Technical_Studies What? Why? How?
‘I never learn what I can look up in a book’ Einstein
*This will be my book.
Diploma Year 5 Technical Studies All the information contained within details the development of the Technical Studies module within the PG Dip Architecture (RIBA II) course at UEL. Technical Studies is designed as a supporting document to the Culture House Project.
Design Issues Introduction 01 Unit Agenda & Objectives 03 Site Area 05 Local Legislation Site Context 15 Temporal Mapping 17 Opportunities & Constraints
Culture House Definition
Proposal 23 The Culture House Development
Material & Construction 29 Structural Strategy 33 Material Strategy 37 Technical Visit
Environmental Strategy 61 Energy
Lecture Series TS Perspectives on environment 10/11 Building in/an historic environment Alan Chandler 68
72 Materials & Environment Gennady Vasilchenko-Malishev 78
Perspectives on the Environment
Ideology as Environment Robert Thum
Working in an Environment Sasaworks
TS Sustainability 09/10 Environment & Energy Sofie Pelsmakers
Environment & Envelope Sofie Pelsmakers
Ventilation & Cooling Sofie Pelsmakers
Daylight Sofie Pelsmakers
Renewable Energy Sofie Pelsmakers
Floodrisk & Sustainable Design Siraj Tahir
Engineers & Architects
Materials & Methods Alan Chandler
Research References 119
Area Research Future Development Proposals Environmental Design Noise & Acoustics Transport & Connectivity
Structural Design Strategic Structural Development
Material Specification Materiality Research
Reflection 151 Did it work? Appendix Mid-Term Presentation
The intention for the environmental & technical lectures and approaches for the year should be more than air changes, solar gains and renewable energy, ‘green-washing’ but a look at social political and economic forces at work - to aid in the development of a long term sustainable proposal. We must remember that
‘Technically competent design does not result in good architecture’ Peter Eissenman
Architecture must be more than the sum of its parts and become rooted in its environment creating a positive addition to the urban fabric.
This year Unit 6 has been reinstated and returns with a focus on ‘Supplemental Envelopes & Expanding Grounds’, concentrating on the condition and relationship which lies between the Envelope & the Ground.
What is the envelope? The building envelope is possibly the oldest and most primitive architectural element - it seperates public and private realms, interior & exterior while providing the most basic requirement of shelter to the inhabitant. It can the considered as the ‘fabric’ which defines and encloses a space - more than a wall or a roof as ‘traditional’ architectural elements have become blurred - walls can now become roofs and roofs can become floors. There are no longer distinct categories of ground and envelope, but there is one of skin where surfaces can become both ground and envelope producing a 5th or 6th facade. Today the focus of architecture is becoming increasingly placed on the conversation between inside and outside, something which was prominent in modern
-ism rather than the internal spatial relationships and the possible relevance of the condition created by the envelope and the ground. The ‘new’ concept of the envelope allows architects to explore relationships between systems—human, animal, plant, energy flow and landscape. The limits between private and public begin to blur and the structure of ground ownership becomes challenged by contemporary urban development instruments Unit 6 aims to explore the possibilities and importance of the envelope through the typology of the Culture House, which will be located in Silvertown, East London.
Site Location & Background, West Silvertown_London Background Silvertown is an industrialised district in the London Borough of Newham between the River Thames and what used to be the three Royal docks. Named after Samuel Winkworth Silverâ€™s former rubber factory which opened in 1852.
Silvertown developed into an important industrial area during the 19th century. It grew because of the Metropolitan Building Act of 1844 & today evidence of its industrail importance still remains with the Tate & Lyle sugar refinery a prominent landmark.
The O2 Greenwich Observatory
Public Legislation Royal Docks Opportunity Area The Royal Docks Opportunity Area lies within the stretch of land that runs between Stratford down the River Lea to the Thames - encompassing 650 hectares of land and creating an ‘arc of opportunity’ identified to have a development potential of 22Billion. The Royal Docks Opportunity Area is a policy outlined by the Mayors of London & Newham to actively encourage investment and redevelopment within the area using the 2012 Olympic Games as a catalyst for long term regeneration. ‘the time has never been better to unlock the Royal Docks’ potential on the back of the 2012 Games’ Mayor of London, Boris Johnson
Positioned at the intersection of the Thames Gateway and London-Standstead-Cambridge Growth Corridors, the Royal Docks occupy a very well connected part of the city with good DLR,Jubilee,Thames Clipper, Road and soon to be Crossrail connections, aswell as being close to nearby facilities such as the O2, The Excel Centre and Canary Wharf. The policy sets out a Ten-point strategy* for desirable investment within the area - this will be used as a guide for the Culture House proposal. The vision for the future of the Royal Docks is underpinned by a clear ten-point strategy: Develop the Royal Docks as a world-class business destination within the knowledge economy Promote the Royal Docks as a focus for investment on a world stage building on opportunities presented by the Olympic and Paralympic Games Make the Royal Docks a place of choice to live Champion green enterprise and environmental sustainability Ensure that development positively benefits the local communities Exploit the potential for a visitor and tourist economy Create a unique and high quality waterfront urban quarter with a strong sense of place Improve cross-river and local connectivity Communicate openly and clearly Make it happen *London Development Agency (www.lda.gov.uk)
Royal Docks Opportunity Area
Public Saftey Zone (PSZ) Public Safety Zones are areas of land at the end of busy airport runways in the UK, within which certain planning restrictions can apply. These restrictions aim to minimise the risk to both flight passengers and people on the ground during both take off and landing. The basic premise of PSZs are to restrict developments near civil airports with the intention that there should be no increase in the number of people living, working or congregating in PSZs and that in circumstances the ‘number should be reduced as circumstances allow (e.g. when any redevelopment takes place)’.(http://www.caa.co.uk - Civil Aviation Authority)
Due to Silvertowns proximity to London City Airport there is a PSZ within the area, although it currently affects a very small area of Silvertown, there are proposals to increase London City Airports traffic capcity - Newham council has approved the airport’s expansion plans with annual flights set to increase from the current 90,000 to 120,000* - which could lead to the PSZ increasing further - this would suggust that any high-rise proposals maybe refused planning consent on this basis - ignoring any other aesthetic or planning considerations.
* This is subject to appeal from the group ‘Fight The Flights’ , ‘Friends Of The Earth’ and the majors veto
NEW PROPOSED PSZ
A-THE 02 ARENA B-THE EXCEL CENTRE C-UEL
Planning Policy Guidance 13 (PPG 13) Transport / Parking
PPG 13s objectives are to integrate planning and transport at national and local levels to promote more sustainable transport networks ,connectivity and options within areas for both leisure (people) & commercial (freight) purposes. PPG encourages the linking of planning and transport early in the design process, with emphasis placed not only on promoting facilities that are well designed for vehicles but also facilities which provide services for locals that are accessible without the use of a car and encourage this (within 2km)- such as well-lit areas - tree lined boulevards etc. Options and alternatives should be explored including solutions other than road enhancement to improve existing local infrastructures.
Significant developments should involve the creation of a travel plan - that encompasses travel and access by private transport, public transport, walking and cycling. â€˜This should be assessed in terms of how easy it is to get to the site comparing the different modes (taking into account journey times, public transport frequency, quality, safety, and access for disabled people). Development comprising jobs, shopping, leisure and services should not be designed and located on the assumption that the car will represent the only realistic means of access for the vast majority of people.â€™ PPG13
PPG13 also sets out standards which the local authorities should implement - with provision for safe and secure bicycle parking and a set amount of disabled parking.
Planning Policy Statement 1 (PPS 1)
Urban Design / Sustainable development Planning Policy Statement 1 (PPS1) sets out the Government’s overarching planning policies on the delivery of sustainable development through the planning system. Four aims set out for sustainable development continued from the 1999 draft are - social progress which recognises the needs of everyone; - effective protection of the environment; - the prudent use of natural resources; and, - the maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment The Key principles of the policy include and issues that must be considered are: Highly inclusive design - both building and external Community involvement to create a sustainable development Proposals to meet the need of the surrounding area – ensure that the impact of development on the social fabric of communities is considered and taken into ac
count; – seek to reduce social inequalities; – address accessibility (both in terms of location and physical access) for all members of the community to jobs, health, housing, education, shops, leisure and community facilities;* PPS1
To Maintain and improve the local environment - including provision of public space Awareness of the effects of climate change and the developments greater effects to the area
Planning Policy Statement 4 (PPS 4)
‘Planning for sustainable economic growth’ Adopted in 2010, PPS4 is a relevant policy to consider before making a proposal. The Mayor has previous identified Silvertown Quays as a Major Opportunity Zone (MOZ) prime for development to create employment and culture within the area. PPS4 states that local planning authorities should adopt a positive approach to economic development and to treat favourably proposals that include sustainable economic mechanisms - such as facilities that will provide reliable employment , recieve regular use and be of benefit to the local community.
Capital Enterprise Zone
In March of this year, London Mayor Boris Johnson declared that the Royal Docks area - 125 hectares of development land adjacent to the city airport (including Silvertown Quays) would become the capital’s Enterprise Zone, which will entitle businesses with the area to a discount of up to 100% on business rates for an initial five year period. “Now with the financial and regulatory breaks granted as an Enterprise Zone there will be even greater incentives for new businesses to set up shop and create a thriving new centre of enterprise in this important corner of the capital.” Mayor Johnson This will create an economic incentive for promoting growth in the area and something which would make the construction of the Culture House proposal more financially viable.
Safeguarded Wharves - PLA (Port of London Authority) & Mayor of London This policy ‘safeguards’ the development of docks into non-port use. The policy aims to move towards sustainable development - that will ensure that development on the Thames continues to be balanced across freight, residential and leisure uses. ‘The Mayor has recommended the following safeguarding policy: 25 wharves west of the Thames Barrier should remain ‘safeguarded’ 25 wharves east of the Barrier should be ‘safeguarded’ for the first time 3 wharves west of the Barrier should be released from ‘safeguarding’ 19 wharves east of the Barrier should not be ‘safeguarded’ The PLA also strongly supports the ‘reactivation strategy’ to bring back into use some currently unused wharves. This follows a marketing exercise led by the PLA. The three wharves chosen to be brought back into use first are: Hurlingham Wharf in Hammersmith & Fulham Orchard Wharf in Tower Hamlets Peruvian Wharf in Newham ‘ www.pla.co.uk There are currently 7 existing safeguard Wharves in the borough of Newham Priors Wharf Mayer Parry Wharf Thames Wharf Peruvian Wharf Manhattan Wharf Sunshine Wharf Minoco Wharf* Four of which are located throughout the Silvertown area - Peruvian Wharf has been recommended to be reinstated as a working wharf for cargo handling purposes and Minoco Wharf has received the recommendation to remove its safeguarded status due to its inability to being made viable for cargo-handling uses and the many expressions of interest in developing the site for residential accommodation.
