on multiply-owned Maori oressentials; ancestral land. Traditionally, the pay to help seasonal workers in the off-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal literal meaning of Papakainga housing is, ‘a nurturing place workers could volunteer over the off-season but would be paid by WINZ). to return to’). Implementing a lower tax-rate employers Gisborne Telling HNZ to step up and stopfor selling houses.who offer employees a living wage and Rotorua redundancy packages. Increasing the minimum wage. Gisborne Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan between which ensures availability of communities skilled seasonal Gisborne Encouraging door knocking and meetings neighbours in local to Kaikohe workers and implements targeted training for Tairawhiti region. This would also increase job facilitate connections and meaningful relationships. Social gatherings could be held at security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries such as marae or clubrooms. forestry and horticulture). Creating a Koha card to record 30 hours community service required from those on a Kaitaia Removing periodkuia in jobs. (From Work Income Zealand: ‘A stand down Gisborne benefit. Forstand-down example driving and kaumatua toand activities to New give back to the community. is a period, ofall uppoverty to a maximum of with two weeks, where the cannot receive a benefit Approaching situations aroha. Remove theclient stigma and the blame and allow Manawatu payment.’ healing. Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourservices/what-is-a-stand-down.html) Establishing a community development officer. Ideas included facilitating/supporting Queenstown Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – Gisborne volunteer groups, collecting feedback, helping with submissions, building values, trust and designed to recognising provide fullycouncil's tax-funded jobs and short-term jobs for those at risk of long-term knowledge, achievements and challenges. unemployment. Changing the stigma of poverty by creating a culture that cares for our most vulnerable. Rotorua Providing a temporary address people to start the benefit process. to your community. Rotorua Being in poverty doesn’t mean for you’re uneducated or not contributing Creating volunteering initiatives which enables the unemployed to volunteer (for a certain Normalising the experience of grandparents raising grandchildren by approaching the issues Rotorua Kaitaia number hours) in return for and receiving such as financial support to get photo ID with loveofand encouragement lettingthings this understanding show through in the language taken buyabout a suitthese and tie; and establish a Daytime Educational Drop In Centre to provide we useortototalk situations. clear pathways for whanau want helpand andre-educating retraining. them about available support Providing grandparents withwho information Kaitaia Providingthe rehab grants for offenders who spent time inofprison andFor community Rotorua services, current education system and the needs children. example detention through centres. The grant does not have to be in the form of money but could aid integration with using one-on-one case workers and face-to-face meetings. support programmes, could provide work and livingof skills training. to ensure that Providing wraparound which support by assessing the capability grandparents Kaitaia Increasing the hourly rate to a minimum of $18 perwhether hour; and community specific benefit Rotorua they receive assistance appropriate to their needs, that is physical, emotional or entitlement cover living costs. access to transport services for a grandparent who cannot financial. Fortoexample i) ensuring Careers evenings for businesses with employment vacancies.who Community memberssupport have Rotorua drive, and ii) providing counselling services to a grandparent needs emotional the attend a four-step and opportunity also making to this available to theirtraining family. programme to gain the skills to fit the vacancies. The idea comes from Ruapehu, where it was successfully trialled and saw a high Innovating the current financial system by reducing or removing GST on essential items (e.g. Gisborne placement of workers. sanatiary), cutting dishonour charges for lower income families, and providing access to lowProvidingloans. a subsidy to encourage businesses to hire people on the benefit (instead of Rotorua interest overseas government benefits towards subsidising a long-term Setting uplabourers). a SeasonalRedirecting Workers Union. Gisborne solution will allow workers to enter the workforce to gain skills, confidence and ability to support their Creating a taxfamilies. levy on the profits of established firms, which will then be distributed to help Queenstown Changing way community employmentgoal contracts done. transportation, education or social Rotorua fund theirthe chosen such asare housing, services. Establishing community-led hubs linktourism education providers and potential employers with Kaitaia a levy or targeted taxthat on the industry, in order to fund and provide the Queenstown the community. This will to facilitate networking encourage a coordinated approach to necessary infrastructure support the area asand a tourist destination – something addressing problems Queenstown relies on.of local employment after education. Linking localcomparative op-shops with health centres, provide education and advice. Manawatu Generating data on social services andclothing health costs in Queenstown. Queenstown

6. ofassistance income and 8. tax 28.Security Financial and Security of health systems 6. ofassistance income, 8.and Security Creating home-help jobsin with Thistax service will create theby those 28.Security Financial tax of Investigating ACC claims theextended QLD areahours. to ensure generated fundsjobs are in used health and 22. Social infrastructure who community providing prolonged support forThere the elderly. systems pay ACCwhile (not also for tourists with private insurance). was uncertainty as to the extent of the loophole and also concerns over unequal GP costs. 7. ofassistance place (social Reviewingthe housing to improve housing stock. 28.Security Financial andhousing tax ) Changing WINZregulations financial assistance process to be more informed, have background systems checks on who they support, pay to assist clients and do follow ups on their service. 7. ofassistance place (social of the police force to enable around the clock availability in the local 28.Security Financial andhousing tax ) Increasing Reforming the size tax system. area. systems 7. Security of place ( social housing ) Getting the McGuinness to review thegrants. policy settings for the existing 29. Local economy Promoting awareness of Institute small business centre accommodation supplement to determine if it could be improved. 7. of place (social housing) Consulting with community aboutof minimum all accommodation not just 29.Security Local economy Increasing community ownership the localstandards economy for by buying from local businesses, rentals. local business ownership and through cooperative banking. promoting

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 52 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

Gisborne Queenstown

Gisborne Rotorua Kaikohe Rotorua Manawatu Gisborne Manawatu Kaikohe


Factors I to V

Type of Sub-Factor

Self-determining Factor IV: I: Survival communities Factor I: Survival

29.Food Local economy 1. 1. Food

Self-determining Factor IV: I: Survival communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities

29.Food Local economy 1.

