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Australia January-February 2012

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Ventilation

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the Whole Truth Root Zone Chilling: Handling the Heat

Where does Our Hydro Go? Hydroponic cultivation is on the rise in Australia www.maximumyield.com

2012

Indoor gardenING expo

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DENVER

COLORADO March 10 -11

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SAN FRANCISCO CALIFORNIA July 21-22

LONG BEACH CALIFORNIA november 3-4

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Maximum Yield |  May/June 2011


CONTENTS January/February 2012

FEATURES 16

16

Where Does Our Hydro Go?

22

Aerobic Compost Maximize Your Microorganisms

by Raquel Neofit

by Ian Davidson

26

22

Chemical Incompatibilities by Donald Lester

34

DEPARTMENTS 30

Think Inside the Pot by Dave Watkins

34

Ventilation - The Whole Truth

38

Root Zone Chilling

by Guy Sela

by Dr. Lynette Morgan

4

From the Editor

12

Product Spotlight

4

Letters to the Editor

42

You Tell Us

6

MaximumYield.com

44

Distributors

8

Simon Says

46

Coming up in Mar/Apr

10

MAX Facts

46

Do You Know?

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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FROM THE EDITOR | Jessica Raymond The future looks great for the modern gardening industry and we are proud to be helping you grow more, grow bigger and grow green! We have some helpful and informative articles and issues planned for you in 2012 and of course the highly anticipated ‘Grow Like A Pro’ Indoor Gardening Expo Tour that everyone is super stoked about. Meet and greet with industry leaders and see firsthand the products and technologies that will help you grow. Stay tuned to indoorgardenexpo.com for more show details. This issue kicks off the year with some pertinent topics such as container garden and design, chemical incompatibilities, root zone chilling, maximizing microorganisms, ventilation and more. Plus, discover the array of new products that are bound to make a big difference in your grow room. 2012 marks the start of another year of great giveaways and free grow gear for dedicated Maximum Yield readers. This year we’re launching our new contest, “Win A Grow Room,” which entitles one lucky reader to win a completely outfitted grow room. Entries are now being accepted. Check out maximumyield.com/contests.php for Jessica Raymond, Editor complete contest details or flip to page 37 to check out the gear up for grabs. editor@maximumyield.com Happy New Year wishes for a happy, healthy, productive year! PS. We are excited to announce that digital subscriptions to Maximum Yield Magazine are now available for free in your inbox every month. Simply e-mail editor@maximumyield.com to subscribe or visit maximumyield.com and click on the subscribe button.

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Online Love

Hit Me With a PDF

Is there a way to download the older issues for offline reading? Todd Mueller

via Facebook

Best magazine in the world! Anthony Leandro

FREE

BPasic la Genetntics

Best magazine! I can’t wait to get my subscription. Gary Raymond

basic prin ciples genetics can be dem at work behind the mod onstrated with a simp ification of plan le pack of t playing cards.

Beat th e heat

I lost the July/August 2011 issue. On the past issues page I can only view it digitally. There is no option to save it. Can you please e-mail directions to me? Thanks in advance. Ricardo Vergueiro

www.m

Love the website. Great tips on hydroponic gardening. Keep up the good work. Hydroponic Gardening Guru

indoo

r gard en long

aximumyield .com

2011

ing ex po

beach

| cal

ifornia, october 22-23

usa

NEW: FolloW

us oN TWiTTE

r

indoorgard

eningexpo.

com

Yes! Simply visit issuu.com, create a free profile and search for your favourite issues. You can download every archived issue as a PDF from there.

Your website is awesome! Thanks so much for all the help. Keep up the good work. Terry Paiva via Twitter

Woop! Just got a delivery of four@Max Yield magazines #Hydroponics @nfnutrifield I am reading @Max_Yield July 2011 issue. Great choice of topics! Thanks @PhillipW00

I Love it, I Love it, I Love it

I’m writing to inform you I love that you published an article on water quality and treatment in the November/December 2011 issue. I can’t thank you enough or work out how to e-hug you. You are feeding me the information I need! I am one happy reader who felt I should contact you to show I am still paying attention to the magazine. Keep up the good work. Dave Kolaps South Australia Maximum Yield reserves the right to edit for brevity. We want to hear from you! Write us at: Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339 Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 or e-mail us at: editor@maximumyield.com

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Maximum Yield |  January/February 2012


Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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COMING UP ON THE WEB ‘Grow Like A Pro’ in 2012

The dates are set, the venues are chosen and the 2012 ‘Grow Like A Pro’ Indoor Gardening Expo Tour is coming to four North American cities next year. You’re invited to visit one, two, three or all four shows. Stay tuned to indoorgardenexpo.com for details so you can plan your 2012 vacation.

W GREOA PR!O

LIKTOUR

VOLUME 9 – NUMBER 5 January/February 2012 PRINTED IN AUSTRALIA Maximum Yield is published bi-monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092

PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson EDITOR - Jessica Raymond jessica@maximumyield.com

Got Questions? Get Answers.

Maximum Yield’s resident experts are available and ready to answer your modern gardening questions. E-mail editor@maximumyield.com or fill out the question form on maximumyield.com

Latest News

Rooftop farms are sprouting up all over the globe and changing how people think of gardening. There’s probably one near you. Check them out on maximumyield.com under Latest News.

ACCOUNTING - Tracy Greeno tracy@maximumyield.com Tara Campbell - Tara@maximumyield.com AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Dome Garden Supply Futchatec Growth Technology Holland Forge House N’ Garden Hydrogarden Hydraspher

Connect With Maximum Yield

www.maximumyield.com www.facebook.com/MaximumYield www.indoorgardeningexpo.com Twitter.com/Max_Yield

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Tell us what you think at editor@maximumyield.com. We’d love to hear from you.

contributors

UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Future Harvest Development Europe Nutriculture UK Direct Garden Supplies Dutch Pro CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Quality Wholesale USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS General Hydroponics Humboldt Wholesale Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds

Ian Davidson, master composter

Dave Watkins hails from the Shires

Donald Lester is the plant

of England and has spent the last 30 years answering gardening questions for radio and television. His common sense solutions and suggestions are the hallmark of his advice. His present goal is to involve and encourage more children to garden. Dave is president of the local Carnation Society and vice president of the county Fuchsia society.

products manager at JH Biotech, Inc., a California based agricultural technology company with 27 OMRI certified products. Donald has a master’s degree in agronomy with an emphasis in entomology. He is an agricultural scientist with over 10 years of research experience and 50 scientific publications to his credit.

Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.

Jack Van Camp has been working

Raquel Neofit is a features editor

and founder of BioLogic Systems, LLC. BioLogic Systems LLC offers biological products and services for growers and product manufacturers worldwide. For more knowledge and resources visit BioLogicSystemsUSA.com

Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit www.suntec.co.nz/ consultants.htm and www.suntec. co.nz/books.htm for more information.

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ADVERTISING SALES 250.729.2677 Linda Jesson - linda@maximumyield.com Lisa Lambersek - lisa@maximumyield.com Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Ashley Heppell - ashley@maximumyield.com Hayley Jesson - Hayley@maximumyield.com PRODUCTION & DESIGN ads@ads.maximumyield.com Mike Linden - mike@maximumyield.com Jennifer Duong - jennifer@maximumyield.com Alice Joe - Alice@maximumyield.com

Maximum Yield |  January/February 2012

for Homegrown Hydroponics. He has years of hands-on hydroponic gardening experience and will answer all of your questions through the Homegrown Hydroponics website at www.hydroponics.com He loves to share his knowledge with eager gardeners both locally and around the world.

for Nutrifield’s online garden problem solver and a freelance writer for the hydroponics and travel industries. She shares Nutrifield’s passion for quality education and sound advice. She is encouraged by Nutrifield’s dedication to hydroponic research and development, and the belief that hydro is the way of the future.


Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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SIMON says

Hey Simon, It’s my understanding that humic acid is a great source of carbon for plants and that it’s readily absorbed by plant roots. If one is using humic acid in their nutrient stock tank, can they cut back on the amount of CO2 injection in the grow room atmosphere? Thanks, Craig

An interesting question Craig, and I can see where you are coming from. The short answer is that humic acid cannot replace carbon dioxide.You are correct in the assessment that humic acid can provide carbon dioxide but it’s in an indirect manner, not directly from this carbon-based substance. Humus is a degraded form of organic material high in carbon; in essence it is fully digested organic material that resists further decay. However, soil microbes can be stimulated by its presence and this activity will release low levels of CO2 as the soil life breathes. Continue adding carbon dioxide to your growing area in the range you are trying to achieve, and don’t adjust for

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Maximum Yield |  January/February 2012

the microbial increase. If you want to, it is possible to measure activity in the soil with specific equipment but in an indoor growing area it is unlikely that microbe activity would provide more than a negligible level of CO2. It is absolutely correct that humic acid is beneficial to plants roots (and functions), but also to soil and microbes. Humic acid is an extract derived from ancient deposits of organic matter. In current top soils it exists as humus, and both humus and humic acid are great for plant roots. Humic acid has an extremely high cation exchange capacity and this alone is of great benefit. In its simplest terms humic acid gathers a variety of nutrients and then shuttles them into the plant very efficiently. On top of this, new research suggests that if the substance moves through the root system and into the plant it has similar effects to some plant hormones. Although the mechanism still eludes us, this is a very interesting development in understanding this complex substance. The biodiversity in the rhizosphere expands more rapidly in its presence, which provides vast indirect benefits due to microbial secretions such as growth regulating substance, organic acids, disease suppressing compounds and unique carbohydrates such as glomalin. On a related point, if you are trying to create an aerobic compost tea for disease prevention, new research suggests you should be taking out the molasses and using a blend of humic acid and kelp as the catalyst for bioactivity. When choosing a humic acid there are many options but for those of you running a true water system I would choose a low molecular weight humic fraction product generally referred to as fulvic acid. For more information be sure to check in at your local shop to review the variety of brands and extraction methods available.


Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

YOUR GUIDE TO THIS ISSUE’S

HOTTEST ITEMS Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store.

Solve Plant Problems Naturally With Botanicare’s Fulvex Known as nature’s problem solver, fulvic acid has been helping hydroponic growers increase the effectiveness of their nutrient solutions for decades. Botanicare’s Fulvex combines concentrated amounts of fulvic acid with a blend of over 72 trace minerals dedicated to increasing your plants’ absorbency and mineral needs. Fulvex should be used as a low dose additive to facilitate the uptake of heavy macro- and micronutrients. Fulvex swiftly corrects deficiencies; the minerals/ vitamins sprayed onto the leaves are absorbed into the plant’s vascular system to quickly correct localized deficiencies. Ask your local retailer to carry Botanicare’s Fulvex today.

CALiMAGic™ CALiMAGic™ from General Hydroponics is a low nitrogen calcium magnesium supplement, specially formulated to prevent secondary nutrient deficiencies in fast-growing plants. Many calcium-intensive plants, like lettuce and tomatoes, need that extra Ca+ boost to optimize growth. This prevents diseases related to calcium deficiency like blossom-end rot. CALiMAGic™ is a clean, fully soluble product that will not clog spray lines or drip emitters and is safe to use in reservoirs combined with many other fertilizers. Use CALiMAGic™ as a part of your regular feeding program. Visit an authorized Hydrofarm or Sunlight Supply retailer to purchase CALiMAGic™.

Go Green With the Eco Waste Reducer Elbow The Evolution-RO1000® from Hydro-Logic Purification Systems now includes the option to reduce your wastewater and achieve a true 1:1 ratio with the Eco Waste Reducer Elbow. Hydro-Logic is the clear choice for quality, customer support, cutting edge technologies and price! Beginning November 1, these eco elbows will be included with each new Evolution-RO1000® and will also be available to purchase separately for those who want to upgrade their original systems. Contact your local retailer for more information on this exciting new feature for the Evolution-RO1000!