Site Context The unit calls for the development of a Culture House within the area and one that could act as a generator and a draw for the area on a macro scale - this meant that the first mapping process of the area should be on a macro scale rather than micro. Initially it was felt best that the greater London area should be examined and a cultural network should be mapped / identified in order to fully understand the implications of any future proposal i.e. to avoid proposing similar facilities to a near-by theatre. Once a macro cultural network is established the mapping study moves to a micro level to try to identify cultural and social constructs which are in existance. Working on the micro scale can help to identify the short-fall of facilities in the immediate area and the importance of such facilities. The macro mapping study (overleaf) illustrates how centrailized and westernly the existing cultural facilities lie. The Olympics are currently an attempt to revitalise the east-end of London and to bring some cultural identity back to the area - beyond the â€˜Eastendersâ€™ sterotype. A cultural facility within the Silvertown area would help to achieve this and support the Olympic legacy which seems to have forgotten about Silvertown.
Site Context A
KEY TRAIN STATION CULTURAL HOUSE ART GALLERY PERFORMANCE HISTORIC
A-DALSTON CULTURE HOUSE B- LABAN ARTS CENTRE C- LEWISHAM ART HOUSE D- GREENWICH THEATRE E- BFI SOUTHBANK F - TATE MODERN G- BRITISH MUSEUM H- DESIGN MUSEUM I- IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM J- RADA K- ROYAL BALLET L- ROYAL OPERA HOUSE M- THE EXCEL CENTRE N - THE O2 ARENA O - IDEA STORE WHITECHAPEL P - IDEA STORE CRISP ST
Opportunities & Constraints
Finding the Site
[kuhl-cher] - noun, verb, -tured, -tur·ing. 1.the quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters, manners, scholarly pursuits, etc. 2.that which is excellent in the arts, manners, etc. 3.a particular form or stage of civilization, as that of a certain nation or period: Greek culture.
[n., adj. hous; v. houz] noun, plural hous·es 1.a building in which people live; residence for human beings. 2.a household. 3. ( often initial capital letter ) a family, including ancestors and descendants: the great houses of France; the House of Hapsburg. 4. a building for any purpose: a house of worship.* A Culture house is a new hybrid typology which has came to prominence within the last decade. The history of the hybrid began in the 19th century when the dense city started to accept overlapping of functions as inevitable - with deminising land space and increasing property prices. A culture house does not have a clear programmatic structure it is one of celebration, diversity and a variety of programs - ranging from Libraries, Cafes, Theatres, Dance schools, Art galleries ,Jazz clubs & more. It is an oportunitistic building which moulds to the demands of its area - creating private and public spheres, which go against segregationist morphologies with often conflicting programs. This means that activity and use is constant and does not conform to the structured activity of the area or the city but can influence the area - be that regeneration - socially, structural or through interest.
Silvertown Quays, West Silvertown
Silvertown Quay is identified by Newham Council as a Major Opportunity Zone (MOZ)
The Site Area SITE PARAMETERS Address: Silvertown Quay, West Silvertown, London
Area: 60,720m2 , 15 acres Dimensions: 165m x 368m North Boundary: Roayl Victoria Dock South Boundary: Burt Rd West Boundary: Silvertown Dock East Boundary: Connaught Bridge LATTITUDE 51.50362714828063 째N
ONGITUDE 0.03737926483154297 째E
Environmental Context London has a temperate marine climate - a climate which is under the predominant influence of the sea - like much of the British Isles, so the city rarely sees extremely high or low temperatures. London receives an average of only 1468 hours of sunshine every year - compared with Dublin -1433.
Source (Met Office)
Winters in London are chilly, but rarely below freezing - although in recent years some extremes have become common - such as snow for weeks at a time. It receives relatively little percipitation throughout the year with an average of 583.6 millimetres every year, lower than New York City & San Francisco.
Climate Analysis Graphs produced using Ecotect Software
Macro-Culture House Silvertown - Statement The Silvertown area of London is located in the south-east of the city occupying a diverse and lively transition zone between the dense city fabric and the urban sprawl of the suburbs. Even though many people live (& work) in this area, it is mainly passed through by the inhabitants going in and out of the city . The reason for this is the area’s connectivity combined with its lack of facilities - both cultural and recreational.
The existing site is currently abandoned , lying as a wasteland surrounded by cancelled and shelved masterplans for the area. Currently an axis within the West Silvertown area exists, running along the A1020 (N Woolwich Rd) - the Industrail side containing Thames Barrier Pk & the Residential side with the monumental Millenimum Mill and along the edge of Royal Victoria Dock - seperating the site from the Excel centre and the auxilary facitilies which it provides. The proposal engages with the typology of the Culture House - consisting of dual programs - a function as a library / learning facility and a secondary function of a performing arts centre- with supporting facilities such as cafes, office space, practice rooms etc & ancillary facilities such as parking. Taking these two conflicting programs one, predominately static organised and reserved vs a fluid, dramatic and spontaineous program can help to inform and redefine the tyologies and relationships. The concept of the folded landscape and temporality derived from a number of prior studies will be investigated and implemented through the Culture House brief. The project aims to create a ‘social hub’ - not just a place to house books. It will have interior and exterior recreational spaces and a pedestrian bridge* to connect itself with the opposite side of Victoria Dock - creating a dialogue with the near-by Excel centre. The culture house aims to become the anchor project for the future redevelopment of the docks - where many proposals before it have failed (Terry Farrels Aquarium Project & The Xtreme Adventure Centre). The main point of difference between the Culture House proposal and its previous incumbants is that it engages both local and regional communities, encouraging multiple visits and uses, rather becoming a pastiche ‘iconic’ building. A library becomes a ‘secure’ facilitiy for the area and a facility that is invaluable during redevelopment acting as a space for both civic engagement and convergence. *In 2009 an Olympic Route Feasibility Study conducted by the LDA reccommended a second footbridge to the east side of Royal Victoria Docks
PROPOSED CULTURE HOUSE
A-THE 02 ARENA B-RAVENSBOURNE COLLEGE C- THE EXCEL CENTRE D- BRICKLANE MUSIC HALL E- DREW PRIMARY SCHOOL F - UEL G - BECKTON PRIMARY H - ST JOACHIMS PRIMARY I- THAMES BARRIER INFO CENTRE J -ST LUKES PRIMARY SCHOOL K - BRITANNIA PRIMARY SCHOOL
Why a Culture-House? The Silvertown area as previously identified is both at a critically transitional point between north & south of the city and between the city and the suburbs - the importance of this cannot be underestimated. Aswell as being a commuter paradise it also has the dubious honor of being the receiptant of several failed masterplan and scheme proposals - ranging from mass apartment proposals to aquarims and extreme sport facilities - all very realistic proposals at the time but all very generic* and not considering the needs of the local area either on a micro or macro scale. The aim for the thesis proposal is not merely to deliver â€˜architectureâ€™ or building mass to the area like the previous proposals before, but to create a design proposal for the area that actually benefits the area itself - something which the area both needs
and one which the residents of the area would use regularly - social
Currently, as identified through mapping - the majority of cultural facilities within London are located in the west or central areas - leaving the East End appearing to be a sterotypical Eastenders setting. Through relational network analysis it was identified that there was a large number of number of residential units within the area, large industrail units, very little public green space & very little residential areas. The nearest library within the area is 30mins travel time away but is a university library at UEL & the nearest performance venue is the O2 Arena 20mins travel time away but this arena is the biggest performance venue in the UK - not suitable for all types of performace. There is currently a performance facility within the area - The Bricklane Music hall - which is very small and inadequate. With an existing demand for the facilities proposed and the creation and extension of culture & educational networks throughout the area - the proposal should bring much needed facilities to the area but also bring people to the Silvertown area with a cultural axis of the O2 for cinema and concert facilities, the Excel Centre for roadshows and exhibitions and the cultural centre for more initimate performances such as Ballet, dance, graduations and first class library facilities. This coupled with the potential creation of an Educational
Network (be that formally,
with links between the institutions or informally through the complementary facilities in close access to each other) -
Ravensbourne College, The Cultural Centre, Drew Primary School and The University of East London (UEL), should mean that the Silvertown area remains population, vibrant and bring an much needed positive atmosphere to the area.
*with the exception of the Xtreme Venture proposal
Program Development As observed the two programs have numerous similarities and incidences of programmatic overlaps - with this in mind the more generic performing Arts Centre breakdown is taken as the main backbone of the proposal with the addition of library specific functions such as Adult Lending, Childrens Library, Seating, Workstations & Study Cells added. Some of the facilities which are now shared, such as the Lobby, Exhibition space,Toilets, Admin & Office spaces now increase in size due to them being shared.
Each program area is now split into distinct categories - Public (Red) Private (Orange), Shared (Yellow) Performance (Light Green) Books/Library (Green) & Circulation (Blue)
Performing Arts Centre
Public Areas; Cafe(s) Lobby Public Toilets Bar
350sqm 400sqm 100sqm 150sqm
Public -9.99 %
Private Areas Administration Maintenance Stock Area Cafe Kitchen(s) Bar Storage Box Office Cloakroom Office Space Toilets
500sqm 200sqm 200sqm 100sqm 10sqm 10sqm 25sqm 250sqm 100sqm
Shared; Rehearsal Auditorium Lecture Facility Exhibition Conference Room
300sqm 300sqm 350sqm 60sqm
Library; Adult Lending Childrens Library Seating Workstations
750sqm 350sqm 400sqm 120sqm
Performance; Changing Rooms Practice Studios Gym Auditorium Circulation Total:
250sqm 1750sqm 80sqm 900sqm
Material & Construction In choosing materials and construction techniques, local material sourcing will be considered with an aim to minimize transportation. The waterfront location of the proposal allows materials to be transported by barges directly to the construction site - or to the existing working wharfs - Peruvian Wharfs. This method of transportation reduces the potential carbon footprint by up to 10 times when compared with other forms of transportation such as trucking.
