East London Culture House
‘You’ve got to bumble forward into the unknown.............’ Frank O Gehry
Case Study: Yokohama International Terminal X =Y > Z Envelope Relationship To Structure
Silvertown, London Silvertown Timeline Previous Proposal Analysis Building For Life Analysis CABE Report
Envelope Design Workshop
Temporal Space Mapping London Culture Network Time & Distance Area Networks
KulturHuset, Stockholm Swedan
One Thousand Plateaus VBA For AutoCAD
Macro-Culture House Proposed Local Network Why? Analysis Opportunities & Constraints Public Legislation Transport & Connectivity Safe guarded wharfs
Silvertown Quays The Existing Site How are the resources to be provided? Environmental Context Area Acoustics Addressing a brownfield site Site Scale Programmatic Break Down Programmatic Insertion Programmatic Relationships
Why? The Existing Site 135
Urban Implications Urban Grillage Urban Manipulation Social Sustainability Urban Breakdown Material Strategy (Urban) Urban Rooms Transport Strategy Building For Life Analysis
Fabrication Site Model Value Engineering Completed Site Model
Precedent Study Educatorium - OMA
Formations Workshop Grasshopper Workshop
Facade Detail Perforation Logic Facade Construction Detail Development
Printed Model 1.1000 3d Printed Model
241 Visualisations 249
XYZ Contextual Strategy London Cultural Network London Time-Relational Network Programmatic Rationale Proposed Local Cultural Network Site Drawing XYZ Culture House Presentation Rationalisation of Structure & Skin Final Images Sustainability
Professionalism Essay - Almost a great idea... VBA Coding
The building envelope is possibly the oldest and most primitive architectural element. It materializes the separation of the internal and external conditions, natural and artificial; it seperates public and private realms.*
Today the focus of architecture is increasingly placed on the conversation between inside and outside, instead of the internal spatial relationships and qualities. Traditionally architecture in its most basic form consisted of walls and a roof(s), but with the advent of digital technologies our reach no longer exceeds our grasp. The difference today between the roof and the wall has disappeared and fenestration is no longer a critical building problem. An envelope can now be a continous enclosing skin or membrane that has a set of performance limits, no longer are there distinct categories of ground and envelope, but there is one of skin where surfaces can become both ground and envelope producing a 5th or 6th facade. The â€˜newâ€™ concept of the envelope allows architects to explore relationships between systemsâ€”human, animal, plant, energy flow and landscape. The limits between private and public begin to blur and the
*Alejandro Zaera-Polo - The Politics Of The Envelope
structure of ground ownership becomes challenged by contempory contemporary urban conditions and geometries. By analyzing the building envelope, we may be able to re-empower the building as an influential force within society. The reinvigoration of the envelope today within architecture is evident - perhaps there is no coincidence with the current economic situation experienced throughout the world - with practices such as Herzog & De Meuron, FOA & Future Systems amongst others taking a keen interest and often specified to work purely on the envelope How does the envelope influence the buildings internal spatial organisation - public/private etc? How does it communicate with the urban fabric? The years process will aim to create a condition where the envelope and building will aim to blur the boundary of landscape and building, while using the created condition to create a homegeneous space internally between a hybird of programs
Yokohama International Terminal
Architect: Foreign Office Architects (FOA) Date: 1994 - 2002 Location: Yokohama, Japan
In 1994 Foreign Office Architects (FOA) Farshide Moussavi & Alejamdro Zaera- Polo, beat a field of over 600 candidates to win the international competition for the Yokohama International Ferry Terminal. This was FOAsâ€™ first competition win and a commission which would become their defining project. FOAâ€™s name referes to the fact that its principals, Alejandro Zaera Polo and Farshid Moussavi are Spanish & Iranian respectively, with projects now ranging from Japan to the United States, the Netherlands and Spain. FOA has in recent years emerged as one of the most signifacnt practices with both architecture and urban design & architectural education. Known for combining architectural and technical innovation with design excellance their project portfolio now includes; La Rioja Techology Transfer Centre - Spain John Lewis Store & Cineplex - Leicester, UK South East Coastal Park - Barcelona, Spain Ravensbourne College - Greenwich, UK
An ambitious Yokohama aimed to break free from the perception that it was a mere industrail appendage of Japans captial, Tokyo. Influcenced by a craving for prestige rather than a recognition of need, Yokohama commissioned an international competition for a new ferry terminal on Osanbashi Pier, this at a time when the Japanese economoy had been mired in a recession for at least a decade. FOA architects would emerge as the winning entrant in a field of over 600 for the 1995 international competition. FOA maintain that architecture is not a plastic art but it is engineering of material life. Resisting the urge of â€˜blob-architectureâ€™ which was prevelent at the time, FOA concentrated on issues of flow, interaction, accommodation and circulation. The project design was generated from a circulation diagram (the no return pier) that aspired to eliminate the linearity of peirs and the directionality of cirulcation. The second design decision was to not have an negative effect on the skyline and to emulate a topological ground with the termainal envelope rather than a traditional built form.
X = Y > Z. Flat Horizontal Envelopes
Zaera Polo has categorized buildings into four main envelope types (although there is arguably room for more) - Flat Horizontal, Spherical, Flat-Vertical and Vertical. The Yokohama port terminal falls into the Flat Horizontal categorization - delimiting edges and operating on the articulation between natural and artifical. Due to its size (over 60m x 412m) the terminals cannot be perceived internally in its whole the whole form can only be appreciated aerially - with the building experienced in a fragmented manner*. The need and necessity for the building to handle large flows of transient populations and to control this flow, leaves the building highly politically charged with mechanisms of spatial displacement -access points related to security protocol etc, evident throughout. Although FOA had based the design concept on the no return diagram (below) and have successfully achieved the warping and bifurications of surfaces there are certain security issues presented within the terminal typology and these must be conformed to - creating areas of rigidity and private controlled space, rather than the wholely public space which had been ideally sought, the ter- minal becomes a mediating device bet ween a system of public spaces and pass -enger flow from the cruise ships. Plaza
Entry/Exit To Shops/Restaurants
Entry/Exit To Shops/Civic Exchange
Shops Hall of Restaurants Civic Exchange
terminal (now officially classifed as an urban the ‘ground’ space to create a complementary public space to the near by Yamashita Park. It is meant to be perceived as an extension of the city /urban fabric rather than simply a termainal or pier. This grounding condition is one aspect of the project which makes it so successful - the blurring of natural and built form is very successful with a seamless flow from the urban fabric of the city to the boarding level and to the bifurication to a mutliplicity of urban events both within and on the termainal. Car Park park) uses
The grass roofs and outdoor auditorium have been so successful they have come to be considered a ‘Hizuke Supotto’ (date spot) by the local population and a regular forum for public exhibitions and events.
*Although not as fragmented as a typical X=Y>Z building typology
Salon of Civic Exchange
Restaurants / Shops
Salon of Civic Exchange Apron
Restaurants / Shops
International pass Apron
Access from parki Car access Luggage handling
Domestic passengers International passengers Visitors Citizens Access from parking Car access Luggage handling & services
Envelope Relationship To Structure Flat-horizontal envelopes are crucially determined by the structural performance of the roof membrane as their floor consuming functions usually require large open spans for optimum use of space. From a structural persepective the termainal acts as a â€˜big shedâ€™ with girders acting as columns and the trusses acting as beams to form a frame structure which is repeated regularly (16 meter intervals ) along the span of the building.
The terminal measures 412 meters in length and is composed of 27 steel trusses averaging 42.5 meters in span and placed at regular 16 meter intervals. The trusses are joined longitudinally by trussed members of conventional configuration, and purlins carrying, either metal cladding or glazing. The trusses are carried on concrete piers extending from the basement parking level through the apron to the surface of the main level. The terminal employs a unified form through repetitive structural units via a control curve to enclose a single homogeneous space. The transformation yields a complex of spaces that smoothly navigates the multiple terminal, civic, entertainment and park programmes within, above and below its span. The structure - envelope relationship is one that is prominent throughout - structurally the design is pure, with the form following the structure and using it as controlling mechanism throughout, unlike Frank Gehry esq design where the building is built with regular structual grids and do not necessarily effect the use of space within the building. .
AXO FOCUSING ON THE BUILDING ENVELOPE
on in the design e a sense of
_Material Hierachy Of Envelope _Envelope Relationship To Structure of Building
Folded Plate Structure
Girder & Apron
Silvertown, London - UK
Silvertown is an industrialised district in the London Borough of Newham between the River Thames and what used to be the three Royal docks. Named after Samuel Winkworth Silverâ€™s former rubber factory which opened in 1852. Silvertown developed into an important industrial area during the 19th century. It grew because of the Metropolitan Building Act of 1844, which limited harmful trades inside the boundaries of London. It was severely damaged by bombing in World War II, today it is dominated by the Tate & Lyle sugar refinery and industrail warehouses.
In progress...... Silvertown time line
During the last 150years + Silvertown has changed from being a part of Essex to a piece of London to a manufacturing area and now to a commuters paradise.
1917 - Silvertown Explosion 73 people died
1878 -Tates Refinery 1847 - Silvertown Rail Station Opened
1893 - Chemical Works
1864 - Cylde Wharf Refinery 1881 - Lyles Refinery
2012 - Olympic Events &
Culture House Opening
1994 - Britannia Village Started 2005 - Pontoon Dock DLR
1990 -Connaught Bridge built 1981 - Docks Closed
2000 - Ex-
cel Centre & Barrier Park Opened
1987 - City Airport Opens 1998 - West Silvertown Primary School built
2008 - Silvertown Quays Masterplan announced
Sources: Royaldockstrust.org.uk abandonedcommunities.co.uk
Silvertown _ Figure Ground_1:12500
Silvertown has become a commuters paradise dominated by the DLR track and situated close to the City Airport, The O2 and Canary Wharf means that rarely do people come to Silvertown
A slowly regenerating dockland district Silvertown has suffered in recent years from many cancelled schemes - Minoco Wharf, Peruvian Wharf, Albert docks to name a few. The area with links to the O2 and the Excel centre is stranded with no facilities of its own. The people of the area do not meet or socialise in the area due to the lack of facilities, but often travel to the previously mentioned facilties or central London or the West End.
Area Proposal Analysis In recent years there have been several proposed, postponed and cancelled projects and masterplans for the Silvertown area as it remains in the Olympic shadow. With the current economic situation - postponment or cancelling of such plans does not reflect the quality of the plans. There is a possibilty that any of the existing plans could be revived and implemented at any given opportunity - so it is important to have some sensory awareness of the developments which could influence the area in the near future.
The scheme places emphasis on the pedestrianisation of the area and continues the line through from Thames Barrier Park which helps to stitch the park into the urban fabric as currently , although successful it appears as more of an object in the area rather than a part of the area. The creation of a square - would help to add vibrance to the area , but the scale of the development would cause some concern. Although the scale is a response to the Millennium mill which it surrounds - it dwarfs the neighbouring Britannia village and equally towers over anything surrounding it. The large amount of trees and plants used seem ambitious but their use to act as a sound barrier to the heavily trafficed road seems to make sense. The masterplan proposes to develop the same generic facilities which all modern masterplans offer - cafes, restaurants, a gallery. hotel etc , but nothing that represents the genius locai of the area - a common place where masterplans fall short. However if the masterplan were to be revived there would be no conflicting facilities with a proposal for a culture house near-by which could prove to be a positive thing.
** All image credits to www.richardrogers.co.uk - unless otherwise stated
Masterplan Evaluation -â€œBuilding for Life Criteriaâ€? Environment & Community Does the development provide (or is it close to) community facilities, such as a school, parks, play areas, shops, pubs or cafĂŠs?
Is there an accommodation mix that reflects the needs and aspirations of the local community?
The proposal is surrounded by schools and parks but neither facilities are refered to or included in the design scheme. There are provisions for public squares, retail pubs and cafes.
The proposed master plan does not go into detail with the use of the proposed apartments. The scale and scope of the proposal does not support an architectural scheme and is only suggested through visualization for supporting public spaces.
Is the design specific to the scheme? The master plan utilizes the existing urban fabric, while reinstating the original docks - but fails to create an overall identity and in-depth proposal.The apartment elevations seem to be very generic - although similar to the development on the other side of the Royal Docks. The proposal fails to incorporate the scheme into the larger urban fabric
Does the scheme exploit existing buildings, landscape or topography? One of the schemes strong points is the reuse of local listed buildings and the creation of public squares and walkways along the docks. The scheme does however seem to be quite inwardly focused and it does seem to ignore the macro surround context of the site.
Streets, parking and pedestrianisation Does the building layout take priority over the streets and car parking, so that the highways do not dominate? It is not clear to how the masterplan approaches the issues of parking and traffic - however it is very pedestrian orientated, which can only be applauded.
Is the car parking well integrated and situated so it supports the street scene? There is not sufficent detail available to judge this area of the masterplan - but it is assumed that the majority of the parking facilities would be underground.
Design & Construction Is public space well designed and does it have suitable management arrangements in place?
Do the buildings exhibit architectural quality?
The master plan appears to create well designed and vibrant areas. The management and use of the public are not addressed.
The proposed buildings are designed in a contemporary style, that does not seem to relate to the existing architecture of the east London / Silvertown area.
Is there a tenure mix that reflects the needs of the local community?
Does the development have easy access to public transport?
The master plan does to some extent try to create a variety of scenarios for the use of local listed buildings - the Mill & Silo. However the details and proposed uses are not given in detail. The provision of cafes and retail in
The development is can make use of the existing strong infrastructure links - Bus links & DLR - Pontoon dock and West Silvertown stations.
large quantities is somewhat generic.
Does the development have any features that reduce its environmental impact? The creation of large areas of planting both for to act as a noise barrier and to enhance public areas is commendable, as is the reinstatement of the original finger docks. There is currently no information available about the construction which would be used.
Does the scheme feel like a place with distinctive character?
Do the buildings and layout make it easy to find your way around?
Are streets defined by a well-structured building layout?
The master plan is trying to emphasize the local character of the public spaces and still create an overall identity through surfaces. This is however not enough to create a sense of identity and specific spatial character.
The development appears to have high levels of connectivity and would make it easy to find your way out.
The proposal is structured around the docks and the reinstatment of the finger docks. While also taking influence from the Thames Barrier Park. The scheme appears to be well laid out on a micro level.
Does the scheme integrate with existing streets, paths and surrounding development?
Are public spaces and pedestrian routes overlooked and do they feel safe?
The area is currently a brownfield site, but it does integrate with the existing listed structures - however on a macro level is appears to fail at this.
The plans and visualisations show a vibrant and charismatic urban life. This can be desciving as the quality, accessibility and operability of the new facilities appear to envisage a more ‘ideal ‘european climate.
Has the scheme made use of advances in construction or technology that enhance its performance, quality and attractiveness?
Do buildings or spaces outperform statutory minimum, such as building regulations?
Unclear from information available.
No details contained within proposal to verify this.
The typology of the proposed buildings is contemporary but generic.
Are the streets pedestrian, cycle and vehicle friendly? It seems as the ideology behind the scheme is “Shared surface” and bouvelvards which favors pedestrians and cyclists .
Do internal spaces and layout allow for adaptation, conversion or extension? Unclear from information available.
Silvertown Quays Urban Strategies Inc Urban Strategies Inc produced the first masterplan for Silvertwon Quays in 2002 and ammended it again in 2004. The masterplan focuses heavily on the connection between Thames Barrier park and the continuation of the diagonal element through to Millenium Mills. Another key feature of the plan is the heavy reliance on roads and transport networks throughout the site area - it feels somewhat dominated by the motor car rather than encouraging a peacful waterside development.
The finger docks appear to have been altered and the Silo has been retained which would only help to perserve the character and history of the area. There is a bridge that crosses the quay linking one side from the dock to the other although this is considered a positive insertion into the urban fabric - it does seem to be quite heavy handed and perhaps a foot bridge instead of a road bridge would be more appropriate - it would have a huge effect on noise and the atmosphere of the area waterside. There appears to be a prominent use of greenscaping but alot of the areas appears to be private courtyards - which could create a semi-gated community and not one which encourages interaction and mixing with the existing community - something which should only be promoted. Overleaf is the CABE official report for the proposal.
CABE Report Masterplan for Silvertown Quays, a 24.3 hectare east London brownfield site. Designed by Urban Strategies Inc. 6 November 2003
The scheme has been reviewed twice by the design review panel; once at full panel in November 2003, and once at pin up in February 2004. Our views of the planning application material are as follows. We applaud the general aspiration and approach given to this scheme; it has clearly been well and thoughtfully considered. We welcome the proposed mix of uses, the location of key buildings between the major open spaces, the retention of key features (Millennium Mills, Silo D and the docks themselves), the creation of pedestrian and transport linkages, the attention to landscape environments and the intention to create an 'ordinary' environment. We were also impressed by the realistic approach the team took to dealing with the issues of active edges and retail intensity, and note that these are not fully resolved and are still under review. This is a large site with relatively complex issues to resolve; the impact of City Airport (with the associated restrictions), the dictating feature of the dock, and the contrast between the office workers, tourists and residents, all of which could have produced a scheme that appeared dominated by constraints. This scheme however, generally works with the constraints well. We have three main concerns, or questions to ask, about the proposal; is there is too much open space? is the scheme 'ordinary' enough, that is, will it succeed in the laudable aim of becoming a regular piece of the wider city? are there too many 'big ideas' to be credible? The buildings to the west and south of the site, what is effectively the business quarter, are large object buildings set in a Beaux-Arts type plan - a form of planning not particularly common in London. We are concerned that there are too many gestural moves - axes, diagonals, strong forms, open spaces - all colliding at the Millennium Mills Square. The Mill is already set in front of a vast space to the north, the Royal Victoria Dock; it does not need another grand setting, and we cannot see any evidence that this large area will be a pleasant place to be. We note that the buildings around the finger dock have been modified since the first review, and we think the revised treatment is an improvement. We also have concerns about the block buildings on the North Woolwich Road; although we understand that they have been set out in response to the constraints of the utility corridor, road widths and the continuation of the diagonal, the resultant blocks appear to float in too much indeterminate space.
Overall, we believe that a tighter scheme would work better - too much space can produce desolation and anonymity. It would be interesting, for example, to compare the figureground diagrams of what is proposed here with those of Canary Wharf. The committee discussed the issues of working on a scheme that effectively has a void, the Pontoon Dock, in the middle of the site. The general view expressed was that, as the dock provided the main character to the area, that its vast emptiness should be seen as a positive element. This gives us even more reason to suggest that the scheme would benefit from reducing the sizes and numbers of spaces elsewhere, to maintain the impact of the dock. We support the idea of building into the Graving Dock, and the Boardwalk route around, and feel that strong moves such as this should be encouraged. However, we suggest that the Boardwalk curve should be simplified. It is intended that design codes for each area will be submitted at outline planning stage. It is our view that the appointment and retention of good architects supersedes the need for design codes, but we accept that, as the plots will be released to different developers (and so the quality of the chosen architects could not be controlled), design codes could help maintain standards. We urge the urban designers to ensure that the design codes keep the right balance to maintain quality, but not to be over-prescriptive and in that way stifle good architecture. We would also recommend that no building should be referred to in the codes as needing to be 'extraordinary' or 'iconic' even if conceptually, following the 'unique / ordinary' principle, the proposed building is labelled as such. The committee was not wholly convinced by the arrangement of the residential blocks, particularly in respect of the relationship between blocks, streets and open spaces. This is not to say that we think it will not work, but we would need to see more analysis of the typologies and spaces proposed to have our scepticism dispelled. We were generally supportive of the parking policy, with the mix of underground, on grade (under decks, next to single aspect maisonettes) and street parking. In summary, this scheme can be simply read as three sectors - office, tourist and residential - connected together by water, retail and communication routes. For the reasons stated above, we find the office section the most problematic; the tourist and residential sectors are generally more sound. A number of Committee members felt that the aquarium building could usefully be reoriented through ninety degrees creating a strong relationship with the dock and with Thames Barrier Park which could, of course, be extended alongside. We feel that more should be made of the connection across Woolwich Road to the Thames Barrier Park; Silvertown will benefit from the association with the existing park (and vise versa, when Silvertown is established) and it will enforce the logic of the diagonal element. ( sourced - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118095356/http:/www.cabe.org.uk/design-review/silvertown-quays-masterplan )
Peruvian Wharf Peruvian Wharf is one of the largest, cleared brownfield sites in London, at a key strategic location within the Thames Gateway and, beside West Silvertown DLR station. Part of Peruvian Wharf is designated as a â€˜safeguarded wharfâ€™ and proposals for the area must include the Wharf within the scheme without major alterations. The proposal shown opposite by EPR architects has reconfigured the wharf to run from river to road - reinstating the historical pattern. The entire river front has been utilized for either cargo or passenger handling or for the development of a pier. It creates a central tree lined boulevard running through the site from the riverside to the DLR station. The main features of the development consist of a raised garden and a riverfront square - lined with cafes and restaurants.
The success of the development lies in its addition of public green space to the area, its restoration of the wharf footprint and the utliziation of the waterfront access for river transport. Although similar to other proposals all the facilities proposed are atypical of masterplan developments - office space, cafes, appartments and restaurants - the restoration of the wharf does add a sense of place to the proposal and the scale of the development works with the near-by fly over and tate & lyle factory. The proposal was cancelled in 2009.
Venture Xtreme Venture Xtreme was to be a unique surf centre and extreme sports complex within the city. It was to be the first of its kind in the world (in a major city) designed by Baca Architects. It was to include Londons largest permanent beach and an outdoor surf pool with perfect waves every day. The centre was expected to revitalise the area by attracting 100,000 surfers and body boarders a year with almost five times as many spectators and to host spectacular twilight evenings with the possibility to rent fire pits , bbq areas and indulge in the waterside bars.
Although the proposal was never developed past conceptual design stages it did attract alot of interest and opinions from both the public and critics alike. The one positive from the proposal is that it attempted to engage the public and to bring them to the area and to turn them into frequent visitors to the area rather than other proposals which would turn into a one-time only attraction. It is felt that the culture house should contain some sort of facility that would encourage the public to revisit the area - some sort of dynamism could be contained within the facility, that could be a gallery, a theatre or some sort of sports facility. These avenues will be further explored once the mapping processes of the area are finished.
** All image credits to http://www.baca.uk.com/ - unless otherwise stated
Silvertown Aquarium Designed by Sir Terry Farrell - The Silvertown Aquarium for the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) was proposed to be a world leading facility for aquatic research, education and tourism. The proposal was set to cost 60million and was invisaged as an iconic insertion into the East London skyline. The project was to inspire generations of city dwellers of the wonders of the oceans and aquatic environments. Proposed at over 15,500 sq meters the building was to become a first class visitor attraction for the city and to act as an urban catalyst for the regeneration of the area.
The aquarium was due for completion in 2007 and has since got lost with the Olympic developments in near-by Stratford - although many of the principles of the aquarium are similar to that of the Culture House - a large facility which promotes the qualities of the area while attracting people from outside the city to the area to act as an urban generator of interest. Currently the area is frozen - left in a state of limbo between many empty and hopeful masterplans - it is hoped that the Culture House will give some impetus and pride back to the Silvertown area .
** All image credits to Farrells - unless otherwise stated
Envelope Design Workshop The aim of the workshop is to develop design models of ground and envelope conditions based on principles or observations of the previous case study - Yokohama Terminal.
The observations can have either a set of simple rules, which are applied to any condition- as a result a field design condition can be formed or they are based on a simple geometrical shape, which is then given a rule to divide the shape into other shapes- as a result forming different shapes and opportunities within the initial conditions.