Factor I: Survival Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining Factor I: Survival communities Factor I: Survival Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor IV: Self-determining communities Factor I: Survival Factor Self-determining Factor IV: I: Survival communities Factor V: Self-determining Factor I: Survival nation Factor I: Survival Factor V: Self-determining nation Factor I: Survival Factor V: Self-determining Factor I: Survival nation Factor V: Self-determining nation Factor I: Survival Factor V: Self-determining nation Factor II: Security Factor V: Self-determining Factor II: Security nation

29. Local economy 1. Food, 12. Health literacy 1. Food, 2. Clothing and shoes, 3. 29. Local economy Bedding, 4. Shelter (emergency housing) and 5. Accessibility 2. Clothing and shoes 3. Bedding and 4. Shelter 29. Local economy (emergency housing) 30.Shelter Debt consolidation 4. (emergency housing) 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 30. Debt consolidation 30. Debt consolidation 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 30.Shelter Debt consolidation 4. (emergency housing) 31.Shelter Central(emergency governmenthousing) strategy to 4. tackle poverty 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 31. Central government strategy to tackle poverty 4. Shelter (emergency housing) 31. Central government strategy to 4. Shelter (emergency housing) tackle poverty 31. Central government strategy to tackle poverty 5. Accessibility 31. Central government strategy to tackle poverty 6. Security of income 32. Mental health services review 6. Security of income

'How'

Location

Forming arrangements in the community to overcome price increases in Gisborne Kaikohe Creating collective a ‘sharing buying meal’ system. the area. Models for this system exist in Hosting Italy andand Cuba and involve a group of buyersevents. who Manawatu Supporting Iwi in their quest for equity. provision of food at community prioritise people and the environment in their purchasing decisions. Exploring the natural resource innovation to grow the local economy while Kaikohe Replacing the potentials flowers in of roundabouts with fruit and vegetables; providing free kai for kidsalso Rotorua reinforcing values environmentalism and from appreciation forschool the land. distributed shared from the local of community centres (not within the gates); and Developing older areas of town to stop money leaving the area and going to larger centres, Kaikohe campaigning to love food, hate waste. and to reducefood the gardening presence of empty buildings which in turn contribute to the Encouraging education in schools, community gardens and foodpoverty tables. mind- Manawatu set of the town. Ensuring the benefit follows the child rather than the parents. This will provide extra Kaikohe Ensuring regulations for 'big business' by grandchildren empowering the council to are stand up Kaikohe support instronger situations such as grandparents raising andlocal children who to ‘big business’ The one Warehouse and other constantly on the(such moveasfrom family member to businesses the next. on the Australia/NZ Stockmarket) by imposinggovernance stronger regulations, possibly based onathe size of the floor plan Gisborne Encouraging community to reduce bureaucracy (e.g. community washing for the proposed of ‘bigsupport business’ the local community machine could bebusiness. installed The at a operation school, allowing forinstruggling families). needs to be on the town’s terms. Prioritising the improvement of living conditions to stop the spread of preventable diseases Kaikohe Developing unique measures of success or failure toaureus). be considered for Queenstown a Queenstown such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus This would also improveas the tourism hub. developmental milestones are reached for children under five. rates at which Exploringaffordable innovativeemergency ways to package debt such as mortgages, higher-purchase agreements, Gisborne Kaikohe Creating housing (e.g. through transportable shipping containers). cash loans,re-integration car costs and after student loans. This will help break cycles of debti.)and Improving prison sentences, particularly for women. Jobgenerational Gisborne benefit reliance. opportunities – Increasing job opportunities by ensuring social enterprises provide jobs to Capping debt. Rotorua those who mainstream employers might not consider. ii.) Housing – Increasing access to quality housing, including creating a bank of emergency accommodation, supported Revisiting for in students to protect from burden of debt providing interesthousing forlaws those need, and halfwaythem houses forthe people coming outand of prison. free loans. the availability of emergency housing. Increasing Establishing more regulations around money lending and our financial system. Investigating the purchase or repurposing of a house to provide Emergency Housing for Feilding by Community Trusts, MDC and others. Creating community help refugees, immigrantsm and prisoners.housing. Ensuring community plans truststo and MDC investigate options for transitional Identifying a champion to work with central government agencies and local community Bringing together all agencies who work with young people to ensure there are no gaps and groups to co-ordinate support services for the homeless. reduce cross-overs. Creating a Centre for Homeless Whanau and a homeless night shelter. Working with central government to track children’s wellbeing from birth to adulthood. Allocating the empty houses in the region to families waiting on the Housing NZ waitlist (which is currently a three-year wait). Funding will be necessary to get some of these Creating a Central Government Strategy: targeting poverty – 2025 NZ poverty free – where houses up to a living standard. This should come from Housing NZ. implementation and information is fed at the local and regional level. Implementing rural bus services between rural communities and main towns to allow Creating government policies that value and support kin care. access to services such as medical appointments. Implementing ongoing local funding for working families and working poor. Implementing an external review of the mental health system and mental health services. Creating a ward of ensure the state grant grant for someone is roles, placedthat under protection This review would that the (a right people are in thewho right staffthe have the of a legal guardian) which potential. Forfunding example, statehealth. could A appropriate workload and has pay,long-term and couldsavings potentially increase forthe mental invest money on behalf of the person which then generates interest, the money review would also ensure central government acknowledge the need for change.could then be taken out by the person when they are an adult. Establishing Te Kopai Tuatahi – The first footsteps: A think tank to continue the work and Creating dress-up to provide clothesfor forresearch, those without clothes, such as ideas thata have beenshop discussed. Thisprofessional would get funding with the findings for a job interview. accessible to all. Increasing paid parental leave. Creating: a smooth pay system; an income to cover the essentials; and increased holiday pay to help seasonal workers in the off-season. This could be a WINZ system (e.g. seasonal workers could volunteer over the off-season but would be paid by WINZ). Implementing a lower tax-rate for employers who offer employees a living wage and redundancy packages. Increasing the minimum wage. Consulting stakeholders to develop a plan which ensures availability of skilled seasonal workers and implements targeted training for Tairawhiti region. This would also increase job security because jobs would reflect demand (e.g. through looking at local industries such as forestry and horticulture). Removing stand-down period in jobs. (From Work and Income New Zealand: ‘A stand down is a period, of up to a maximum of two weeks, where the client cannot receive a benefit payment.’ Source: http://www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/ourservices/what-is-a-stand-down.html) Putting people back on marae under the PEP scheme (Project Employment Programme) – designed to provide fully tax-funded jobs and short-term jobs for those at risk of long-term unemployment. Providing a temporary address for people to start the benefit process. Creating volunteering initiatives which enables the unemployed to volunteer (for a certain number of hours) in return for receiving things such as financial support to get photo ID taken or to buy a suit and tie; and establish a Daytime Educational Drop In Centre to provide clear pathways for whanau who want help and retraining. Providing rehab grants for offenders who spent time in prison and community detention centres. The grant does not have to be in the form of money but could aid integration with support programmes, which could provide work and living skills training. Increasing the hourly rate to a minimum of $18 per hour; and community specific benefit entitlement to cover living costs. Careers evenings for businesses with employment vacancies. Community members have the opportunity to attend a four-step training programme to gain the skills to fit the vacancies. The idea comes from Ruapehu, where it was successfully trialled and saw a high placement of workers. Providing a subsidy to encourage businesses to hire people on the benefit (instead of overseas labourers). Redirecting government benefits towards subsidising a long-term solution will allow workers to enter the workforce to gain skills, confidence and ability to support their families. Changing the way employment contracts are done.