Steel All steel components used will be specified to use a large recycled content, and will include less embodied energy than a solely concrete framed solution. The use of steel means that a bolted assembly can be detailed resulting less time on site and allow for possible deconstruction to facilitate adpation and re-use in the future.
Concrete The concrete which will be used for the pier and topping slabs in the steel-framed areas will consider ways to which it is possible to reduce its carbon impact. Generally it is the cement which holds the largest carbon footprint within concrete - the use of of Complementary cementing materials (CCM) such as ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbs), fly ash, rice husk ash which are industrial by-products and considered carbon neutrail can help to reduce the carbon footprint of the proposal. Building regulations allow up to 20% use of recycled aggregate in structural concrete (columns/beams). Utilizing CCM as a replacement for some of the cement within the concrete mix can provide benefits such as; Reducing materials needed for landfills Reducing embodied energy Reducing CO2 emissions Improve durability Other concrete systems and products such as precast planks, slabs, beams and bubble deck systems will be evalutated for their speed of construction and to reduce on-site waste and formwork which would be needed.
Construction Ideally in the initial phases of design or pre-design stage, a report on the state of repair of the quay structures in the area where the proposal is to be established should be commissioned. It is asssumed that the existing Quay structure consists of sheet piling (quay structure under water), a hammer beam (quay structure above water) and anchoring in the ground behind these structures. A report would confirm if any design proposed would be financially sound to build on the existing quay structure or if it would be financially advantageous to create a new quay structure to support future development.
Combining the advantages of concrete and steel means that the structure becomes for efficient to bending and compression forces. Composite floor slabs will be used in the construction of the building - the concrete topping and the steel sheets (which is used as formwork) with shear studs and reinforcing rods help to create a span over 6m without experiencing any structural stresses.
Although the system allows for over 6m unsupported spans a relatively slim profile in some areas it will need temporary support while it is being constructed - so it is advised that acros are available on site.
Foundation Considerations As the part of the building which is in direct contact with the ground it is necessary than when load is transmitted from the building to the foundations that any movement is limited not to adversely effect the functional requirements of the building or neighbouring buildings. Due to the sites quay location and the unknown structural integrity of the dock it is invisaged that a cofferdam may be necessary in order to form a secure basement structure - consisting of sheet piles, concrete piles & waterproof tanking sheets. There could be a potential need for pumping of water during the excavation process dependant on the condition of the existing quay.
Example Cofferdam Construction & Excavation bracing needed
Corten This material was chosen because it echos the industrail heritage of the area and the gradual and controlled oxidation of which gives the material self-protecting qualities. Due to the culture houses waterside location it can lead to metals to oxidise and require quite alot of maintainence, the anticorrosive properties of weather-resistant steels are better than those of other structural steels in many applications. The enhanced weather resistance is based on the oxide layer, i.e. patina. The use of uncoated weather-resistant steel in steel structures saves surface treatment costs. The elegantly brown patinated surface is architecturally distinguished. The patina-type surface can be obtained in weather-resistant steels using Rust Brown method, which extends the scope of application of weather-resistant steels to indoor structures.
Examples of Corten Structures The Angel of the North (UK) Matsunoyama Natural Science Museum (Japan) The Centre for Contemporary Art, Melbourne, Austral
Soil Conditions A number of geotechnical borings would have to be made in conjunction with the report inspecting the conditions of the quays in order to gain a thorough understanding of the ground conditions and stability.
Foundation and groundwater conditions It is assumed that the results of geotechnical surveys would reccommend that all buildings rest on pile foundations in the form of driven reinforced concrete piles going down to the tertiary clay - similar to the Yokohama International Terminal. The load-bearing capacity and strength parameters required should be calculated at a later date - but the principle should be understood.It will be possible to establish basement structures without any significant groundwater problems, provided that the excavation pit is secured by a watertight sheet wall. The sheet wall must go down to the tertiary clay and be so tight that there is no ingress of water. Permanent drainage of the excavation pit is possible without any major risk of damage to nearby buildings
Contamination The site area is part of a former docks area, which means that there is a risk of contamination from previous industrial enterprises. The site is currently under 24hr security so site inspection is not currently possible - it is known that there is asbestos in the Millenium Mills buildings with is adjacent to the site - however it is not known whether there are any contaminates in the ground. Environmental conditions must be assessed in connection with the design and planning to ensure that the indoor climate in buildings will be acceptable. It will be assumed that any soil excavated for basement structures will be able to be reused.
Main Auditorium Concept Fly Tower V Seating
Seating Fly Tower Stage
Fixed Seating Configurations
More Seating Configuration Options
Ability to increase space
Flexibility - creating a space which is adaptable for all performances Eliminate Fly Tower - Room one consistent height Create a hydraulic floor system to move the floor rather than stage Surround the auditorium with flexiable rooms so that it can be enlarged.
Technical Visit - Fountain Studios_Wembley, London_ 19052011
Fountain Studios in Wembley, one of Londons largest and oldest recording and production facilities were visited on the 19th of May - with a production of ‘Penn & Tellers - Fool Us’ being recorded. Fountain Studios provide full service television facilities for shows requiring from 3,000ft to 13,000 sq ft, with audiences of 1 to 1,001 or no audience at all. The purpose of the visit was to experience first hand a space which is easily reconfigurable, the equipment which was used and any particular acoustic devices that could be appropriate for the culture house performance spaces.
Flexibility is the goal the of the studios - similar to that of the ‘BlackBox’ within the culture house that the space can be configured to any needs necessary to the recording / performance. The studio itself was a large wide span portal frame structure with everything contained with temporary - ranging from the acoustic dampening curtains, to the bleecher style seating used - this can allow for different heights, angles and numbers contained within the auditorium - allowing ultimate flexibility which is not possible with fixed seating systems. The studios are fully equipped for either High Definition/Surround or Standard Definition and acoustically perform very well - particularly when it is essentially a large shed.
The scale , scope and room required for the lighting rig was somewhat suprising. Although the fact that there was no need for a permanent walkway was a positive discovery - technicans used a rope ladder to climb into gantrys within the lighting rigs themselves - allowing for space optimization.
Structural Precedent Kraanspoor Office Building Amsterdam, NL 2007 Architects: OTH, Amsterdam
Structural Engineer: Aronsohn raadgevande
Built on an abandoned crane track - 270m long & 13.5m high & 8.5m wide - the Kraanspoor office building was constructed in 2007. The site situation is somewhat similar to that of the the Culture House in Silvertown with respect to that being a former industrailised area which is being redeveloped. The principle of the office is a light-weight steel structure resting on the old crane track although it is not necessary for the culture house to be a light weight structure it will be constructed using a steel frame system. The office is assembled from 23m modules divided into three fields of 7.6m tubular bracing members. The key feature which is being explored is the double-skin climate facade. Combined with sunblocking glass - the slats on the building can reduce the solar energy entering the building during the summer and during winter can help to insulate the building while keeping heating costs & loads down. A hydrothermal heating and cooling system uses the water pumped up from the sea below to help cool the building - this is a feature which could be possibly utilised within the docks area - dependant on the nature of future activities which are planned for the docks.
The double-skin facade allows for natural ventilation of the offices and acts as a buffer against heat in summer and cold in winter - similar to a vaccum in a double-glazed window. Floor convectors prevent cold air drop and cold radiation.
Structurally the office acts similar to that of a warehouse or shed -a skeleton structure- with several key columns and beams being braced at regular intervals - perhaps a more elegant solution would be to triangulate the entire structure rather than just bracing linear columns - creating a truss system instead. All the basic principles such as live and dead loads are quite easily considered and illustrated.
Double-Skin Facade A double skin facade is an additional external skin for a building that can optimize the indoor climate and reduce the energy demand of the building. The facade is a passive - double skin facade as its not mechanically ventilated itself - but lets the air blow throughout it - cooling and heating the building.
Advantages Protection of the inner facade against weather conditions saves costs in the operating phase by reducing maintenance costs. Preheating of incoming fresh air in the winter period saves energy. Natural ventilation may be combined with a double skin facade to save energy and to enable inexpensive ventilation methods. Lower energy losses with the reduction of wind cooling of the facade, while also helping to prevent overheating. Acoustic protection from sources of noise. Double skin facades offer the possibility of increasing the daylight level inside the building. Reduction of thermal bridges via improved building envelope.
Disadvantages Extra costs in the construction phase. Cleaning might cause extra work and thereby extra costs which have to be made clear to the client during the planning phase. Fire regulations might cause difficulties. The fire escape routes have to be given extra attention.
Facade Detail Exploration
1_Safety Glass 2_Glass Slats 3_Steel Channel 4_T Section 5_Aluminium Profile 6_Glass Holder 7_Metal Grate 8_Steel Channel 9_VB 10_ I Beam
Detail Sketch Development
Technical Detail Development
Detail Fragments Dance Floor Construction Manufacturer : Harlequin Floors
Specialist floor construction is required within certain rooms of the Culture House â€˜sprungâ€™ floor construction will be needed in two forms - permanent in the dance studios and a temporary modulated dance floor which will be needed for the Blackbox Auditorium as its programs and uses will constantly be changing it is important the the ability to use it as a dance performance auditorium is possible.
Completed Floor Construction (Laban Centre)
_Harlequinn Dance Surface _Ply _Ply _Layer 1-3 - Pine Weave Stringers _Rubber Suspension Pads _DPM _Concrete Sub-Floor
Detail Fragments Acoustic Suspended Ceiling Manufacturer AMF Ceilings
Due to the juxtaposition of programs which are prevelent in the building - acoustic treatments of certain rooms, such as recording and dance studios is necessary in order to minimize the level of noise in private areas such as offices and the library space and between studios.