The ground volume will be 50x50x5 and the envelope volume 30x30x15. These volumes could be seperate or could be merged. The first decision that was made, was that the final structure would be a low-lying - groundscaper - X=Y>Z influenced through the Zaera-Polo text and the Yokohama Terminal. The material constraints were that only linear elements could be used. A further intuitive variable was supplied by the tutoring staff in order to help develop constraints.
The Yokohama terminal is a building illustrating fluidity, bending and folding throughout, both in structure and in ground. Before the leap was to be made into modelling the structural grillage - several experiments were made using paper as a surface in order to understand what operations where involved in order to create a more complex structure. Topological Condition
The pattern emerged by making creases on the top and the bottom of the paper, making variations of the crease size and also increasing the length of the crease along the surface. The point of the crease represents where the structural grid would be inorder to create the structure.
Through the surface investigations it became apparent that the each point of the structural grid would become dependant or responsive to its neighbour point on the grid. This presented the idea of creating a system or field condition where all the points are responsive to each other - not only to understand the consequences of each decision but to create an undulating surface similar to that of the Yokohama Terminal.
This was an early render from the envelope workshop where the idea of circulation and undulation was explored.
A field condition was created using AutoCAD - this meant that 50 x 50 points representing the 50m x 50m perscribed grid was created - each point had a relationship with its neighbouring points and any changes which is made would affect its neighbour also - so a system of dependancy was established. The idea behind creating a field condition was that in the Yokohama Terminal there is a continous flow of ground and envelope , creating a certain fluidity and landscape, by creating the condition it is possible to create an undulating surface with logic. FIELD CONDITION
Ground Condition Axo
Ground Condition Axo
Ground Condition Elevation
Ground Condition Elevation
Ground Condition Plan
Two inputs of force were applied to the field condition - mimicing the two buldges in Yokohama.The contours were then extracted from the field condition and imported into RHINO, this data was then made into a grid system using a GRASSHOPPER definition and lasercut. The difference between the render (previous page) and the physical model (opposite) are quite like the Yokohama competition and completed images - after the smooth geometry had to be rationalised. Project No
East London Culture House Drawing
Field Condition Drawing
Envelope Design Workshop_Unit6_L5_AMcAviney_u0832586
Envelope Design Workshop_Unit6_L5_AMcAviney_u0832586
INTUITIVE VARIABLE Although it was felt that the first model was successful - it was felt that it was too one dimensional and little more than a surface model. The intuitive variable was introduced into the structural grid and interpretated as a river / road that would split the site area.
[Establishing a field condition]
The intuitive variable was rationalised using the structural grid and then a bifuricating circulation route was introduced to bridge the gap created by the variable. It was felt that the route was a little sporadic and that although it was related to the the principles identified within the case study - that perhaps a more direct relationship could be established using logics creating a more architectural rather than infrastructural solution. The creation of the routes led to the creation of convergent spaces within the structural grid which became points of interest. The idea of creating a route using a set module like the terminal along a path as it undulates and changes from route to surface is one which will be investigated next.
Girder Modulation The intuitive variable was kept within the structural grid and interpretated as a river / road that would split the site area. The Yokohama case study was revisited and the module for the girders was taken and applied to the grillage and swept along an undulating route.
Rationalised variable and circulation
The completed model raises questions about interior and exteriority, when one questions what is ground and what is envelope and where the boundary between the two can exist. This creation of institial space and the blurring of boundaries is something which is evident throughout the Yokohama Terminal. The model can be considered as an urban landscape which undulates and has dynamism, equally functions and programs can be assigned to the modulated spaces.
[kuhl-cher] - noun, verb, -tured, -tur·ing. 1.the quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters, manners, scholarly pursuits, etc. 2.that which is excellent in the arts, manners, etc. 3.a particular form or stage of civilization, as that of a certain nation or period: Greek culture.
[n., adj. hous; v. houz] noun, plural hous·es 1.a building in which people live; residence for human beings. 2.a household. 3. ( often initial capital letter ) a family, including ancestors and descendants: the great houses of France; the House of Hapsburg. 4. a building for any purpose: a house of worship.* A Culture house is a new hybrid typology which has came to prominence within the last decade. The history of the hybrid began in the 19th century when the dense city started to accept overlapping of functions as inevitable - with deminising land space and increasing property prices. A culture house does not have a clear programmatic structure it is one of celebration, diversity and a variety of programs - ranging from Libraries, Cafes, Theatres, Dance schools, Art galleries ,Jazz clubs & more. It is an oportunitistic building which moulds to the demands of its area - creating private and public spheres, which go against segregationist morphologies with often conflicting programs. This means that activity and use is constant and does not conform to the structured activity of the area or the city but can influence the area - be that regeneration - socially, structural or through interest.
* Definition obtained from www.dictionary.com
Temporal & Relational Drawing Workshop The aim of the workshop was to map and index the temporal dynamics of the Silvertown area. To make the tacit knowledge contained within the urban fabric explicit in order to gain a greater understanding of the area itself. This presented the first opportunity to start to develop a personal agenda and to identify interests and areas that are felt to be relevant to the Silvertown area - issues such as Time, Distance, Connectivity, Networks and permeability were considered and explored. The unit calls for the development of a Culture House within the area and one that could act as a generator and a draw for the area on a macro scale - this meant that the first mapping process of the area should be on a macro scale rather than micro. Initially it was felt best that the greater London area should be examined and a cultural network should be mapped / identified in order to fully understand the implications of any future proposal i.e. to avoid proposing similar facilities to a near-by theatre. Once a macro cultural network is established the mapping study moves to a micro level to try to identify cultural and social constructs which are in existance. Working on the micro scale can help to identify the short-fall of facilities in the immediate area and the importance of such facilities. Although there may be a shortage of facilities in the immediate area - London as one of the worlds capital cities has an abundance of resources and facilities scattered throughout its caption, but similarly to most cities - London suffers from a time & distance paradox, when distance seems to go slower and take longer than in any other city in the UK - i.e. it can take up to 30mins to travel one mile in London as opposed to typically 10minutes in any other city - this paradox was mapped and investigated to see if it had a major impact of the social and cultural constructs which had been previously identified. Finally the perception of space and permeablity was investigated through the use of sight-lines , this can inform the spectator to which areas have the most potential to be accessed by a stranger within the area without any preconceived knowledge of the area - and that is what the Culture House will aim to do - not only strengthen and engage the existing population but to bring people from across London & the UK to the area. Signs start where architecture ends - we dont want this to happen!
London Cultural Network
KEY TRAIN STATION CULTURAL HOUSE ART GALLERY PERFORMANCE HISTORIC
A-DALSTON CULTURE HOUSE B- LABAN ARTS CENTRE C- LEWISHAM ART HOUSE D- GREENWICH THEATRE E- BFI SOUTHBANK F - TATE MODERN G- BRITISH MUSEUM H- DESIGN MUSEUM I- IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM J- RADA K- ROYAL BALLET L- ROYAL OPERA HOUSE M- THE EXCEL CENTRE N - THE O2 ARENA O - IDEA STORE WHITECHAPEL P - IDEA STORE CRISP ST
Time & Distance Paradox As of 2008 more than half of the worlds population now live in cities - cities have traditionally been places of commerce, culture, creativity, innovation and wealth. They offer a new dimension to their inhabitants with infinite amounts of facilities, attractions and experiences available. With the advent of the internet and improved transport links - the world has become a smaller place and people have become more aware of the facilities that are on offer,
however within cities there does lie a paradox. As we look at London with its vast arrays of transport networks, rail lines and bus routes it does appear to be very well connected and as weâ€™ve established through the mapping of a cultural network most of the network is within a XXkm radius - which should be easily accessible for any resident within the area. However, as with most cases of standardisation - the network only works for the majority and given the location of Silvertown and its natural constraints - The Thames - you often have to go backwards to go forwards - which presents a paradox in time. The two nearest facilities (geographically)- the Laban Arts centre and the Greenwich theatre are still the quickest to get to, but the Tate or BFI Southbank although much further away than the Design Museum are comparable in time due to the transport links. This ability to control time and distance and to influence how popular or how the space is used can be very important on an urban scale but often beyond the architects control - unless they are involved with creating a development framework for an area or a large scale masterplan - but the same practices and principles can be applied to a buildings - through the use of scales, materials & textures the architect can create areas which become passive and serve , and areas which are served and people congregate.
London Time Relational Cultural Network
Area Identidy To get an unbiased view or ‘feel’ for an area can be quite a tricky task as it can become quite subjective to the individual experiencing the area on that particular day. To obtain a general ‘feel’ for the area a type of random data sampling was undertaken using Affect Software. Silvertown, London was used as a search term and entered into Google - the program then ranked and analysed the top 5 websites and the words which they contained in reference to Silvertown - the illustration below shows the results and how what connections they have with each other - this can help to build both expectations and to identify how the area is viewed from the ‘outside’. wharf.co.uk New
Focus on New Development Best Site Silvertown Quays
Quays abandonedcommunities.co.uk Development architectsjournal.co.uk
* The full results can be found in the appendix
Area Networks In order to make a proposal for the area the existing structure and networks within the area must be understand and the genius locai of the area extracted.
In a similar approach to the macro network analysis - existing cultural facilities where identified, indexed and linked through routes and time in order to appreciate anything that maybe missing or a particularly area that is disconnected. Additionally the main social networks where identified - social in this sense is taken as something that is important to daily life to the local population and something that is regularly used - amenities like the Fire Station, The DLR stations and the one large shop in the area were identified as being important social factors in the area - otherwise the area would be become even more secluded.
West Silvertown DLR Station
The Thames Barrier
Thames Barrier Park
Thames Barrier Park Cafe
Silvertown Fire Station
Local Cultural Network
Time Relational Local Cultural Network
Spatial Analysis Axial Map
Suprisingly, although the residential population is quite concentrated - the facilities are quite outspread - shown below is an sightlines analysis produced using depthmap a software used by SPACESYNTAX - the red area in theory should be the avenue where the facilities within the area should be located - however the reality is that the facilities are sporadically dotted around the area - currently the quay area, seems very disconnected and could prove to be an ideal site for the Culture House - providing a link between Thames Barrier park and the residential area.
Architect: Peter Celsing Date: 1966 -1971 Location: Stockholm,Swedan
KulturHuset, Stockholm X =Y > Z Opened in 1974, Kulturhuset (Swedish for The House of Culture) is a cultural centre to the south of Sergels Torg in central Stockholm. It is a controversial symbol for Stockholm and the growth of modernism in Sweden.Critics find it oversized, malplaced and aesthetically unpleasing. It was the temporary seat of the Parliament of Sweden (Riksdag) until 1983, while the Riksdag building was remodelled for the unicameral parliament.
A low, long building with a glazed, lined façade. The envelope is very politcally charged , falling into the X = Y > Z category specified by Zaera Polo. The front facade of the building is completely glazed overlooking the square, encouraging democracy, congregation and use - with its seemingly openess .The backside of the building in contrast is completely closed, controlling the flow and the use of the spaces. The program of the KulturHuset is typically of many culture houses with a vast array of programs and functions - there are three galleries, public exhibitions, theatre spaces, a library and numerous of restaurants. The complex consists of two parts: a theatre with a simple square shape and a long drawn-out exposition part. In the bottom of the house, the well known ‘Design Square’ is also located where you can purchase design items from emerging Swedish designers. Ironically, the public reaction to the building was that today it is regarded as a signifi cant loss of irreplaceable cultural values. Located in a part of Stockholm where the old structure of the city, the old architecture and even the topography was almost entirely replaced in the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s with modernist architecture and new functions - it has been remarked as the largest vacuum in the country (Claes Brunius) - it has come to represent the heavy handed modernism which the country experienced. Although the building did receive some critical praise and won the prestigious Kasper Salin Prize* in 1972, with its facade of stainless steel, glass and thin lines of the concrete floors giving the impression of shelves, typifying the architectural zeitgiest of the time.
*The Swedish equivilent to the sterling prize
A Thousand Plateaus
The Thousand Plateaus project proposal is to provide a structure to act as a shelter within the Silvertown area of London using VBA for AutoCAD & user input.
VBA For AutoCAD VBA (Visual Basic Applications) for autocad is an extension of the popular programming language VB (Visual Basic). VBA is effectivetly a subset of VB that allows for custom automation (macros) of the specific program that is is built into. Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is a programming language and environment that is included with many Microsoft applications, such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access.
Since Release 14, VBA has been available with AutoCAD allowing for greater integration for the more â€˜computer savyâ€™ user , allowing businesses to develop applications that were better suited what they do. VBA is ideally suited for situations in which you need to work with more than one application at a time. ActiveX, enables you to access objects in other applications. However, you can also use VBA to program AutoCAD alone. VBA in AutoCAD works slightly differently from VBA in most other applications, in that VBA projects are stored in a separate file, with the DVB filename extension, but can also be stored within the drawing file. Autodesk has begun the transition of Visual Basic customization from VBA to .NET technology. Currently, VBA is still supported however it is no longer part of the default CAD installation and must be downloaded and installed separately . VBA will be used to create a system inorder to develop a structure - based on user-input and coding. The code will use basic programming concepts such as conditionals, variables, loops, constants, algorithms and sub routines to produce an architectural outcome.
** *The code used to produce the Silvertown Shelter can be viewed in the Appendix
2.1D relaxation algorithm
3. 2D relaxation algorithm
The techniques above were explored over the first semester and developed during individual exercises (see http://wiki.uelceca.net/msc1011/show/Adam+Mc+Aviney or the One Thousand Steps book). These techniques were combined to create a structure that was defined by a user-input (force) similar to the force used in the 2d relaxation algorithm in order to create a ribbed structure.
Pseudo Code - Flow Diagram User Input Process 01
Set up nodes
Fix nodes stated closed to input
Calculate nodes based on itself and all other nodes around it
nodes updated inputs()
nodes updated delete grid body inputs()
add ribs to updated nodes ribs labelled & arranged for fabrication add panels
Set up nodes inputs() Fix nodes stated closed to input Calculate nodes based on itself and all other nodes around it add ribs to updated nodes
ribs labelled & arranged for fabrication add panels
User Input Force -15
User Input Force 3 Lower Grid
User Input Force 3 Lower Grid
User Input Force -15
User Input Force 3 Lower Grid
The structure was produced using a simple 2D Diffusion algorithm. The algorithm works by initializing at first one grid that the user has defined (within the code - HOR (55) & VER A Thousand Plateaus, Silvertown TP-03 (22) ) and next a point is selected within that grid (this is the location for the structure) From PointGrid DIA03 and Diffusion a force applied toN/Ait. The force is determined by the input given by the user and the process is repeated until the user feels that sufficient points are defined. The nodes are then calculated and updated - rising or falling to the appropriate z values based on the forces specified by the user.
User Input Force -15
1. The Grid is initialised
2. The force is input & grid is updated
User Input Force -15 u,v+4
A Thousand Plateaus, Silvertown Drawing
u-1,v+3 u,v+3 u+1,v+3
The grid is initially constructed using HOR (u) & VER (v) values related to constants input by the user - these adjust the ‘x’ & ‘y’ values of the grid. They Z value of theA Thousand grid Plateaus_Unit6_L5_AMcAviney_u0832586 can be adjusted by the user and the second grid has a minus Z value meaning it will be positioned u-4,v lower than the first. The force specified by the user input effects the Z values of all the nodes within the grid. u-2,v+1 u-1,v+1 u,v+1 u+1,v+1 u+2,v+1 u-2,v
u-2,v-1 u-1,v-1 u,v-1 u+1,v-1 u+2,v-1
u-1,v+3 u,v+3 u+1,v+3
u-2,v+2 u-1,v+2 u,v+2 u+1,v+2 u+2,v+2
u-2,v+2 u-1,v+2 u,v+2 u+1,v+2 u+2,v+2 u-2,v+1 u-1,v+1 u,v+1 u+1,v+1 u+2,v+1
u-2,v-2 u-1,v-2 u,v-2 u+1,v-2 u+2,v-2 u-1,v-3 u,v-3 u+1,v-3 u,v-4
u-2,v-1 u-1,v-1 u,v-1 u+1,v-1 u+2,v-1 u-2,v-2 u-1,v-2 u,v-2 u+1,v-2 u+2,v-2
TP-03 Drawing No
u-1,v-3 u,v-3 u+1,v-3 A Thousand Plateaus_Unit6_L5_AMcAviney_u0832586
Once the grid has completed its calculations the nodes are used to form a ribbed structure â€“ a spline connects all point nodes together in the Hor(u) & Ver (v) directions and then are copied downwards to the specified depth through user input and joined to form a region that is extruded to the value defined by user input.
The ribs are then â€˜notchedâ€™ to form slots where-by two ribs can interlock to form the structure. The ribs are then copied, positioned and labelled around the model for digital fabrication. The ribs in the HOR (u) direction are given the prefix of U then the number of each rib in order to avoid any confusion in the construction process - the ribs in the VER (v) direction are given the V prefix in for similar reasons.
Shown below are the final ribs - labeled and notched laid out to be fabricated.
The two rib elements interlock using the slots which have been removed during the insert_lines process
P3 P1 P2
Process 12-15: get_sources2 0,check_sources2 0, insert_lines2 0
Set-Up A second grid is created below the original. This grid will form the ground condition of the shelter.
1 2 HOR (55)
ORIGIN_PLANE (CEILING HEIGHT)
Const ORIGIN_PLANE = -15 â€˜ the second grid will be 15 lower than the original grid
The same principals apply to the new grid that were relevant in the original grid - the 3 only difference is that u & v become u2 & v2 (an easy option for understanding the code). 4
The same principals apply to the new grid that were relevant in the original grid processes 3-5 = processes 12-14 the only difference is the insert_lines2 0 sub-routine instead of creating lines & ribs on the entire grid - it will only create ribs where there was force applied.
AutoCAD runs as normal but once the VBA code is loaded the user is prompted via the which are used to develop the structure. The software informs the user that the first force derstand the process which is being taken. The ribs are then added with the user specifying process with the panels then added, the process is repeated for the second grid. The process structure
Initial code start up
First instance of user input
Panels are then added to the rib structure in individual panes. The panes are set out on points 1,2,3. The truss which holds the pane up between the ribs goes from point 2 to 3. This is applied to the entire array of nodes , within the script panels which are greater than 2 will not form and will leave an opening - this can be altered to specific needs such as illumination. Previously we had been using the Top view in order to select grid points and define force but when we have two grids - this is no longer possible - the next process in the code will be to create a second grid below our current grid - so we need to change the view while the code is running - an input box will prompt the user to select a preset view - with an option supplied. Once the input box is completed the model space will be updated to the view entered - if the view is not recognised than an error box will appear and the view will remain the same as a new grid is generated. Const ORIGIN_PLANE = -15 = the second grid will be 15 lower than the original grid. The same principals apply to the new grid that were relevant in the original grid - the only difference is that u & v become u2 & v2 (an easy option for understanding the code). The structure is then completed via user force inputs and the decision of rib thickness/ size and panel thickness - the structure is then positioned and labelled for fabrication and the model space view reset in order to appreciate the completed structure - the structure can be rendered within AutoCAD for exported to another modelling program such as Rhino, SketchUp etc or a standalone renderer such as Maxwell or VRay.
command line and user input boxes to set up and prepare views, positions and forces is for the structure and the secondary input is for seating - allowing the user to unthe size and thickness, they are then labelled and positioned to aid in the fabrication is designed in such a way that a user without experience or knowledge could create a
User prompted to select new view
Structure created and ribs positioned for fabrication
Macro-Culture House Silvertown - Statement The Silvertown area of London is located in the south-east of the city occupying a diverse and lively transition zone between the dense city fabric and the urban sprawl of the suburbs. Even though many people live (& work) in this area, it is mainly passed through by the inhabitants going in and out of the city . The reason for this is the area’s connectivity combined with its lack of facilities - both cultural and recreational.
The existing site is currently abandoned , lying as a wasteland surrounded by cancelled and shelved masterplans for the area. Currently an axis within the West Silvertown area exists, running along the A1020 (N Woolwich Rd) - the Industrail side containing Thames Barrier Pk & the Residential side with the monumental Millenimum Mill and along the edge of Royal Victoria Dock - seperating the site from the Excel centre and the auxilary facitilies which it provides. The proposal engages with the typology of the Culture House - consisting of dual programs - a function as a library / learning facility and a secondary function of a performing arts centre- with supporting facilities such as cafes, office space, practice rooms etc & ancillary facilities such as parking. Taking these two conflicting programs one, predominately static organised and reserved vs a fluid, dramatic and spontaineous program can help to inform and redefine the tyologies and relationships. The concept of the folded landscape and temporality derived from a number of prior studies will be investigated and implemented through the Culture House brief. The project aims to create a ‘social hub’ - not just a place to house books. It will have interior and exterior recreational spaces and a pedestrian bridge* to connect itself with the opposite side of Victoria Dock - creating a dialogue with the near-by Excel centre. The culture house aims to become the anchor project for the future redevelopment of the docks - where many proposals before it have failed (Terry Farrels Aquarium Project & The Xtreme Adventure Centre). The main point of difference between the Culture House proposal and its previous incumbants is that it engages both local and regional communities, encouraging multiple visits and uses, rather becoming a pastiche ‘iconic’ building. A library becomes a ‘secure’ facilitiy for the area and a facility that is invaluable during redevelopment acting as a space for both civic engagement and convergence.
*In 2009 an Olympic Route Feasibility Study conducted by the LDA reccommended a second footbridge to the east side of Royal Victoria Docks
Proposed Local Network
Why a Culture-House? The Silvertown area as previously identified is both at a critically transitional point between north & south of the city and between the city and the suburbs - the importance of this cannot be underestimated. Aswell as being a commuter paradise it also has the dubious honor of being the receiptant of several failed masterplan and scheme proposals - ranging from mass apartment proposals to aquarims and extreme sport facilities - all very realistic proposals at the time but all very generic* and not considering the needs of the local area either on a micro or macro scale. The aim for the thesis proposal is not merely to deliver â€˜architectureâ€™ or building mass to the area like the previous proposals before, but to create a design proposal for the area that actually benefits the area itself - something which the area both needs and one which the residents of the area would use regularly - social
Currently, as identified through mapping - the majority of cultural facilities within London are located in the west or central areas - leaving the East End appearing to be a sterotypical Eastenders setting. Through relational network analysis it was identified that there was a large number of number of residential units within the area, large industrail units, very little public green space & very little residential areas. The nearest library within the area is 30mins travel time away but is a university library at UEL & the nearest performance venue is the O2 Arena 20mins travel time away but this arena is the biggest performance venue in the UK - not suitable for all types of performace. There is currently a performance facility within the area - The Bricklane Music hall - which is very small and inadequate. With an existing demand for the facilities proposed and the creation and extension of culture & educational networks throughout the area - the proposal should bring much needed facilities to the area but also bring people to the Silvertown area with a cultural axis of the O2 for cinema and concert facilities, the Excel Centre for roadshows and exhibitions and the cultural centre for more initimate performances such as Ballet, dance, graduations and first class library facilities. This coupled with the potential creation of an Educational
Network (be that formally,
with links between the institutions or informally through the complementary facilities in close access to each other) -
Ravensbourne College, The Cultural Centre, Drew Primary School and The University of East London (UEL), should mean that the Silvertown area remains population, vibrant and bring an much needed positive atmosphere to the area.