Rotorua Kaikohe Rotorua Manawatu Manawatu Manawatu Manawatu Manawatu Rotorua Manawatu Rotorua Rotorua Kaikohe Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Kaitaia

Factor V: Self-determining Factor II: Security nation

33. Think Tank: Te Kopai Tuatahi – 6. Security of Income The first footsteps

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of Income 6. Security of Income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of Income

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of Income 6. Security of Income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of Income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of Income

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

6. Security of Income 6. Security of Income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of Income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of Income

Factor II: Security

6. Security of Income and 10. Employment literacy

Factor II: Security

6. Security of Income and 10. Employment literacy

Factor II: Security

6. Security of Income and 10. Employment literacy 6. Security of Income and 29. Local Establishing community-led hubs that link education providers and potential employers with economy the community. This will facilitate networking and encourage a coordinated approach to addressing problems of local employment after education. 6. Security of Income and 8. Linking local op-shops with health centres, provide clothing education and advice. Security of health 6. Security of income, 8. Security of Creating home-help jobs with extended hours. This service will create jobs in the health and 22. Social infrastructure community while also providing prolonged support for the elderly.

Rotorua

Factor II: Security

7. Security of place (social housing) Reviewing housing regulations to improve housing stock.

Gisborne

Factor II: Security

7. Security of place (social housing) Increasing the size of the police force to enable around the clock availability in the local area. 7. Security of place (social housing) Getting the McGuinness Institute to review the policy settings for the existing accommodation supplement to determine if it could be improved. 7. Security of place (social housing) Consulting with community about minimum standards for all accommodation not just rentals.

Kaikohe

Factor II: Security

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

Factor II: Security Factor II: Security

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 53 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

Rotorua Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne Gisborne Gisborne

Gisborne

Gisborne

Rotorua Rotorua

Rotorua

Rotorua Rotorua

Rotorua

Kaitaia

Manawatu Gisborne

Manawatu Manawatu


Appendix 6: Infographic of Lines within New Zealand

12 Police Districts

Lines within New Zealand

11 Work and Income Regions This infographic illustrates the number of governance boundaries existing in New Zealand. The infographic suggests how difficult it is to focus discussions and integrate solutions across New Zealand’s many different governance boundaries. This raises the question of whether standardising boundaries would better facilitate the tackling of poverty. The New Zealand Road Map

16 Civil Defence Emergency Management Boundaries

26 Judicial Boundaries

10 Ministry of Education Areas

13 Regions of Te Kāhui Māngai (Directory of Iwi and Māori Organisations)

47 Child, Youth and Family Boundaries

20 District Health Boards 12 Public Health Services

16 Regional Councils

67 Territorial Authorities

64 General Electorate Boundaries

7 Māori Electorate Boundaries

Sources (clockwise): NZTourMaps.com, n.d. Retrieved 18 August 2016 from www.nztourmaps.com/south_island_physical_map.html, www.nztourmaps.com/north_island_physical_map.html | Ministry of Social Development, n.d. Retrieved 18 August 2016 from www.workandincome.govt.nz/about-work-and-income/regions/ | Child, Youth and Family, 2014. Personal communication, 6 September 2016. | Ministry of Health, 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016 from www.health.govt.nz/new-zealand-health-system/key-health-sector-organisations-and-people/district-health-boards/location-boundaries-map | Ministry of Health Statistics NZ, May 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2016 from www.health.govt.nz/system/files/documents/pages/map-health-districts-and-public-health-services.pdf | Statistics New Zealand, 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2016 from www.stats.govt.nz/StatsMaps/Home/Electorate/2013-census-maori-electorates.aspx | Electoral Commission, 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016 from www.elections.org.nz/voters/find-my-electorate | The Grid, 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2016 from www.thegrid.co.nz/territorial-authorities-of-new-zealand-/#prettyPhoto | Local Government New Zealand, 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016 from www.lgnz.co.nz/assets/South-Island-PNG.PNG, www.lgnz.co.nz/assets/North-Island-PNG.PNG | Te Puni Kōkiri, n.d. Retrieved 22 August 2016 from www.tkm.govt.nz |Ministry of Education, n.d. Retrieved 18 August 2016 from www.education.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Ministry/Mapof10MinistryofEducationAreas.pdf | Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2016 from www.civildefence.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/cdem-groups-and-councils-september-2013.pdf | Lexadin, 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2016 from www.lexadin.nl/wlg/pics/maps/newzealand.gif | New Zealand Police, n.d. Retrieved 18 August 2016 from www.police.govt.nz/about-us/structure/districts

Prepared by the McGuinness Institute as at 30 January 2017.

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 54 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE


Appendix 7: Infographic of Decile 1 and 2 schools by region

Decile 1 and 2 schools by region This infographic illustrates the location of New Zealand’s Decile 1 and 2 schools. School deciles indicate the extent to which a school draws their students from low socio-economic communities. New Zealand uses deciles to target funding for state and state-integrated schools. The lower the school’s decile, the more funding it receives to help students from lower socio-economic communities overcome learning barriers. This infographic raises questions about the extent to which other social services support these communities, and whether these social services are operating in an integrated way. It also raises questions about students from low socio-economic backgrounds that miss out on this additional support because they attend a Decile 3+ school.