Example production studio
1 Floor Construction: Wood-Block Floor Finish 70mm screed seperating layer 30mm mineral fibre impact sound insulation 35mm wood-wool lightweight building boards Structural floor
2. Permanently elastic seal 3. Mineral fibre perimeter insulation 4. Wall Construction 3 No 12.5mm plasterboard 75mm channel studs - 60mm fibre board insulation 10mm cavity 75mm channel studs - 60mm fibre board insulation 3 No 12.5mm plasterboard 5. Suspended Ceiling Construction >60mm resilient bars rixed to battens, with 40mm insulation in between 2 No. 12.5mm plasterboard 6. Permanently elastic seal
Production Studio Scale 1.10
Local Labour/Expertise The majority of construction techniques which have been considered involve a large amount of intensive low-non skilled labour excavagtion cement mixing shuttering compacting earth etc The construction process can help to bring some employment to the area and business to the surrounding shops and cafes through construction and contractors workers who will be frequenting the area - this way the construction process can be considered somewhat of a social enterprize.
Environmental Strategy The world is becoming increasingly aware of the need to protect the environment, partly because of the current focus on climate change and global warming as well as the recent promises take by the EU and the UK to reduce carbon dioxide emissions - the UK has a domestic goal to cut carbon dioxide emissions by 20%, it is therefore crucial that public buildings take the lead in terms of new approaches to energy consumption. Shown right are the various strategies and approaches which will be used in terms of an architectural solution to sustainability. The design of the building ensures that it is adaptable and compartmentable. In terms of social sustainability the Culture House aims to provide the neccessary facilities for the local communitiy while employing the locals during the construction and operational phases of the project. This ensures that there is a strong social connection and interest in the facility which should make the project a long term profitable facility.
Lecture Series 10_11
Unless otherwise stated all the information contained within hencefore is credited to the authors of each lecture - diagrams have been redrawn and images will be credited to the appropriate sources on an individual basis when known.
Building in/an historic environment Alan Chandler History constantly changes but is always present - its a documentation of human activity - ‘new’ always gets built onto or in ‘old’ creating a new history... which then becomes old, but which ‘old’ is ‘new-old’ and which ‘old’ stays ‘old’ - Willam Morris attempted to answer this in 1848. William Morris would found SPAB (The Society for protection of Ancient Buildings) and was a very well known designer - extending his prowess to wallpaper aswell as to buildings. Morris maintained that architects had a moral obligation to the historic building this is often seen at head with the professional obligation of the architect to the needs of the client. SPAB as a society still exists today and champions :‘The need for protection not restoration, and the folly of imitation. Put another way, do as little as is necessary and when you do, it do it without pastiche.’ examples of this can be seen throughout Germany - Munich & Berlin where the warn torn architecture is repaired using modern materials. This history that had defined the buildings is now over and its language becomes a bygone art with the architect maintaining the fabric in a curatorial position. The ‘curatorial’ position is defensive – a necessity in 1877 but runs counter to Morris’s own view of history as an unfolding process of creative change Architecture is a celebration of change over time, of legibility without artifice – dwelling is an invitation to adapt sympathetically to the needs of the present, “of necessity wrought in the unmistakable fashion of the time”. “……but every change, whatever history it destroyed, left history in the gap, and was alive with the spirit of the deeds done midst its fashioning”.
Understanding the meaning of the curatorial role which Morris suggusts through tactics that reflect a modern sensibility can be tricky.
Peter & Allison Smithson A touchstone ; the idea of ‘As Found’ is articulated in the early work of the Smithsons. ‘As Found’ – what exists is positive – engaging in what exists and creating new meaningful relationships not purely manipulating appearances for pleasure.
“it is about wanting what you got, rather than going out and getting what you want” –Karel Reisz, filmmaker
A Case Study ; Yorkshill 1440-1480-2011 Engaging with both Morris & the Smithsons through work on a Wealden Hall house The House:
The requirements : To make the structure secure and to increase living space and the quality of the space within the house. The details; - we must remember not restoration but protection â€œto resist all tampering with either the fabric or the ornament of the building as it stands; if it has become inconvenient for its present use, to raise another building rather than enlarge or alter the old oneâ€?. Tbe Facade
The porch -‘bricolage**’
Stair & Window - Balance and readability
History is a living process that registers its passing upon the built environment and that process is a genuine testament of the art and feeling of the day. Architects should determine the parameters and factors of ‘inconvenience’ to maintain patterns of use within the built fabric not inspite of historic fabric. Change is a form of continuity and we should learn to understand environment as history and history as environment.
* construction made of whatever materials are at hand
Materials & Environment Gennady Vasilchenko-Malishev Factors effecting performance of the building • • • • •
Temperature and its fluctuation; Solar radiation; Soil contamination / exposure class Corrosion Moisture content & relative humidity
Thermal Expansion & Bracing Structural members tend to expand and shrink as temperature rises and decreases one way to minimise this is to brace a framed structure. Braced frame structures are normally used for stability against horizontal loads and if possible it is best to have cross bracing (diagonal bracing), then the bracing elements can be smaller and at least one of the diagonals will always be in tension when providings stability - therefore it is not as susceptible to bucking.
(b) No additional forces arise in the members in (b) or in the bracing
Co-efficient of thermal expansion Name of the Material
Coefficient of thermal Expansion
a (x 10 -6 / oC)
Clay Brickwork Concrete, natural/lightweight Glass Limestone (medium) Steel, mild Timber, soft Parallel to grain Perpendicular to grain Nylon Aluminium Polycarbonate ETFE film
5-8 6-14 8 4 12
15000 9000 70000 45000 205000
3.6 35 80-100 23 70 140
9000 3000 70000 2500 1450
Movement Joints All concrete, once placed, will contract slightly during the curing process; this is the primary cause of small surface cracks that appear during the curing process. When set, concrete will expand and/or contract slightly with ambient temperature. It is therefore advisable to incorporate some form of movement joint within larger slabs, particularly those 6m x 6m in plan or larger.
Filler and sealant are applied at intervals in order to allow for expansion . O
ΔL=a x Δt x L • Δt – temperature difference (night/day,winter/summer) • L- overall length of the structure; • a-coefficient of thermal expansion; We can assume that the temperature change (Δt) to be 20˚C (Silvertown Summer) Worked example for concrete ΔL=a x Δt x L = a (we’ll take as 10x10 -6 (between 6-14) x Δt x L = 10 x 15 x L (length of module = 50000mm) = 10 x 15 x 50000 = 7.5mm Typical values • Concrete 0.4mm/ m • Clay brickwork 0.25mm/m • Glass 0.3mm/m • Steel 0.4mm/ m • Stainless Steel 0.7mm/ m • Wood 0.15mm/m; 1.5mm/m
Thermal Shock Annealed glass is vulnerable to thermal shock - this is cracking due to internal stresses resulting from temperature differences between parts of the same sheet of glass. When glass is exposed to heat - it absorbs the heat and expands. At the same time the edges remain cooler causing thermal stress. Similar effects can happen with rapid decreases of external temperatures and contemporaneous internal heating. Annealed Heat-strengthened Toughened
45 N/mm² 70 N/mm² 120 N/mm²
Solar Radiation O
Inner glass with coating Heat from Sun Room Radiation Heat from Sun Room Radiation
Low E coating (hard coating) K-Glass
Low E coating + solar control coating (soft coating)
In order to avoid overheating in a building you must stop the heat getting into the building primarily rather than implementing an expensive ventilation strategy this can be done using coated glass.
Cold bridges are sections through the fabric of significantly lower thermal resistance than the rest of the construction. These happen particularly around openings and at junction of walls/floors and walls/roofs. Concrete and steel framed buildings are particularly prone to cold-bridging unless these elements are individually insulated. Coldbridging is the result of localised areas of low thermal resistance caused by the presence of elements with a high thermal conductivity.
Corrosion is the disintegration of an engineered material into its constituent atoms due to chemical reactions with its surroundings. - RUST COMMONG TYPES OF CORROSION PROTECTION •Applied coatings (galvanising, paints) •Anodisation (aluminium alloys, façade structures) •Use of other steel alloys (stainless or corten)
Weathering steel, best-known under the trademark COR-TEN is a group of steel alloys which were developed to obviate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance if exposed to the weather for several years
Wood Similarly to steel, wood can shrink, warp, bend and twist depending on the forces and conditions which it is placed in. As an organic material wood contains alot of moisture - The mass of water in a freshly felled tree is 60 to 200% of the dry mass of the tree. In dried out timber there is only roughly 10 weight percent water content.
Wood can be used as a natural material or as a glue-lam material - where sheets of food or crossed and glued to form an element which is more structurally sound than when found in its natural condition.
Perspectives On The Environment Roland Karthaus What is the environment?
â€˜The environment is everything that isnâ€™t me.â€™ Albert Einstein The lecture concentrates on things planning doesnt deal with - the gaps in the planning policy - such as Masterplanning and is based on the CPD on urban design which Roland has put together as a guide for the RIBA. Environmental architecture is not atypical - it can be Bedzed* or it could be Georgian London.
Dynamics of the urban form - a sense of place in chronologic context Dynamic cities allows for change over a period of time - not a pastiche NOT INERT cities which are stagnet and never changing - stuck in time. Dynamic City E.G Nottinghill , London - originally an upper class suburb for city bankers - but after the war the shortage of labour led for the government to bring in large numbers of afro-carribeans from the colonies to fulfill this shortfall and this led to the this new minority populating Nottinghill and for it to quickly become undesirable for the
* Image credits to www.inhabitat.com
banking classes - today it has come full circle and is once again inhabited by the wealthier class of society but the actual urban fabric of the area itself has changed little despite the vast change in inhabitants.
Today the Nottinghill carnival (above*) is evidence of the rich tradition and culture within the area. Dynamism can be either gritty or picturesque and its not limited by style. Habrakin - author of the â€˜structure of the ordinaryâ€™ A reductionist approach to understanding the city is to categorize everything within the city; Agents - with space - a user defining the space they inhabit - shaping furniture etc Control Configurations Live Configurations A clear hierarchy and dependancy is evident in the city Furniture > Rooms > Buildings > Streets > Blocks > Areas Generally speaking planners are concerned at city scales and architects are concerned on a building scale. although these layers can become compressed and intertwined.
* Image credits to iguide/travel.com
E.G Architects designing furniture and the inside of rooms Mactintosh - the hill, house Zaha - Maxxi Centre This approach can work & work successfully aslong as the buildings function does not change. Stuart Brand in his book ‘how buildings learn’ diagrams this relationship quite well - this is why things such as services (radiators etc) are not internal because they can be adapted or changed every few years.