*with the exception of the Xtreme Venture proposal
Culture House Demand
Analysis Graph Spreads
On a larger scale the immediate area is lacking in facilities - as identified through the macro-cultural network. There is a severe lack of public green space within the area - something that could possibly be incorporated into any proposal.The majority of the Thames bankside is currently used for industrail purposes - going back to the days when shipping and trawlers where still common place on the Thames - utilising the docks and water within Silvertown Quays will become an important aspect of the proposal - letting the local residents experience the waterside views and walks which should be natural to them. The vast majority of the surrounding area is residential - they have become disenfranchised with little or no facilities in the immediate area the culture house facility with the new cultural network aims to rectify this and to bring some life back into East London.
Opportunities & Constraints
Finding the Site
Area Observations Atmosphere Within the Silvertown area there is a distinct lack of atmosphere or identidy. The area is empty except for school or commuting hours (8-9am & 3-6pm).There are a lack of facilities within the area and although the area is has a well connected infrastructure the area itself feels somewhat disconnected from the rest of the city and even its neighbouring areas such as Canning Town and Greenwich. Any architectural or urban proposal must take into account the existing issues and attempt to resolve these and create a more vibrant connected area - as currently the Thames Barrier Park feels too one dimensional to achieve the affect that one presumes was initially anticipated from the project.
Edge Conditions As identified through site walks and mapping investigations the area is one which has many urban tears - both physcial and perceived. The opportunities and constraints diagram of the area illustrates the physcial tears as potential sites - large former industrail brownfield sites which previously would have contained the lifeblood of the area driving it to proseperity now make it an unattractive and run-down. Britannia Village along the dockside is one area which feels reasonably vibrant and inhabitable but it is to self-orientated and inward looking, with no attempts to connect with the greater area making it feel like an object or a wall community rather than a part of the Silvertown urban fabric.
Site selection will be based on what area is felt to provide the best opportunities to the problems previously mentioned.
Public Legislation Royal Docks Opportunity Area The Royal Docks Opportunity Area lies within the stretch of land that runs between Stratford down the River Lea to the Thames - encompassing 650 hectares of land and creating an ‘arc of opportunity’ identified to have a development potential of 22Billion. The Royal Docks Opportunity Area is a policy outlined by the Mayors of London & Newham to actively encourage investment and redevelopment within the area using the 2012 Olympic Games as a catalyst for long term regeneration. ‘the time has never been better to unlock the Royal Docks’ potential on the back of the 2012 Games’ Mayor of London, Boris Johnson
Positioned at the intersection of the Thames Gateway and London-Standstead-Cambridge Growth Corridors, the Royal Docks occupy a very well connected part of the city with good DLR,Jubilee,Thames Clipper, Road and soon to be Crossrail connections, aswell as being close to nearby facilities such as the O2, The Excel Centre and Canary Wharf. The policy sets out a Ten-point strategy* for desirable investment within the area - this will be used as a guide for the Culture House proposal. The vision for the future of the Royal Docks is underpinned by a clear ten-point strategy: Develop the Royal Docks as a world-class business destination within the knowledge economy Promote the Royal Docks as a focus for investment on a world stage building on opportunities presented by the Olympic and Paralympic Games Make the Royal Docks a place of choice to live Champion green enterprise and environmental sustainability Ensure that development positively benefits the local communities Exploit the potential for a visitor and tourist economy Create a unique and high quality waterfront urban quarter with a strong sense of place Improve cross-river and local connectivity Communicate openly and clearly Make it happen *London Development Agency (www.lda.gov.uk)
Royal Docks Opportunity Area
Planning Policy Guidance 13 (PPG 13) Transport / Parking
PPG 13s objectives are to integrate planning and transport at national and local levels to promote more sustainable transport networks ,connectivity and options within areas for both leisure (people) & commercial (freight) purposes. PPG encourages the linking of planning and transport early in the design process, with emphasis placed not only on promoting facilities that are well designed for vehicles but also facilities which provide services for locals that are accessible without the use of a car and encourage this (within 2km)- such as well-lit areas - tree lined boulevards etc. Options and alternatives should be explored including solutions other than road enhancement to improve existing local infrastructures.
Significant developments should involve the creation of a travel plan - that encompasses travel and access by private transport, public transport, walking and cycling. â€˜This should be assessed in terms of how easy it is to get to the site comparing the different modes (taking into account journey times, public transport frequency, quality, safety, and access for disabled people). Development comprising jobs, shopping, leisure and services should not be designed and located on the assumption that the car will represent the only realistic means of access for the vast majority of people.â€™ PPG13 PPG13 also sets out standards which the local authorities should implement - with provision for safe and secure bicycle parking and a set amount of disabled parking.
Planning Policy Statement 1 (PPS 1)
Urban Design / Sustainable development Planning Policy Statement 1 (PPS1) sets out the Government’s overarching planning policies on the delivery of sustainable development through the planning system. Four aims set out for sustainable development continued from the 1999 draft are - social progress which recognises the needs of everyone; - effective protection of the environment; - the prudent use of natural resources; and, - the maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment The Key principles of the policy include and issues that must be considered are: Highly inclusive design - both building and external Community involvement to create a sustainable development Proposals to meet the need of the surrounding area – ensure that the impact of development on the social fabric of communities is considered and taken into ac
count; – seek to reduce social inequalities; – address accessibility (both in terms of location and physical access) for all members of the community to jobs, health, housing, education, shops, leisure and community facilities;* PPS1
To Maintain and improve the local environment - including provision of public space Awareness of the effects of climate change and the developments greater effects to the area
Planning Policy Statement 4 (PPS 4)
‘Planning for sustainable economic growth’ Adopted in 2010, PPS4 is a relevant policy to consider before making a proposal. The Mayor has previous identified Silvertown Quays as a Major Opportunity Zone (MOZ) prime for development to create employment and culture within the area. PPS4 states that local planning authorities should adopt a positive approach to economic development and to treat favourably proposals that include sustainable economic mechanisms - such as facilities that will provide reliable employment , recieve regular use and be of benefit to the local community.
Capital Enterprise Zone
In March of this year, London Mayor Boris Johnson declared that the Royal Docks area - 125 hectares of development land adjacent to the city airport (including Silvertown Quays) would become the capital’s Enterprise Zone, which will entitle businesses with the area to a discount of up to 100% on business rates for an initial five year period. “Now with the financial and regulatory breaks granted as an Enterprise Zone there will be even greater incentives for new businesses to set up shop and create a thriving new centre of enterprise in this important corner of the capital.” Mayor Johnson This will create an economic incentive for promoting growth in the area and something which would make the construction of the Culture House proposal more financially viable.
Transport & Connectivity Transport plays an important role in achieving economic and environmental objectives. The quality of life which can be attained by the residents within the area is also dependant on transport and the connectivity of the area - how easy it is to get to work, school, shopping leisure and healthcare facilities. Public Transport Accessibility Levels (PTAL)
(Newham 2020 Planning for the future)
The level of access an area has to public transport is measured in Public Transport Accessibility Levels (PTALS). The higher the PTAL score, the more accessible an area is by public transport The PTAL levels in the area (Royal Docks) are currently on average level 3. The area is connected to the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) but the easiest way to access the area is still by private car. By providing three new footbridges in the area and a new bus stop within the site area - the availability of public transport within a 10min area increases - with the aim of increasing the PTAL level to a 5.
Safeguarded Wharves - PLA (Port of London Authority) & Mayor of London This policy ‘safeguards’ the development of docks into non-port use. The policy aims to move towards sustainable development - that will ensure that development on the Thames continues to be balanced across freight, residential and leisure uses. ‘The Mayor has recommended the following safeguarding policy:
25 wharves west of the Thames Barrier should remain ‘safeguarded’ 25 wharves east of the Barrier should be ‘safeguarded’ for the first time 3 wharves west of the Barrier should be released from ‘safeguarding’ 19 wharves east of the Barrier should not be ‘safeguarded’ The PLA also strongly supports the ‘reactivation strategy’ to bring back into use some currently unused wharves. This follows a marketing exercise led by the PLA. The three wharves chosen to be brought back into use first are: Hurlingham Wharf in Hammersmith & Fulham Orchard Wharf in Tower Hamlets Peruvian Wharf in Newham ‘ www.pla.co.uk There are currently 7 existing safeguard Wharves in the borough of Newham Priors Wharf Mayer Parry Wharf Thames Wharf Peruvian Wharf Manhattan Wharf Sunshine Wharf Minoco Wharf* Four of which are located throughout the Silvertown area - Peruvian Wharf has been recommended to be reinstated as a working wharf for cargo handling purposes and Minoco Wharf has received the recommendation to remove its safeguarded status due to its inability to being made viable for cargo-handling uses and the many expressions of interest in developing the site for residential accommodation.
Silvertown Quays, West Silvertown
Silvertown Quay is identified by Newham Council as a Major Opportunity Zone (MOZ)
The Site Area SITE PARAMETERS Address: Silvertown Quay, West Silvertown, London Area: 60,720m2 , 15 acres
Dimensions: 165m x 368m North Boundary: Roayl Victoria Dock South Boundary: Burt Rd West Boundary: Silvertown Dock East Boundary: Connaught Bridge LATTITUDE 51.50362714828063 째N
LONGITUDE 0.03737926483154297 째E
How are the resources to be provided? The Site
The Royal docks area is currently in the control (and ownership) of the LDA (London Development Authority) a government agency who aids and regulates development within London. Previously the area has been subject to numerous Masterplan proposals (see right) many of which were given planning permission but due to the economy have been abandoned.
Royal Docks Opportunity Area The Royal Docks Opportunity Area lies within the stretch of land that runs between Stratford down the River Lea to the Thames - encompassing 650 hectares of land and creating an ‘arc of opportunity’ identified to have a development potential of 22Billion.
The Royal Docks Opportunity Area is a policy outlined by the Mayors of London & Newham to actively encourage investment and redevelopment within the area using the 2012 Olympic Games as a catalyst for long term regeneration. ‘the time has never been better to unlock the Royal Docks’ potential on the back of the 2012 Games’ Mayor of London, Boris Johnson The policy sets out a Ten-point strategy* for desirable investment within the area - this will be used as a guide for the Culture House proposal. The vision for the future of the Royal Docks is underpinned by a clear ten-point strategy: Develop the Royal Docks as a world-class business destination within the knowledge economy Promote the Royal Docks as a focus for investment on a world stage building on opportunities presented by the Olympic and Paralympic Games Make the Royal Docks a place of choice to live Champion green enterprise and environmental sustainability Ensure that development positively benefits the local communities Exploit the potential for a visitor and tourist economy Create a unique and high quality waterfront urban quarter with a strong sense of place Improve cross-river and local connectivity Communicate openly and clearly Make it happen *London Development Agency (www.lda.gov.uk)
Minnoco Wharf Proposal - 3D Reid Silvertown Quays Proposal - Richard Rogers
Venture Xtreme Proposal
Silvertown Quays Proposal
Silvertown Quays Proposal - Patel Taylor
Peruvian Wharf Proposal
Funding It is envisaged that the Culture House would be a public project, which would either be completed entirely by the public sector with funding from various bodies - Arts Council England, EU Grants etc or a public-private partnership (PPP) would be entered in order to fund the project. This approach to public service provision means that a â€˜risk sharingâ€™ relationship is entered between public (government) and private (contractor) organisations based upon an agreed aspiration (development) to deliver a desired public policy outcome This would mean that the site would be given to a contractor and that the contractor would build the culture house project for the LDA or local council and then continue with their development (presumably housing) with a set percentage allocated for social housing.
Materials In choosing materials and construction techniques, local material sourcing will be considered with an aim to minimize transportation. The waterfront location of the proposal allows materials to be transported by barges directly to the construction site - or to the existing working wharfs - Peruvian Wharfs. This method of transportation reduces the potential carbon footprint by up to 10 times when compared with other forms of transportation such as trucking.
Steel All steel components used will be specified to use a large recycled content, and will include less embodied energy than a solely concrete framed solution. The use of steel means that a bolted assembly can be detailed resulting less time on site and allow for possible deconstruction to facilitate adpation and re-use in the future. Concrete The concrete which will be used for the pier and topping slabs in the steel-framed areas will consider ways to which it is possible to reduce its carbon impact. Generally it is the cement which holds the largest carbon footprint within concrete - the use of of Complementary cementing materials (CCM) such as ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbs), fly ash, rice husk ash which are industrial by-products and considered carbon neutrail
20% use of recycled aggregate in structural concrete (columns/beams). Utilizing CCM as a replacement for some of the cement within the concrete mix can provide benefits such as; Reducing materials needed for landfills Reducing embodied energy Reducing CO2 emissions Improve durability Other concrete systems and products such as precast planks, slabs, beams and bubble deck systems will be evalutated for their speed of construction and to reduce on-site waste and formwork which would be needed Labour & Skills The majority of construction techniques which have been considered involve a large amount of intensive low-non skilled labour excavagtion cement mixing shuttering etc The construction of the Culture House in this respect can be completed using unemployed locals. With respect to the technical aspect of the construction - such as surveying, engineering, and then later interior design etc a partnership can be developed with the local universities and colleges (Ravensbourne & UEL) to either provide placement or direct employment.
Environmental Context The site is primarily a flat plateau with clear views in all directions - with a clear NorthSouth Axis through the centre of the site area. The site area currently has several existing infrastructure routes which can be capitalised on. There are currently several industrail buildings existing on the larger site area which it is believed are in control of the LDA - it is assumed that these buildings will be demolished and be used for redevelopment of the area. The site area is edged by water on two sides - Royal Victoria Docks - and is located close to the Silvertown docks basin. This will influence both the activity and the buildings program orientation. The connection with the Excel centre at the opposite side of the dock is something that will be exploited and capitalised on.
Shown below are sun path analysis diagrams produced via Ecotect analysis software using Google Earth . This software will be used in parallel during the design process for the urban scenario in order to evaluate levels of sun light into certain areas and over shadowing within the area.
Climate Analysis Graphs produced using Ecotect Software
Due to the greater site areas proximity to the City Airpot and the inclusion of two performance areas (Auditorium / Theater) the consideration of both sound and noise are quite crucial to the overall success of the scheme. Some regulations which we should be aware of in regards to the overall framework and residential properties are PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT
Simply put, â€˜soundâ€™ is the vibrations of air which are detectable by the ear. Sound waves raiate out from a sound sounds - in the simplist of terms - sound can radiate spherically out from a central source point - like the diagram shown below. In its most complex soundPRODUCED can be controlled, positioned aimed using speakers, chambers, noise barriers BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONALand PRODUCT and other acoustic devices - this can be both on a room, building and urban scales.
-PPG24 -WHO -BS8233 it must be noted that in most standards night-time is considered to be the period between 2300 and 0700. City Airports operating times are from 05.00 - 2200, with the last flights departing at 21.30 As PPG24 sugguests - there will be large amounts of planting between the Connaught bridge and the PSZ (Public Safety Zone) in order to seperate the residential areas from the main sources of noises within the area (traffic - both road and air). NECs (Noise Exposure Categories) are used to assess a sites suitability for development. Most urban areas fall with NEC C - but a sound survey would need to be conducted to determine what category the site falls into.
Categories For New Dwellings dB L Aeq,T Noise Exposure Category Noise Source
Road Traffic 07.00-23.00
Mixed Sources 07.00-23.00 23.00-07.00
NEC A - “Noise need not be considered as a determining factor in granting planning permission” NEC B “ Noise should be taken into account when determining planning applications NEC C - Planning permission not normally granted when quieter sites are available NEC D - “Planning permission should normally be refused”
Noise Survey - NEC C
Silvertown Quays Noise Analysis : Richard Barham1, Martin Chan1, Matthew Cand2 - Intranoise 2010
Silvertown Quays, is in the direct take-off path of London City airport, which is just 500 meters away. Despite this, the land is designated for residential development. Shown above is an acoustic analysis conducted over 24Hrs in 2009 - The noisest area of the greater site area is closer to the dock side - this would suggest more commerical or manufacturing purposes would be more appropriate- given the airport time restrictions the excessive noise would not affect night time performances. Public Safety Zones are areas of land at the end of busy airport runways in the UK, within which certain planning restrictions can apply. These restrictions aim to minimise the risk to both flight passengers and people on the ground during both take off and landing. Part of the site area falls within this zone area which places certain height restrictions on any development.
Public Safety Zone Map
NEW PROPOSED PSZ
A-THE 02 ARENA B-THE EXCEL CENTRE C-UEL
Addressing a Brownfield Site The site area is currently littered with foundations and rubble from former industrail buildings and factories which have been demolished . It is known that the Millenium Mill contains asbestos and it is assumed that the majority of the greater site area will be contaminated with either chemicals or metals from industrail uses. A brownfield site is defined as â€˜Land usually in an urban area which has been previously used and may have potential for re-use for redevelopment or as open spaceâ€™ www.e-lindsey.gov.uk/localplan/text/app4.htm
The reinvigoration of a brownfield site is something which is generally an environmentally friendly move - as it saves the need of excagvating a green field site and helps to make an area more sustainable by investing in an existing area. Due to the site area may become subject to groundwater or becoming a flood plane in the coming years - this is something which should be considered during design - the provision of green space and adequate detailing would seek to eradacate potential problems. There is the possibility that the rubble and foundations which currently remain on the site could possibly be used as aggregate for concrete structures if concrete is a chosen material for the proposal. This would eliminate the need to remove the rubble from the site and help lower the carbon footprint of any proposal. The planting of several types of plants, trees and vegetation on the greater site area using Phytoremediation during the tender and pre-construction stage will help to cleanse the site area and the soil, by removing and absorbing the contaminates which exist within the soil - while also increasing the quality of area and acting as sound barriers and aesthetically improving the environment.
Connection to Strengthen
Site Views etc
Site Scale & Comparison In its current condition the true scale of the site area which has been selected is both hard to appreciate and hard to access as its currently a brownfield development site.
Due to the vast emptiness which surrounds the site a relative scale is hard to grasp due to the distance the site is experienced from and perspective altering the perception of the viewer.
Fig 1. St Peters Sq Vatican City @ 1.10000 Fig 2. Laban Arts Centre, Greenwich @ 1.15000 Fig 3. O2 Arena, Greenwich @ 1.15000 Fig 4. Opera House, Oslo @ 1.5000
Programmatic Breakdown The two primary functions of the Culture House were investigated and researched individually to identify their individual programs and relationships. The information for program sizes was acquired through the Metric Handbook & Neufert - in order to get a general idea of the spaces required for the proposal. The spaces themselves were then split in three main categories that each function could relate to ;- Public Areas Private Areas Shared Areas with the addition of a Performance section for the Performing Arts Centre Breakdown.
The programs were colour-coded so that similar or related programs were given the same or similar colour - in order to establish some primitive initial relationships - such as The Cafe & The Cafe Kitchen are the same colour , even though one is a public function and the other is private. The programs were then analysed and space percentages were worked out in order to identify the tactic ratios contained within each program. Through this extraction it will be possible to identify areas of the two programs which overlap and do not need to be duplicated within the scheme.
Typical Library Programmatic Breakdown* Public Areas; Cafe Adult Lending Childrens Library Seating Workstations Lobby Public Toilets Archive Room
200sqm 750sqm 350sqm 400sqm 120sqm 300sqm 50sqm 120sqm
Private Areas Administration Maintenance Stock Area Cafe Kitchen Office Space Toilets
400sqm 120sqm 150sqm 60sqm 160sqm 50sqm Public -48.98 %
Shared; Meeting Rooms Study Cells Exhibition Space Circulation
100sqm 80sqm 315sqm 950sqm
* it is acknowledged that there is no such thing as a ‘typical’ library and that certain multi-media and interactive facilities have not been listed.
Typical Performing Arts Centre Breakdown* Public Areas; Cafe Lobby Public Toilets Bar Exhibition
200sqm 200sqm 80sqm 150sqm 80sqm
Public -3.98 %
Performance; Rehearsal Auditorium Lecture Facility Changing Rooms Practice Studios Storage Gym Conference Room(s) Production Rooms
300sqm 300sqm 250sqm 1750sqm 150sqm 80sqm 60sqm 270sqm
Private Areas Administration Maintenance Stock Area Cafe Kitchen Bar Storage Box Office Cloakroom Office Space Toilets
250sqm 120sqm 150sqm 60sqm 10sqm 10sqm 25sqm 160sqm 80sqm
Performance -44.85 %
Private -12.28 %
Shared -12.78 %
Shared; Auditorium Circulation
* it is acknowledged that there is no such thing as a ‘typical’ performing arts centre
Circulation -26.11 %
Programmatic Overlap Due to the categorization of functions within each of the individual programs it is possibly to identify where there would be an overlap between the two and to conclude whether the possibility of sharing the programs is possible. Library
Performing Arts Centre
Public -3.98 %
Public -48.98 % Performance -44.85 %
Private -12.28 %
Shared -12.78 %
Circulation -26.11 %
Program Development As observed the two programs have numerous similarities and incidences of programmatic overlaps - with this in mind the more generic performing Arts Centre breakdown is taken as the main backbone of the proposal with the addition of library specific functions such as Adult Lending, Childrens Library, Seating, Workstations & Study Cells added. Some of the facilities which are now shared, such as the Lobby, Exhibition space,Toilets, Admin & Office spaces now increase in size due to them being shared.
Each program area is now split into distinct categories - Public (Red) Private (Orange), Shared (Yellow) Performance (Light Green) Books/Library (Green) & Circulation (Blue)
Performing Arts Centre
Public Areas; Cafe(s) Lobby Public Toilets Bar
350sqm 400sqm 100sqm 150sqm
Public -9.99 %
Private Areas Administration Maintenance Stock Area Cafe Kitchen(s) Bar Storage Box Office Cloakroom Office Space Toilets
500sqm 200sqm 200sqm 100sqm 10sqm 10sqm 25sqm 250sqm 100sqm
Shared; Rehearsal Auditorium Lecture Facility Exhibition Conference Room
300sqm 300sqm 350sqm 60sqm
Library; Adult Lending Childrens Library Seating Workstations
750sqm 350sqm 400sqm 120sqm
Performance; Changing Rooms Practice Studios Gym Auditorium Circulation Total:
250sqm 1750sqm 80sqm 900sqm
Program Relationships The programs and spaces are extracted from the final brief -with parking facilities and plant facilities added, the rehearsal auditorium has been reconsidered as a minor auditorium space - so that it can be used for more initimate performaces - enabling greater flexibility for the scheme.
Changing Area Minor Auditorium Box Office Lecture Auditorium
WC Exhibition Cafe
Library (Adult & Children)
Bar Stock/ Storage
Plant Maint Seating
The programs connected with solid lines represent strong and more successful relationships, where-as the programs connected with the dashed lines are some-what desirable but not crucial to the overall flow of the proposal
The preliminary design is a somewhat iterative process where rules and relationships are tested through physical massing models
Iteration 01: Original Model
PRIVATE PRIVATE PRIVATE LIBRARY LIBRARY LIBRARY PUBLIC PUBLIC SHARED PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE
PRIVATE LIBRARY SHARED PERFORM
PRIVATE LIBRARY PUBLIC PERFORM
Iteration 02: Inclusion of central atrium
Iteration 03: Public Realm Extended
PUBLIC SHARED PUBLIC SHARED
The compartmentalisation of programs is dissolved,referring back to the initial case study where the boundaries of programs blur and interact - this is termed as the public realm as it removes the ‘boundaries’ and ‘private’ areas within the proposal.
SHARED PUBLIC SHARED PUBLIC
Iteration 04: Gradient Added The gradient is added to create a continous flow through the building, aiding with the flexibility of programs within the space.
PERFORMANCE SHARED PUBLIC LIBRARY PUBLIC LIBRARY LIBRARY SHARED CE A M R O F R PE
PRIVATE Private areas are replaced by public & shared areas
Finding the concept driver Throughout the year the unit has been addressing the issues of envelope and ground experimenting and testing their relationship(s) through models and case studies - it is felt that now is the time to be self-referential - to look back to the previous work in the first term and to extract principles from them to develope further within the Culture House proposal.