Taranaki Region 4.43% 3 8

Northland Region 33.67% of students that attend Decile 1 and 2 schools 39 36 Auckland Region 21.78% 91 49 Bay of Plenty Region 16.19% 32 27

Waikato Region 13.46% 25 38

Gisborne Region 35.6% 20 6

Nelson Region 4.72% 1 1

Hawkes Bay Region 25.49% 29 18

Tasman Region 0% 0 0

Manawatu-Wanganui Region 17.07% 20 35

West Coast Region 0% 0 0

Wellington Region 7.46% 18 15

Southland Region 7.18% 2 5

Marlborough Region 1.41% 0 1 Canterbury Region 3.02% 8 11

Otago Region 0.58% 1 2 Prepared by the McGuinness Institute as at 30 January 2017. Regions

Students

Schools Number of decile Number of decile 1 1 and 2 schools in to 10 schools in the the region region*

Decile 1 and 2 schools as a percentage of all decile schools in the region

Number of students in decile 1 and 2 schools in the region

Number of students in decile 1 to 10 schools in the region*

Number of decile 1 schools in the region

Number of decile 2 schools in the region

Auckland Region

91

49

140

518

27.03%

56832

260969

21.78%

Bay of Plenty Region

32

27

59

160

36.88%

8441

52123

16.19%

Canterbury Region

8

11

19

289

6.57%

2765

91455

3.02%

Chatham Island County

0

0

0

3

0%

0

70

0%

Gisborne Region

20

6

26

51

50.98%

3318

9319

35.6%

Hawkes Bay Region

29

18

47

126

37.30%

7501

29423

25.49%

Manawatu-Wanganui Region

20

35

55

202

27.23%

6649

38957

17.07%

Marlborough Region

0

1

1

30

3.33%

94

6662

1.41%

Nelson Region

1

1

2

23

8.70%

407

8615

4.72%

39

36

75

147

51.02%

9761

28992

33.67%

Otago Region

1

2

3

144

2.08%

182

31308

0.58%

Southland Region

2

5

7

85

8.24%

1184

16479

7.18%

Taranaki Region

3

8

11

94

11.70%

892

20134

4.43%

Northland Region

Decile 1 and 2 students as a percentage of all decile students in the region#

Tasman Region

0

0

0

35

0%

0

7943

0%

Waikato Region

25

38

63

305

20.66%

10304

76527

13.46%

Wellington Region

18

15

33

246

13.41%

5981

80126

7.46%

West Coast Region

0

0

0

35

0%

0

4555

0%

289

252

541

2493

21.70%

114311

763657

14.97%

Total

*Please note, in this infographic we have excluded 11,485 students who attend the 44 schools which are not allocated a decile 1 to 10 (referred to in the source table as decile 99). We have also excluded Westmount School and its 1673 students because it has multiple campuses throughout New Zealand. # Please note, this infographic includes schools that are composite (Years 1-15), contributing, correspondence school, full primary, intermediate, restricted composite (Year 7-10), secondary (Year 7-15), secondary (Year 9-15), special school and teen parent unit. Source for infographic text: Ministry of Education, 13 September 2016. School deciles. Retrieved 17 November 2016 from www.education.govt.nz/school/running-a-school/resourcing/operational-funding/school-decile-ratings/ Source for infographic data: Ministry of Education, 1 July 2015. Number of Students by School as at 1 July 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2016 from www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/schooling/student-numbers/6028

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 55 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE


TacklingPovertyNZ 33 sub-factors checklist

Appendix 8: Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework: A checklist of the 33 sub-factors Factor

Sub-Factor

Description

I: Survival / Oranga

1. Food

Ensure that people have access to food of an adequate amount and quality.

Providing emergency 2. Clothing and shoes products and services for survival. 3. Bedding

II: Security / TÄ mau Providing a sense of short-term security.

Tick Box

Ensure that people have access to clothing and shoes of adequate quality (i.e. warm and durable). Ensure that people have access to clean and dry bedding and mattresses that are off the floor.

4. Shelter (emergency housing)

Ensure that emergency housing is warm, protects from rain and includes access to a toilet and shower.

5. Accessibility

Ensure that people have access to emergency requirements such as transport for urgent medical treatment, and emergency access to a phone line.

6. Security of income

Ensure that people have a basic level of security of income, ideally in the form of a job, but could also be a benefit.

7. Security of place (social housing)

Ensure that people feel safe where they live and are able to stay there for a reasonable length of time before having to move (e.g. longer rental agreements and compulsory housing warrants of fitness).

8. Security of health

Ensure that people have ongoing access to medical support, dental care, eye testing and glasses, aged care, drug management and police protection.

9. Security of transport and technology

Ensure that people have access to appropriate transport infrastructure such as roads and public transport to get to supermarkets, school and work. This also includes sustainable long-term phone and Internet access.

III: Self-determining 10. Employment literacy Ensure that people understand their rights and individuals / responsibilities as an employee and/or employer (e.g. Tangata Motuhake being able to prepare a resume, having the resources and knowledge to dress appropriately and understand Providing skills and employment contracts, KiwiSaver and workers unions). tools for individuals 11. Education literacy Ensure that people have the knowledge to navigate the to live the life they education system for themselves and their families (e.g. want. knowing how to access scholarships and apprenticeships). Ensure that people have access to careers advice and support to transition from primary to secondary and from secondary to tertiary education. 12. Health literacy

Ensure that people have the knowledge and resources to navigate the health system (e.g. knowing how to register and make an appointment, being able to get to and pay for an appointment, knowledge of basic first aid and childcare such as how to manage a fever and when to go to a doctor, understanding immunisation and the implications of diet for obesity illnesses such as diabetes). Ensure that people understand the impact of addictive behaviour (e.g. gambling, alcohol, tobacco and other drugs) on themselves, their families and their communities. Ensure that people have access to survival-based physical education skills like self-defence courses and learning how to swim.