Streetss, Squares, buildings can be designed by the same ‘agent’ (person / architects) E.G UEL,Oxford Uni, Chiswick PK London - this leads to a sense of control and uniformity to the area but sometimes not to the city - often doesnt work if change is instigated, although changes in the built environment happen at a slower rate than that of individual buildings. Geology : Changes every millennia West London street patterns are based on the previous agricultural patterns which existed before it became apart of the built environment and these were based on the natural geology of the area. Street patterns develop over centuries and are slow to change Services change over decades - Londons water services have lasted 150yrs but are currently being upgraded due to their inability to handle the supply needed.
* Image credits Stuart Brand - How buildings learn - DO PROPER REFERENCING****
Buildings on the other hand change very quickly - over decades and their use can change over years - Planning regulations do cover these two areas. Lucca in Boston USA is an example of how the urban environment can change over an extended period of time. The inert city - architecture & urban design compacted into the one layer - Seaside Florida - Ville contemporarie by Le Corbusier are examples where the architect had control over several orders and how the areas seem to be stuck in time - with no evolution or change over the last decades.
Broadgate Casestudy - London
Located just outside the medievil part of the city and beside Liverpool St station - it was seen as an obstacle in the cities fabric. It was developed using the single developer model - creating an integration into the city at least when judged through block comparisons of the development and the surrounding area, although it does create a problem with compression. Pedestrianisation and home zoning are topics which today have become very favourable but it is not all important - vechicular traffic is important to keep - not only to keep a continuity with the rest of the city and surrounding areas but to keep the area safe with a constant flow through the area , this is not to say that pedestrians shouldnt be prioritised however. The Broadgate development becomes illegiable - with the many buildings - such as the SOM building becoming confused with no identifiable way to tell which part of the builing is the front and which part is the back. It is heavily managed and controlled - making it a controlled success and not a true public area although it would appear to be at first glance. The spaces which are created do work well during the day with green areas supplied - but not readily accessible. Broadgate circus hosts icerinks in winter and volleyball games in the summer but these are managed events and not public acts - on a superficial level it can feel like a part of the city but it is actually a large private area. The only way the area can be a success is through the management from one large company and one large renter - each building block is connected to the other through
underground corridors and the whole area is serviced through a large basement. It could not work as individual blocks. ****ADD SKETCHES DIAGRAMS & PHOTOS ****************************** Rolands Chelsea Barricks Competition entry The decision to develop the site as one whole was unavoidable - but the problem with Richard Rogers proposal was that it was submitted as one planning proposal rather than an initial outline proposal - it had created a standard buliding design and format which created a compression across the site - rather than what occurs in the city naturally - which are similar buildingsconnected throughout neighbourhoods rather than one building style.
This is not an issue of style - in the second competition for the area Quinlinn Terry Prince Charles favoured classicist architect made the same mistakes. Rolands submission was in conjunction with Hamiltons & Patel Taylor it used the A-Z test which focuses on streets - public streets to be precise, to evaluate how the site integrated with the surrounding area and if it was an noticable addition to the urban fabric.
* Image credits to www.hughpearman.com
Ideology as Environment Robert Thum What is the ideology? Goals, expectations and actions. Polish philosopher Zizek defines ideology as something that wholly structures our sense of reality and therefore shapes the built environment. Can sterotypes be experienced through all aspects of our built environment? National sterotypes can be looked at through toilet design.
Germans: Reflective thoughtfulness – the hole is at the front of the bowl so that the excrement sits there so it can be examined before being flushed away. French: Revolutionary hastiness – the hole is at the back of the bowl so that the excrementis immediately dispatched so it doesn’t have to be considered. English: Utilitarian pragmatism – the bowl contains water so that the excrement floats, not to be examined but to make for the most practical dispatch. Or in shopping malls - The palace of capitalism - nowhere to sit, therefore you shop and spend. The End of History, Francis Fukayama, 1989. Posits that history ends in 1989 as the Berlin Wall has fallen thus the cold war between communism and capitalism has been won by capitalism. Begins the process of universalisation of western democracy and liberal government. There are no alternatives any more thus capitalist liberalism becomes ‘natural law.’ Telling that after the banking crisis there is no question of an alternative to the system. It will simply be ‘improved’ slightly.
The City Aristotle described the city as ‘citizens trying to work in a conscious and positive way toward achieving happiness’. The word politics is derived from the greek - polis meaning city. What is public space? A square? A church? Public space is where we encounter each other as strangers. Thus a church is not public space as an encounter is with someone sharing the same views, faith. Thus squares in Canary Wharf are not public space as the plazas are private and policed by owners, anyone there will share similar views and anyone there is a ‘customer’ not a citizen. Iconic public spaces: 1. the square in Siena 2. the marketplace in Athens 3. the streets in Cairo, Tunisia, & London (recently). Citizenship, society & democracy are intriniscally linked. Threats to public space and democracy: 1. Marketisation – we stop being citizens, we become customers. We have few rights when we are on private property like Bluewater. 2. Privatization – BIDs or business improvement districts. The management of huge swathes of open space is given over to contractors. (see long list of BIDs in London). Interests are profit-driven and not public-minded.
3. Sub-urbanisation – We aspire to gated communities and driving everywhere. We disconnect from our neighbours and our communities. Encounters are no longerby chance but planned. All contact is engineered and bespoke (inc Facebook etc). . All environments are
controlled and controllable.Both physical and social.
As trust in society gradually erodes , all that is left is a trust in consumerism and capitalism. This fuel cynicism of current governments and policies - fostering a ‘Big Society’, where in the guise of getting individuals more involved, the state is shedding its responsibilities left, right and centre. Capitalism will step in to the gap. China is an example of this - ‘ getting rich gloriously’ China is on a confusing but highly lucrative path of Capitalist Communism. China is now the factory of the world. Political theorists continue to puzzle over this communist country that is a thriving capitalist economy. The Guangzhou Opera House represents this huge paradox, a 100m+ project in a country that has huge amounts of poverty and disenfranchised invisible workers. Living in shanty towns
The State goal is to urbanise China. In 1974 25% of the population lived in urban environments in 2010, that figure was 50%. Govt will create 40 new cities (population > 1 million) in the next 10 years.
Working In An Environment Craig Bamford - Sasaworks Architects as multi-skilled and multi-talent people do not necessarily have to inhabit an office space for their working environment - there are other options! Architects can work in a more practical manner of design be that in architecture itself, in art or in furniture design - this is a route which Sasaworks has taken - avoiding the typical office CAD monkey scenario for a more tactile and hands-on approach to architecture. Craigs background began in carpentry before he studied architecture so it was a natural progression to return to carpentry - although at a bigger scale following the completion of his architectural studies. Architects should develope their own way of working and should be aware that they dont have to go down the typical office route or for that matter the arts & crafts route either - but a route which is particular to the individual. Material Political Spatial Quality
People Sensory Climatic
â€˜ I confront the city with my body; my legs measure the arcade and width of the sqaureâ€™ John Palasma We must remember that architecture is a sensory experience and to remember the tactile qualities which it involves and not to get led down the digital, lines on a page pathway.
Sasworks are interested in the venacular - the type of architecture which occured preindustrailisation when people built their houses and building with materials that were locally available to them - rather than the post industrailised society with mass produced building materials and identical houses.
Most materials in rooms today have developed from the advent of industralisation with the adoption of composite materials - fibre board etc becoming prominent in building today - materials which the body doesnt naturally recognise. Arts & Crafts was a movement at the beginning of the 20th century which was the polar opposite to this it was characterised by a love of making and created architecture which demanded attention through its quality and the skill which is required to be produced.
What is from a far What is European What is British What is local What is embodied energy? Questions an architect should ask themselves, be it for materials, labour, techniques etc
Sasworks work more in a workshop than in an office - because of their interest in the construction and manufacture of architecture as opposed to just creating drawings and plans.
A previous project undertaken by Sasaworks encaptures the ethos of the practice and their approach towards architecture. The use of refined joinery methods is an essential component of the reclaimed wood structures and a trade mark of the practice. Each structure is placed on stone to elevate them from the ground. Both structures were designed to work with the existing environment within the garden, while satisfying the clients desires for privacy. Sasworks find that architecture can be very â€˜dryâ€™ and feel that being involved in the construction and creation process keeps it interesting. E.G
Corbusier painted every morning to ignite his creativity. Marketing and selling yourself are crucial parts of architecture particularly when working in your own practice.
The Community Architects dont have to just work for private individuals or companies they can work for communities - the growing garden in Hackney is an example. A primary aspect of the project was that it had to be affordable and lead through information obtained via workshops with the residents, local youth and school pupils - each resident from the surrounding flats would be given a garden patch for them to grow their own fruit and vegetables.
All the materials used in the project - wood, stone and bricks were reclaimed. The use of reclaimed materials, being recylced and revitalising an area is what the project aimed to do for the larger community. To reinstill a geni-loci in the area. The success of the project is measured by the fact that, today the garden continues to flourish and regularly used by the local community. The work was funded by Shoreditch Trust and Lotteryâ€™s Local Food Fund
Competitions Like being a student again - an urgent demanding deadline - Sasaworks recently entered two competitions one for a pavillion in Worksworth in the peak district and one a boat house - competitions can be a way to explore new ideas.