EP Cool Ray Reflector The EP Cool Ray Reflector is made from super light aluminium. It runs cool with maximum rays. Featuring tempered hardened glass and an airtight rubber seal. Duct clamps are included. The EP Cool Ray Reflector is available in four sizes. It is exclusively distributed through Dome Garden Supplies to a hydroponic store near you.

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Maximum Yield |  January/February 2012


Symbiot Presents Myco-Symbiont Root Conditioner Myco-Symbiont uses the latest horticultural biotechnologies in Australia’s newest host-specific, endo-mycorrhizal root inoculant, specifically developed for use in hydroponics. Myco-Symbiont contains vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). VAM and PGPR form symbiotic relationships with the roots of living plants and colonize the surrounding plant media. They defend the host plant, promote the uptake of NPK and also supply additional micronutrients and plant growth promoting substances called phytohormones. Myco-Symbiont is water soluble and designed to be used in combination with Symbiot’s Rhizo- and Phyllo-Symbiont. For more information visit your nearest hydroponics shop.

EP Ezi Air FM2 Centrifugal Fan The EP Ezi Air FM2 Centrifugal Fan is a high-powered extraction fan that provides clean air for indoor gardens. It includes duct fan clamps and comes with a five-year warranty. Available in 100-, 125-, 150-, 200- and 300-millimetres. Exclusively distributed through Dome Garden Supplies to a hydroponic store near you.

EP Ezi Air Wall Fan The EP Ezi Air Wall Fan is a 40-centimetre high power oscillating wall fan. It’s 50-watts, 240-volts and 50-hertz. It features three-speed pull cord control and is SAA approved #A/11670EA. Comes with a one-year warranty. Exclusively distributed through Dome Garden Supplies to a hydroponic store near you.

PreEvolution® High Capacity Pre-filter The new Pre-Evolution® high capacity pre-filter for the Evolution-RO1000® gives gardeners two extra stages of pre-filtration and extends the life of the carbon filter in the Evolution-RO1000® from 7,570- to 28,390-litres. It increases the Evolution-RO1000’s efficiency and protects your investment. This system comes with a first stage cleanable, pleated sediment filter, second stage custom combination KDF85/55 carbon filter exclusive to Hydro-Logic to reduce chlorine, chloramines, iron, sulphur and heavy metals. Pure water’s not magic. It’s logic. Ask your local hydroponics retailer to carry the Pre-Evolution today.

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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MAX FACTS

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Fresh Connection Show Returns to Melbourne The PMA Fresh Connections show is scheduled to return to the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre in June, 2012. The annual conference—which addresses global market and consumer trends affecting the Australian and New Zealand fruit and vegetable industries—is considered a major networking, educational and business event and will attract companies throughout the industry, from growers to retailers and associated service industries. (Source: pma-anz.com)

Seasonal Blooms Enliven Living Roofs in Korea Superstar architect Joel Sanders has partnered with Haeahn Architecture to create a series of 12 staggered Seongbukdong residences with living roofs—planted with a variety of sedum species—that bloom at different times of the year. The living roofs insulate the buildings and erupt into riots of colour with the changing seasons. (Source: inhabitat.com)

Australian Potato Surplus Goes to Waste David Nix, chairman of the Australian Potato Industry Advisory Committee, predicts that “thousands of tonnes” of potatoes will go to waste this year as a result of a historic glut caused by cold dry weather—ideal potato growing conditions. With farmers reporting yields of five to six tonnes per acre above their average crop, Nix stated that the excess potatoes would probably end up as waste since “we have no factories [or] processing plants here or any way of making use of the excess potatoes. If we could process them into potato powder then maybe they could be taken anywhere in the world but they’re going to be left where they are.” (Source: ausfoodnews.com.au)

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Maximum Yield |  January/February 2012


Organic Label Outdated? A recent article in Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses magazine has called into question the value of the soil grown-only ‘organic’ label, noting that soil growing is far less efficient than hydroponics and far more likely to lead to pollution of groundwater through the runoff of plant nutrients. Dr. Mike Nichols, a retired university teacher from Massey University, believes that the whole concept of an ‘organic’ rating for food crops is outdated and of little practical value, stating that “much of the ‘organic philosophy’ appears to be based on the UK Soil Association and the writings of Rudolph Steiner. Both organisations [had] their origins well before anyone considered growing crops commercially using hydroponic systems, and so hydroponics did not get considered.” (Source: hydroponics.com.au)

Strawberries Protect Stomach From Alcohol In a study conducted on rats, a team of European researchers have proven that eating strawberries can help protect stomach tissues from the effects of alcohol and the authors of the study have concluded that eating the fruit could also prevent gastric ulcers in humans. The study states that “the consumption of strawberries during or after pathology could lessen stomach mucous membrane damage.” (Source: esciencenews.com)

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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MAX FACTS PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Clean Seeds Essential to Producing Safe Sprouts A recent university study has concluded that one of the secrets to keeping sprouts free of food borne pathogens lies in keeping them scrupulously clean at the seed stage—once they’ve germinated, it may be too late. Although low doses of irradiation can be used to kill most pathogens that attach to sprout seeds, this treatment can also affect the sprouts’ quality and nutritional value. The study called for “very strict control in the sprout production process, focusing on the cleanliness of seeds and expending money and effort on prevention.” (Source: sciencedaily.com)

Wood Started as Plant Plumbing Seaweed Flees South A new study has shown that large swathes of Australian seaweed are moving south to avoid warming oceans and could be at risk of extinction. Scientists from the University of Western Australia reported that on the east coast seaweed species had moved around 200 kilometres south, while on the west coast they had moved about 50 kilometres. Seaweed species are at risk of extinction if they run out of cooler water to migrate to and Dr. Thomas Wernberg, one of the authors of the study, said that “if this rate of shift continues a relatively large number of species could go extinct.” The report estimates that as many as 25 per cent of the temperate seaweed species in Australia could go extinct by 2070. (Source: abc.net.au) 14