13. Financial literacy

Ensure that people have basic financial literacy and are informed about their rights and responsibilities in regards to money (e.g. access to budgeting services; understanding the role of tax; knowing how to open a bank account; and understanding deposit and loan interest, hire purchase agreements, benefit entitlements, business contracts and insurance). WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 56 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE

Draft as at 20161109


IV: Self-determining communities / Hapori Motuhake Providing social infrastructure to meet specific community needs.

14. Transportation literacy

Ensure that people have access to the skills they need to get a driving licence and drive a car. This includes basic mechanical knowledge of a car such as how to change a tyre and how to jump-start a car battery. Ensure that people can read bus and train timetables.

15. Technological literacy

Ensure that people have basic technological skills required in the modern world (e.g. knowing how to access and search the Internet, how to use Word, Excel, email, how coding operates and how to be safe when using social media).

16. Civic literacy

Ensure that people are aware of the Crown/Te Tiriti o Waitangi relationship, the history of New Zealand, can speak and understand basic te reo MÄ ori and be comfortable on a marae. Ensure that people understand their rights and responsibilities as a citizen and the machinery of citizenship (e.g. obtaining a passport and knowing where to report complaints). Ensure that people understand the machinery of government such as legislation, the courts, the unwritten constitution, the Cabinet Manual, submissions, Official Information Requests, and the difference between central and local government and the role of NGOs and the voluntary sector.

17. Housing literacy

Ensure that people understand their rights and responsibilities as a tenant and/or landlord and have the ability to navigate the housing market (e.g. understanding how to go about buying or renting a property).

18. Resource allocation

Ensure that community organisations are not competing for resources amongst themselves. Ensure that the community has the capacity to regulate and support immigrants and visitors according to the community’s specific needs and conditions.

19. Community decision Ensure that communities have appropriate ownership over decisions that directly affect them (e.g. deciding how to tax making and allocate funds according to the region’s specific needs, especially for medical, police and community services; conducting independent evaluations of local social services to make sure that key performance indicators are met). 20. Curriculum, teachers and students

Ensure that the curriculum and teachers are suited to the needs of their students in the 21st century (e.g. mentoring and creating pastoral care roles to cater for students [especially those who are studying away from home] and being made aware of scholarships, internships and trade apprenticeships).

21. Harmful products and services

Ensure that communities have control over and access to information about the potential harms of products and services available in their area (e.g. alcohol, drugs, tobacco, gambling, loan sharks and concern about fluoridated public water supplies).

22. Social infrastructure

Ensure that communities have appropriate social infrastructure (e.g. support for caregivers, solo mothers, the elderly and those with mental health issues; initiatives to strengthen family relationships; support for those dealing with and trying to leave gangs; and the provision of prison and prison rehabilitation systems).

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 57 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE


23. Community projects

Ensure that there is steady rather than sporadic funding and support available for specific community and iwi projects (e.g. by establishing a head of tackling poverty in each council, sponsorship of community events and volunteer groups, training days, interactions with schools, apprenticeships and other gateways into businesses, and community gardens).

24. Medical services

Ensure that medical services are tailored to the requirements of the community (e.g. dealing with conditions such as MRSA that are more prevalent in some regions).

25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable housing)

Ensure that people can afford suitable housing for their needs and have access to a range of living arrangements (e.g. housing for the elderly, shared housing for beneficiaries and housing for casual/temp staff provided by employers).

26. Culture of care

Ensure that communities foster a culture of caring for those most at risk and those in need.

27. Grandparents raising Ensure that grandparents are supported in their grandchildren guardianship role (e.g. that benefits follow the child rather than the legal guardian).

V: Self-determining nation / Iwi Motuhake Providing a strategic approach that optimises both public good and economic enterprise.

28. Financial assistance and tax systems

Ensure that tax and financial assistance systems are tailored to community needs (e.g. tightening regulations around ACC in tourist towns to direct tax payer funds away from tourists with private insurance).

29. Local economy

Ensure that there is growth within the local economy (e.g. by empowering the local council to stand up to ‘big business’ such as The Warehouse by imposing stronger regulations and supporting smaller local businesses).

30. Explore innovative ways to package debt

Ensure that people have access to information about debt consolidation to help break cycles of debt and inter-generational benefit reliance (e.g. exploring ways to package mortgages, hire-purchase agreements, cash loans, car costs and student loans).

31. Central government strategy to tackle poverty

Ensure that central government has an integrated strategy to address poverty, with implementation and information at the local and regional level (e.g. make New Zealand poverty-free by 2025).

32. Mental health services review

Ensure that national mental health services are externally reviewed.

33. Think Tank: takahanga tuatahi – The first footsteps

Ensure that the work and ideas that have been discussed can be continued and, where appropriate, implemented.

WORKING PAPER 2017/01 | 58 MCGUINNESS INSTITUTE


Appendix 9: Infographic of A situational overview of the talking tour 2016/ He tūāhua o te haerenga kōrero 2016

A situational overview of the talking tour 2016/ He tūāhua o te haerenga kōrero 2016 Analysing the 240 ‘hows’

This infographic illustrates how participants of the TacklingPovertyNZ workshops suggested we might tackle poverty.

V

Participants were asked to develop specific, actionable suggestions for how to address poverty. As a result of the tour’s six workshops, 240 ‘hows’ were identified. In the process of reviewing the ‘hows’ we created the Sustaining and Empowering Factors Framework. This framework enabled us to divide the 240 ‘hows’ to correspond with sustaining factors (which relate to an individual’s short-term survival and security needs) and empowering factors (which relate to the empowerment of an individual, community or nation). We then grouped these ‘hows’ to produce 33 sub-factors for analysis (see right-hand column).

25

23 24

IV

21

oh /T

20

uW

na ama k a h

22

Em po

rs

to

* Please note the numbers in [X] in the column on the right refer to the number of ‘hows’ that relate directly to each of the 33 sub-factors. As some ‘hows’ are applicable to more than one sub-factor, the numbers in square brackets add up to 276.

fa

If knowledge lies with people and the tools lie with government, the list of ‘hows’ we have collected represents the knowledge of the people and illustrates to government how they might use their tools more effectively.

w e rin g

2.