Environment & Energy Sofie Pelsmakers
Introduction to the Big Picture Sustainability & the architects responsibility.... The word sustainability is derived from the term ‘sustainable’ defined by the Brundtland report as ‘Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’ Initially ‘environmentalism’ grew in the 19th century in Europe and North America in response to concerns about wildlife, resource depletion and air & water pollution (Thoreaux) After WWII, global events brought the environment & our negligence towards it to the forefront, with the impact of chemicals on the natural environment becoming increasingly more common and evident - oil spills, chernobyl etc The world is currently warming faster than at any time in the last 10,000yrs! - caused by the high levels of green house gases and especially CO2 in the atmosphere. What has this to do with architects? There is a clear relationship between environmental impact and the design; construction and use of buildings, some of these impacts below: • Approx. 50% of resources in the UK are allocated in the construction industry used either to heat, light and ventilate the buildings in which we live and work or in the construction process, against 30% from transport and 20% from agriculture and manufacturing. (www.riba.org,Edwards & Hyett) • Housing is responsible for 44% of London’s overall energy consumption( Mayor of London) • In the UK between 40-60 % of total CO2 emissions are related to the construction and occupation of buildings (QS week, FMB, Ecoconstruction & DTI)
• The cement sector alone accounts for 5% of global man-made CO2 emissions. (IGCC) • Approximately 25% of the UK’s emissions comes from space and water heating in domestic properties( Cath Hassel, 2005) • The UK uses 350m tonnes of NEW building materials each year. (BRE , www.rtpi.org.uk ) With the changing climate - architects must learn to future proof the buildings which they design (the concept of future proofing is to acknowledge climate change)
RAIN: Less snow will fall throughout the UK and will come down as rain instead (winter floods)
The increased precipitation is predicted to range from between 10% and 35%, mainly in winter with drier summers( 35 to 50% decrease). (BBC/UKCIP) Also more rain will fall in a shorter period of time, as warmer air holds more moist; increasing the risk of flash floods and rain ingress elsewhere and increasing wind loads on roofs and façades ( especially of taller buildings) How dry will we be? Global sea levels could rise by almost a metre by 2100 - worst case predictions they could rise by 6-8metres - should we design buildings on stilts or floating?
How hot will it get? Its estimated that annual average temperatures look set to rise by between 2-6C by 2080. (London will become more like Marseille in climate) - This will change how we design our buildings for solar gain / shading, ventilation, roof pitches etc The Stern report,(‘ The Economics of Climate Change’), published about 2yrs ago, states that if we do not act now, the overall costs and risks of climate change will be equivalent to losing 5% of global GDP each year, now and forever – depending on risk, this could rise to 20%or more. On the contrary, the costs of action, i.e. mitigation, can be limited to around 1% of global GDP per year. And we have a time frame of about 10 to 15 years to make major changes. Whats happening? The European Union have a legally binding target to cut emissions by 8% against 1990 levels, of which the UK have a 12.5% share The UK has also taken on a domestic goal to cut carbon dioxide emissions by 20% ( BBC). It has recently admitted that this target will not be met, with the government forecasting a 14% reduction.(Corbey) As a result, the EU and UK have put in place several regulations to reduce this impact from the building industry: 1.‘Sustainable Communities’ 2. Securing the future 3. Energy White Paper 4. European Union Energy Performance of Buildings Directive ( EPBD) 5. Building regulations 6. Code for Sustainable Homes 7. EcoHomes 8. Sustainable and Secure Buildings Act 20049. 9. Planning Policy Statement 22(policies for Renewable Energies in UK) 10. Climate change levy 11. Energy rating for homes – the Sellers Pack (HIP)
12. Planning tools - The 10% /20% rule 13. PPS 1, Delivering Sustainable Development The architect will take on the role of the environmental conscience of an energy-thirsty construction industry As (future)architects, we need to understand the underlying issues and principles: not only at an environmental/socio-economic level, but also philosophically, culturally, politically and technically and how they interrelate. We have to be careful not be influenced by: o fashion o minority of environmental views not concerned with mainstream o prejudice
o obligation( ticking boxes to meet legislation) o fear Some Architects are doing this today already ;- Renzo Piano - Kanak Centre
Environment & Envelope Sofie Pelsmakers
The importance of Shelter A building = a structure with a roof & walls such as a house, school, store etc To protect from wind,rain,snow,cold & heat BUT not all buildings = architecture. Architecture = shelter + culture (ideas) Sustainable architect has a regard for its users within its immediate and wider climate. Thermal Comfort The state of our body and mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment - we want warm feet and a slight breeze to the head... we cant have this! Different climatic zones = different building solutions to provide thermal comfort Every person is different as is their comfort level - but the 80% rule applies What gives us thermal comfort or leads to discomfort? - clothing - metabolic rate (individualâ€™s activity) - internal heat gains (people & equipment. 8-10m2 per person) - Relative humidity (ideal 35-65%) - air velocity(ventilation rate) - solar gain - building insulation - building cooling/heating systems Internal heat gains - caused by equipment, lights, activities, body heat etc Rule of thumb - each person gives of 100W at any given time - more people = hotter! 8 to 10 m2 allocation to each person helps the internal environment natural regulate this - if this is not possible ventilation is needed.
Humidity & air velocity Relative humidity (RH) levels - 35% to 65% internally for comfort. Discomfort is where 70% plus - hot climates. Technology today allows for a totally controlled internal environment without consideration of local climate, through; air conditioning, non openable windows, artifical lights etc - BUT this is not desirable. Totally controlled buildings can lead to Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder), Reduced work productivity. Total controlled buildings means increased levels of CO2 produced which can increase climate change - floods, acid rain etc.
The solution is to design with the local climate in mind. The Principles •siting and orientation: differs on each and every site •solar gain (not desirable where high internal heatgains occur) •overheating: a problem now + in the future •building fabric: the role thermal mass can play •building fabric: the role of insulation In the UK we are primarily concerned with heatlosses - a compact building form is a basic way to reduce heat losses.
Wind protection - the Rule of thumb for natural protection is to plant a tree South 5 times the height of the building away West 4 times the height of the building away North 2 times the height of the building away
Sun & Wind
In London (51degrees N) winter: sun very low: max. 15.8 degree angle summer: max. 61 degree angle Main wind direction : South-West, Cold NE winds in winter Solar Gain - can be desirable in Housing A blank north facade to conserve heat and an open glazed south facade to take advantage of solar gain. Solar gain has maximum benefit 30deg from south. Building typology can determine wheth er its desirable - e.g. not in a building with alot of electrical equipment. Appropriate application of solar gain can result in reduced energy bills and increased thermal comfort. Solar Shading Can be done naturally through trees or using architectural elements such as lourves A 12m plan is the maximum depth to deal with natural light and ventilation (normally).
Thermal Mass - heat storage Benefit: -can help minimise both mechanical heating and cooling. -in summer, internal temperatures can be reduced by 2-4 degrees. Design considerations: - EXPOSED thermal mass: will absorb a proportion of heat from solar gains/inter nal gains. - Night cooling through cross ventilation required in summer to dissipate heat(otherwise heat builds up further, increasing instead of reducing internal temperatures) - works best in ceilings then walls and then floors.
- part of â€˜future-proofingâ€™ our designs for predicted climate change impact(increased temperatures) Drawbacks; - acoustic/service issues with exposed hard surfaces, especially ceiling soffits (Building Regulations Part E) - usually only first 100 to 150 mm of an exposed material acts as best heat store so not unlimited storage - effectiveness depends on use of the building: intermittent or continuous usage(e.g. stone holiday cottage which is intermittently in use will take too long to heat up in winter) - nightcooling: issue of security of thebuilding envelope against intruders and bad weather!
Ventilation & Cooling Sofie Pelsmakers
Ventilation = process of changing the air in a space with a new clean source Natural ventilation can prevent SBS, it also reduces reliance on fossil fuels. Cross Ventilation - tilting windows are best for cross ventilation - larger windows more effective ventilation Openings for cross ventilation can also provide an opporunity for solar shading
Ground cooling - using the stable temperature of the earth to help cool the building. Solar Chimneys ; A dark material at the exposed chimney stack, absorbs the sunâ€™s energy and the greater temperature difference at the top of the stack, draws out the air from lower regions more effectively. Courtyard buildings perform better then deep plan buildings (12m+) regarding natural daylighting & ventilation. They perform particularly well in hot dry/Mediterranean climates (self-shading & social space) - Atrium buildings perform better than courtyard buildings regarding ven tilation; due to stack effect. They act as a buffer in winter. Hybrid Systems In extreme climates, a hybrid of ventilation & cooling solutions may be most appropriate: depending on the time of year, different systems may be utilised, some natural some mechanical - Assman Berger in Berlin
Double Skin facades Hybrid systems - can be used to provide comfort and function in specific spaces e.g. lecture theatres/concert halls where it is often impossible to ventilate naturally. A hybrid system could be used during performances / occupancy but would not be in use otherwise. 80% less cooling needed when the correct solar shading is used - this is developed through a true understanding of the local environment. Ventilation and shading - mechanical or natural can and have been used as architectural expressions such as Rogers in the Lloyds building, Piano in Paris etc.
Sofie Pelsmakers Natural daylighting is beneficial for following reasons: 1. Health and Well being(e.g. recovery in hospitals) 2. Environment: reduction in reliance on fossil fuels for artificial lighting 3. architectural qualities: deliberate contrast light/dark; space lit from two sides etc Modern technology can moderate the amount of natural light inside a building and various times - Jean Nouvel - L’Institute du Monde Arabe “the learned play, correct and magnificent of the volumes reunited under light”. Le Corbusier What is daylight? Its different from sunlight - its distrubuted by the sun - available even in overcast conditions. Not as dependant on orientation, time or season as sunlight west facing windows 1 north facing windows 0.77 East facing windows 1.04 South facing windows 1.20 Relection - using high gloss surfaces etc can result in an architectural element in reflecting daylight into spaces - but can equally end up producing glare with sunlight so it needs to be used carefully. Daylight is measured in lux with a light meter. As internal daylighting is dependant one external conditions(& internal reflectance), internal daylighting is expressed as a proportion of the available external daylighting measured = daylight factor (DF) internal lux levels measured DF = -------------------------- x 100 simultaneous external lux levels A minimum Daylight Factor of 6% is required to achieve internal light levels of 300 lux. This is sufficient for housing, but more is needed for libraries/offices etc.) Computer predictions through modelling - Radience, LT Method, EcoTect, IES (Su)
Building form & Daylighting Deep plan: large active zone of required daylighting (2 x window height rule: so for a 30 meter deep plan building, a ceiling height of 7.5 meters is required with extensive glazing on both sides of the elevation to provide natural daylighting everywhere).Shallow plan buildings use less energy as better daylit, which should outweigh increased costs of larger façade area. (so max. 12 meters when lit on both sides and 3 meters high ceiling where residential) NOTE:’2xH’ rule is a maximum and for offices for example, this ought to be max. ‘1.5 x H’
Window positioning is important to avoid overheating!