Maximum Yield |  January/February 2012

Scientists recently discovered two 400-millionyear-old plants that are among the earliest known examples of wood. Although it has been speculated that wood evolved as a means for plants to become taller, it is more likely that in these two cases the wood served as a plumbing system to draw water up, since the plants were only a few centimetres tall. (Source: nytimes.com)


Invasive Plant Linked to Final Resting Place of Royal Gypsy Family An agriculture scientist has identified a potentially invasive plant found in or around four cemeteries in Meridian, Mississippi as blue sedge (Carex breviculmis), a native of Asia and Australia previously unknown in North America. The plant was found at the gravesite of Kelly Mitchell, the Queen of the Gypsies, who was buried there in 1915 and at four other cemeteries nearby where global travellers were laid to rest. Scientists speculate that plants or soil left at gravesites or seeds trapped in the clothing of mourners may have been the source of the grass-like sedge. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

France Loses its Wildflowers A recent study by the Wildlife Department of the French Environment Ministry has concluded that French wildflowers are disappearing at a rapid rate and that pesticides associated with industrial farming practices are to blame. “All over Europe the situation is the same, with these species in serious decline,” a spokesperson said, adding that since the advent of modern farming techniques species like pheasant’s eye, cornflower, corncockle and Venus’s looking glass have “been treated as weeds.” (Source: esciencenews.com)

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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where does our hydro go?

Hydroponic cultivation is on the rise in Australia and being embraced enthusiastically. But who are the people behind Victoria’s local hydroponic industry and what actually happens to this aquatically grown produce once it is harvested?

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Maximum Yield |  January/February 2012


“I am a great believer that in the future hydroponics is going to be one of the ways that we feed our nation.” Where does one go to start a hydroponic journey of discovery? Locally, of course. I dropped in on my local fruiterer, Angelo— of Dingley Village Fresh Fruit and Veg—to point me in the right direction. Angelo has enjoyed a great three year relationship with Peninsula Aqua Growers and he firmly believes that they supply a higher-quality product, so he sent me to the Mornington Peninsula for my first interview, where I caught up with Chris and Anne Shaw. I then went on to talk with a few retailers who use locally grown hydro produce and a man who grows wonderful peppers. Welcome to the world of Victoria’s commercial hydroponic growers and the people who buy their produce! Who: Chris and Anne Shaw, Peninsula Aqua Growers Where: Craigie Road, Mount Martha,Victoria What: Growers of hydroponic basil, herbs, watercress and gourmet lettuce Situated on the Mornington Peninsula are commercial hydroponic growers Chris and Anne Shaw—cultivating almost two acres, they are the starting point on our trail of hydroponic produce.

The crew at Peninsula Aqua Growers in Mt. Martha.

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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where does our hydro go?

seaside town of Mornington and a worthy stop on this hydroponic food journey. “D.O.C. always promotes on their menu that all salad items are locally grown,” says Anne. “Or their signs will say ‘Mount Martha basil’ or ‘Mount Martha coriander.’” Chris and Anne also supply Paul—of the aptly named Paul’s Pesto—winner of the ‘Best off Shelf ’ pesto product by Epicure in 2008. Anne has thought deeply about the future of hydroponics: “I am a great believer that in the future hydroponics is going to be one of the ways that we feed our nation,” she says, “because of the yield that you can get from a small space.” She also comments on the water-wise systems available now. “We use totally recyclable systems and run a nutrient film technique, using only five per cent of the water used to grow the same dollar value produced in the ground.” The couple encourages people to buy locally because it saves on transport costs, keeps prices down and saves on food wastage. “Your produce will last longer if you acquire it quicker,” Chris adds.

Who: Loris and Paul, D.O.C. Café, pizzeria and fresh produce retailer Where: Main Street, Mornington What: Buyers, sellers and users of Peninsula Aqua Growers’ basil, spinach, gourmet lettuce, radicchio and herbs D.O.C.’s produce buyer Paul Jones showing off Peninsula Aqua Growers lush basil.

When I arrive at Peninsula Aqua Growers I receive a friendly greeting and a cup of tea, like I am catching up with unassuming old friends. Chris was a teacher before he became a student and learned the ropes of the hydro industry. Anne informs me, chuckling, “My other job is a minister for council.” Deputy Mayor for 2012, actually. This couple has made it their family business to encourage local ties and help build a strong local hydroponic industry. When they discovered over 21 years ago that local laws would prevent them from realising their dreams of pheasant farming, they came up with two alternatives—raspberries or hydroponics. “My father was the chief of CSIRO at the time,” Anne tells me. “He’d been doing a lot of work with irrigation in Israel, so that was one of the catalysts for us doing hydroponics.” The Shaws are members of Mornington Peninsula Gourmet, an organization developed to promote the Peninsula’s thriving food and wine industry and their produce is sold in many local fruit and vegetable retail outlets and wholesalers. Their biggest local supporter is D.O.C. Pizzeria in the

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Maximum Yield |  January/February 2012

D.O.C is destined to become a major draw in the Mornington area, featuring fresh produce, a deli and a café and pizzeria that dishes up tasty locally sourced food. More establishments like this and our culinary world can only flourish—it’s like you have fallen through the looking glass into Little Italy. After about the fifth “Ciao, Bella” I am introduced to the D.O.C. managers—Loris and Paul—and then ushered over to a vibrant stand of richly coloured radicchio supplied by Peninsula Aqua Growers. While Loris comments on its flavour not being as bitter as it was back home in Italy, I can’t help but notice it is signed Mount Martha radicchio.

“It is more of a necessity that he stocks a high quality product and he sings the praise of a hydroponically grown products shelf life.”


This group of vivacious Italians love the idea that their fresh produce is harvested and delivered to their door within hours. “There is definitely a benefit in buying locally,” Paul says. “It’s always fresh and they take time blending and getting the nutrients and flavours right—the stuff from the markets goes black faster, it’s not consistent.” He holds up some rocket from Chris’s farm: “It has a more peppery taste, stronger flavours. People from Italy say they have never had rocket like this. It’s better than in my home town!” Another reason Paul loves the local hydro industry is because of the support they show each other. “I know I can call Chris up and get fresh stock straight away,” he says. “And Chris can call me up and say I have excess spinach or the leaves are too big and I’ll take it—we’ll cook with it in the kitchen. We look after each other.”