X =Y > Z
Often determined by control mechanisms such as circulation flow and determining the access into certain areas. X = Y > Z has been the building typology of choice for the year and this typology will be continued through the Culture House proposal - as it seems appropriate with X = Y > Z seemingly the predominant type of the area, with the O2 Arena EXPLODED AXO FOCUSING ONexamples. THE BUILDINGIt ENVELOPE and the Excel Centre two such can present the opportunity to manipulate D AXO FOCUSING ON THE BUILDING ENVELOPE the ground and urban fabric to blur what is internal and what is external.
Yokohama International Terminal _Internal External Programmatic Relation To Envelope Transparency
Determined by circulation and the idea of a single homegenious space - the terminal is a _Internal External Programmatic Relation To Envelope Transparency fluid flowing extension of the landscape. It presents certain prominent discussions such as public & private, transparency & envelope and solid and void to a certain extent - with the roofscape eroded to create seating in certain areas. The articulation of the glazing and the conversation which it creates between interiority & exteriority is something which is interesting and could be taken further. Plaza
Salon of Civic Exchange
Restaurants / Shops
The angling of the glazing means that reflections are minimised which further blurs the internal and external situations which leads the envelope to elude a certain sense of democracy and accessibility.
s from parking
ge handling & services
Domestic passengers International passengers Visitors
Envelope Design Workshop
The envelope design workshop gave the chance to creatively explore the structural implications of the aesthetic decisions, while also thinking of a structure materially - steel, concrete etc.How solving the structural problem can itself create a number of elegant solutions. Continuing on from the case study, the journey and the application of the module was explored and tested, creating several types of space throughout the final structure. The idea of a journey and one which involves some interaction and demands the user will be taken from the project along with the idea of the basic 5x5 structural grid, which can distort under distinct pressure and influences.
Finding the concept
1. Basic Stacked Building Program
2. Insertion of Atrium to create an internal Streetscape - a natural flow of movement
3. Em the com
3. Emphasize the flow of circulation by manipulating the floor plates and folding the landscape to become apart of the building
4. Continuation of the folded streetscape onto the bridge to connect with the Excel
Technical Review The mid-term technical presentation is the only opportunity before the end of year presentation to get the opinion of the head of Technical Studies and to receive a preliminary mark on the progress made at the design stage and the technical problems identified and solved.
It is the first time the head of Technical studies will have seen the project, so the presentation must be all encompassing, raising any concerns and highlighting any ingenunity within the process.
Silvertown Quays @ 1.5000 The site area within Silvertown Quays is seen to be the catalyst project in the redevelopment of the quays area.
In order to inform the design process an urban framework and infrastructure are planned so that the Culture House has the best chance of succeeding in its immediate micro setting, but to also make a larger commitment to the quays area by specifying the types of programs it is felt that the area needs. The quays area was initially modulated using the structural grillage developed in the envelop workshop, this helps to create a field condition and makes it easier to identify relationships within the urban fabric.
Urban Grillage Development The urban grid which was placed over the site area was realised in three dimensional form through the development of urban grillage models. The creation of the models aided with the tactility and ability to think in three dimensions which CAD software often negects. The urban development models took place in three stages: _ Urban Grillage _ Urban Pressures _Urban Routes
after these three phases along with tacit considerations such as views, sun paths and accessibility the urban plan developed towards its final stage.
By using the development models it was easy to visualise the size and the use of spaces within the area. To evaluate the sight lines and to comprehend how the spaces would flow into each other to create a charged urban area.
Shown right are the three development stages of the urban grillage with the final urban model illustrated at the bottom
Imposed Urban Grid
Current Urban Situation
The greater brownfield site area initially has a larger grid and grilliage imposed upon it - 50m x 50m - the urban pressures surrounding the site (such as the existing infrastructure, Thames barrier park, sight lines etc) are then brought into the site area - distorting the structural grid. The grid is then used to develop plots for building massing. Secondary routes are then added to the urban fabric to increase the area connectivity. Key areas within the site are bridged in order to encourage circulation both around the site and to bring users into the site area - from Britannia village, Thames Barrier Park and the Excel Centre / Canning Town. The increased connectivity of the area means that the development will have a greater chance of long term success and thus become more sustainable - socially, financially and culturally.
Area Connectivity (bridging routes) The main focal point of the greater
site area is the dock side - in order to maximise the potential for waterfront development - the dock has been enlarged to keep it in-line with the urban grid which was overlayed onto the site. The connectivity of the site is now increased dramatically with the addition of new four new bridges into the site - two across the docks and one across the main road to Thames barrier park and the other over Royal Docks to the Excel centre.
Secondary Routes (Urban Grid)
Residential R e s i d e n t i a l
Providing a mix of facilities in quay locations throughout the site area should ensure that the entire site area becomes socially charged. The main zoning considerations were to locate retail and mixed use facilities around the dock area - to encourage the creation of a waterside bouvelard. A sports centre is localated at the southern end of the dock and the north-east area becomes a cultural quarter - with the Culture House neighboured by galleries, workshops and artists studios. The offices and workshops are positioned near the road and towards the eastern side to act as sound barriers to the residential and retail zones.
What happens when its finished? Urban Implications,
Silvertown Quays @ 1.5000
The site area within Silvertown Quays is seen to be the catalyst project in the redevelopment of the quays area. In order to inform the design process an urban framework and infrastructure are planned so that the Culture House has the best chance of succeeding in its immediate micro setting, but to also make a larger commitment to the quays area by specifying the types of programs it is felt that the area needs. The quays area was initially modulated using the structural grillage developed in the envelop workshop, this helps to create a field condition and makes it easier to identify relationships within the urban fabric.
Silvertown _ Figure Ground_1:12500
Visibilty Analysis Map
The idea of producing a framework for the Culture House project was to enable it to become stitched into the overall urban fabric and to illustrate how it could influence the area though the coming years. The overall framework was influenced through desire-lines and visibility analysis using Depthmap software. The basic premise is that, if an area or facilitiy is visible there is a greater chance of people wanting to go to the area. The results of the proposal are visible above in the analysis map and on the opposite page in the axial map.
Genius Locai In order to ensure that both the facility and the framework are socially sustainability - there must be a sufficent flow or visitors - the theory of â€˜build it and they will comeâ€™ has been found to be flawed in the past decade. The near-by excel centre has typical visitor numbers of 1 million + annually, with vast amounts of on-site parking. By proposing a link between the two - as reccommended by the Olympic feasability study in 2009 , it gives the opportunity to create a dialogue and relationship between the two facilities, while also being able to satisfy visitors curiousity of the Mills and the new culture house. Adding two more links (bridges) over the docks towards the Millenium Mills and one to Thames Barrier Park creates a scenario where people should be continously flowing through the area - be it to get to the Excel, The Mills, or Barrier park - a higher footfall means that properties are more desirable, which will ensure investment for the scheme Axial Map
A Cultural Loop By adding the two main bridges within the scheme and the existing bridge over the docks it is hoped to capitalise on the curiousity and attraction of both the new culture house and the Millenium Mills, while adding as a useful intervention increasing the connectivity of the area for existing local residents.
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rin otp t
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2 0m 40 2, m2 6.5 79
The main aim of the masterplan was to stitch both the culture house and the general area together, while also fulfilling all the staturtory requirements. Previous analysis of the area and site walks have shown that there is very little public and/or green space in the area - so a conscious decision was made that a large amount of public / shared space should be allocated in the masterplan. Both to contribute and encourage the local community to use the area and also to create a vibrant neighbourhood for the new residents. Typically the average height of building proposed within the masterplan is of 6 stories high or 25m - the buildings range from mono-story buildings near the marine jettys, to 8 storey mixed use buildings near Millenium Mills (which remains
(Quays, Sqs, Boardwalks etc)
Both the number of residential units offered and the % types of units (1bed-4bed) are based on Newham Counils Planning Strategy (opposite) for the Silvertown Area. the
The masterplan aims to provide most of the reccommended housing for the Silvertown area and it is envisaged that it would be developed in 3 phases over a 5 year period - with a completion date of 2016. The Culture House and Cultural quarter would be sheduled for the first initially phased with it to be completed in time to take advantage of the Olympic events in the dock June 2012 - the rest of the side will have been cleared and would be temporarily used for surface parking - which would contribute to funds needed for the overall development.
Housing The London Plan sets housing targets for all London boroughs, which they must aim to achieve over the ten year period from 2011. Phasing (Financial Years) 2012/13 2016/17 Beckton Canning Town & CH
2017/18 â€“ 2021/22
2022/23 â€“ 2026/27
Stratford and West Ham
(Newham 2027 Planning Newham - Choices for the Core Strategy)
9170 18720 38750
Affordable Housing London Plan; PPS3; Housing SPG, Housing Strategy; revised interim Housing SPG The term â€˜affordable housingâ€™ means housing that has cost/rents below market price designed for people who otherwise could not afford suitable accommodation within the open market. There are two main categories for affordable housing, the social rented and intermediate sectors. Social rented is available to those who are assessed as being Homeless as defined within the Housing Act 1996. They will benefit from a subsidised rent, which in some instances is below 50% of the full open market value.
The intermediate sector includes provision for shared ownership (part buy, part rent) and intermediate rented accommodation. Shared ownership is available to those who wish to move away from social rented accommodation but cannot afford the open market value of properties in the private market. It allows individuals to part rent and part buy their properties. If their income increases they can buy further equity until they have purchased the property outright and become a homeowner _ In schemes of 10 or more housing units 50% of provision should be affordable. (although this can be provided for off-site - in instances such as One Hyde Park) _ The tenure mix as a percentage of the total amount of housing in each scheme achieving 50% affordable, should be 60% social rented and 40% intermediate.
The local borough council - Newham - would retain the nomination rights for tenants of the properties. An example of the % categories defined by North London sub-region proposals Social Rent 5 bedrooms 5% 4 bedrooms 10% 3bds/5person 25% 2bds/4person 40% 1bds/2person 20% Intermediate 3bds/5person 10% 2bd/3person 50% 1bd/2person 40%
The proposal aims to create a diverse community within the area by providing a diverse mix of building types : apartments, town houses, and mixed use buildings.
Mixed Use Residential & Retail _4150 sq/m (residential only) _primarily 5 storey buildings _retail and commercial ventures on ground floor this encourages life in the area after shop hours - helping to make the area vibrant and safe. _providing a mix of 1/2/3 bedroom apartments - with a 45 / 55 split between affordable housing and market value accommodation - with the higher, river / dock facing accommodation remaining at market value.
Multi-Storey Appartment buildings _115,200 sq/m _primarily 4 storey buildings _ 30% one bed , 50% two bed, 20% three bed within each band 30% will accommodate afforable housing - 70% of this to be shared ownership schemes. _aimed at young more transient professionals commuting from the city to more spacious accommodation _underground car parking will be provided.
Town Houses buildings _6930 sq/m _Aimed more towards small / young families & first time owners 50/50 split with market value and affordable housing _primarily 4 storey buildings _more afforable 4 bed accommodation _situated closer to Britannia village - helping to taper the urban fabric to the new development _primarily 3 storey
It is believed that an adequate amount of affordable housing has been allocated for the development even though it does not meet the recommended 50% (although developments rarely do) , if this is a condition of receiving planning then affordable housing will be provided in other developments within the area such as Minnoco Wharf - it is considered very likely that the same developer would be involved in the area.
Town Houses & Atmosphere hoped to be created. _Home zoning is recommended to be used within the area to create a more relaxed neighbourhood.
Humanizing the area Today cities are no longer appealing for pedestrians - cities and areas are more influenced and designed around vehicles than there are users. While it is true that today buildings and urban units are becoming increasingly large and grand, people continue to be small and slow and on the look out for sensory experiences and pleasure. In order to keep the area relatable and to a human scale - apart from the building height limits which have been recommended and those enforced by the (PSZ), there are several key points within the framework strategy which will be implemented. In modern cities today it is often the case that pedestrians are forced to interact with 60km/h environments that are designed to be experieced via a vehicle, while ‘traditional’/ historical buildings cannot be appreciated via a car
‘Rooted in biological history, the human sensory apparatus is designed to perceive and process sensory impressions while moving at about 5km /h’ Close encounters with buildings, Gehl J Et All With new attentions being paid to global warming and sustainability, the need for energy independence, and more urban living more is becoming known about the many negative environmental impacts of treeless urban streets - which go far beyond issues of asthetics.
Greenscaping & being aware of the benefits to the individual that planting trees and plants within the area both aesthetically and physologically is very important. Humans are tactile beings, concrete is not our natural environment and we find it difficult to relate to, the importance which is being placed on planting and materiality is of vital significance to the success of any development, however today this is often overlooked for sleek and contemporary lines. Considered planting & greenscaping strategies can provide the following benefits...
Improved business. Businesses on treescaped streets show 20% higher income streams, which is often the essential competitive edge needed for main street store success, versus competition from plaza stores. The architypical image and environment of walking down a tree lined bouelvard with shopping bag is a romantic view which consumers and pedestrians appreciate.
Increased security. Trees create more pleasant walking environments, bringing about increased walking, talking, pride, care of place, association and therefore actual ownership and surveillance of homes, blocks, neighborhoods plazas, businesses and other civic spaces.
Less drainage infrastructure. Trees absorb the first 30% of most precipitation through their leaf system, allowing evaporation back into the atmosphere. This moisture never hits the ground. Another percentage (up to 30%) of precipitation is absorbed back into the ground and taken in and held onto by the root struture, resulting in less puddles!
Reduced harm from exhaust emissions. Vehicle exhaust fumes are a major public health concern and contain significant pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), vola & nitrogen oxides (NOx). These emissions are contributing to asthma, ozone and other health impacts. Impacts can be reduced significantly from proximity to trees.
Lower urban air temperatures. Asphalt and concrete streets and car parks are known to increase urban temperatures 3-7 degrees. These temperature increases significantly impact energy costs to homeowners and consumers. A properly shaded neighborhood, mostly from urban street trees, can reduce energy bills for a household from 15-35%.
Soften and screen necessary street features such as utility poles, light poles and other needed street furniture. Trees are highly effective at screening those other vertical features to roadways that are needed for many safety and functional reasons.
Increased patient and reduced speed. Time in travel perception. Other research and observations confirm that motorists perceive the time it takes to get through treed versus non-treed environments has a significant differential. A treeless environment trip is perceived to be longer than one that is treed (Walter Kulash, P.E.; speech circa 1994, Glatting Jackson). (HOME ZONING RECOMMENDATION)
Provides a connection to nature and the human senses. Urban trees provide a canopy, root structure and setting for important insect and bacterial life below the surface; at grade for pets and romantic people to pause for what pets and romantic people pause for; they act as essential lofty environments for song birds, seeds, nuts, squirrels and other urban wild life
Material Strategy (Urban) Vegetation Switch Grass
The planting strategy draws from Thames Barrier Park while using Phytoremediation to absorb, store and degrade contaminants found in the environment and pollution in the air. Many of the plants can / will be planted on empty plots to remove pollutants from the soil during the pre-construction / tender phase. A mix of meadow grasses, trees and perennials surprise visitors with dramatic variety in color and texture throughout the year. Colorful grasses and perennials are densely planted and reflect the history of the area by appearing to be wildly emerging through the paving. The smell of heather and native Herbaceous perennials aim to transform the area and squares into an urban room encouraging communication and interaction through creating an atmosphere of tranquility - an extension of the barrier park - a green oasis in the concrete jungle
The urban pallette for the area will draw from the city pallette and will be predominately Limestone - Portland Stone - the stone of London city. This will be complimented with flagstone, slate and granite - echoing the industrail heritage of the area. These hardwearing materials will both create an aesthetically pleasing and practical situation. By creating a tactility to the area will give Silvertown Quays a sense of place which is often forgotten in many new developments. Many developments rely too much on concrete and synthetic materials which humans do not adjust to naturally.
Timber decking will be used sporadically throughout the urban realm and along the waterside creating a boardwalk in places and areas to sit and relax. The introduction of timber will help to humanise the area and to create places to relax and to enjoy the marine environment within the quays.
Urban Rooms Any classification of streets must start with Vitruvius and his description of the three street scenes for use as the backdrop in a theatre. Though the names and symbolism have changed, the general formal qualities still retain a powerful image for the European urbanist: ‘There are three kinds of scenes,
tragic, the comic the satyric.
Their decorations are different and unlike each other in scheme. Streets and spaces can create different feelings, evoke different thoughts and encourage different activities - like vitruvius suggusts. It is important that developments provide different types of spaces to encourage a proud range of activities rather than becoming ‘a one trick pony’. Shown right are examples of successful urban rooms and squares that enable various activities and atmospheres to be created. The ideal would be that similar spaces are created throughout the Silvertown quays masterplan creating spaces of convergence and social activity throughout.
Old Market Sq Nottingham
Picadilly Gardens Manchester
Jarmers Platz Copenhagen
Exchange Sq Manchester
Transport Strategy In order to make the proposal truely sustainable and accessible, small alterations have been made to the existing public transport networks. The Silvertown area itself is currently very well connected to the city and to the surrounding areas, as identified through mapping. There has been one new proposal which has begun construction since the mapping studies which affects the connectivity of the area - The Cable Car - running from the Royal Docks to the O2 Arena - this will increase the connectivity and accessibility of the the Greenwich Pennisula and the Woolwich area.
The route of the 678 bus has been altered slightly so that it now stops close to the proposed Culture House beside Silvertown Quays - this proposal does not result in any changing of stops or destination for the bus, but means that residents and visitors within the area have one extra stop that will be within the new development. The 478 bus, which runs along the opposite side of the dock via Beckton & Canning town is now more readily accessible with the proposal of the Bridge across the docks to the Excel, equally the Pontoon Dock station for the DLR is now more accessible due to the addition of a bridge connecting Silvertown Quays to Thames Barrier Park. A shared transport scheme - such as Whizzgo - is proposed for the residents within the area (not just Silvertown Quays - but Canning Town & Silvertown in general). Schemes such as ‘whizzgo’ reduces the need for parking, while providing access to ‘private’ form of transport to lower income families - which would be benefitial to the percentage of social housing which will be allowed. It is estimated one car per scheme takes up to 20 private cars off the road - therefore lowering CO2 emmissions, pollution and traffic levels. It is speculated that due to the increase of facilities and the incorporation of several types of public transport links - including private parking and a shared transport scheme for residents will enable the area to become a vibrant hive of activity rather than a ghost town development - with the urban fabric in constant flux.
Masterplan Evaluation -â€œBuilding for Life Criteriaâ€? Environment & Community Does the development provide (or is it close to) community facilities, such as a school, parks, play areas, shops, pubs or cafĂŠs? The proposal is surrounded by schools and parks while also providing the CULTURE HOUSE facility, there are several other recommended programs - such as studios, workspaces, a sports centre, pubs, cafes are restaurants. There are also provisions for several public squares.
Is there an accommodation mix that reflects the needs and aspirations of the local community? The proposal outlines the use and size of residential living that will be provided - ranging from a set % for social housing to 4 bedroom family townhouses.
Is the design specific to the scheme? The master plan utilizes the existing urban fabric and local regulations in regards to height / footprints etc. Due to the size of the proposal the detailed aesthetics of it are not fully developed - but any design would aim to take inspiration from the local venacular.
Does the scheme exploit existing buildings, landscape or topography? One of the schemes strong points is the reuse of local listed buildings and the creation of public squares and walkways along the docks, while also creating a connection with Britannia Village, Thames Barrier Park and the Excel Centre.
Streets, parking and pedestrianisation Does the building layout take priority over the streets and car parking, so that the highways do not dominate? The building footprints and public squares are priority within the proposal - but public facilities do need car access and parking facilities. These are catered from through two primary routes and the allocation of underground parking.
Is the car parking well integrated and situated so it supports the street scene? The car parking facilities will be located below ground in the majority of instances - however there is a small percentage of surface parking.
Design & Construction Is public space well designed and does it have suitable management arrangements in place?
Do the buildings exhibit architectural quality?
The provision of public spaces is well designed and it is envisaged that the public spaces will be handed over to the local council for maintainence.
The proposed buildings have not been developed further than massing stage - so this cannot be judged - it is envisaged that the development will become a high level venacular development moving away from the generic steel and glass of most dockside areas.
Is there a tenure mix that reflects the needs of the local community?
Does the development have easy access to public transport?
The master plan aims to try to create a variety of scenarios for the local community and to inspire both social but economic activity within it. The Mill & Silo listed structures are utilised and facilities are provided for training/ working and developing crafts / businesses.
The development includes several provisions of pedestrian infrastructure - bridges and pathways - that can make use of the existing strong infrastructure links - Bus links & DLR - Pontoon dock and West Silvertown stations, but also to the Excel links across the Royal Docks.
The creation of large areas of planting - both for to act as a noise barrier and to enhance public areas and the sourcing of recycled materials while also having the necessary materials ferried in allows all materials to have a lower carbon footprint.
Does the scheme feel like a place with distinctive character?
Do the buildings and layout make it easy to find your way around?
Are streets defined by a well-structured building layout?
The master plan is trying to emphasize the local character of the public spaces and still create an overall identity through circulation and fluditiy.
The developmenthas high levels of connectivity and would make it easy to find your way out and should create areas of convergence throughout the scheme.
The proposal is structured around the docks and the adaption of a previously used structural grid - this should ensure that way-finding and pathways are well defined and easily understood.
Are the streets pedestrian, cycle and vehicle friendly?
Does the scheme integrate with existing streets, paths and surrounding development?
Are public spaces and pedestrian routes overlooked and do they feel safe?
The proposal draws and develops on several existing routes, pathways and pressures, so the it seems as an evolution of the urban fabric rather than a crude insertion.
Public squares are large open spaces, but they are surrounded by residential and retail facilities ensuring that they are not isolated and can become vibrant hubs of activity.
Has the scheme made use of advances in construction or technology that enhance its performance, quality and attractiveness?
Do buildings or spaces outperform statutory minimum, such as building regulations?
The scheme avails of several innovations in construction in the conversion of the Mill building, the creation of the new extended finger docks and the provision of underground parking.
Yes, the access, provision of parking and provision of social housing outperforms building reccomendations.
The idea of community and connectivity is prominent throughout the proposal ensuring that the streets and walkways are shared spaces rather than the area becoming dominated by the vehicle.
Do internal spaces and layout allow for adaptation, conversion or extension? Unclear from stage the scheme has been developed to.
Does the development have any features that reduce its environmental impact?
Fabrication: Site Model A digital model of the greater site area was created using Google Sketchup software. The model was then divided into 170+ sections along the X axis to capture the necessary geometry in order to create the information to aid the fabrication of the site model.
The information was then extracted and rotated in order to create flat sections to be exported to the fabricators.
12mm MDF was selected as the material of choice for creating the site model. The end of the model was etched to label the unit name, site area and site scale onto the final panel of the model. A railing system was developed so that the model could be assembled and taken apart with ease - due to its large size this was a crucial parameter in its design.
The site model was pre-fabricated using a multi-axis CNC machine and labelled using the braille number system in the bottom left-hand corner of the section.
The modelled was designed in such a way that no glue was needed - the model is held together in compression through clamps and bolts creating a full urban landscape of the area.
The above numbering system was used - (132) - for the labelling of sections to aid in the construction process.
3 Axis milling machine @ work
Due to the size and the scale of the structure it was necessary that no glue was used as it needed to be both portable and assembled in various locations.
Value Engineering Due to financial constraints the concept of the model had to be altered in order to both meet the new financial constraints and also to alter the scale of the model from 1.500 to 1.200 in order to make a more architectural model rather than just a massing model.