Renewable Energy Sofie Pelsmakers
myth:to solve the energy problem we need to change our lifestyles The problem is not necessarily our use of energy, but the byproducts of our reliance on fossil fuels, which is a limited resources and releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.(CO2, Methane, SO2). 2008: Wind to generate 3GW of electricity â€“ enough to power several million homes 2010: Renewables to generate 10 per cent of all UK electricity, of which wind is expected to constitute 60 per cent. Wind to generate 36 per cent of UK electricity by 2020 2020: 20 per cent of all EU energy to be produced from renewables( already requirement in London) 2050: UK to reduce carbon emissions by 80 per cent Currently the UK obtains 4.6% of its electricity from renewable sources. Gov targets to incease by 10% to 2010 & 20% to 2020. Flat plate Collector; PROVIDES around 300 kWh/ m2 per year in energy
Biomass heating Burning wood, even in open fires is a form of biomass and therefore a renewable form of energy. Open fires in houses are very inefficient â€“ 70-85% heat lost. Modern wood burning stoves, with controllable air supply, burn wood 80% efficient How can burning wood be a renewable energy source? Carbon neutral â€“ when burnt, the wood only releases the carbon absorbed during growing (unlike the burning of fossil fuels which adds CO2 in the atmosphere) As long as the wood is sourced from sustainably managed forestry, there are no net carbon emissions(i.e. fast growing trees/coppice means when its cut for burning, the new young plants absorb the CO2 emissions from the wood burned) Wood should also be sourced locally(within 20 miles -otherwise costly and CO2 from transport)
Types of Biomass Logs-Forest residue, arboricultural thinnings Pellets-In UK- at present mainly from sawdust and pallets (recycled untreated wood waste) Woodchip -Forest residues, arboricultural thinnings, miscanthus, SRC, pellets They can be burned using Biomass Boilers, Stoves and CHPs (combined Heat & Power) Wood chip systems more expensive but cheaper running costs - usually paid back within 10yrs but require large areas for storage.
Ground Source heat pump A heat pump is not new or unusual technology – it works on exactly the same principle as a fridge • System has 3 key elements: – heat source – i.e. ground, water or air – heat pump – heat distribution • Heat pump has 4 main elements: – Evaporator – Compressor – Condenser – Expansion valve A heat pump does not create energy or convert energy from type to another it moves heat from one location to another. Types; • Ground source (GSHP) – takes heat from ground, using buried plastic pipe, called a ‘ground loop’ – Ground loop can be: • Vertical borehole • Horizontal – laid in trenches • Water source – Can be same as GSHP – ground loop is laid in water rather than buried • Air source – extracts heat from ambient air, using fan
On average, CO2 emissions 1/3 less than gas condensing boiler, and half that of an oil condensing boiler
1. Photo Voltaics; PVs - photovoltics
All solar photovoltaic cells rely on light, not on heat. Photovoltaic cells therefore work in the winter and on overcast days, limited primarily by the hours of daylight and the angle of the sun in the sky. Pvs can be a stand-alone system (an add on) or can be integrated into the building design. Types of PV - monocrystaline, polycrystaline and thin film cells - monocrystaline - most efficent and most expensive cut from a single silicon crystal - polycrystaline - medium efficency of 8-12% - less complex to manufacture - Amorphous / thin film - bendable - lowest efficiency 4-6% - cheapest
Exporting Electricity Possible to increase value of generation through sale of ROCs (green electricity certificates) if generate more than 1000kWh/year Can use these even if use all electricity on site, with no export Exporting: ~4p/kWh for all electricity generated ~3.5p/kWh extra for all electricity exported THIS WILL CHANGE in 2010 whereby you get paid to produce energy. Solar systems have to comply with building regulations re: construction materials, roofloading, weather tightness, fire resistance, insulation, etc. Suitability Siting – ideally face due south, between SE and SW not major loss Roof pitch – ideal is between 20-50 degrees – horizontal is better than vertical Roof area – for crystalline will need roughly 8-10m2 per kWp Shading is a key issue – more serious effect on power output than on SHW systems
‘UK has best wind in Europe’ - Report by the Environmental Change Institute Wind resource very site dependant - Wind speed increases with height. Commercial wind farms are sited where wind speed is 6.5-7m/s Power is proportional to swept area – doubling the diameter of rotor will quadruple the power output for a given wind speed. Types - Horizontal & Vertical Axis.
Power Problems: • Enormous power in wind at higher wind speeds – need to be able to limit power absorbed by rotor – otherwise rotor would over speed -damage bearings -cause high centrifugal forces (destroy blades) • Wind turbine manufacturers give a rated power output for their machines – maximum power turbine is designed to produce(i.e. characteristic of a turbine) • Annual average wind speed –characteristic of a site • Different manufacturers use different rated wind speeds – ranges from 10m/s to 14m/ s no fixed standard for small machines Planning Issues
• Main impact is visual, but can be some noise as well – depends on background noise levels and proximity of dwellings • Installation will usually require planning permission • A precedent will help
Flood Risk & Sustainable Design Siraj Tahir
Sources of Flood Risk - Tidal & Coastal - Fluvial Flood Risk - Overland (Pluvial) Flood Risk - Ground Water Flood Risk We can estimate when floods will happen through - Historic Records - Statistical Analysis of Events and Magnitude - Return Period - Annual Probability of Exceedence - Probable Maximum Flood - Changes due to climate change? Tidal & Fluvial Floodplain of London (UEL becomes an underwater campus)
Legislation EU Flood Directive - All sources of flooding - Flood Risk Assessments (2011) - Flood Risk & Hazard Maps (2013) - Flood Management Plans (2015) - Floods & Water Bill (draft) 2009 - Implementing the directive - Pitt review recommendations Historic Surface Flooding Maps exist but are often of limited use due to urbanisation and as of yet computer technology isnt powerful enough for accurate predictions. Strategic Solutions to stop floods
1- Improve the existing system 2- Create Barriers 3 - Making Space for Water
Surface water and run-off can be absorbed by planting strips of trees along streets.
Engineers & Architects Engineer - from the Latin - ingeniator - meaning one with ingenium - the ingenius one A brief history Pre Industrail revolution; Craftspeople & practical artists often by trail & error Ely Cathedral Transcept fell down during construction 14C Industrail revolution
Brought about applying a scientific appraoch to practical problems ----> Brunel - Paddington Station 1854
Engineering today still throws up the unexpected - like Norman Fosters wobbley bridge. An enginner was originally associated with designing military machinery - a civil engineer was coined to differentiate between military and civilian projects. In 1818 the institution of cilvil engineers was founded in London. Engineers are viewed dimmly in the UK with no legal protection to their title. ‘I would distinguish the difference between the architect and the engineer by saying the architects response is primarily creative, where as the engineers os essentially inventive’ Peter Rice - An Engineer Imagines (p72) Like architecture, there is no ‘right answer’ in engineering. There are normally multiple workable solutions to problems in engineering. Alot of architects have worked successfully with engineers throughout the schemes lifeline in order to create an architecture of true integrity Toyo Ito & Cecil Balmond - Serpentine Pavillion Santiago Calatrava (who is a qualified engineer & architect)
Materials & Methods Alan Chandler Embodied energy in building materials - it is estimated that 10% of the total energy use in the UK is associated with construction materials and methods. Often referred to as grey energy it is the hidden energy that is involved in the manufacturing of a product or service. BEDzed as an example - 52% of materials used were sourced from a 35mile radius - the average distance was 66miles - this means less haulage - less CO2 - Sourced over 3400 tones of reclaimed and recycled materials recycled aggregate and sand are cheaper than ‘virgin’ equiv
Environmental impact is not the only concern architects have when selecting materials. Can both aesthetic concerns and environmental considerations go hand in hand? E.G. Bricks in London - made locally - can be aesthetically desirable. 2. Rammed Earth - a mixture of sand and gravel + a stabliser (cement) - excellant thermal mass - warm dry days needed after construction to harden Soil from the site can be used - creating a unique finish specific to the location - it must be weatherproofed in ‘wet’ climates like the UK Disadvantages It can be slow manual work Soil on site not always suitable Often needs concrete footing to avoid water damage
Concrete The highest environmental impact of concrete is cement - quite easy to reduce the CO2 content by reducing the % of cement & using recycled aggregates - building regs allow up to 20% use of recycled aggregates in structural concrete (beams/columns). Concrete myths “Through concrete’s excellent thermal mass, energy consumption in commercial and residential buildings can be reduced by up to 50% - a key component in the UK’s effort to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions.” The Concrete Centre - note: no references for 50% claim; its ability to reduce greenhouse gases does not mean its ‘ sustainable’ in the true sense of the word. The actual design of the building is crucially important to make use of thermal mass.
Cement production annually releases ten times the global CO2 output of all aviation annually. If plywood shuttering is specified rather than steel or wood it can improve the environmental creditials of concrete drastically - plywood is a waste product and has an excellant chance of being able to be reused.
Structural insulated panel - SIP (prefab) A sandwich panel with insulation centrally flanked by timber panels on either side - incredibly strong - can be used for load and non-load bearing purposes - 1.22m x up to 7.5m - in theory no cold bridging Disadvantages being the use of formaldehyde glue and the height restriction of 3 stories. KLH (prefab) Cross laminated structural timber panels -Fully load bearing - 60mm to 600mm thick for walls/floor/roofs -Up to 16.5m long and 2.95m long - openings can be precut -Fast & Simple erection - Excellent fire performance (better than steel) Disadvantage - additional insulation is required.
Materials have inherent properties which make them more of less useful for architectural purposes - we must consider the â€˜usefulnessâ€™ in relation to the idea of the project. E.G The MAXXI Centre - material can be engineered to achieve anything
Shigeru Ban : The Cardboard Tube
Many architects have specialised in using one particular material - like ZAHA & Concrete and create something special from using the oridinary - this is the skill and knowledge that an architect can pass into a material & design when the right questions are asked at the beginning of a project.
Future Developments Urban Implications,
Silvertown Quays @ 1.5000
The site area within Silvertown Quays is seen to be the catalyst project in the redevelopment of the quays area. In order to inform the design process an urban framework and infrastructure are planned so that the Culture House has the best chance of succeeding in its immediate micro setting, but to also make a larger commitment to the quays area by specifying the types of programs it is felt that the area needs. The quays area was initially modulated using the structural grillage developed in the envelop workshop, this helps to create a field condition and makes it easier to identify relationships within the urban fabric.