Who: Paul and Alva Palmos, Paul’s Pesto Where: Frankston South, Mornington Peninsula What: Producers of basil pesto and coriander and macadamia nut pesto; winner of 2008 Age Epicure (eight out of 10: highest score), buyers of Peninsula Aqua Growers’ basil and coriander Paul and Alva Palmos are the ‘cottage industry’ producers of Paul’s Pesto, preparing their Epicure-winning pesto atop Oliver’s Hill, overlooking Port Phillip Bay. When I ask Paul about Hilary McNevin of the Age’s Epicure Food Guide scoring his pesto an eight out of 10 his reply is, “That was a nice surprise over breakfast!” He informed me that Hilary is renowned for never awarding anything over an eight out of 10. “Perhaps it is her Paul Palmos of Paul’s Pesto hard at work ceiling score?” mixing up his award-winning pesto. And perhaps one of the greatest qualities about Paul’s products is his loyalty to hydroponically grown basil. In fact, one of Paul’s major selling points is that they head off to the farm, pick a table full of basil, take it home and within two hours of harvest it is mashed—then garlic is added, along with their not-so-secret ingredient: roasted

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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where does our hydro go?

“You need to have sound knowledge of the plants you are growing and the ability to read the plants as they grow—and you should be prepared to spend time doing it.”

wanted continuity in the produce and they questioned why they couldn’t get it all year round. Seeing what could be achieved in a greenhouse catapulted David Wallace into the hydroponic industry. His main area of supply is the Melbourne Wholesale Fruit and Vegetable Market in West Melbourne, a place he describes as another world. “We’re there early—one A.M.—and the fruiterers come in at 3:30 A.M. to do their buying.”

pine nuts. He proudly informs me that most producers don’t bother to roast their pine nuts. The finished product is then shipped off to local sellers like D.O.C. in Mornington. Paul started with soil-grown basil 12 years ago and within the first year made the switch to protected, hydroponically grown basil. “Lots of people are worried about sprays in ground-grown basil,” he explains. “They need to be carefully washed, but ‘organic people’ take hydroponic basil without question.” I ask Paul to sum up his experience with hydroponic produce and in the true spirit of the Mornington Peninsula he replies, “It has been a delight for me!” Who: David Wallace, Wallace Hydroponics Where: Keilor, Melbourne What: Capsicum growers David is the third generation of farmers in his family and the Wallace’s have been in the business for over 100 years. But over time he found that more and more of his customers

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Maximum Yield |  January/February 2012

Everyone I have spoken to in the hydroponic community shares David’s opinion on where they prefer to sell their hydroponic produce—and most growers seem to be aiming for the top end of the market. “Not necessarily the elite,” David says. “But the best independent fruit shops around Melbourne, Geelong and Ballarat.” He rattles off a string of top-quality retail outlets, including La Manna’s in Southland, where I initially came across the magnificent Wallace capsicums. I can’t resist asking him his trick to turning out the best capsicums in Victoria, to which he replies, “Ah...now that’s my secret!” But he did tell me later that you need to have sound knowledge of the plants you are growing and the ability to read the plants as they grow—and you should be prepared to spend time doing it. “It’s like if you have kids, if they go off their tucker, there’s a reason.” David says. “I have 12,000 babies and they need to be tendered every day.” And David’s thoughts about the future of the industry? “Hydroponics has come a long way in the last 20 years—there are big players and big money involved, it can only grow.”


Who: Sherif Altay, La Manna’s Quality and Fresh Retail Fruit and Vegetable Shop Where: Southland Shopping Centre What: Sellers of Wallace’s Hydroponics’ capsicum, eggplant, cucumber, herbs and tomatoes Sherif Altay—owner and buyer of La Manna’s in Southland—is a wealth of information and exudes positivity about the virtues of hydroponically grown produce. He stocks a great variety of hydro-grown products, including capsicums, luxurious deep-purple eggplants, blushing tomatoes and succulent Lebanese cucumbers, along with a garden load of vibrant bright herbs. I ask him the differences he sees between hydroponic and soil-grown produce and he hands me three capsicums. “Which would you buy?” he asks. Hmmm, point taken—definitely the hydroponic capsicum. “It’s firmer, more crunchy,” he says. “And the texture is different, there’s more in the overall meatiness of the fruit.” La Manna’s is no small corner store—they are based in one of Melbourne’s major shopping centres and have some steep competition. It is a necessity for Altay to stock a high-quality product and he sings the praises of the shelf life of hydroponically grown produce. “Whoever buys hydroponic produce will get twice the amount of life span. I see it first hand; it has an all-round longer life,” he says. And his opinion of hydro produce from a retailers perspective? “I don’t know if it’s a placebo thing,” he says, “but my customers consider them cleaner and better nurtured when they find out they’re hydroponic.” MY

Sherif Altay, owner of La Manna’s, showing off his quality eggplants.

The one thing that really stood out to me with these people in their world of protected growing is the spirit of community and their sense of loyalty and support for one another.

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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Aerobic Compost Maximize Your Microorganisms by Ian Davidson

Brew up a batch of oxygen-rich aerobic compost tea What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic?

Aerobic soil is healthy soil. Every skilled grower knows the importance of oxygen penetration in the growing medium; almost all beneficial soil organisms prefer aerobic conditions. Anaerobic organisms also exist in healthy soils but in very small populations. Most anaerobic organisms produce metabolic by-products, such as alcohol, that are toxic to plants. Many compost tea brewers and recipes produce facultative (partially) anaerobic teas that may not hurt plants, but they don’t offer the same level of benefits as a fully aerobic tea such as disease prevention and nutrient cycling.