UEL_UNIT 6_ Silvertown_1.200 Every second section from the model has been removed, with 158 sections now becoming 74 sections. A new railing system has been developed in order to space the sections in such a way that it is at regular intervals without altering the shape of the landscape.
The railing system remains consistent with the original intention that the model should be both portable and temporary with no glue, screws or fixings needed. The original intention for the model was to create a permanent base or display structure that it would be based upon - but due to the uncertainity of display it was felt that leaving it flexiable to later alternations would be the best solution - rather than to create a solution which may not be appropriate. A simple solution which is currently being utilised is to leave the model displayed with on a table-top or on the floor.
UEL_UNIT 6_ Silvertown_1.200
Materials : 12mm MDF CNC-production : 3DD Kent
Completed Site Model The model material was selected to keep a sense of continuity throughout the years work as most of the previous models which have been made have been made using MDF and it was felt that this continuity aswell as the financial benefits over using PLYWOOD made MDF an appropriate choice. Shown below are various stages of the model in construction - with each slice being placed individually by hand into the rails.
Although the model is designed to be temporary and easily transported, at over 2300mm long each section can prove quite challenging to transport - but it was felt that have a singluar slice would be more aesthetically successfull than the split two-piece alternative.
Development @ 1.500
Roof Top Garden
Seating / Restaurant
Minor Auditorium Back Stage
Gym Back Stage
...........................Someone has already done it first In order to fully comprehend the decision to wrap and lift the urban fabric and to bring it into the Culture House as a seamless continous flow, its time to observe how other architects have overcome this problem.
The idea of extending the urban fabric into the building is not something that is new and its prominent throughout the Yokohama terminal project - which is to be conceived as a landscape rather than a building. The idea of the Culture House is not as literally as FOAs interpretation, but is to act as both a grounding mechanism for the proposal - as the site is currently brownfield and sparse and also as a circulatory control - so that the building becomes legiable and that its users are absorbed into the building rather than aimlessly walking around it trying to orientate themselves , as so often happens in modern architecture. In the nineties the fashion of â€˜the foldâ€™, introduced by philosopher Gilles Deleuze, became increasingly in vogue with numerous practices which have explored this lineage - OMA, FOA, MVRDV, UN STUDIO, N.DENARI & DILLER SCOFODIO & RENFRO to name but a few - although knowledge of these practices and their respective projects is recognised only OMAs Educatorium will be explored in detail within this journal.
Villa VPRO - MVRDV NMR Facility - UN Studio
BBC Proposal - FOA
Carlow Arts Centre - Neil M Denari
EYE-Beam Museum - Diller Scofodio & Renfro
Educatorium - OMA
Educatorium | OMA | 1997 Completed in 1997, the ‘Educatorium’ contains a restaurant, two large lecture theaters and examination rooms. It was conceived to be the rendezvous point of the university campus serving fourteen faculties and the accompanying research facilities. This project explores some of the avenues which have already been touched on through development models and ideas.
“Composed of two planes which fold to accommodate a range of distinct programs, including an outdoor plaza, two lecture halls, cafeteria and a testing facility. Planes interlock to create a single trajectory in which the entire university experience – socialization, learning, examination – is encapsulated…..” OMA The building absorbs passersby using a ramped entrance which leads straight into the building nd then the rising floorplate folds upwards and backwards becoming both the wall and the roof of the building - this not only creates an interesting envelope condition - exhibiting the dilution of the wall/floor/roof relationship but it also gives the envelope a degree of legibility which as an observer think is very important for architecture - the user should be able to ‘way-find’ or to instinctively know what a building is - this clear lineage running from ground to roof , coined as the ‘social magic carpet’ helps to emphasize this. The construction system and circulation system employed - concrete columns and predominately ramps - allows users to discover and create their own routes and shortcuts while navigating around the buliding, this creates the possibility of areas of convergence throughout the building and to a degree creates an certain type of social construct , where people are almost forced to interact and experience all of the programs - this is certainly a condition which I would like to create within the Culture House scheme, as it will primarily be the social and user aspect of the scheme which will determine how successful it is. Similarly to the Yokohama Terminal Project the success of the project is through its circulation system - which starts with the ‘synthetic landscape’ and continues to flow through the building with shallow steps or wide ramps which become urban plazas - encouraging interaction between users.
The buiding attempts to generate social encounters by overlapping individual programs to create areas of convergence within the building.
OMA use the â€˜Synthetic Landscapeâ€™ to blur the internal and external conditions presented by the building. The main entrance is seen as an urban plaza - with interaction and conregation encouraged rather than viewing it as a passage way into the building.
The parti diagrams below illustrate the relationship between the envelope and ground. The idea of fluditiy and transparency can be understood through the images within the page - without the materials becoming too heavy and overpowering.
Parti Section (s)
1:20 Formations Workshop Tom Lea AADipl The workshop began with the an introduction to Grasshopper - a parametric design software.
The software would be used to give a more focused approach to the design intent of the Culture House project - this would be further development in the second part of the workshop through 1.20 physical models. Initially the introduction to the software was explored through simple tutorials and learning the basic structure and systems involved in the software - and developing a parametric train of thought.
The four most commonly used tabs are shown above Parameter Tab - for bridging between Rhino & GH Logic Tab - for data handling Scalar - for processing and generating scalar data Surface Tab - for manipulating, generating and evaluating surfaces
Populate a surface with a component
Draw a series of construction curves in Rhino. These will form the skeleton for the surface. In Grasshopper assign the curves to the curve component. Step 2 Next select the ‘Loft’ component .Connect the output of the curve component to the ‘S’ input (Section Curves) of the loft component. This will create the surface. Figure 1.
Step 3 Select the ‘Flip’ component from the ‘Utilities’ tab. This needs to be connected to the loft component as shown, and will flip the geometry of the curve, so that it is facing the right way. To create a surface which can then be manipulated into a grid for population by a component, the ‘Surface’ component from the ‘Morph’ tab menu must be selected, and connected as shown. Step 4 We have to split the surface in to a grid of boxes. To do this, select the ‘Surface Box’ component from the ‘Morph’ and connect it to the ‘Surface’ component. Then to array a grid of boxes over the surface a ‘divide’ component must be added. In order to control the number of boxes over the suface add number sliders to the ‘U’ and ‘V’ inputs of the ‘divide ’ component. Step 5 Draw a simple geometric shape in Rhino. Then in grassshopper, select the ‘Geometry’ component from the ‘Geometry’ tab and select the set one geometry optin. Now select the geometric shape created in rhino, this will be associated with that component. Fig 3. Step 6 This geometric shape is currently independant of the created surface. Select the ‘Morph’connect this to the ‘SBox’ of step 4 and the ‘BBox’ of Step 5 as shown. This will then populate the Surface with the created component. Fig 4.
Attractor point Steps 7-10 add an attractor point which varies components height dependant on distance from the point
Attractor point Variations Step 1
Creating a surface diagrid Draw a series of construction curves in Rhino. These will form the skeleton for the surface. In Grasshopper assign the curves to the curve component. Step 2 Drag and drop a loft component onto the canvas and connect the curves. Step 3 Drag and drop a surface component connect to the loft component, then add a divide Interval command in order to divide the surfaces into smaller areas - connect this to a slider to control the degrees of division.
Step 4 Drag and drop an Isotrim component onto the canvas - connect this with the divide - then add a Brep Component to the canvas and connect with the Isotrim.
Step 5 Drag and drop 4 list components onto the canvas - set the integers to 0,1,2,3 - these will define each corner of the sub-division.
Step 6 Add two Line components to the canvas and connect them with the first and third list components at A, B, then connect the first Line component with the third list command and then connect the second Line component with the fourth list command. Step 7 Add the 4Point Surface component to the canvas and connect with the all the list items
Step 8 Add the Pipe command and connect the two Line components to C then add a slider for the pipe radius and connect that to R
The idea of hybridy and flow were explored through development models. The building is views as a whole rather than one containing two programs, With this consideration the programs themselves are very fluid and overlap and attempt to give the building a flow of both movement and experience.
The two auditoriums are located at different ends of the building with the adaptable â€˜black boxâ€™ auditorium located above the entrance to the east end of the building and the configured main auditorium to the top of the west end of the building. The idea of cross flow and movement between these areas is meant to encourage the convergence of dancers/ performers with library users, office workers and the general public.
Specific spaces and construction details were modelled and developed in order to fully understand the implications of certain techniques and decisions. A 1.50 physical model of a dance studio is illustrated on these pages - the floor construction and its many layers was one area which was particularly painstakingly explored. This combined with the main structure of the building being prominent helped to give a true idea of the feeling of the space and what would be involved in the spaces creation.
Shown right is the spatial qualities which are created through the articulation of the structural trusses within the building. It is thought that the purity of the form and prominent structural form would hark back to the industra il heritage of the area.
The architecture of the overhang was explored although it was thought that this could be too â€˜grandâ€™ a gesture for the area......
Through sectional development the project has evolved and some new interests have been developed and emphasized that werent obvious in the initial conceptual illustrations. The influences of the Yokohama terminal and circulation are still evident, with the idea of creating a flow through spaces and areas of convergence and incidential spaces both within the building and on an urban scale. Libraries & Performing Arts schools are places of exploration, of creativity and of evolution - it was felt that the idea of rigouriously compartmentising areas and spaces was something that was rather counter-intuitive to the underlying principles of the Culture House. Ideas and theories of the use of spaces were explored - with Rem Koolhaas Junkspace specifically explored with the more contemporary idea of â€˜break-outâ€™ spaces.
What is proposed for the Culture House is the implementation of ‘Intensive Space’ - this is the inverse of Junkspace and closely related to the ideals behind ‘break-out’ spaces and particularly appropriate to creative environments. Intensive Space by definition is a space that has no programmatic values or boundaries. It is a space that is adaptable, fluid and not limited to one activity. There are distinct areas of intensive spaces today visible in all buildings - areas such as Foyers, Galleries & Exhibition spaces. London exhibits the ideals of Intensive spaces throughout the city - with pop-up shops and stalls appearing in previously dormant and wasted places. It is envisaged that the intensive space throughout the Culture House will be used to engage the two programs (Library & Performing Arts) through impromptu performances, crowd-sourcing, informal meeting areas ,exhibition areas, gallerys and gatherings.
The initial planning of the Culture House was shaped using circulatory diagrams and programmatic zoning. The building was intially treated as a solid rectangle which was reactive to all forces and effects. The main entrance for the performers will be located on the eastern side of the building and this entrance forms and wharfs the envelope of the building by the altering of the ground condition. The main visitor entrance is located on the north-western side of the building enabling viewers from across the dock to clearly see the entrance of the building and to instantly find their way in. A similar design decision was made on the southern side with a central pinch point acting as the entrance to the cafe which opens up to the
Development @ 1.500
Lecture Gym Back Stage
Gym Back Stage
Development @ 1.500
Development @ 1.500
Development @ 1.500
Exhib The BlackBox Intensive Space
Structural Precedent Kraanspoor Office Building Amsterdam, NL 2007 Architects: OTH, Amsterdam
Structural Engineer: Aronsohn raadgevande
Built on an abandoned crane track - 270m long & 13.5m high & 8.5m wide - the Kraanspoor office building was constructed in 2007. The site situation is somewhat similar to that of the the Culture House in Silvertown with respect to that being a former industrailised area which is being redeveloped. The principle of the office is a light-weight steel structure resting on the old crane track although it is not necessary for the culture house to be a light weight structure it will be constructed using a steel frame system. The office is assembled from 23m modules divided into three fields of 7.6m tubular bracing members. The key feature which is being explored is the double-skin climate facade. Combined with sunblocking glass - the slats on the building can reduce the solar energy entering the building during the summer and during winter can help to insulate the building while keeping heating costs & loads down. A hydrothermal heating and cooling system uses the water pumped up from the sea below to help cool the building - this is a feature which could be possibly utilised within the docks area - dependant on the nature of future activities which are planned for the docks.
The double-skin facade allows for natural ventilation of the offices and acts as a buffer against heat in summer and cold in winter - similar to a vaccum in a double-glazed window. Floor convectors prevent cold air drop and cold radiation.
Structurally the office acts similar to that of a warehouse or shed -a skeleton structure- with several key columns and beams being braced at regular intervals - perhaps a more elegant solution would be to triangulate the entire structure rather than just bracing linear columns - creating a truss system instead. All the basic principles such as live and dead loads are quite easily considered and illustrated.
Double-Skin Facade A double skin facade is an additional external skin for a building that can optimize the indoor climate and reduce the energy demand of the building. The facade is a passive - double skin facade as its not mechanically ventilated itself - but lets the air blow throughout it - cooling and heating the building.
Advantages Protection of the inner facade against weather conditions saves costs in the operating phase by reducing maintenance costs. Preheating of incoming fresh air in the winter period saves energy. Natural ventilation may be combined with a double skin facade to save energy and to enable inexpensive ventilation methods. Lower energy losses with the reduction of wind cooling of the facade, while also helping to prevent overheating. Acoustic protection from sources of noise. Double skin facades offer the possibility of increasing the daylight level inside the building. Reduction of thermal bridges via improved building envelope.
Disadvantages Extra costs in the construction phase. Cleaning might cause extra work and thereby extra costs which have to be made clear to the client during the planning phase. Fire regulations might cause difficulties. The fire escape routes have to be given extra attention.
A photo of a model from the Envelope Workshop illustrating primary & secondary structural members
The structure of the Culture House needs to stay true to the principles which have been established and developed throughout the year. The Culture House will develop the principles of structure integrity and importance identified in the initial Yokohama case study while evolving on the structural principles explored within the envelope workshop. Due to the expressive nature of the Culture House design, it would require a frame or a trusted frame structure in order to achieve the double curvature in the facade. Structural options (shown right) are investigated in order to identify an optium premliminary solution - based on effiecency and use-ability.
Columns Similar to the structural solution used within the Envelope Workshop
concrete or steel columns could be employed on a 5m or 10m grid. A lightweight structural support for the skin could be used to augment a primary column structure.
Vierendeel Truss A vierendeel truss solution could be employed and formed around the
Culture House form - this would be fabricated off-site increasing construction speed and cutting construction costs.
A similar solution to the vierendeel truss but it hints at a more industrial use which could be appropriate given the history of the area. One draw back would be the height restrictions in some areas of the Truss.
Structurally sound and can be adapted specifically to each spacing / floor plan. It has a similar draw-backs of a convential truss, but with less height restrictions
Hybrid Truss A Hybrid Truss is the ultimate solution in terms of structural flexibility while
keeping the benefits of off-site construction, they can look slightly hap-hazard and confused.
* All solutions would require some sort of frame or secondary structure for floors etc
Manipulating a standard structural grid system exerting force and pressure to shape the grid into the form of the Culture House.
The structural manipulation and development is an iterative process slowly evolving by the removal,twisting & joining of structural members
Initial Structural Solution
Glass / Solid Skin
Truss (Primary) Structure
Second Floor (Load Bearing)
First Floor (Load Bearing)
Ground Floor (Load Bearing) Basement
The Black Box The XYZ Culture House is primarily a public building and as such should lead the way in sustainable construction and to be financially responsible. Due to the nature and location of the Culture House and programs contained it is very hard to specify exactly what the space will be primarily used for : dance, performance, theatre, community meetings etc. Over time, the costs of constantly reconfiguring the stage can become an insurmountable financial burden. The idea of making a space which would be truely adaptable - both in terms of performance spaces and in terms of future building use - i.e. a permanent rake in a building could be seem as a limiting factor if the building use was to be changed. Removing the raked seating and the tradition fly tower creates a space with unlimited potential.
Seating Fly Tower Stage
Fixed Seating Configurations
More Seating Configuration Options
By adapting proven technologies for new uses, the Black Box can be altered into a wide array of configurationsâ€”including proscenium, thrust, arena, traverse, studio, and flat floor configurationsâ€”with only a small crew in a Office few hours. Directors and performers are empowered to select or invent the stage-audience configuration that fulfills their V Meeting artistic desires, facilitating experimentation and true interaction between performer and audience
Ability to increase space
A few of the sample configurations possible using the system
30m 1_Italian 1_Italian Opera Opera (720(720 Seats)Seats)
2_Arena 2_Arena (up (600 to 600Seats) Seats)
4_Flat Floor 450sqM
3_Flat Floor (1000 capacity)
5_Disco (up to 1320sqm)
4_Disco (1350 capacity) 2 Options
-Modular lift floor: The entire floor of can be lowered or less steel columns mation from an inc
Material & Construction In choosing materials and construction techniques, local material sourcing will be considered with an aim to minimize transportation. The waterfront location of the proposal allows materials to be transported by barges directly to the construction site - or to the existing working wharfs - Peruvian Wharfs. This method of transportation reduces the potential carbon footprint by up to 10 times when compared with other forms of transportation such as trucking.
Steel All steel components used will be specified to use a large recycled content, and will include less embodied energy than a solely concrete framed solution. The use of steel means that a bolted assembly can be detailed resulting less time on site and allow for possible deconstruction to facilitate adpation and re-use in the future.
Concrete The concrete which will be used for the pier and topping slabs in the steel-framed areas will consider ways to which it is possible to reduce its carbon impact. Generally it is the cement which holds the largest carbon footprint within concrete - the use of of Complementary cementing materials (CCM) such as ground granulated blastfurnace slag (ggbs), fly ash, rice husk ash which are industrial by-products and considered carbon neutrail can help to reduce the carbon footprint of the proposal. Building regulations allow up to 20% use of recycled aggregate in structural concrete (columns/beams). Utilizing CCM as a replacement for some of the cement within the concrete mix can provide benefits such as; Reducing materials needed for landfills Reducing embodied energy Reducing CO2 emissions Improve durability Other concrete systems and products such as precast planks, slabs, beams and bubble deck systems will be evalutated for their speed of construction and to reduce on-site waste and formwork which would be needed.
Construction Ideally in the initial phases of design or pre-design stage, a report on the state of repair of the quay structures in the area where the proposal is to be established should be commissioned. It is asssumed that the existing Quay structure consists of sheet piling (quay structure under water), a hammer beam (quay structure above water) and anchoring in the ground behind these structures. A report would confirm if any design proposed would be financially sound to build on the existing quay structure or if it would be financially advantageous to create a new quay structure to support future development.
Materiality The reaction of most practicing architects today when faced when a waterfront location would be glass and steel - typically this can be very appropriate given in order to exploit the potential views and in order to make a proposal seem ‘contemporary’ and relevent. I purpose to step back from this immediate knee jerk reaction and to think of the site history, climate and the proposal purpose. Cor-ten steel will be used as a secondary skin over the an internal structure - which will glow at night. The panels will be perforated and the intensity of the perforations will be dependant on the activities in certain areas of the building. Dance studios and performance areas will be intensely perforated as they are more extroverted programs evoking a sense of voyarism. Where as office spaces will be less perforated providing a degree of privacy.
The material will change its colour and texture as it weathers over time and in that sense it mimics the activities of the building inside which themselves will be constantly changing and evolving. The idea of using the cor-ten as a seconday skin also leads it to becoming more sustainable on a financial level - ignoring the obvious benefits of keeping the building cool in summer and hot in winter - but it means that the building can easily change its ‘skin’ if the use of it were to change or if it were to come under new private ownership in the future.
Sarah Wigglesworth Boathouse
Matsunoyama Natural Science Museum
The Angel of the North
*Images sourced El Croquis Herzog & De Meuron N153-153
Envelope finish The envelope and the conditions which it can create - both internally, externally and with the ground - has been the main mechanism which has been explored throughout the year. The idea of porousity, density and democracy will be another strand of interest which will be developed through the envelope. The idea that the envelope wraps around the building creating a fluidity and almost organic nature of the building will be capitalised on as the envelope will then further act as a veil for the activities inside. It is proposed that perforations will be used on the skin to explore the ability to evoke interest, create spatial qualities while also being able to control views and led users into the building. Shown left are the various options and effects that have been investigated with regards to the envelope. Standard sized perforations with circular extrusions were explored to give the envelope a vibracy and to add to the tactility of the envelope - it was felt that circles at this size (5cm) created to large of a solid space inbetween. A similar patterning was then explored using smaller circular perforations but with both extrusions and recesses in circles - with the idea being that these could perhaps indicate areas of importance within the building. However it was felt that these double effects - perforations and extrusions were perhaps a little too much for the building and could become a little â€˜busyâ€™ for the facade. The last finish which was explored was more of a mesh - but it was also 3-dimensional in that it itself undulated and curved and bent - which was not necessary what was wanted. The final decision was that standardished 1000 x 1000 panels would be taken and would be perforated by a system derived from the programmatic organisation - this would keep costs down and would also enable the Culture House to achieve the desired aesthetic effects.
This was an early render from developing the perforation logic using Grasshopper
Perforation Intensity & Visibility
The Culture House as a single entity can be sub-divided into three different categories -
Private - Kitchens, Toilets, Changing Rooms etc Semi-Public - Library, Dance Studios, Cafe Public - Intensive Space, Foyer, Exhibition areas It these three categories which will help determine the perforation and its intensity at various parts of the facade dependant on the programmatic functions behind the envelope. The diagram above illustrates the principle of the intensity of perforation - with less perforations the space behind the envelope is not as visible to the viewer from the oustide of the inside. Spaces such as the Foyer and the Exhibition space will have the highest intensity of perforations, whereas the Kitchen areas will have relatively little perforations in comparisons. The perforations will be outlined and determined on the facade and will then be applied to standardised 1000 x 1000 corten panels - with the information and numbering system being supplied directly to the manufacturer from the master model. Shown right are some abstract images taken around the site and manipulated to develope the pattern of perforation for the facade - a similar technique was used by Herzog & de Meuron for the de Young Museum.
Area of privacy
Another way to establish the intensity of perforations is by creating a computerised system in which the areas of privacy are identified as attractor points within the building and then the remaining areas of the building are perforated in relation to these key points of privacy within the building - this would allow the opportunity to create a gradient across the facade rather than a patchwork effect that could possible happen using the previous 3 examples. By doing this we can also ensure that the information for perforations can be passed onto contractors and fabricators electronically and completely accurately as it would be apart of the overall master/ construction model of the Culture House.
Typical panel configuration and perforation shown below. Panels will be flat in the majority and be standard 1000mm x 1000mm size perforations for each panel will made at the manufacturers. 1000mm
1 0 0 0 m m
The form of the Culture House was manipulated and in turn bounded by the budgetary limitations , fabrication and ultimately the form is the result of an irrative performative (Gaussian) analysis.
The results of the gaussian analysis shown left - illustrate that over 80% of the form of the envelope can be constructed using flat standard panels, the remaining 20% of the panels would need to be custom formed or adjusted on site during construction. The form of the shape will be further rationalised to increase this percentage and to keep costs low, however it is envisage that some percentage of customization will be necessary for the North elevation of the Culture House.
Facade Development Illustrations of how the construction of the double skin facade with cor-ten panels would be constructed. The corten would act as a shade during bright sunny days while also creating a creative environment with the shadows that will be cast.
The experience within the spaces will be a stark contrast to those available to users in many public buildings in the area.
The panels are typically flat 1000 x 1000 panels feet and are affixed with stainless steel screws three at a time to aluminum frames. These unitized panel sections connect back to the slab edge through an engineered clipping system of aluminum extrusions. For the most part the metal panels are set 300 away from the inner glass wall.
3D Printed Model Due to the complexity and double-curavtures of some of the envelopesâ€™ surfaces - a 3D printed model was made @ scale 1.1000 - in order to convey the general shape and characteristics of the design proposal. The site location and proposal size in relation to both the Mills and the Excelt centre are apparent from the model and it allows the client or viewer to interact with the proposal and to explore its impact more than traditional elevations allow.