Providing a mix of facilities in quay locations throughout the site area should ensure that the entire site area becomes socially charged. The main zoning considerations were to locate retail and mixed use facilities around the dock area - to encourage the creation of a waterside bouvelard. A sports centre is localated at the southern end of the dock and the north-east area becomes a cultural quarter - with the Culture House neighboured by galleries, workshops and artists studios. The offices and workshops are positioned near the road and towards the eastern side to act as sound barriers to the residential and retail zones.
Residential R e s i d e n t i a l
Retail Sports Mixed
Noise & Acoustics Noise - what we dont want to hear! An invisible pollutant - it can range from 0db to 140db - due to the location of the site and its close proximity to the airport - noise control - both active and passive will become important aspect in determining the success of the proposal. Acoustics - what we want to hear! We could define â€˜Acousticsâ€™ as the study of the control and managenent of sound within a space to obtain a desired outcome. Acoustics covers areas of the proposal such as the auditoriums, practice studios and lecture spaces aswell as the study cells. If a space does not work acoustically - like the Lincoln hall* in New York - it is deemed a failure. The acoustics qualities and planning required will have to be examined and researched for the aforementioned spaces within the proposal.
Before we investigate the complexities of the issues involved in the proposal its good practice to re-establish the fundamentals involved. The Fundamentals: - Sound is a pressure wave - its moves through a medium by generating vibrations / impulses in that medium - a Concrete block wall is porous - painting or filling the holes will bring its noise insulation quality from 12db to 34db - Pitch is defined by frequency from 20Hz to 20KHz for the human audible spectrum - Loudness is defined by amplitude and this is based on the energy input or output - Sound travels in air of 20oC at around 331m/s
*Hans Kutruff had to redesign the Lincoln Hall in New York
Transport & Connectivity Transport plays an important role in achieving economic and environmental objectives. The quality of life which can be attained by the residents within the area is also dependant on transport and the connectivity of the area - how easy it is to get to work, school, shopping leisure and healthcare facilities.
Public Transport Accessibility Levels (PTAL)
(Newham 2020 Planning for the future)
The level of access an area has to public transport is measured in Public Transport Accessibility Levels (PTALS). The higher the PTAL score, the more accessible an area is by public transport The PTAL levels in the area (Royal Docks) are currently on average level 3. The area is connected to the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) but the easiest way to access the area is still by private car. By providing three new footbridges in the area and a new bus stop within the site area - the availability of public transport within a 10min area increases - with the aim of increasing the PTAL level to a 5.
Central Line Thames Clipper Route DLR 678 Bus Route Cable Car Route 474 Bus Route Station / Stop New Stop
Although not directly a part of PTAL criteria - the provision of a shared car scheme could provide an advantage for lower income residents both within the site area - primarily the social housing provision and the greater Silvertown / Canning Town area. The provision or reccomendation of a shared car scheme such as Whizzgo
Schemes such as whizzgo
_ reduce the need for parking _ provide access to â€˜privateâ€™ forms of transport to lower in come families _ help to create a safer area by encouraging people to flow through the area consistently throughout the day. It is estimated that one car per scheme takes up to 20 private cars off the road , therefore lowering CO2 emissions, pollution and traffic levels. There are currently over 34 similar schemes operationing in London, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield, York, Edinburgh, Brighton, Bristol, Bath, Huddersfield, Norwich, Birmingham, and Southampton, with plans to expand into more cities.
Material Specification Material Research â€˜Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.â€™ Brundtland Report Kingspan multi-deck 146 floor system 6m free unsupported spans 16mm re-bar used Reduction in the use of concrete needed for the flooring
Sheets longer than 7m need to be lifted by crane. Quality control on site should be based on the recommendations of BS 8000: Part 2 Concrete Work. Multideck should be stored under cover or beneath waterproof tarpaulins, off the ground on suitable timber framing with good air circulation around the sheet. It is recommend that all Multideck profiles are installed with safety nets in place. Protective Clothing To prevent laceration of skin, contamination by oil and risks to eyes and hands, protec tive overalls, gloves and eye protection should be worn at all times.
KINGSPAN LITERATURE TO FOLLOW - www.kingspan.com
Multideck 146 • Concrete Volume Savings Multideck 146 composite steel deck is optimised to minimise the concrete volumes on longer spans providing significant savings in comparison to traditional trapezoidal steel decks used free spanning or propped. Multideck 146 requires 31% less concrete than the next best spanning 80mm trapezoidal deck of the equivalent slab depth. The saving in concrete translates into a saving in weight that the structure must support, resulting in economies in the supporting structure and foundations.
Contents Specification and Design
Typical Concrete Volume Savings Using Multideck 146 350
300 Cubic Metres
250 200 150 100 50 0
215mm slab 250mm slab 275mm slab 300mm slab Concrete Volume Required Per 1000m2 Floor Area
Note: The above volumes do not take into account deflection.
• Technical Support Multideck 146 has been engineered to optimise performance of the steel and concrete. No other trapezoidal profile can span as far as Multideck 146. It supports normal weight concrete without the need for props, providing new opportunities for efficiencies in construction. Multideck 146 should be considered for projects with spanning requirements of 4.0m and above. The deck can be supported on the top flange of a beam or partnered with ultra shallow fabricated beams to produce a truly shallow floor construction of 215mm depth. Key benefits include:
• Prefixed Studs Multideck 146 is a single spanning deck so it is ideal for use with beams that have the shear studs attached in the fabrication shop avoiding, or vastly reducing, the need to through deck stud weld on site. While Multideck 146 is generally used with 19mm diameter shear studs it can be equally used with other types of shear attachments as long as the deck is provided with a minimum bearing of 50mm. Multideck 146 can be through deck stud welded on site without difficulty.
Kingspan Toolkit software includes comprehensive composite floor design software which allows the user to easily select the right Multideck solution. The design software is available for download from the web site www.kingspanstructural.com. The Multideck design department provides a comprehensive engineering and advisory service to specifiers and end users on the use of the Multideck range of composite decks.
• Greater Design Efficiency Multideck 146 enhances the performance of the Multideck family of composite steel decks providing efficient spanning capacities to beyond 6.0m. There is a Multideck profile to suit each and every requirement.
• Quicker Installation Multideck 146 deck is 600mm wide and with no need for temporary props, even on spans of 6.0m, means this deck is quick to install. Reduced concrete volumes means quicker laying times and fewer concrete deliveries to site.
Harlequin Dance Floor 2 types will be used - modular temporary & permanent Harelequin UK dance floor company were selected due to their track record of supply ing leading institutions and centres - such as the near-by Laban Centre.
Harlequin Floors LITERATURE TO FOLLOW - www.harlequinfloors.com
Black-Box Temporary Seating Hussey Seatway - Type TP - Telescopic Platforms The TP platform systems can be open and closed manually or by integral power systems that enable the transformation of empty spaces to seated performance venues within minutes. Types: TP- F Wall and floor attached. TP- R Recessed into wall space. TP- M Mobile units for fully flexible positioning. (Can be moved on castors or air bearings.) TP- T Travelling system. (A complete block that can be powered into a new position.)
:: Standard Dimensions :: Row Rise 260, 280, 300 & 320mm. Row Depth 850, 900 & 915mm Closed Depth = Row Depth + 320mm. Closed Height = (No of rows x Row Rise) + 190mm. The Hussey Seatway TP system is designed to be customised and re-engineered easily, so please contact our Technical dept. if these dimensions do not fit your requirement.
Hussey Seatway LITERATURE TO FOLLOW - www.husseyseatway.com http://www.glenmetals.com
Corten Skin Glen Metals - Type TP - Telescopic Platforms The materiality choice was primarily aesthetic a nod to the areas industrail heritage but Cor-Ten steel has alot of functional and fiscal benefits over stainless steel for example.
Corten A – a weather resistant steel created by alloying copper, chromium and nickel. In addition to this, Corten A has added phosphorous which makes the material best suited for gas flue applications and for aesthetic facias The material is not recommended in heavy load bearing applications – in this case Corten B or S355J2W should be considered.
The top layer of the material reacts with atmospheric elements to form a rust coloured protective layer which not only makes the steel virtually maintenance free but also provides a pleasing and consistent finish. Please refer to the technical specifications below... Grades & Equivalents Corten EN 10025-5:2004 Corten A S355 J0WP Chemical Composition Grade C Corten A 0.25/0.55
Si Mn P 0.12 0.25/0.75 0.50/1.25 0.65
S Al 0.20/0.50
Maximum values unless otherwise stated Mechanical Properties Grade Thickness (mm)
V Cu 0.07/0.15
Cr Ni 0.030 0.015/0.06
Strip Products Plate Products Rel N/mm² Minimum Tensile Strength Rm N/mm² Minimum Elongation A50 % Minimum Corten A 2 – 12 6 – 12 345 485
Glen Metals LITERATURE TO FOLLOW - http://www.glenmetals.com
Did it Work? Structurally It was felt that the evolution from previous projects and the cartesian structural grillage to a trussed system was a natural progression. The composite structure provides the builting with slim lying floor slabs while also allowing the structure to act as an architectural mechanism which would be expressed in certain programs to differenet intensities.
Environmentally The sourcing and selection of materials was deemed appropriate given the area and nature of the site. Having the raw materials brought to site via peruvian wharf and a barge cut down the CO2 Emissions, while used ccm and recycled steal for the structure keep the CO2 levels aslow as possible.
With as much local labour and expertise sourced within a 3miles radius - including the respective colleges and universities it was felt that the employment strategy of the proposal was one of the strongest aspects.
Socially Research indicated what facilities should be provided within the Culture House facility and through further research the facilities which are suggested in the masterplan framework are designed to both help the existing community and to provide desirable qualities that will help the area flourish. Architecturally The material pallette which the Culture House contains is the only new development within the area that stays true to the industrail history of it. Together with the Millenium Mills and the Excel centre opposite it aims to act as reminder of the history of the area. Instantly recognisable - the intention was not to try to create an â€˜iconâ€™ as the area is filled with icons and monuments (Excel, Milleniums Mills, The O2 etc) and it is felt that architecture has moved beyong the iconistic phase of the recent past. However due to its materiality the Culture House will be recognisable and identifiable within the area and will become reknowned within East & South East London for the facilities that it provides.