16

If you ask people how to tackle poverty they will indirectly point out the failings in the current system and suggest improvements or novel solutions to existing problems.

19

1.

28

30 31 32 33

17 18

The key assumptions driving our analysis are:

26

27

29

c

Key differences

Sustaining factors / Tohu Toitū

Empowering fac

Goal

To move individuals quickly from the sustaining stage into the empowering stage.

To retain an individu

Time taken

Short-term (days or weeks)

Long-term (years or

Production line (i.e. logistics and checklists)

Individual approach

Low (must be centralised) Although requires knowledge on how to navigate the system Expensive in terms of resources

High (must be dece Requires listening a Expensive in terms

Complex There are many components but the goal is to simplify the system and deal with a large number of individuals efficiently.

Complicated There is a high leve individual has and h

That the system over-supplies to some and under-supplies to others due to a lack of coordination.

That the system ove due to a lack of coo

Some individuals become institutionalised or dependent.

Some suppliers pro

Ill-intentioned people take advantage of individuals in this space (e.g. loan sharks, drug dealers and perpetrators of intimidation or sexual abuse).

Some suppliers may

Process type Level of expertise required by the giver and the receiver Costs to provider Administration

Risks

There are no checks what does not.


Factor I: Survival / Oranga

I 4

in

g

fa

5

in

s/ or ct

6

1.

Food

[5]*

2.

Clothing and shoes

[2]

3.

Bedding

[2]

4.

Shelter (emergency housing)

5.

Accessibility

[10] [2]

Factor II: Security / Tāmau

Providing a sense of short-term security.

ū Toit hu To

7

II

6.

Security of income

7.

Security of place (social housing)

8.

Security of health

9.

Security of transport and technology

[20] [6] [24] [9]

8

Factor III: Self-determining individuals / Tangata Motuhake

Providing skills and tools for individuals to live the life they want. 9

10. Employment literacy

10

11

13

15 14

III

ual in the empowering stage for as long as they need.

r decades)

h (i.e. a unique package of needs fit for each individual)

entralised) and sorting out what is needed over the long term of human capital

Empowering factors / Tohu Whakamana

1

ctors / Tohu Whakamana

[5]

11. Education literacy

[13]

12. Health literacy

[12]

13. Financial literacy

[9]

14. Transportation literacy

[4]

15. Technological literacy

[2]

16. Civic literacy

2

1 23

Su sta

Sustaining factors / Tohu Toitū

Providing emergency products and services for survival.

17. Housing literacy

[38] [2]

Factor IV: Self-determining communities / Hapori Motuhake

Providing social infrastructure to meet specific community needs. 18. Resource allocation

[4]

19. Community decision making

[4]

20. Curriculum, teachers and students 21. Harmful products and services

[15] [7]

22. Social infrastructure

[22]

23. Community projects

[4]

24. Medical services

[6]

25. Home ownership, rentals and shared housing (affordable housing)

[14]

26. Culture of care

[5]

27. Grandparents raising grandchildren

[3]

28. Financial assistance and tax systems

[8]

el of difficulty due to the diverse and unique range each how best they might be delivered.

29. Local economy

[8]

30. Explore innovative ways to package debt

[4]

er-supplies to some and under-supplies to others ordination.

Factor V: Self-determining nation / Iwi Motuhake

ovide out-of-date information.

y not be motivated to solve problems.

s and balances or measures to evaluate what works and

Providing a strategic approach that optimises both public good and economic enterprise. 31. Central government strategy to tackle poverty

[5]

32. Mental health services review

[1]

33. Think Tank: takahanga tuatahi – The first footsteps

[1]


Appendix 10: Infographic of A regional perspective of the talking tour 2016/ He tirohanga a rohe o te haerenga kōrero 2016

A regional regional perspective perspective of of the the talking talking tour tour 2016/ 2016/ He He tirohanga tirohanga aa rohe rohe oo te te haerenga haerenga kōrero kōrero 2016 2016 A Rotorua Rotorua

Queenstown 29

7

33 1 3311 33 1 44

20

19

0 330

2200

25

1100

222 2211 2

88

2244

77

2255

26

16

2266 228 8

66

28

22

23 28. 28.

[1] 22. 22. [1]

[1] 4. 4. [1]

[1] [1]

11. 11.

[3] 12. 12. [3]

[1] [1]

[5] 26. 26. [5]

[4] 29. 29. [4]

1. 1.

[1] [1]

7. 7.

16. 16.

21. 21.

[1] 8. 8. [1]

[4] 10. 10. [4]

[4] 19. 19. [4]

[2] 20. 20. [2]

[3] [3]

[2] [2]

[3] [3]

[2] 24. 24. [2]

[2] [2]

[1] 28. 28. [1]

[3] 31. 31. [3]

Manawatu Manawatu

[7] [7]

[2] 13. 13. [2]

[3] 26. 26. [3]

30. 30.

[2] [2]

[2] 33. 33. [2]

[1] [1]

Gisborne Gisborne 1122 44

2299 31 31

11

28 25 28 4 25 4 2 2

44

66

2233

6 226

[2] 6. 6. [2]

[1] 22. 22. [1]

25. 25.

3311

1166

[1] 20. 20. [1]

[4] [4]

1133

18

[1] 25. 25. [1]

1199

23. 23.

19. 19.

[8] 18. 18. [8]

1122

[1] 16. 16. [1]

1 111

7. 7.

77

2222

2255

55

2200

77

1199

2211

88

2222

66 7 117 1122

1166

Please note the numbers in [X] in the tables below the pie charts refer to the number of ‘hows’ that relate directly to each of the 33 sub-factors.

[1] [1]

9. 9.

[1] [1]

[1] [1]

6. 6.

12. 12.

15. 15.

[1] 2. 2. [1]

[10] 7. 7. [10]

[4] 10. 10. [4]

[3] 13. 13. [3]

[1] 16. 16. [1]

1133

[4] 26. 26. [4]

1. 1.

1122

[3] [3]

1 111

31. 31.

[2] 25. 25. [2]

[6] 19. 19. [6]

1166

22. 22.

[5] 11. 11. [5]

[1] [1]

1 111

[3] 16. 16. [3]

[2] 7. 7. [2]

99

12. 12.