The image illustrates how the culture house raps around and reacts to the performers ramp entrance, while also â€˜bowing its headâ€™ towards the Mills and quayside - leading the viewers eye and body towards the entrance on the northern side.
Performers entrance (Ramp) Visitor / Audience Northern Entrance
The ability to visualise a design and to convey the ideas to a client or to a colleague is something that is of the utmost importance. Without being able to â€˜sellâ€™ or market the idea - it will remain just that - an idea. The process from an initial thought to sketch to spatial organisation to refined design is not linear process and does not stop at construction drawings, but today continues to high-end visuals - be that for competition proposals or for marketing purposes. The culture house project has evolved from an idea - to a sketch - to a schematic design - to a computer model initially in Sketchup and then developed further using Rhino software - while being augmented using AutoCAD - to a completed visualisation using VRAY.
The initial model within Rhino & the rendered image imported into Phtoshop
Renders were then post-produced in Photoshop to aid the impact and atmospheric qualities of the images
The ability to apply materials and shadows to renders is something which has become an industry standard within the last decade with even the most basic built in renderers becoming equiped with the ability to construct such images. My own personal peference is to go into post-production using Photoshop or Illustrator in order to adjust the light levels, contrast and atmospheric feel of images - to remove the generally heavily glosed feeling of renders and to try to add a texture and feel to the images which are produced.
In order to move away from the heavily glossed rendered images, all the images that were produced were imported into Adobe Photoshop. The images were brought in - desaturated- a new layer was made and the colour contrast was adjusted - a curves layer was created in order to emphasis shadows and dark tones - this was then merged with the existing layers and then a grain filter was added over the image to finish. Dependant on the images (interior or exterior) a flash effect, rain or sometimes a fish-eye effect was added to the final image to attempt to give it a personal / individual feel. Duplicate Layer > Adjustment >Hue Saturate 0, -65, 0 >Adjustment Layer >Composite Channel >Adjustment Layer > Curves > Adjustment according to image > Merge Visible > Filter > Noise > Filter > Stylize > Spherize
Example 1: Softening Colours & addings a lens flare effect.
Example 2: Increasing colour intensity, adding people, shadows & reflections.
Example 3: Desaturating the image and adding a rain effect to help â€˜groundâ€™ the image.
Example 4: Toning down the sky intensity while making the cor-ten more prominent
XY Z East London Culture House
UEL_Unit6_ Date: 2011-2013 Location: Silvertown London
Silvertown has missed the bus, after a decade experiencing the ‘boom’ years, Silvertown and a large portion of East London seems to have fallen behind in terms of development and social standards (education, public buildings and public spaces). Years of promises, proposals and visualisations litter planning offices and Newham council offices illustrating the potential that Silvertown has - in terms of population reach and as a cultural hub for South-East London. During the ‘boom’ times the only real development which Silvertown experienced was Thames Barrier park, although very successful and a pleasant place to visit, it has become isolated and under used. Currently lying in the Olympic shadow is an opportunity to build upon the interest surrounding East London, a chance to empower and redevelop the area and its people. The proposal for a Culture House and a proposed mixed use masterplan both seizes the moment and capitalises on the zeigeist. Culture in Britain has again risen to prominence and investment is happening - this is an opportunity which Silvertown cannot miss (again).
Contextual Strategy •
Silvertown is more a collection of individual neighbourhoods rather than a cohe -sive area
It has an introverted focus on these individual areas rather than a greater integra tion between the larger Silvertown & Canning town areas.
It has little visual and atmospheric identity
One of the fundamental issues that has not been resolved is the social and psycho logical crossing of the docks.
Silvertown Quays Silvertown is an industrialised district in the London Borough of Newham, named after Samuel Winkworth Silver’s former rubber factory which opened in 1852, and now dominated by the John Knight ABP Plant. Access was much improved through an extension of the Docklands Light Railway from Canning Town to Woolwich Arsenal, which opened on 2 December 2005. However, the old Silvertown railway station, near the Tate & Lyle works on the North London Line, was closed on 9 December 2006. Silvertown Quays is the largest riverside development area within the Royal Docks which is left for development. The Royal Docks comprise three docks in east London - the Royal Albert Dock, the Royal Victoria Dock and the King George V Dock. The three docks were completed between 1855 and 1921 on riverside marshes in East Ham and West Ham (now the London Borough of Newham). The Victoria and Albert docks were constructed by the London & St Katharine Docks Company, to provide berths for large vessels that could not be accommodated further upriver. They were a great commercial success, becoming London’s principal docks during the first half of the 20th century. The management of the water areas of the Royal Docks, including locks and bridges is now the responsibility of Royal Docks Management Authority Limited (RoDMA), which is owned and funded by the owners of the surrounding development land. The vision for the future of the Royal Docks is underpinned by a clear ten-point strategy:
Develop the Royal Docks as a world-class business destination within the knowledge economy Promote the Royal Docks as a focus for investment on a world stage building on opportunities presented by the Olympic and Paralympic Games Make the Royal Docks a place of choice to live Champion green enterprise and environmental sustainability Ensure that development positively benefits the local communities Exploit the potential for a visitor and tourist economy Create a unique and high quality waterfront urban quarter with a strong sense of place Improve cross-river and local connectivity Communicate openly and clearly Make it happen *London Development Agency (www.lda.gov.uk) A critical contextual, legislative and mapping analysis of the area has highlighted many key issues that the area is lacking and would require attention in any future strategy.
Royal Docks Opportunity Area is a Major Opportunity Zone (MOZ) which encourages investment and offers business incentives to ensure this.
It is crucial as highlighted in the ‘2009 Olympic feasability study’ to provide a furth -er bridging point across the docks
To utilise and emphasise the unique attributes of the Quay area
• To utilise the opportunity to produce a sustainable development - venturing further than using recycled materials and solar panels - to something that is socially sus tainable. •
The area should have a critical density to provide for a city atmosphere with a wide range of facilities provided
Both the Millenium Mills building and the PSZ limitations should be considered and used as height restrictions for any new developments.
It is envisaged that the Culture House would be a public project, which would either be completed entirely by the public sector with funding from various bodies - Arts Council England, EU Grants etc or a public-private partnership (PPP) would be entered in order to fund the project. The greater site area would be sold to a private developer by the LDA with stipulations in regards to area plans and % of social housing.
London Cultural Network
KEY TRAIN STATION CULTURAL HOUSE ART GALLERY PERFORMANCE HISTORIC
A-DALSTON CULTURE HOUSE B- LABAN ARTS CENTRE C- LEWISHAM ART HOUSE D- GREENWICH THEATRE E- BFI SOUTHBANK F - TATE MODERN G- BRITISH MUSEUM H- DESIGN MUSEUM I- IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM J- RADA K- ROYAL BALLET L- ROYAL OPERA HOUSE M- THE EXCEL CENTRE N - THE O2 ARENA O - IDEA STORE WHITECHAPEL P - IDEA STORE CRISP ST
Time-Relational Cultural Network
KEY PROPOSED CULTURE HOUSE CULTURAL HOUSE ART GALLERY PERFORMANCE
A-UEL B- LABAN ARTS CENTRE C- LEWISHAM ART HOUSE D- GREENWICH THEATRE E- BRICKLANE MUSIC HALL F - RAVENSBOURNE COLLEGE G- IDEA STORE CRISP ST H- IDEA STORE WHITECHAPEL
* UEL offers course in Music, Dance & Theatre but have no auditorium or practice spaces in the Docklands Campus near most of the student population ** Ravenbourne offers courses in Music Production and Media but do not have an auditorium *** Brickland Music hall is a small community hall which is used to host dance classes and performances
Proposed Local Cultural Network
Influcenced by a recognition of need as identified by mapping the Cultural Network of London, the XYZ Cultural Centre aims to become a cultural hub for East London, forming a local cultural axis with the Excel Centre and the O2. . Resisting the urge of typical water side architecture dominated by steel and glass. Issues of flow, interaction, accommodation and circulation were concentrated on. The project form was generated from external pressures which were impossed on the site and the staturtory restrictions which were relevent due to the PSZ. The second design decision was to choose a material which would give a nod to the areas historical past which would also gradually change and soften into the area. The cor-ten skin of the building would become perforated to act as a mechanism to control the transparency and interaction between internal and external conditions. The building attempts to blend in with the environment - emerging from the ground and tapering towards the quay and the Mill - it doesnt compete with the dominant Mills for attention, but rather helps to stitch the great urban area by creating a catalyst for change within it.
X Y Z Culture House The Culture House draws upon the decisions and choices which were made in previous projects and attempts to amalgamate the under-lying theme for the year in one coherent proposal.
The initial project - the Yokohama case study & Zaera Polo reading developed the idea of building classifications and typologies. Attempting to simplify the rationale and reasoning behind design and form decisions in the world of architecture. The XYZ Culture House would fall into the same category as the Yokohama Terminal (X=Y>Z) but for very different reasons. Due to its size (over 60m x 412m) the Yokohama terminalcannot be perceived internally in its whole - the whole form can only be appreciated aerially - with the building experienced in a fragmented manner. The need and necessity for the building to handle large flows of transient populations and to control this flow, leaves the building highly politically charged with mechanisms. Similarly due to the constraints of the PSZs and the site location and the overall design agenda, the XYZ Culture House became a building which reacted to its site area, with the â€˜skinâ€™ of the building warping and twisting due to the ground condition - creating dynamic democratically charged areas - both internally and external. Like Yokohama the Culture House does use some programmatic control mechanisms so that some areas of the building are only accessible by performers and others are public, although this was initially something which was not required if became a necessary requirement to a certain degree - to enable the seperate functions to be able to operate independently of each other. Internally visitors and performers are encouraged, almost forced to interact with views of practice studios visible from the external square, from the library area and from many of the reading areas. This sense of voyeurism, is deliberate and encouraged. Intensive space in the lobby areas and the reading areas bring a sense of the unknown to the areas - it is envisaged that this will be used as practice spaces, stretching areas and impromptu performance spaces - further joining viewer and performer together. XYZ is meant to be perceived as a reaction to city /urban fabric rather than simply a a new development. The building is charged with historic references, needed local facilities and aims to become a seed project for the greater Silvertown area - promoting growth, both socially and fiscally.
Visitors Performers Visitors Performers
Long Elevation - Ground Conditions
Rationalisation of structure + Skin
The rationalization of the surface geometry in the Culture House is formulated as a constraint conditions either in the form of developable surface forms or Gaussian curvature constraints. The project is comprised primarily of â€œruled-surfacesâ€?. This implies that structures can be framed conventionally with straight members and the skin warped to fit the design intentions - which means that standard components can be used in the majority to complete the project - lowering construction costs through material costs and making the construction process a quicker process.
The construction model is taken - and the surfaces are flattened, numbered and unrolled in order to produce two dimensional fabrication information (shown right). These surfaces are then panelised into 1000 x 1000 panels and then the perforation pattern will be imposed on each individual panel ensuring a coherent and buildable system. 10-15% of the panels within the Culture House will have to be specially shaped or moulded due to double-curvature within the external skin - this could either be done on site or when the panels are being fabricated. Although if this is done with the standardised panels it puts the onus on the contractors to produce a building that is as close as possible to the provided construction information.
North & East Flatten Surfaces
Construction Appropriately the XYZ Culture House is constructed in a similar way a ship would be constructed. In order to keep construction costs to a minimum and to keep construction timeline as short as possible - where possible the majority of materials are prefabricated off site. The primary steel frame structure for the building would be specified from a â€˜master-modelâ€™ built by the architect and shared with fabricators and construction workers. The structure would be cut using CNC guided plasma cutters for the trussed structural steel members. CNC rolling machines would be used to bend the flanges, and an automated trolley, would weld the assembly together.
_1 _2 _3
_10 _11 _12
_1 Floor Finish _2 Screed _3 Ceiling Construction - In-Situ Concrete , re-enforcement rods, metal formwork sheet ,I beams spanning adjacent direction , Hanger wire, 40mm Acoustic insulation, 2 x 12.5mm plasterboard _4 Timber Ceiling - _5 Floor Finish _6 Harlequin Floor Construction - Shock-absorbant elastomer pads, three bands of southern yellow pine, two layers of ply ,_7 Concrete Structure,_8 Truss Structure,_9 Heat Exchange unit,_10 Glazing system,_11 Connection Plate, _12 Connection Bracket, _13 Steel Channel, _14 Perforated 1000 x 1000 Cor-Ten panel
Unwrapped Panelised Skin
Sustainability The Culture House (as all public buildings should) aims to be as sustainable as realisitically possible without resorting to ‘greenwashing’ or employing sustainable buzzwords which are currently in vogue in the construction industry. The Culture House : •
Reinvigorates a brownfield site & industrail area of London
• Introduces several types of plants, trees and vegetation on the greater site area using Phytoremediation during the tender and pre-construction stage to cleanse the site area and the soil.
• Provides an appropriate framework & masterplan to ensure that the area is socially and financially sustainable • All materials are to be transported by barges directly to the construction site - or to the existing working wharfs - Peruvian Wharf. Reducing the potential carbon footprint by up to 10 times when compared with other forms of transportation such as trucking. • All steel components used will be specified to use a large recycled content, and will include less embodied energy than a solely concrete framed solution. The use of steel means that a bolted assembly can be detailed resulting less time on site and allow for possible deconstruction to facilitate adpation and re-use in the future. • Complementary cementing materials (CCM) will be used in the proposal. Building regulations allow up to 20% use of recycled aggregate in structural concrete (columns/ beams). • Ensures all construction work to be given to local contractors - helping employment in the area • seeks to establish connections with UEL & Ravensbourne college for both shared facilities - auditoriums, exhibition space etc - but also for construction and occupation stages of the project - UEL could provide surveying & architecture students during the construction phase, while Ravenbourne & UEL could provide interior designers and artists to provide details internally.
• Eliminates the traditional raked seating in Auditoria - making the building more adaptable for performances and for future uses. • Double skin facade is an additional external skin for the building that can optimize the indoor climate and reduce the energy demand of the building. •
Water efficent applicances will be installed wherever possible
Rainwater harvesting will be used for the external landscaping
Natural lighting will be exploited wherever possible to keep energy consumption to a minimum
Cross-wind ventilation will be applied to larger areas
Ground source heat pumps will be used to heat the building
Almost a great Idea.... The Whitechapel Ideas Store research
The Architect David Adjaye OBE Born: Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania Studied @ London South Bank University Royal College of Art, London 2006 Nominated for the Sterling Prize for the Whitechapel Idea Store
David Adjaye once known as a ‘trendy’ housebuilder to celebrities of London has shaken of his previously small stylish house building tag and has become one of the most prominent and sought after architects of his generation. Adjaye understands that architecture is much more than sculpture or a sequences of spaces- he realises the effect that architecture can have on the individual and their psyche. Adjayes big break came when he beat several high-profile firms to win the Idea Store competition to design and reinterpret what a modern library is today - the focus of this research document. Today he has completed projects of such importance as the Nobel Peace Centre and in 2009 he was selected as the winner of the National Museum of African American History and Culture part of the Smithsonian in Washington DC. Adjaye now has many international offices and has been cited as the example of a professional architect for students today, however Adjaye like many ‘star’ architects before him (Jean Nouvel, Will Alsop et all) has had naivety in his business outlook and in 2009 agreed to a Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) to stave off insolvency proceedings reported to be over one million pounds - this means that he will be paying back 43p in the pound to his creditors - the financial aspect of architecture is something which is often overlooked - but is crucially important.
Overleaf you will find the sample questionnaire which was sent to Adjaye Associates on 16/3/11 - at time of print - it had received no response.
The Whitechapel Ideas Store - An architectural precedent for social responsibility & engagement (i) A former prominent Colombian minister (Sergio Farjado) has claimed that; ‘Our most beautiful buildings must be in our poorest areas’ the parallels between this statement and the Whitechapel Ideas Store are obvious - would you firstly agree with the statement? & do you feel that the success of the Ideas Store(s) both critical and on a social level support this statement? (ii) You have worked on many projects which involve a sense of public & social engagement ( Make It Right - New Orleans , The Ideas Stores - London & your photographic journey through Africa) do you feel that this is the direction and approach which architects should be taking today? (iii) The '’architecture of overhang' which you have described seems to be the main architectural mechanism which differentiates the building from the buildings which were prevalent at the time - was this to create a social construct and a place to gather or was it purely an aesthetic evolution? (iv)The client for the Whitechapel Ideas Store was Tower Hamlets council - how did the relationship and the client / designer(s) intentions help to engage the brief and affect the outcome of the design? Where there avenues which you had hoped to explore that were not realised? (v) You have previously mentioned that you wanted to create an ‘an accessible civic building’, this is a term which could often be considered an oxymoron in modern society, how do you feel the existing economic and political situations (both now and at the time) have helped (and will help) to shape public architecture?
The Ideas Store(s) The concept and name Idea Store was pioneered by the London Borough of Tower Hamlets “We want to remove barriers - make it easy for people to see inside it, to enter the building and be part of the space,” says Heather Wills, idea stores programme director. Tower Hamlets faced a series of significant social problems. 30% of the residents needed help with basic skills, while at the same time over 80% of the population never used the library services on offer. Tower Hamlets are using design to:
•make libraries more attractive to those •provide the facilities for life long learning The new Idea Stores mirror the retail approach, both in their location on the high street, and also in their open building style. They are open 7 days a week for 71 hours. Visitor figures have quadrupled and issues are up by 40% and rising. The plan is for centres that draw people to books as effectively as supermarkets draw people to cornflakes and baked beans. Located in shopping areas, cafes and dance studios will lure the punters in. “We have to compete with the best High Street shops,” says idea stores’ programme director Heather Wills.
Finances Funded through proceeds from the sale of municipal buildings, a package of grants and EU funding, and private sponsorship, including Tower Hamlets Council Tower Hamlets College UK Online European Regional Development Fund London Development Agency Cityside Regeneration Surestart Sainsbury Families Charitable Trusts Lloyds TSB The Whitechapel store was new, radical and ambitious.Unlike previous public projects The Olympics, The Millennium Dome et all. Tower Hamlets council had developed a strict budget and a contingency to ensure that the Ideas Store was completed. Tower Hamlets communicated with Adjaye that the building and particularly the ground floor should be designed with the greatest degree of flexibility possible - to enable the possibly usage of the space for retail purposes. This was not only a sound decision in fiscal terms for the short term, but in the long term as flexible floor space means that the building becomes more sustainable and would be able to be sold at a later date for a number of uses.
Ideas Store Network The image shows the current existing network of ideas store which have been opened since the â€œIdeas Storeâ€? concept came into fruition back in 1999.
Recently Tower Hamlets council have announced that a new lo cal Idea Store is to open at Wat ney Market in Stepney designed by Bisset Adams (the architects of the Bow Ideas Store). The store will become the fifth of the coun cils pioneering Idea Stores in Tower Hamlets
Whitechapel Ideas Store
Bow Ideas Store
Crisp St Ideas Store
Canary Wharf Ideas Store
London Cultural Network
KEY TRAIN STATION CULTURAL HOUSE ART GALLERY PERFORMANCE HISTORIC
A-DALSTON CULTURE HOUSE B- LABAN ARTS CENTRE C- LEWISHAM ART HOUSE D- GREENWICH THEATRE E- BFI SOUTHBANK F - TATE MODERN G- BRITISH MUSEUM H- DESIGN MUSEUM I- IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM J- RADA K- ROYAL BALLET L- ROYAL OPERA HOUSE M- THE EXCEL CENTRE N - THE O2 ARENA O - IDEA STORE WHITECHAPEL P - IDEA STORE CRISP ST Q- IDEA STORE BOW R - IDEA STORE CANARY WHARF
The Ideas Store(s) brings a much need cultural facility to the East End of London, forming a closely knit quadrangle within a 5km radius. Not only does this benefit the immediate area but it will also benefit the city by creating a more evenly distributed cultural map.
Where? Whitechapel, London • a built-up inner city district in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, London, England. Located 3.4 miles (5.5 km) east of Charing Cross a •
The resident population are of varied ethnic origin, primarily Bangladeshi.
• Population of 12,558 • Figures estimate up to 52% of the population are Bangladeshi • 30% of the current population need help with basic skills • Since the 1970s Whitechapel with neighbouring parts of East London have figured prominently in Londons Art Scene
• It will be a scheduled stop for the new Crossrail project due to be completed 2017
In recent years Whitechapel has become very deprived and the literacy rate along with the high percentage of ethnic minorities are contributing factors to this. The Ideas Store in Whitechapel is an attempt by Tower Hamlets council to remove the stigma currently attached to libraries which are seen are intimidating civic institutions. By creating a fresh and contemporary situation that will encourage people to come in and explore rather than a monument to literary genius.
Ideas Store Whitechapel Size: 3,400sq.m Architect: Adjaye Associates Cost: 16,000,000 Fitout cost: 13,000,000 Number of study places / seats : 134
Number of computer terminals: 55 Opening Times: Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
9am-9pm 9am-9pm 9am-9pm 9am-9pm 9am-6pm 9am-5pm 11am-5pm
The building is constructed using a concrete frame and has a glass curtain wall on all sides - with an ‘architecture of the overhang’ created on the main elevation to create a ‘quasi-atrium’ to encourage people to filter into the building and upwards usingf the external escalator.
Program Public Areas; Cafe(s) IT/Surfing Exhibition Adult Library Childrens Library Teen zone Audio Visual Library
165sqm 150sqm 75sqm 1010sqm 330sqm 50sqm 110sqm
Semi -Private Areas Classrooms Dance Studio Creche Complimentary Therapy Staff Offices Ancillary fuctions
340sqm 140sqm 95sqm 85sqm 125sqm 205sqm
560sqm Public -54.95 %
The brief calls for a range of activities which have to be layered together - which Adjaye refers to as imbrication - and claims that this is relected in the spatial organisation - however it is felt on a personal level that this does not occur - that the building can be viewed as five seperate levels - with a rat-run like staircase to journey between floors - echoing the claustraphobic nature of the market place - with only 16% allocated for circulation - presumably through brief constraints - I think that if it were 20-24% this could increase the architectural journey in the building exponentially.
*Image sourced from Adjaye:Making Public Buildings - all credits to Adjaye & Associates
Building Visit_ 03/04/11 Emerging from the cavernous Whitechapel station you are immediately met with the hustle and bustle of the market, people are walking, people are talking, people are trading - the area feels full of life if not a little run down. As you pass between the ratrun of coloured awnings a monumental coloured glass cube emerges , rising above its neighbours towering five stories high greets you. Its glass facade sets it apart from the old buildings along Whitechapel, but yet relates it with the market.
The walk to the building is truly a struggle and trying to take a picture of the building from the market place is even worse - as the people rush through this tunnel that has been created. As I approach the building I see the â€˜architecture of the overhangâ€™ which I had previously read about. It is greeting and it does have the effect of the building reaching out to pull you in - now for the escalator journey up to the piano nobile - but that is cut short - the escalator is closed - apparently for safety reasons. I feel somewhat cheated - but I will continue on to the building. The ground floor entrance is somewhat anonymous located at the corner of the building and another entrance located down a side street - this porosity is rarely experienced in many public buildings - but the ground floor was designed with retail in mind - if finances demanded - which may explain why it seems lacking a little showmanship. The building seems simple - a central core for lifts and circulation seems prominent but minimal - this couldnt be the only circulation space within the building... but it is. It seems like an architectural shortcut - something that required no thought - something you would expect to encounter in an office block - not a building which was nominated for the Sterling Prize. As I ascend through the building - greeted with a startlingly bright red rubber flooring on each floor - their seems to be no connection between the previous level (apart from the consistency of materials - and I could have lived without the red flooring continuing throughout the building. There are moments of genius within the building - the overhang - possible the escalator - the deep mullions supporting the facade and in turn creating shelving and desk spaces and the cafe space at the top of the building gifting the user with views towards the Gherkin and central London, views which I was not aware were possible in this area of London. The building is busy, my tea is nice, the atmosphere is relaxed - the building undoubtedly works and is popular with the locals as the cafe will testify to, but award winning architecture? Im not sure.