Breath is life

Compost tea brewers must be able to maintain oxygen levels above six micrograms per millilitre (ug/ml) in order to grow aerobic organisms. Elevation and water temperature both decrease how much oxygen can be physically dissolved in water as they increase. For example, at 457 metres above sea level and water temperature of 16˚C, water can hold 9.4 ug/ml dissolved oxygen. At 457 metres and a water temperature of 27˚C, water can only hold 7.6 ug/ml dissolved oxygen. With these factors considered, when brewing tea the quantity of microbes and food stocks added to the brew affects how rapidly the microbes consume the oxygen 22

Maximum Yield |  January/February 2012

A dissolved oxygen meter is the best way to monitor your tea’s oxygen content.

in the tea and reproduce. Additionally, the organisms raise the temperature of the water as they reproduce. All these variables must be considered when making high quality aerobic compost teas.

Keep it cool

A dissolved oxygen metre is the best way to monitor your tea’s oxygen content. However, monitoring temperature is one practical way to avoid making anaerobic teas. At elevations below 1,524 metres, water temperatures should not exceed 26ºC. At elevations above 1,524 metres, water temperatures should not exceed 20ºC. At any elevation when daily high temperatures are above 24ºC, brew for 24 hours or less, and when daily high temperatures are below 24°C, brew for 48 hours.

Trust your sense of smell

You’ll be surprised how little food it takes to drive a tea anaerobic even in brewers that are able to maximize dissolved oxygen potential. The easiest indicator of anaerobic microbial growth in a tea is a foul smell. What you smell is the valuable macro- and trace nutrients in the compost tea volatilizing and blowing off in gaseous forms. Teas should never smell bad. If it stinks, it’s anaerobic!


Request the data

Manufacturers of compost tea brewers should be able to provide data that shows how much compost and food stocks you can add at what maximum elevation/temperature and still maintain aerobic conditions through the entire brew cycle. Before purchasing any compost tea equipment or subscribing to any brewing method, request data from the manufacturer showing how the machine or method functions under different conditions and what the parameters are in terms of inputs, elevation and temperature. MY

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

25


Chemical

Incompatibilities: Why and How to Avoid Them by Donald Lester

Every day more and more new products are coming into the market, each with a different chemistry or mode of action. With production costs spiraling upward growers are forced to be as efficient as possible in the delivery of these materials to their plants. So it is common for growers to try and mix several products in one tank rather than apply separate foliar applications or soil drenches. This is where problems, particularly chemical incompatibilities, can arise.

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Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012


Incompatibility in chemicals is quite common. Perhaps the most familiar example is our doctor or pharmacist warning us of possible drug interactions with the medications we take. The Wiley Guide to Chemical Incompatibilities lists over 9,000 incompatible chemical combinations. Of course, not all of these materials are used in garden, greenhouse or hydroponic products. But, this figure does give us some idea of the scope of the problem. And the problem of chemical incompatibility is getting worse because as the economy declines growers start looking for more all-in-one products to reduce application expenses. Generally, these products already have several ingredients in them so the chances of having incompatibility increases with the addition of more products. Chemical incompatibility can manifest itself in many different ways: cloudiness in the mixture; precipitation or settling out of solids in the tank; formation of noxious or

“The ‘Wiley Guide to Chemical Incompatibilities’ lists over 9,000 incompatible chemical combinations.” toxic fumes; excessive heat or fire; explosion; production of corrosive materials; formation of solids or films inside tanks and lines; ruptured containers; and plant phytotoxicity (i.e., burning) once the new mixture is applied. Mixes that settle out or become cloudy are insoluble and unavailable to the plant. Moreover, these deposits can clog dripper lines, plug filters and screens and degrade pump performance, not to mention the added headache of having to shut down the system and painstakingly clean each component. Precipitation (sedimentation) can occur because of a chemical reaction, or it can be caused by oversaturation where no chemical reaction takes place. For example, when we mix salt in water we can dissolve only so much

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

27


Chemical Incompatibilities

salt. After we reach the saturation point any salt added will remain undissolved in the water. The amount of dissolvability remaining in a liquid is often referred to by formulators as how much “room” is left. If there is enough room then we can mix something else into the solution and have it all dissolve leaving a clear solution. If we run out of room then we get precipitation. This type of precipitation can often be overcome by mixing the first product in a large volume of water and then adding the second product afterward. External influences can have an impact on sedimentation too. The temperature of the air has an influence on sedimentation. The warmer a fluid is the more solids it can dissolve. Conversely, as a fluid gets colder it can hold less in solution (i.e., dissolve less solids). So, some tank mixes cannot be allowed to cool below a certain temperature point otherwise precipitation takes place. The main way to avoid these problems is to read the product labels for known incompatibilities. Manufacturers try to test the most likely tank mixes of their products and give recommendations for those mixes. But manufacturers

cannot test every combination of their product with all the other products on the market. It is simply not practical. This is why you will often see on chemical labels a recommendation to perform a “jar test” before mixing large quantities of product. The “jar test” is a quick method for determining if products are compatible. This simple test is performed by taking a clean glass jar and mixing the two (or more) products straight from the bottle in concentrated form. If precipitation is going to take place it will happen faster with concentrated chemicals. This simple test often helps growers avoid a tank full of useless liquid with a layer of sludge on the bottom, and a potential disposal problem. As a rule of thumb you can reasonably expect a reaction in the jar test if the two (or more) products have drastically different pH values. When I say drastically different I mean a difference of at least two pH units.You can usually find the pH values of the products on their respective Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). These forms are available from the manufacturer and are usually posted on their websites for download. The pH of the water used for dilution can make a big difference in how chemicals react with each other. Sometimes an incompatibility between two chemicals can be made workable by adding an acidifier or water conditioning product. If the water pH is not near seven then there is a good chance you will have to treat the water first to adjust the pH before making your tank mix. In general it is better to adjust the pH of the water first rather than try to correct the solution pH once everything is mixed together. A common sense measure that often goes overlooked is proper cleaning of the mixing tank before starting a new mixture. Be sure the mixing tank has been cleaned well. I know of several people who have

“The ‘jar test’ is a quick method for determining if products are compatible.”