6. 6.

[3] 5. 5. [3]

1100

[2] 4. 4. [2]

114 11554

1. 1.

[1] 4. 4. [1]

[1] 8. 8. [1]

[1] 11. 11. [1]

[4] 14. 14. [4]

[8] 17. 17. [8]

[2] [2]

[11] [11] [4] [4]

[1] [1]

[1] [1]

20. 20.

[3] 21. 21. [3]

[3] 22. 22. [3]

[11] [11]

28. 28.

[2] 29. 29. [2]

[1] 31. 31. [1]

[1] [1]

23. 23.

[1] 24. 24. [1]

[2] 25. 25. [2]

[2] [2]


Factor I:I: Survival Survival // Ka Oranga Factor Morehu

Sustaining SustainingFactors factors // Tohu Tohu Kaupapa Toitū

Providing emergency emergency products products and and services services for for survival. survival. Providing

Kaitaia Kaitaia 2299

66

88

2222

1111 1122 1133

2233

99

224 42 266

7 227

2200

6 116

6. 6.

[2] 8. 8. [2]

16. 16.

[9] 20. 20. [9]

11. 11.

23. 23.

27. 27.

[1] [1]

[2] 22. 22. [2]

[2] [2]

[2] 26. 26. [2]

[1] 29. 29. [1]

[3] [3]

[2] [2]

33

44

77

2222

55

224 422

66

3300 11 22

Empowering factors Factors/ /Tohu TohuWhakamana Motuhake Empowering

Kaikohe Kaikohe 2299

2211

88

1177

111 1

2200

99 1100

14. 14.

[3] 9. 9. [3]

[4] 12. 12. [4]

[3] 15. 15. [3]

1144

1166 11. 11.

1155

8. 8.

[3] 5. 5. [3]

1133

4. 4.

[1] 2. 2. [1]

2 112

1. 1.

[1] 3. 3. [1]

[2] [2]

7. 7.

[1] 10. 10. [1]

[3] 13. 13. [3]

[1] 16. 16. [1]

17. 17.

[1] 20. 20. [1]

[4] 21. 21. [4]

29. 29.

[5] 30. 30. [5]

[1] [1]

22. 22.

[3] 24. 24. [3]

[1] 26. 26. [1]

Bedding Bedding Shelter (emergency housing) Shelter (emergency housing) Accessibility Accessibility

[5]* [2] [2] [10] [2]

Factor II: Security / Tāmau Factor II: Security / Ka Mau

Providing aa sense sense of of short-term short-term security. security. Providing 6. 6. 7. 7. 8. 8. 9. 9.

Security of income Security of income Security of place (social housing) Security of place (social housing) Security of health Security of health Security of transport and Security of transport and technology technolog

[20] [6] [24] [9]

Providing skills and tools for individuals to live the life they want. 10. Employment literacy

[4] [4]

[1] 13. 13. [1]

[4] 24. 24. [4]

3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5.

Food Food Clothing and and shoes shoes Clothing

Factor III: III: Self-determining Self-determining individuals individuals // Ka Tu Au Factor Tangataskills Motuhake Providing and tools for individuals to live the life they want.

[1] 9. 9. [1]

[1] 12. 12. [1]

1. 1. 2. 2.

[2] [2]

[1] [1]

[1] [1]

[2] [2]

[3] [3]

[3] [3]

[1] [1]

10. Education Employment literacy 11. literacy

[5]

11. Health Education literacy 12. literacy 12. Financial Health literacy 13. literacy 13. Transportation Financial literacy 14. literacy

[13]

14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17.

Transportation literacy Technological literacy Technological literacy Civic literacy Civic literacy Housing literacy Housing literacy

[12] [9] [4] [2] [38] [2]

Factor IV: Self-determining communities / Factor IV: Self-determining communities / Ka Rongo Au Hapori social Motuhake Providing infrastructure to meet specific community needs.

Providing social infrastructure to meet specific community needs. 18. Resource allocation 18. Resource allocation [4] 19. Community decision making 19. Community decision making [4] 20. Curriculum, teachers and students 20. Curriculum, teachers and students [15] 21. Harmful products and services 21. Harmful products and services [7] 22. Social infrastructure 22. Social infrastructure [22] 23. Community projects 23. Community projects [4] 24. Medical services 24. Medical services [6]

25. 25. Home Home ownership, ownership, rentals rentals and and shared shared housing housing (affordable (affordable housing) housing)

[14]

26. 26. Culture Culture of of care care

[5]

27. 27. Grandparents Grandparents raising raising grandchildren grandchildren

[3]

28. Financial Financial assistance assistance and and tax tax systems systems 28.

[8]

29. 29. 30. 30.

[8]

Local economy economy Local Explore innovative innovative ways ways to to package package debt debt Explore

[4]

Factor V: V: Self-determining Self-determining nation nation // Ka IwiAwatea Motuhake Factor Au Providing aa strategic strategic approach approach that that optimises optimises both both public public Providing good and and economic economic enterprise. enterprise. good 31. Central Central government government strategy strategy to to tackle tackle poverty poverty 31.

[5]

32. 32. 33. 33.

[1]

Mental health health services services review review Mental Think Tank: Tank: Te takahanga tuatahi – The first footsteps Think Kopai Tuatahi – The first footsteps

[1]