*The visit to the building was recorded and can be viewed on the accompanying CD.
The closed escalator
The rooflight on the top floor
The main elevation on Whitechapel Rd
The facade detail
Materiality Externally the Ideas Store presents itself as a modern glossy building but beneath its veil internally it is a more workmanlike building,with unfinished stud walls and exposed concrete bathed by a dull coloured light spread by the facade. ‘Materiality’ has always been a prominent topic of Adjaye’s work and the Ideas Store is no different. Internally the exposed concrete frame defines the open spaces through ingenuity by the engineers.Arup set the building out on a rectangular grid designed to work as a sway frame – avoiding the need for any internal shear walls or bracing that could have constrained the spaces in use. The intentional monolithic look was achieved by a combination of cast in situ beams and columns, and precast ribbed soffits slabs, a solution whose thermal capacity enhances environmental performance as well as making for a more efficient construction sequence.
Bright red studded rubber is evident throughout which echos more of a cheap playground than a cultural red carpet Materials Palette
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) Red Rubber Flooring, Spruce plywood, Wood fibre board, Perforated steel, Laminated clear,blue and green glass, exposed concrete
The spectrum of laminated glazing The red rubber floor â€˜glowingâ€™ prominently against the spruce shelving
The prominence of the overhang over the payment
Adjayes custom designed shelving units
Panoramic of the library floor illustrating the constrast of rubber,plywood and concrete
Exploration of details
Facade Assembly Detail
The detail illustrates the ingenuity and economy of design where the large LVL mullions become a structure for the shelves and desks within the Ideas Store
Structure There was a requirement for flexibility stated from the client (Tower Hamlets) engineer Arup set the building out on a rectangular grid designed to work as a sway frame â€“ stability provided by the frame itself, avoiding the need for any internal shear walls or bracing that could have constrained the spaces in use. Precaster Hanson supplied 3,000mÂ˛ of bespoke precast concrete flooring units and 18 concrete staircases for the Idea Store. Hanson was given the task of designing, manufacturing and supplying units to create an exposed concrete ribbed ceiling to the open expanse of floors on the three upper storeys of what promises to become a landmark building in the area. Initially, the concept called for hundreds of separate beams and short concrete-deck elements to act compositely using a structural concrete topping. However, Hanson was able to redesign the units so that, in most cases, multiple ribs and decking were cast in one piece. This greatly aided the handling process during transport and installation and significantly reduced the number of construction joints.
Natural cooling and heating The Whitechapel Idea Store has been designed without mechanical cooling systems: there is no energy guzzling air conditioning. It is mechanically ventilated, however, using a displacement air system, and the cooling is achieved by water-sprayed exhaust air to the incoming air supply via a sophisticated thermal wheelheat recovery device. This process is commonly known as adiabatic cooling. Air is introduced at low level through a raised floor construction and allowed to rise naturally to high level, taking the heat away with it. However poor detailing has led dance teachers to discover that the dance studio has no fresh air inlet and the air con is combined with rooms used for body therapys â€“ the problem is that these occupants want the opposite environment to dancers so there is always a difficulty in providing an appropriate environment. Integration between the structural design and the building systems is a key success element to the building because of the need to minimise the internal heat accumulation. Exposed concrete surfaces act as a thermal energy store to absorb heat during the hot part of the day and naturally releasing it during cooler night periods.Further heat recovery is also engineered for the heating period. The innovative thermal wheel that is used to reduce the incoming supply air temperature in summer has a dual role during the winter months.
An energy-saving facade Arup carried out extensive studies on the facade to determine the optimum percentage of glazing on each facade of the building, ensuring the best thermal performance. This approach to the functionality of the facades produced optimum glazing percentages for each particular building aspect, something which is not immediately obvious from looking at the facade. It was demonstrated that the energy conserving properties of the south-facing facade would be optimised if the amount of overall glazing was kept to 55-60%, whereas for the west facade, the amount of overall glazing should be nearer 45%. Behind the cantilevered facade at the entrance, is an atrium space that contains the escalators. This space acts as a thermal buffer, trapping air in the winter and acting as a climate moderator. A combination of the heat lost from the front of the building and beneficial winter sun warming the space is largely contained within the atrium, resulting in above-ambient temperatures in the atrium and improved comfort in the winter.
Success? According to figures from Tower Hamlets council, the new Idea Store(s) and their mirroring of the retail approach, both in location on the high street, and in open building style has been a success. Now open 7 days a week for 71 hours. Visitor figures have quadrupled and issues are up
by 40% and rising. This can be the only true measure of how successful a project has been and should be applauded as a truly successful example of public architecture.
However, it is very hard to judge how much is of this was determined by the architect and the design and how much is due to the location and new facilities. During my visit to the Ideas Store - it was being used quite heavily by the local population and it was hard to find a seat - this could be deemed as a measure of its success or as a short-coming of the architectural planning (the lack of seats). As a building the Ideas store seems to be lost in the rheotric of its architect its hard to believe that the glazing reflects the market awnings when the Crisp Street store has the same glazing used. The homegenous program 311
although flowing on individual floors could be viewed
as a stack of five buildings rather than one singular building.As a technical exercise its lack of attention to key details - cladding, placement of services and a claustrophic central circulation
space allows it to fall short, as architecture and specifically public architecture it can be a lesson to future public developments, that low cost, low budget materials combined with a well researched social agenda can
make a difference to a society.
Critics cannot agree on whether the building is truely good architecture and even if it warranted a Sterling nomination
‘The building is either too eclectic or not eclectic enough. You have to decide if you’re going to have a minimal building, a funky minimal building, or if you’re going to be very expressive and have lots of stuff going on. The colours are difficult for me. I don’t understand the idea or impulse behind their use. ‘ Martha Schwartz
I just feel there is too much stuff going on. A cacophony. The green glass, the red oor, the angled light fittings. . . I find it all rather exhausting. But I like the escalator at the front, and the way the facade of the building splits to accommodate it. Mariella Frostrup The facade is clever in that it makes a view where there is no view. If you look at the view of the Sainsbury’s car park, it would be totally anonymous without the coloured glass. But the facade frames it and divides it and imposes order on it. Isabel Allen The view down Whitechapel Road doesn’t gain anything from being seen through coloured glass. Perhaps a more mature architect would have celebrated the view by framing that portion and leaving the glass clear. It dumps you in the corner of the building. Ian Ritchie The plan concept is simple - a core and space around it -an office typology that, even with its coloured facade, never succeeds in escaping its straightjacket. It’s wonderful if you’re walking down Whitechapel Road - it pulls you in. As long as you’re walking in the right direction. Ian Ritchie
One thing that cannot be disputed is that the Ideas Store(s) are working and if nothing else they are bringing an architectural debate back to an area which has suffered in the recent past.
Almost a great Idea.....
Main Entrance on Whitechapel Rd
In his Comprehensive Spending Review last autumn, the Chancellor, George Osborne, pledged to cut £16bn from the deficit in the coming financial year - libraries will close, schools will shut and a generation of austerity will begin.
Tower hamlets were faced with a situation in Whitechapel that 80% of the population did not use the existing library facilities while 30% of residents needed help with basic skills. The traditional library model Paradoxically, Tower Hamlets wasnt working. council have recently announced that a new local “We want to remove barriers Idea Store is to open at - make it easy for people to Watney Market in Stepney see inside it, to enter the designed by Bisset Adams. building and be part of the The store will become space,” says Heather Wills, the fifth of the councils idea stores programme pioneering Idea Stores in director. The plan was to draw Tower Hamlets. The first two people to books as effectively stores - one in Chrisp Street, as supermarkets draw people Poplar and the flagship store to special offers and sweets. in Whitechapel both designed Located in shopping areas the by David Adjaye opened in Ideas Store(s) had to beat the 2004 & 2005 respectively, retailers at their own game, but do they work? but this was not a simple rebranding exercise - the Idea Of all the Ideas Stores, Store in Whitechapel brings it is inevitable that the together adult learning, largest and flagship store in training, meeting areas, Whitechapel has attracted library services coupled with the most attention, so maybe cafes and dance studios to it would be a good place to help lure the public in. find the answer.
‘The East Ends Pompidou Centre’ It has been both lauded as and belittled as a mere office block - the truth lies
Funded through proceeds from the sale of municipal buildings, a package of
grants and EU funding, and private sponsorship, mainly J Sainsbury and Lloyds TSB. The Whitechapel store was new radical and ambitious.
reputation there is a tendency to look for philosophical meaning in his work.To somehow relate the colours of the store to more than a municipal reflection of The appointment of Adjaye the market stalls, but the was a brave but smart choice program itself and its aims by the council. Although the are well defined. How well practice had built relatively does it succeed in it? little on such a scale, it was developing a reputation Conceived as a simple stack for engaging architecture of flexible floor plates the
‘a monumental coloured cube’ that set itself apart from its surroundings whilst embracing them. As you emerge from the cavernous Whitechapel station you are immediately met with the hustle and bustle of the market, people are walking, people are talking, people are trading - the area feels full of life if not a little run down. As you pass between the coloured awnings emerges , rising above its neighbours towering five stories high greeting you. Its glass facade sets it apart from the old buildings along Whitechapel, but yet relates it with the market. Perhaps due to Adjaye’s
building is wrapped in a unified facade of colour and transparency. A curtain wall consisting of panels, clear glass,coloured glass and glass faced aluminium panels enclose all four facades. The building reaches out over the pavement creating a quasiatrium with an overhanging projection trying to absorb passers-by into the building or onto the external escalator that has more than an echo of the Pompidou. The ground floor has two entrances which seem almost anonymous - overshadowed by the prominent escalator - although there was the possibility that the entire ground floor which now houses the childrens library
little short-changed (Adjaye had
planned that the escalator should go to the top of the building, but this was cut for budget reasons.).
All five floors are very similar and of constant height, one could quite easily be confused for the other if it where not for the signs. There is no invitation or impetus supplied by the architecture to move through them in an exciting or even in an obvious way.
defines the open spaces through the ingenuity of the engineers. Arup set the building out on a rectangular grid designed to work as a sway frame – avoiding the need for any internal shear walls or bracing that could have constrained the spaces in use.
The intentional monolithic look was achieved by a combination of cast in situ beams and columns, and precast ribbed The cafe is placed on the top soffits slabs, a solution whose floor to draw people to the top thermal capacity enhances of the building rewarding them environmental performance with views west towards the as well as making for a City, with Foster’s Gherkin and more efficient construction Rogers’ Lloyd’s Building on full sequence. Initially the view. structural solution called for hundreds of separate beams The interior and exteriority and short concrete deck of the building presents, elements, but Hanson the pre-cast manufacturer came up with a solution that meant in most cases, multiple ribs and decking were cast in one piece. This greatly aided the handling process during transport and installation and significantly reduced the number of construction joints within the project. which may have contributed to previous critiques of the This attention to detail is building being left with the apparent in the facade conclusion that it is merely detailing aswell where the a fancy facade on an office laminated veneer lumber block. Externally the Ideas (LVL) form deep mullions Store presents itself as a that restrain the glazing while modern glossy building but doubling as a structure for beneath its veil internally both desks and shelving. it is a more workmanlike building,with unfinished stud Unfortunately the detailing walls and exposed concrete throughout the building does bathed by a dull coloured light not continue to this standard. spread by the facade. Badly laid, bright red studded
‘a condition of confusion’
‘Materiality’ has always been a prominent topic of Adjaye’s work and the Ideas Store is no different. Internally the
‘delibererately visual concrete frame’
rubber is evident throughout which echos more of a cheap playground than a cultural red carpet and the bookcases designed by Adjaye are crudely made from yellowing multi-ply. This apparent lack of thought is not limited to the bounds of materiality - the building is mechanically ventilated using a displacement air system, but with cooling achieved by
water-sprayed exhaust air to the incoming air supply via a sophisticated thermal wheel heat recovery device. This process is known as ‘adiabatic cooling’ and was somewhat of a first at the time for a public building. Air is introduced at low level through a raised floor void and allowed to rise naturally to high level, taking the heat away with it. However, although technically advanced, dance teachers have discovered that the dance studio has no fresh air inlet and the air con is combined with rooms used for body therapys – the problem is that these occupants want the opposite environment to dancers so there is always a difficulty in providing an appropriate environment.
Adjaye describes himself as ‘perceptualist’ and comment on the imbrication which can be experienced throughout the building and to an exten this is believable. The facade and quasi-atrium which acts as a thermal buffer - creatin a zone of heat that attracts traders and passers-by to stand under the canopy wor effectively well, but in practi his grandiose elevator gestu is closed the majority of the time and the users are treat instead to non-descript retai entrances on the ground floor. His attempts at creatin shelving and desk within the building are admirable effort but lack the mastery which Alsop demonstrated in the Peckham library.
The Idea Stores mirror the retail approach, both in their
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with ease. The design even accommodates the possibility of creating retail space on the ground floor - should the project finances have required this. Adjaye has said that he aimed to create a glamorous place that’s open to everybody an accessible civic building’ , given the nature of the architecture used and the evolution of architecture since I think that the treatment of the facade has been reduced to mere graphic facadism if at one point it had been more. As a building the Ideas store seems to be lost in the rhetoric of its architect, as a technical Facade detail exercise its lack of attention to key details allows it to fall short, as architecture and specifically public architecture it can be a lesson to future public developments, that low cost, low budget materials combined with a well researched social agenda can make a difference to a society.
location on the high street, and also in their open building style.Visitor figures have quadrupled and issues are up by 40% and rising, no doubt in part by Adjayes accessible and low-key design, something which should be commended. Architecture rarely succeeds as well on a social scale as it does on an urban or critical scale,
‘I want to operate on a human scale and the urban scale’’ claims Adjaye proudly, but the Ideas Store does this
Ideas Store Whitechapel Client Borough of Tower Hamlets Architect; Adjaye Assoc (www.adjaye.com). Cost 12million Structural engineer Arup. Main contractor Verry Construction Ltd. Completion Date: September 2005 Gross square footage: 4500m2 sq.ft.
‘************************************************************************************************** ‘**************************************************************************************************‘ ******************************************A Thousand Plateaus Project *************************** ***********************‘*************************************************************************** *********************************************‘***************************************************** ************************************************************A_Mc_Aviney_Dip 5_Unit_6********** ‘************************************************************************************************** ‘*************************************************************************************u0832586*** Const HOR = 55 Const VER = 22
‘horizontal dimension (u) ‘vertical dimension (v)
Const HOR2 = 55 Const VER2 = 22
‘horizontal dimension grid 2 (u2) ‘vertical dimension grid 2(v2)
Const ORIGIN_PLANE = -10
Type user_input pos As Variant force As Integer End Type Type node fix As Boolean pos(2) As Double state As Double temp As Double body As AcadCircle End Type Public nodes() As node Public nodes2() As node
‘fixes the state when near the source, so it doesnt diffuse values
‘points on surface/space ‘points on surface/space
Public inputs() As user_input Public max_z As Double
‘source points and intensity
Sub main() ‘initialize array initialize 0 ‘exchange information and adjust For d = 0 To 20 calculate 0 update_nodes 0 Next d
‘ Call routine to change view
initialize2 0 For i = 0 To 20 calculate2 0 update_nodes2 0 Next i insert_lines2 0
‘draw braces for second grid
glazing2 0 ZoomAll A_Thousand_Views2 End Sub Sub initialize (anyname As Integer) ReDim nodes(HOR, VER) As node ‘set up ThisDrawing.SendCommand “erase all “ Randomize
For u = 0 To HOR
‘ Construct grid of points
For v = 0 To VER nodes(u, v).pos(0) = u nodes(u, v).pos(1) = v If (u = 0 Or u = 30 Or v = 0 Or v = 10) Then nodes(u, v).pos(2) = 0 nodes(u, v).fix = True ‘Create a boundary edge Else nodes(u, v).pos(2) = 0 End If ThisDrawing.Regen acActiveViewport ‘ Regen drawing to show loop processes ZoomAll
‘ Helps illustrate the construction of the grid
Set nodes(u, v).body = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddCircle(nodes(u, v).pos, 0.5) Next v Next u
‘check whether close to source| if yes, then take source properties check_sources 0 ZoomExtents End Sub Sub initialize2(anyname As Integer) Dim u2 As Integer Dim v2 As Integer ReDim nodes2(HOR2, VER2) As node
For u2 = 0 To HOR2 ‘ Construct grid of points For v2 = 0 To VER2 nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0) = u2 nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1) = v2 nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) = ORIGIN_PLANE ThisDrawing.Regen acActiveViewport ‘ Regen drawing to show loop processes Set nodes2(u2, v2).body = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddCircle(nodes2(u2, v2).pos, 0.5) Next v2 Next u2 ‘get source information get_sources2 0 ‘check whether close to source| if yes, then take source properties check_sources2 0 End Sub Sub get_sources(token As Integer) Dim answer As Integer, n As Integer Dim pt As Variant Do pt = ThisDrawing.Utility.GetPoint(, “select a location on screen for structure”) ReDim Preserve inputs(n) As user_input inputs(n).pos = pt inputs(n).force = Val(InputBox(“specify the strength of input source “, “enter value”, “-15”)) ‘Input box used If (Abs(inputs(n).force) > max_z) Then max_z = Abs(inputs(n).force) answer = MsgBox(“do you want to seed another point?”, vbYesNo, “tired”) n=n+1 Loop While (answer = vbYes) End Sub
Sub get_sources2(token As Integer) Dim answer As Integer, n2 As Integer Dim pt As Variant Do pt = ThisDrawing.Utility.GetPoint(, “select a location on screen for seating”) ReDim Preserve inputs(n) As user_input inputs(n).pos = pt inputs(n).force = ORIGIN_PLANE + Val(InputBox(“specify the strength of input source “, “enter value”, “3”)) ‘Input box used If (Abs(inputs(n).force) > max_z) Then max_z = Abs(inputs(n).force) answer = MsgBox(“do you want to seed another point?”, vbYesNo, “tired”) n=n+1 Loop While (answer = vbYes) End Sub Sub check_sources(token As Integer) Dim q As Integer, u As Integer, v As Integer, nearest(1) As Integer, nearest_n(1) As Integer, nearest_r(1) As Integer, nearest_l(1) As Integer, nearest_b(1) As Integer, nearest_a(1) As Integer Dim mindis As Double, dis As Double ‘User input For q = 0 To UBound(inputs) mindis = 100000 ‘ridiculousy large number For u = 0 To HOR For v = 0 To VER dis = Sqr((inputs(q).pos(0) - nodes(u, v).pos(0)) ^ 2 + (inputs(q).pos(1) - nodes(u, v).pos(1)) ^ 2) If (dis < mindis) Then nearest(0) = u ‘nearest node horizontal index nearest(1) = v ‘nearest node vertical index mindis = dis End If
‘new minimum distance
Next v Next u ‘user_input gives further information on node and update on node nodes(nearest(0), nearest(1)).fix = True nodes(nearest(0), nearest(1)).state = inputs(q).force nodes(nearest(0), nearest(1)).body.Center = nodes(nearest(0), nearest(1)).pos For i = nearest(0) - 1 To nearest(0) + 1 For j = nearest(1) - 1 To nearest(1) + 1 nearest_n(0) = i nearest_n(1) = j nodes(nearest_n(0), nearest_n(1)).fix = True
nodes(nearest_n(0), nearest_n(1)).body.Center = nodes(nearest_n(0), nearest_n(1)).pos Next j Next i Next q End Sub Sub check_sources2(token As Integer)
Dim q As Integer, u As Integer, v As Integer, nearest(1) As Integer, nearest_n(1) As Integer, nearest_r(1) As Integer, nearest_l(1) As Integer, nearest_b(1) As Integer, nearest_a(1) As Integer Dim mindis As Double, dis As Double For q = 0 To UBound(inputs) mindis = 100000 ‘ridiculously large number For u2 = 0 To HOR2 For v2 = 0 To VER2 dis = Sqr((inputs(q).pos(0) - nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0)) ^ 2 + (inputs(q).pos(1) - nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1)) ^ 2) If (dis < mindis) Then nearest(0) = u2 ‘nearest node horizontal index nearest(1) = v2 ‘nearest node vertical index mindis = dis End If
‘new minimum distance