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Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012


experienced a chemical incompatibility problem because they added products to a tank that still had chemical residues inside. Even small amounts of some chemicals can cause big problems in the right combination. In some complex mixes it may be necessary to mix the ingredients in a particular order or sequence. Sometimes you will see these sequences given on the label for more popular mixes that use tricky combinations of materials. Product manufacturers usually have highly trained chemists on staff who can guide you through these types of mixes. Go directly to the manufacturer for this type of advice because distributors and retailers usually do not have chemists on staff for this type of assistance.You can also consult university experts, usually free of charge, to help with troubleshooting. In some cases a chemist, or the label, will advise you to add one product to a large volume of water first before adding a second product. Sometimes this dilution with water will slow the chemical reaction enough so that the mixture can do its work in the plants before the reaction takes place. This is why you will see on some product labels that the mixture must be used within 24 or 48 hours of mixing. Many sophisticated growers like the flexibility of creating their own special blend rather than buying generic off-theshelf, one-size-fits-all products. And growers tend to stick with mixes they know will work for them. In having gone through the process of finding that right mix growers invariably encounter product incompatibilities. This may be one reason why beginners are intimidated with the chemistry of plant products. But if you read the labels; compare the pH values of the products; perform the jar test; check the pH of your water; and seek qualified assistance from the manufacturer; you can avoid many of the more common chemical incompatibility problems and create tank mixes that are right for your operation. MY

10

Top

Strategies

for Avoiding Chemical Icompatibility

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Read the label(s) for known incompatibilities. Make sure the pH values of the products do not differ by more than two units. Perform a “jar test.” Use clean, pH corrected water. Be sure the tank is clean before mixing. Add water to the tank first then the materials. Pay attention to mixing sequences. Use mixed product quickly; do not store for long periods. Mix in warm temperatures and do not allow the mixture to freeze. Consult the manufacturer of the product(s) or university experts for guidance.

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

29


THINK INSIDE THE POT

s atkin W e v by Da

Container Gardening & Design Tap into your creativity and design a container garden that suits your style, is the envy of your friends and neighbours, and looks good all summer long. 30

Maximum Yield   |  January/February 2012


tHINK INSIDE THE POT

W

ander around any garden centre or nursery and you are not likely to bypass the large container section. It is here that the terracotta, stone, wood and slate pots, troughs, mangers and stands are displayed. They all look good—the matching colours, sizes and designs are available in antique and modern styles. Some argue that matching containers look better than a rag bag motley collection of old containers that are more reminiscent of a car boot or garage sale. However, I council against throwing out the old or taking them down to the recycling centre—although that is an option that might help others in need. If you grow trailers (these are climbers without support like Hedera and Clematis) they will quickly cover all the surfaces, and as long as you keep them clean, they will do the trick and also look pleasant. It would be nice if we could always start a new season with a matching designer collection of containers, but in reality we acquire our containers. Mom and dad present you with one; your friends think you would like one for Christmas; you spot a flowering container and add it to your collection because you liked the plants in it. All in all you probably have about a dozen assorted containers. Go on, count them up: two hanging baskets, one half basket on the fence, three stone urns, terracotta trough with matching giant flower pots and so on it goes. I suggest always having an odd number of the same container on hand because odd numbers work well in design. This is unless your look is strictly formal. Apart from the material it is made of, what makes a good container? The compost has to be free draining yet able

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Maximum Yield   | January/February 2012

to hold on to moisture and nutrients. The compost also should have an air filled porosity of 20 per cent. Air filled porosity, or AFP, is the amount of air in the compost. watering in the early So how much of the bulk is air? The air content is a lot more important than most morning or in the evening. Wagardeners realize. With a container it is all too easy to compact compost. Look at a tering at any other container that has been standing for two time and you may run the or three years. It looks as if it has shrunk. risk of water spots and burn marks. The sides of the compost are usually Another rule to abide by is when you pulled away and the level has dropped have planted up the container always put from the top. So much so that when it is some seed on top; it will develop and fill watered it runs straight down the sides in as the original slows down, thus keepand out of the ing that fresh container, hardly “I suggest always having look longer into an odd number of same the season. adding any Planting in conmoisture to the containers on hand tainers is a very compost at all. because odd numbers personal thing. It is compacted work well together.” Your baskets and and over time tubs will inevitably reflect your choices has dried out too many times. in colour and style. Many gardeners will Another rule to practice is regularly use every colour under the sun in a fine top dressing or even replanting in fresh, mixed basket; others will stick to just a soil-based compost is essential. The full potential of the display will be realized and one colour theme. Both are acceptable as make it worthwhile when the neighbour long as it looks right to you when your asks why yours looks better than his. plants are fully grown. My ideal container is a 30-centimetre The compost can be soil- or soillessfuchsia mossed-up basket, marinka around based and should be ideal for all displays the sides with blue lobelias using fuchsia apart from acid lovers like heathers, ferns Winston Churchill as the king plant in the and dwarf conifers. Soil-based composts middle. The new giant fuchsias also make add weight, which prevents wind from a beautiful display, with just three young blowing the displays over and acts as a plants filling a 30-centimetre basket easily. benign barrier to hold on to water and nutrients. Add some moisture retaining When selecting the plants for your containers think of how you view them. material—either moss, gel or even waste Do you want to be able to look down on substitutes. These will act as reservoirs, releasing moisture as the plants need it. your plants, like verbena? If so put them Slow release feed is a great standard option in low tubs. Do they look better from a height like trailing Busy Lizzie? If so and I also recommend using a boost feed place them in half baskets and hang them at the start of flowering. A foliar feed will be more useful as long as you do it when at eye level. Don’t feel like you must always group containers side-by-side. Explore design using them in a waterfall scheme to achieve height and impact. Progressive larger pots, one inside another, will clothe quickly and be easier to water and feed as well as look great as columns on a patio. MY


by Jack Van Camp

Ventilation The Whole Truth

Grow spaces of all shapes and sizes—large or small, hobby or commercial— need airflow. Detailed are the benefits of ventilation and how to integrate fans into your space. Our planet is dynamic with low pressure and high pressure systems colliding and creating wind. The wind can dry or moisten an environment, which in turn can open or close the stomata on the surface of leaves. If the humidity is too low the plant’s growth will slow down; if the humidity is too high bacteria and fungi can flourish. In an indoor growing environment, fans are a necessity. They emulate our planet’s dynamic pressure systems keeping the temperature and humidity at a constant level. Besides lighting they are one the 34