Appendix 11: A warrant of fitness checklist for emergency and social housing The Institute saw that each of the nine sustaining sub-factors could be made into a specific checklist. To illustrate this, the Institute developed a housing warrant of fitness for Sub-factor 4: Shelter (emergency housing) and Subfactor 7: Security of place (social housing) based on the discussion at the workshops. This checklist could help communities and individuals identify what they have and do not have in terms of housing. We heard of a number of communities that did not have emergency housing, or if they did, it was not good quality or safe for children. This draft checklist is broken into three issues: I: Heating and Insulation; II: Health and Safety; and III: Essential Amenities. The requirements listed below in Table 6 could also be used by local government or housing providers as a reference point for what they should include in their building plans. Houses could have rankings, such as stars, to indicate the quality and safety of the buildings. The Institute intends to further explore the idea of checklists that could be designed and developed by local communities. Background The Government has already been doing some work in this area. For example, at the end of 2013 the then Minister of Housing, Hon Dr Nick Smith, tasked Housing New Zealand and the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment to jointly ‘develop, test and implement a rental housing Warrant of Fitness scheme’. The scheme’s purpose was to ‘improve the health and safety of tenants, particularly those on low incomes’. The trial used 49 Warrant of Fitness criteria, which were categorised into three major groupings, (‘Insulated & Dry’, ‘Safe & Secure’ and ‘Essential Amenities’).11 The 49 criteria trialled were surprisingly similar to the 24 criteria developed as part of the tour (detailed in Table 6 below). The 2013 trial led to an amendment to the Residential Tenancies Act 1986, rather than a rental housing Warrant of Fitness scheme. The Residential Tenancies Amendment Act 2016 requires smoke alarms and insulation in residential rental properties and other tenancy improvements. The Minister claimed in 2015 that: This package is a more pragmatic and efficient way of improving housing standards than a housing warrant of fitness scheme. Such a scheme would cost $100 million per year, or $225 per house for inspections alone, and these costs would be passed on to tenants in rents. This is money we believe is better spent on real improvements like insulation and smoke alarms. Significant issues like leaky roofs, insecure doors, excessive dampness and unsafe wiring are already covered by existing regulations, and the better response is tougher enforcement. Other issues like window stays, glass visibility safety strips and hot water temperature are best improved by education.12

Although these changes have had benefits, there have been calls for the Government to go further. Table 6: A warrant of fitness checklist for emergency and social housing

TacklingPovertyNZ Checklist Housing warrant of fitness As at 25 November 2016 Issue

Feature

Sub-factor 4: Shelter (emergency housing)

Sub-factor 7: Security of place (social housing)

I: Heating and Insulation

1. Heating system

Shelter must have an approved form of heating.

Property must have appropriate heating.

Shelter must have insulation batts installed in accessible ceiling spaces and around pipes.

Property must have insulation batts installed in accessible ceiling spaces and around pipes.

Shelter must be weather tight to avoid dampness and moisture.

Property must be weather tight to avoid dampness and moisture.

4. Bedding

Shelter must have beds available with clean bedding for warmth and comfort.

Property must have beds with off-ground framing available, in addition to clean bedding for warmth and comfort.

5. Water-proofing

Shelter must be weather tight to avoid dampness and moisture.

Property must be weather tight to avoid dampness and moisture.

2. Insulation system Property must include adequate heating and 3. Leaky building insulation. rating

11 For the full breakdown and groupings of the 49 criteria, please see Appendix 1 of the Trial of Rental Housing Warrant of Fitness Scheme with Housing New Zealand report (June 2014), accessible from www.mbie.govt.nz/publications-research/publications/housing-and-property/trial-rental-housing-wof-scheme-housing-nz-report.pdf. 12 For the Minister’s full statement, please see www.beehive.govt.nz/release/tenancy-law-changes-include-insulation-and-smoke-alarm-requirements.


II: Health and Safety

6. Earthquake rating

Shelter must be earthquake-resistant if in an earthquake-prone area. Minimum standard to be set by region.

Property must be earthquake-resistant if in an earthquake prone area. Minimum standard to be set by region.

Property must be secure and posit no health and safety risks.

7. Security

Shelter must be a safe place where residents are protected from intruders.

Property must have doors and windows all lockable from the inside.

8. Access

Shelter must be accessible for those in need 24/7. Once settled in the shelter, security and protection should be provided as appropriate.

Property must be accessible for those who are struggling to rent or purchase housing through the private market. Once settled in the property, security and protection should be provided as appropriate.

9. Drug and alcohol free policy

Shelter must be a drug and alcohol-free environment. No smoking inside the building.

Property must be a drug-free environment. No smoking inside the building.

10. Structure

Shelter must be structurally sound and not pose any threat to the health and safety of the residents.

Property must be structurally sound and not pose any threat to the health and safety of the residents.

11. Interior air quality

Shelter must have a natural or mechanical means of ventilation in each room.

Property must have a natural or mechanical means of ventilation in each room.

12. Fire alarm test

Shelter must have a functioning fire alarm in each sleeping room and shelter must have a means of exiting in the event of fire or other emergency.

Property must have functioning fire alarms installed in living areas and bedrooms.

13. Asthma test

Shelter must have a non-hazardous level of dust present at the time of letting.

Property must have a non-hazardous level of dust present at the time of letting.

14. Moisture test

Shelter must have no obvious signs of damp, mould or mildew at any point in time.

Property must have no obvious signs of damp, mould or mildew at the time of letting.

15. Meth test

Shelter must have no meth contamination.

Property must be tested for meth contamination before letting.

16. Asbestos test

Shelter must be tested and cleared for asbestos.

Property must be tested and cleared for asbestos.

17. Water quality test

Shelter must have safe drinkable water available at all hours.

Property must have safe drinkable water.

18. Vermin test

Shelter must have no signs of vermin.

Property must have no signs of vermin.

19. Fenced outdoor area

Shelter must include an allocated safely enclosed outside space for children to play.

Property must include an allocated safely enclosed outside space if rented to a family with a child 0-5 years of age.

20. Toilet facilities

Shelter must have at least one flushable toilet.

Property must have at least one flushable toilet.

21. Plumbing facilities

Shelter must have accessible hot and cold Property must have accessible hot and cold water. water.

22. Power facilities

Shelter must have access to power and have functioning power points.

Property must have safe and functioning power points in the lounge, kitchen and bedrooms.

23. Food preparation and cooking facilities

Shelter must have a safe and hygienic space for preparing and cooking food.

Property must have a safe and hygienic space for preparing and cooking food.

24. Bath or shower facilities

Shelter must have a bathroom with functioning washing facilities.

Property must have a bathroom with functioning washing facilities.

III: Essential Amenities Property must have functioning amenities.

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McGuinness Institute Level 2, 5 Cable Street PO Box 24222 Wellington 6142 ph: 64 4 499 8888

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Published February 2017 ISBN 978-1-98-851802-2 (Paperback) ISBN 978-1-98-851803-9 (PDF)


2017/01: TacklingPovertyNZ 2016 Tour: Methodology, results and observations