Next v2 Next u2 ‘’user_input gives further information on node and update on node nodes2(nearest(0), nearest(1)).fix = True nodes2(nearest(0), nearest(1)).state = inputs(q).force nodes2(nearest(0), nearest(1)).body.Center = nodes2(nearest(0), nearest(1)).pos For i = nearest(0) - 1 To nearest(0) + 1 For j = nearest(1) - 1 To nearest(1) + 1 nearest_n(0) = i nearest_n(1) = j nodes2(nearest_n(0), nearest_n(1)).fix = True nodes2(nearest_n(0), nearest_n(1)).state = inputs(q).force nodes2(nearest_n(0), nearest_n(1)).body.Center = nodes2(nearest_n(0), nearest_n(1)).pos Next j Next i
Next q End Sub Sub calculate(token As Integer) Dim l_n As Integer, r_n As Integer, a_n As Integer, b_n As Integer For u = 0 To HOR For v = 0 To VER l_n = IIf(u > 0, u - 1, HOR) r_n = IIf(u < HOR, u + 1, 0) b_n = IIf(v > 0, v - 1, VER) a_n = IIf(v < VER, v + 1, 0)
‘left neigh index ‘right neigh index ‘below neigh ‘above neigh
With nodes(u, v) If (.fix) Then .temp = .state Else .temp = (.pos(2) + nodes(l_n, v).pos(2) + nodes(r_n, v).pos(2) _ + nodes(u, a_n).pos(2) + nodes(u, b_n).pos(2)) / 5 End If End With Next v Next u End Sub Sub calculate2(token As Integer) Dim l_n As Integer, r_n As Integer, a_n As Integer, b_n As Integer For u2 = 0 To HOR2 For v2 = 0 To VER2 l_n = IIf(u2 > 0, u2 - 1, HOR2) r_n = IIf(u2 < HOR2, u + 1, 0) b_n = IIf(v2 > 0, v2 - 1, VER2) a_n = IIf(v2 < VER2, v2 + 1, 0)
‘left neigh index ‘right neigh index ‘below neigh ‘above neigh
With nodes2(u2, v2) If (.fix) Then .temp = .state Else .temp = (.pos(2) + nodes2(l_n, v).pos(2) + nodes2(r_n, v).pos(2) _ + nodes2(u2, a_n).pos(2) + nodes2(u2, b_n).pos(2)) / 5 End If End With Next v2 Next u2
End Sub Sub update_nodes(token As Integer) Dim col As New AcadAcCmColor For u = 0 To HOR For v = 0 To VER ‘update body nodes(u, v).pos(2) = nodes(u, v).temp nodes(u, v).body.Center = nodes(u, v).pos If (nodes(u, v).pos(2) >= 1 Or nodes(u, v).pos(2) <= -1) Then nodes(u, v).body.Radius = 1 / (1 + Abs(nodes(u, v).pos(2))) ‘ col.SetRGB 255 - 255 / max_z * Abs(nodes(u, v).pos(2)), 255 - 255 / max_z * Abs(nodes(u, v).pos(2)), 255 - 255 / max_z * Abs(nodes(u, v).pos(2)) ‘ nodes(u, v).body.TrueColor = col nodes(u, v).body.Update Next v Next u
End Sub Sub update_nodes2(token As Integer) Dim col As New AcadAcCmColor For u2 = 0 To HOR2 For v2 = 0 To VER2 ‘update body nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) = nodes2(u2, v2).temp nodes2(u2, v2).body.Center = nodes2(u2, v2).pos If (nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) >= 1 Or nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) <= -1) Then nodes2(u2, v2).body. Radius = 1 / (1 + Abs(nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2))) ‘ col.SetRGB 255 - 255 / max_z * Abs(nodes(u, v).pos(2)), 255 - 255 / max_z * Abs(nodes(u, v).pos(2)), 255 - 255 / max_z * Abs(nodes(u, v).pos(2)) ‘ nodes(u, v).body.TrueColor = col nodes2(u2, v2).body.Update Next v2 Next u2 End Sub Sub insert_lines(token As Integer) Dim u As Integer, v As Integer Dim pts() As Double, st(2) As Double, et(2) As Double, slotptu(2) As Double, slotptv(2) As Double Dim brace As AcadLine, cordu(HOR) As AcadSpline, cordv(VER) As AcadSpline Dim links(3) As AcadEntity Dim linkss(3) As AcadEntity Dim copie As AcadSpline Dim here As Variant, there As Variant Dim tempu(HOR) As Variant Dim tempv(VER) As Variant
Dim slotu As Acad3DSolid, slotv As Acad3DSolid
Dim rib(HOR) As Acad3DSolid Dim ribs(VER) As Acad3DSolid Dim thick As Double Dim height As Double Dim cornptA(2) As Double, cornptB(2) As Double, cornptC(2) As Double, cornptD(2) As Double Dim lineA(3) As AcadEntity Dim tempo As Variant
height = Val(InputBox(“rib height “, “enter value”, “1”)) thick = Val(InputBox(“rib thickness “, “enter value”, “.2”))
For u = 0 To HOR ReDim pts(2) As Double For v = 0 To VER pts(UBound(pts) - 2) = nodes(u, v).pos(0) pts(UBound(pts) - 1) = nodes(u, v).pos(1) pts(UBound(pts)) = nodes(u, v).pos(2) ReDim Preserve pts(UBound(pts) + 3) As Double Next v ReDim Preserve pts(UBound(pts) - 3) As Double Set cordu(u) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddSpline(pts, st, et) Set copie = cordu(u).copy here = cordu(u).GetControlPoint(0) there = here there(2) = here(2) - height copie.Move here, there
On Error Resume Next Set links(0) = cordu(u) Set links(1) = copie Set links(2) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(here, there) Set links(3) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cordu(u).GetFitPoint(VER), copie. GetFitPoint(VER)) tempu(u) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddRegion(links) Set rib(u) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddExtrudedSolid(tempu(u)(0), thick, 0)
ThisDrawing.Regen acAllViewports Next u ‘-----------------------------------
‘---draw the horizontal For v = 0 To VER ReDim pts(2) As Double For u = 0 To HOR pts(UBound(pts) - 2) = nodes(u, v).pos(0) pts(UBound(pts) - 1) = nodes(u, v).pos(1) pts(UBound(pts)) = nodes(u, v).pos(2) ReDim Preserve pts(UBound(pts) + 3) As Double Next u ReDim Preserve pts(UBound(pts) - 3) As Double Set cordv(v) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddSpline(pts, st, et) Set copie = cordv(v).copy here = cordv(v).GetControlPoint(0) there = here there(2) = here(2) - height copie.Move here, there On Error Resume Next Set links(0) = cordv(v) Set links(1) = copie Set links(2) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(here, there) Set links(3) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cordv(v).GetFitPoint(HOR), copie. GetFitPoint(HOR)) tempv(v) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddRegion(links) Set ribs(v) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddExtrudedSolid(tempv(v)(0), thick, 0) ThisDrawing.Regen acAllViewports Next v Dim cutu(HOR) As Variant For u = 0 To HOR For v = 0 To VER cornptA(0) = nodes(u, v).pos(0) + thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptA(1) = nodes(u, v).pos(1) cornptA(2) = nodes(u, v).pos(2) + height / 2 cornptB(0) = nodes(u, v).pos(0) - thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptB(1) = nodes(u, v).pos(1) cornptB(2) = nodes(u, v).pos(2) + height / 2 cornptC(0) = nodes(u, v).pos(0) - thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptC(1) = nodes(u, v).pos(1) cornptC(2) = nodes(u, v).pos(2) - height / 2 cornptD(0) = nodes(u, v).pos(0) + thick / 2 + 0.02
cornptD(1) = nodes(u, v).pos(1) cornptD(2) = nodes(u, v).pos(2) - height / 2
On Error Resume Next Set lineA(0) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptA, cornptB) Set lineA(1) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptB, cornptC) Set lineA(2) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptC, cornptD) Set lineA(3) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptD, cornptA) tempo = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddRegion(lineA) cutu(u) = tempo lineA(0).Visible = False lineA(1).Visible = False lineA(2).Visible = False lineA(3).Visible = False tempv(v)(0).Boolean acSubtraction, cutu(u)(0) Next v Next u Dim cutv(VER) As Variant For u = 0 To HOR For v = 0 To VER cornptA(0) = nodes(u, v).pos(0) cornptA(1) = nodes(u, v).pos(1) + thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptA(2) = nodes(u, v).pos(2) - height / 2 cornptB(0) = nodes(u, v).pos(0) cornptB(1) = nodes(u, v).pos(1) - thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptB(2) = nodes(u, v).pos(2) - height / 2 cornptC(0) = nodes(u, v).pos(0) cornptC(1) = nodes(u, v).pos(1) - thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptC(2) = nodes(u, v).pos(2) - height * 1.5 cornptD(0) = nodes(u, v).pos(0) cornptD(1) = nodes(u, v).pos(1) + thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptD(2) = nodes(u, v).pos(2) - height * 1.5 On Error Resume Next Set lineA(0) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptA, cornptB) Set lineA(1) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptB, cornptC) Set lineA(2) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptC, cornptD) Set lineA(3) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptD, cornptA) tempo = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddRegion(lineA)
cutu(v) = tempo lineA(0).Visible = False lineA(1).Visible = False lineA(2).Visible = False lineA(3).Visible = False tempu(u)(0).Boolean acSubtraction, cutu(v)(0) Next v Next u positioning tempu, tempv, cordu, cordv
End Sub Sub glazing(token As Integer) Dim u As Integer, v As Integer, l_n As Integer, r_n As Integer, v_n As Integer, h_n As Integer Dim p1(2) As Double, p2(2) As Double, p3(2) As Double, p4(2) As Double Dim temp As Double Dim pane As Acad3DFace Dim col As New AcadAcCmColor Dim truss As AcadLine ‘Dim otherpane As Acad3DFace ‘Dim newpt As Variant ‘Dim number As Integer For u = 0 To HOR - 1 For v = 0 To VER - 1 With nodes(u, v) temp = Abs(.pos(2) - nodes(u + 1, v).pos(2)) + Abs(.pos(2) - nodes(u + 1, v + 1).pos(2)) + Abs(.pos(2) - nodes(u, v + 1).pos(2)) / 3 If (temp < 1) Then p1(0) = .pos(0): p1(1) = .pos(1): p1(2) = .pos(2) - 0.2 p2(0) = nodes(u + 1, v).pos(0): p2(1) = nodes(u + 1, v).pos(1): p2(2) = nodes(u + 1, v).pos(2) - 0.2 p3(0) = nodes(u + 1, v + 1).pos(0): p3(1) = nodes(u + 1, v + 1).pos(1): p3(2) = nodes(u + 1, v + 1).pos(2) - 0.2 p4(0) = nodes(u, v + 1).pos(0): p4(1) = nodes(u, v + 1).pos(1): p4(2) = nodes(u, v + 1).pos(2) - 0.2 Set pane = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.Add3DFace(p1, p2, p3, p4) pane.Rotate3D p1, p3, 0.1 * (u / 2 + v / 2) col.SetRGB 255, 255 * l_n, 255 * l_n pane.TrueColor = col Set truss = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(p1, p3) Set truss = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(p2, p4)
truss.Thickness = 0.02 End If End With Next v Next u End Sub Sub glazing2(token As Integer) Dim u As Integer, v As Integer, l_n As Integer, r_n As Integer, v_n As Integer, h_n As Integer Dim p1(2) As Double, p2(2) As Double, p3(2) As Double, p4(2) As Double Dim temp As Double Dim pane As Acad3DFace Dim col As New AcadAcCmColor Dim truss As AcadLine ‘Dim number As Integer ‘ Dim otherpane As Acad3DFace ‘ Dim newpt As Variant For u2 = 0 To HOR2 - 1 For v2 = 0 To VER2 - 1 With nodes2(u2, v2) temp = Abs(.pos(2) - nodes2(u2 + 1, v2).pos(2)) + Abs(.pos(2) - nodes2(u2 + 1, v2 + 1).pos(2)) + Abs(.pos(2) - nodes2(u2, v2 + 1).pos(2)) / 3 If (temp < 1) Then p1(0) = .pos(0): p1(1) = .pos(1): p1(2) = .pos(2) - 0.2 p2(0) = nodes2(u2 + 1, v2).pos(0): p2(1) = nodes2(u2 + 1, v2).pos(1): p2(2) = nodes2(u2 + 1, v).pos(2) - 0.2 p3(0) = nodes2(u2 + 1, v2 + 1).pos(0): p3(1) = nodes2(u2 + 1, v2 + 1).pos(1): p3(2) = nodes2(u2 + 1, v2 + 1).pos(2) - 0.2 p4(0) = nodes2(u2, v2 + 1).pos(0): p4(1) = nodes2(u2, v2 + 1).pos(1): p4(2) = nodes2(u2, v2 + 1).pos(2) - 0.2 Set pane = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.Add3DFace(p1, p2, p3, p4) pane.Rotate3D p1, p3, 0.1 * (u / 2 + v / 2) col.SetRGB 0, 0 * l_n, 255 * l_n pane.TrueColor = col Set truss = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(p1, p3) Set truss = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(p2, p4) truss.Thickness = 0.02 End If End With Next v2 Next u2 End Sub
Sub insert_lines2(token As Integer) Dim u As Integer, v As Integer Dim pts() As Double, st(2) As Double, et(2) As Double, slotptu(2) As Double, slotptv(2) As Double Dim brace As AcadLine ‘, cordu(HOR2) As AcadSpline, cordv(VER2) As AcadSpline Dim links(3) As AcadEntity Dim linkss(3) As AcadEntity Dim copie As AcadSpline Dim here As Variant, there As Variant Dim slotu As Acad3DSolid, slotv As Acad3DSolid ReDim cordu(HOR2) As AcadSpline, cordv(VER2) As AcadSpline ReDim rib(HOR2) As Acad3DSolid ReDim ribs(VER2) As Acad3DSolid ReDim tempu(HOR2) As Variant ReDim tempv(VER2) As Variant
Dim thick As Double Dim height As Double Dim cornptA(2) As Double, cornptB(2) As Double, cornptC(2) As Double, cornptD(2) As Double Dim lineA(3) As AcadEntity Dim tempo As Variant height = Val(InputBox(“rib height “, “enter value”, “1”)) thick = Val(InputBox(“rib thickness “, “enter value”, “.2”))
Dim go As Boolean Dim counter As Integer counter = 0 ‘ --- make vertical ribs For u2 = 0 To HOR2 ReDim pts(2) As Double go = False For v2 = 0 To VER2 If (nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) >= 1 Or nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) <= -1) Then go = True pts(UBound(pts) - 2) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0) pts(UBound(pts) - 1) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1) pts(UBound(pts)) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) ReDim Preserve pts(UBound(pts) + 3) As Double
total_num = UBound(pts)
End If Next v2 If (go = True) Then insert_lines_processHOR pts, height, thick, cordu, rib, tempu, counter counter = counter + 1 Next u2 â€˜---draw the horizontal For v2 = 0 To VER2 ReDim pts(2) As Double go = False For u2 = 0 To HOR2 If (nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) >= 1 Or nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) <= -1) Then go = True pts(UBound(pts) - 2) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0) pts(UBound(pts) - 1) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1) pts(UBound(pts)) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) ReDim Preserve pts(UBound(pts) + 3) As Double
total_num = UBound(pts) End If Next u2 If (go = True) Then insert_lines_processVER pts, height, thick, cordu, rib, tempu, counter counter = counter + 1 Next v2 ThisDrawing.Regen acAllViewports Dim cutu(HOR2) As Variant For u2 = 0 To HOR2 For v2 = 0 To VER2 cornptA(0) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0) + thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptA(1) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1) cornptA(2) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) + height / 2 cornptB(0) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0) - thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptB(1) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1) cornptB(2) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) + height / 2
cornptC(0) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0) - thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptC(1) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1) cornptC(2) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) - height / 2 cornptD(0) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0) + thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptD(1) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1) cornptD(2) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) - height / 2 On Error Resume Next Set lineA(0) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptA, cornptB) Set lineA(1) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptB, cornptC) Set lineA(2) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptC, cornptD) Set lineA(3) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptD, cornptA) tempo = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddRegion(lineA) cutu(u2) = tempo
lineA(0).Visible = False lineA(1).Visible = False lineA(2).Visible = False lineA(3).Visible = False tempv(v2)(0).Boolean acSubtraction, cutu(u2)(0) Next v2 Next u2 Dim cutv(VER2) As Variant For u2 = 0 To HOR2 For v2 = 0 To VER2 cornptA(0) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0) cornptA(1) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1) + thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptA(2) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) - height / 2 cornptB(0) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0) cornptB(1) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1) - thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptB(2) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) - height / 2 cornptC(0) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0) cornptC(1) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1) - thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptC(2) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) - height * 1.5 cornptD(0) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(0) cornptD(1) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(1) + thick / 2 + 0.02 cornptD(2) = nodes2(u2, v2).pos(2) - height * 1.5
On Error Resume Next Set lineA(0) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptA, cornptB) Set lineA(1) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptB, cornptC) Set lineA(2) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptC, cornptD) Set lineA(3) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cornptD, cornptA) tempo = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddRegion(lineA) cutu(v2) = tempo lineA(0).Visible = False lineA(1).Visible = False lineA(2).Visible = False lineA(3).Visible = False
tempu(u2)(0).Boolean acSubtraction, cutu(v2)(0) Next v2 Next u2
positioning2 tempu, tempv, cordu, cordv End Sub Sub insert_lines_processHOR(pts() As Double, height As Double, thick As Double, cordu() As AcadSpline, rib() As Acad3DSolid, tempu() As Variant, counter As Integer) Dim c As Integer Dim st(2) As Double, et(2) As Double, slotptu(2) As Double Dim brace As AcadLine Dim links(3) As AcadEntity Dim linkss(3) As AcadEntity Dim copie As AcadSpline â€˜Dim copy_me As AcadSpline Dim here As Variant, there As Variant Dim slotu As Acad3DSolid Dim lim As Integer Dim cornptA(2) As Double, cornptB(2) As Double, cornptC(2) As Double, cornptD(2) As Double Dim lineA(3) As AcadEntity Dim tempo As Variant
ReDim Preserve pts(UBound(pts) - 3) As Double
ReDim Preserve cordu(counter) As AcadSpline ReDim Preserve rib(counter) As Acad3DSolid ReDim Preserve tempu(counter) As Variant Set cordu(counter) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddSpline(pts, st, et) Set copie = cordu(counter).copy here = cordu(counter).GetFitPoint(0) there = here there(2) = here(2) - height copie.Move here, there lim = ((UBound(pts) + 1) / 3) - 1 On Error Resume Next Set links(0) = cordu(counter) Set links(1) = copie Set links(2) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(here, there) Set links(3) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cordu(counter).GetFitPoint(lim), copie. GetFitPoint(lim)) tempu(counter) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddRegion(links)
Set rib(counter) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddExtrudedSolid(tempu(counter)(0), thick, 0)
ThisDrawing.Regen acAllViewports End Sub Sub insert_lines_processVER(pts() As Double, height As Double, thick As Double, cordu() As AcadSpline, rib() As Acad3DSolid, tempu() As Variant, counter As Integer) Dim c As Integer Dim st(2) As Double, et(2) As Double, slotptu(2) As Double Dim brace As AcadLine Dim links(3) As AcadEntity Dim linkss(3) As AcadEntity Dim copie As AcadSpline â€˜Dim copy_me As AcadSpline Dim here As Variant, there As Variant Dim slotu As Acad3DSolid Dim lim As Integer Dim cornptA(2) As Double, cornptB(2) As Double, cornptC(2) As Double, cornptD(2) As Double Dim lineA(3) As AcadEntity Dim tempo As Variant
ReDim Preserve pts(UBound(pts) - 3) As Double
ReDim Preserve pts(UBound(pts) - 3) As Double ReDim Preserve cordu(counter) As AcadSpline ReDim Preserve rib(counter) As Acad3DSolid ReDim Preserve tempu(counter) As Variant Set cordu(counter) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddSpline(pts, st, et) Set copie = cordu(counter).copy here = cordu(counter).GetFitPoint(0) there = here there(2) = here(2) - height copie.Move here, there lim = ((UBound(pts) + 1) / 3) - 1 On Error Resume Next Set links(0) = cordu(counter) Set links(1) = copie Set links(2) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(here, there) Set links(3) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddLine(cordu(counter).GetFitPoint(lim), copie. GetFitPoint(lim)) tempu(counter) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddRegion(links) Set rib(counter) = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddExtrudedSolid(tempu(counter)(0), thick, 0)
ThisDrawing.Regen acAllViewports End Sub Sub positioning(tempu() As Variant, tempv() As Variant, cordu() As AcadSpline, cordv() As AcadSpline) Dim insertptu(2) As Double, insertptv(2) As Double, axisptu(2) As Double, axisptv(2) As Double, textpt(2) As Double Dim rib(HOR) As Variant Dim ribs(VER) As Variant Dim label As AcadText Dim no As String insertptu(0) = VER * 2 + 10 insertptu(1) = 0 insertptu(2) = 0 insertptv(0) = 0 insertptv(1) = VER * 2 + 10 insertptv(2) = 0 ang = 90 * 3.14 / 180 ango = 270 * 3.14 / 180
For u = 0 To HOR
For u = 0 To HOR insertptu(0) = insertptu(0) + 20 axisptu(0) = insertptu(0) axisptu(1) = insertptu(1) + 100 textpt(0) = insertptu(0) - 0.8 textpt(1) = insertptu(1) + 0.2
‘ Adding extra distance between ribs when flat
‘ label insertion point ‘ label insertion point
Set rib(u) = tempu(u)(0).copy rib(u).Move cordu(u).GetFitPoint(0), insertptu rib(u).Rotate3D insertptu, axisptu, ang no = u Set label = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddText(“u” & no, textpt, 0.3) ‘adds label “u” + the rib number to the rib Next u
ZoomExtents For v = 0 To VER insertptv(1) = insertptv(1) + 10 insertptv(2) = 0 axisptv(0) = insertptv(0) - 100 axisptv(1) = insertptv(1) axisptv(2) = 0 textpt(0) = insertptv(0) + 0.4 textpt(1) = insertptv(1) - 0.8
‘ Adding extra distance between ribs when flat
‘ label insertion point
Set ribs(v) = tempv(v)(0).copy ribs(v).Move cordv(v).GetFitPoint(0), insertptv ribs(v).Rotate3D axisptv, insertptv, ango no = v Set label = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddText(“v” & no, textpt, 0.3) ‘adds label “v” + the rib number to the rib Next v End Sub Sub positioning2(tempu() As Variant, tempv() As Variant, cordu() As AcadSpline, cordv() As AcadSpline) Dim insertptu(2) As Double, insertptv(2) As Double, axisptu(2) As Double, axisptv(2) As Double, textpt(2) As Double
Dim rib(HOR2) As Variant Dim ribs(VER2) As Variant Dim label As AcadText Dim no As String insertptu(0) = VER2 * 2 + 10 insertptu(1) = 0 insertptu(2) = 0 insertptv(0) = 0 insertptv(1) = VER2 * 2 + 10 insertptv(2) = 0 ang = 90 * 3.14 / 180 ango = 270 * 3.14 / 180 For u2 = 0 To HOR2 insertptu(0) = insertptu(0) + 20 axisptu(0) = insertptu(0) axisptu(1) = insertptu(1) + 100 textpt(0) = insertptu(0) - 0.8 textpt(1) = insertptu(1) + 0.2
‘ Adding extra distance between ribs when flat
‘ label insertion point ‘ label insertion point
Set rib(u2) = tempu(u2)(0).copy rib(u2).Move cordu(u2).GetFitPoint(0), insertptu rib(u2).Rotate3D insertptu, axisptu, ang no = u2 Set label = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddText(“u2” & no, textpt, 0.3) ‘adds label “u” + the rib number to the rib Next u2 ZoomExtents For v2 = 0 To VER2 insertptv(1) = insertptv(1) + 10 insertptv(2) = 0 axisptv(0) = insertptv(0) - 100 axisptv(1) = insertptv(1) axisptv(2) = 0 textpt(0) = insertptv(0) + 0.4 textpt(1) = insertptv(1) - 0.8
‘ Adding extra distance between ribs when flat
‘ label insertion point
Set ribs(v2) = tempv(v2)(0).copy ribs(v2).Move cordv(v).GetFitPoint(0), insertptv ribs(v2).Rotate3D axisptv, insertptv, ango
no = v2 Set label = ThisDrawing.ModelSpace.AddText(“v2” & no, textpt, 0.3) ‘adds label “v” + the rib number to the rib ZoomExtents Next v2 ZoomExtents End Sub
Sub A_Thousand_Views() ‘ Setting an axonometric view for the project
Dim objView As AcadView Dim objActViewPort As AcadViewport Dim strViewName As String ThisDrawing.ActiveSpace = acModelSpace Set objActViewPort = ThisDrawing.ActiveViewport ‘Redefine the current ViewPort with the View info strViewName = InputBox(“Enter the view you require.”, “A_Thousand_Plateaus Project”, “A_ Thousand_Plateaus_Project”) ‘ setting appropriate view If strViewName = “” Then Exit Sub On Error Resume Next Set objView = ThisDrawing.Views.Item(strViewName) If Not objView Is Nothing Then objActViewPort.SetView objView ThisDrawing.ActiveViewport = objActViewPort Else MsgBox “View was not recognized.” End If End Sub Sub body_invis(nodes() As node) For u = 0 To HOR For v = 0 To VER nodes(u, v).body.Delete Next v Next u End Sub
‘ Make circles invisible
‘or you can substitute for nodes(u,v).body.Visible = False
Sub A_Thousand_Views2() ‘ Setting an axonometric view for the project Dim objView As AcadView Dim objActViewPort As AcadViewport Dim strViewName As String ThisDrawing.ActiveSpace = acModelSpace Set objActViewPort = ThisDrawing.ActiveViewport ‘Redefine the current ViewPort with the View info strViewName = InputBox(“Enter the view you require.”, “A_Thousand_Plateaus Project”, “A_ Thousand_Plateaus_Structure”) ‘ setting appropriate view If strViewName = “” Then Exit Sub On Error Resume Next Set objView = ThisDrawing.Views.Item(strViewName) If Not objView Is Nothing Then objActViewPort.SetView objView ThisDrawing.ActiveViewport = objActViewPort Else MsgBox “View was not recognized.” End If End Sub
Final Yr Dip Process Booklet