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

most important components in an indoor grow set-up. Carbon dioxide is an integral component of plant growth. Even if nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon are present and plentiful at the root level, insufficient airflow will result in a missing element in the plant’s construction material. A fan will keep the plant breathing, metabolizing and growing at an optimum rate. The diverse selection of fans on the market includes do-it-yourself hydroponic computer fans, centrifugal (squirrel cage) fans, vortex fans and more that will all do

different jobs in different situations. In situations with high intensity discharge (HID) light (more than 400 watts burning), a small fan under 250 or 300 CFM (cubic feet per minute) will not do the job. A general rule of thumb is if you have 400 watts of light you should have at least 400 CFM per bulb and if you have 600 to 1,000 watts you should have 600 CFM per bulb. Another way to calculate volume of air exchange in a room is mathematically. Knowing the length, width and height of the room, you simply multiply these three numbers to find the proper fan that will


ventalation - the whole truth

exchange your air in one minute. For example, a 10 by 10 by eight foot room is 800 cubic feet so your fan must be at least 800 CFM in order to achieve

• A fan should always be set up level. Hang the fan straight up and down vertically or perfectly horizontal. If you hang the fan off kilter the bearings will rub together unevenly and over time the fan will start to make unbearable sounds and in the worst case, will stop completely. • By sealing all connections and air leaks with silicone or metalized ducting tape you will ensure complete “In cases where heat buildup is a problem (even in airflow with no air escaping back into your room. large rooms) an intake fan pushing the same volume All these components in of air as the outtake fan can be installed down low front or behind the fan in the opposing wall to help cool the air faster and should be taken into conmake the air tumble through the garden.” sideration when you are envisioning your room. Airflow and movement the one minute exchange. are very important in the garden. When you are shopping Very small areas can use for a fan you are going to get what you pay for. Purchassmaller fans, but heat can ing a fan too small or of inferior quality spells trouble. build up very quickly in Don’t be afraid to spend the money on a good fan. You a small area and will still wouldn’t buy a $700 fishing rod and put a $3 reel on it, need good, steady airflow. would you? Having a good quality and properly sized fan In cases where heat buildup should be one the strongest links in the chain. MY is a problem (even in large rooms) an intake fan pushing the same volume of air Helpful Hints: as the outtake fan can be installed down low in the opposing wall to help cool the air faster • Decide where you are going to place the fan in your and make the air tumble through the garden. An oscillating fan room. High up in a corner is best for expelling blowing gently across the leaves in tandem with intake and outhot air. take fans will keep the plants fed well with carbon dioxide and • Get the proper fan size to change the air will make the plants’ stems stronger at the cellular level. If heat or in your room a couple times a minute. cold is a problem all fans can be hooked up to dimmer switches • An 800 cubic feet room requires a or heating and cooling thermostats to keep the room between minimum 800 CFM fan. the proper temperature parameters. • Make sure the fan is level horizonAll fans run on a curve and there is a point at which the fan runs tally or vertically. most efficient. Every piece of equipment placed in front of or be• Make sure the length of your hind the fan has a negative effect on the performance of the fan. ducting is straight and as short • Louver or butterfly dampers will impede the progression of as possible. air to a degree. • Purchase a fan that is more powerful • The ducting will affect airflow. Straight, smooth, galvanized than you need in case you add carbon ducting will let air flow better than plastic ducting with ribs.The filters or air cooled shades. ribs create small baffles along the length of the ducting and static • The intake fan should match the outpressure will build up in the duct work. take fan. • Length of pipe is another important consideration.The shorter, • Seal all connections with silicone or metalized straighter span of pipe or ducting should be used for the most duct tape. efficient airflow. According to heating and cooling duct work • Use an oscillating fan for mixing air and creatcontractors, every 45 degree bend adds three metres to the length ing a gentle breeze across the plants leaves. of duct and a 90 degree bend is something that will start to work • And finally, spend money on a good quality brand name against the fan; the air will actually find its way back to the fan fan, and it will be the only fan you will ever need. and leak out into the room. 36

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012


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Root Zone

Chilling Handling the Heat by Dr. Lynette Morgan

H

Is heat a problem in your indoor garden? Handle it with this advice so your plants can be at the top of their game.

Heat loading in indoor hydroponic gardens is a common problem.The combination of high “...we know a cooler nutrient solution holds more intensity lighting, small enclosed spaces, limited dissolved oxygen for root uptake, so that oxygen air exchange and sweltering summers all take their toll on plants. Small volumes of recirculating starvation is likely to be far less of a problem nutrient and restricted growing containers also than it would be with a warm nutrient.” contribute to heat buildup in the root zone, often to the point where roots can cook without the grower even being aware of the problem. A hot environment is hard to handle, often rather expensive to keep cool, and if combined with high humidity, the tropical conditions have some nasty consequences for plant growth and Ignorance is not bliss development. However, hydroponic systems can Many of us have probably seen the effects offer some significant advantages when it comes of high air temperatures of crops—wilting, to a little manipulation of a plant’s physiology reductions in growth, tip burn, premature to boost yields and keep crops happy. Root zone bolting, loss of chlorophyll (leaves going temperature strongly affects shoot growth. In pale and yellow), flower and fruit let drop, fact root zone temperatures play more of a role overall losses in yield and increases in in growth and development than that of the air root disease pathogens such as pythium that prey on stressed root tissue. At surrounding the plant.This is because the root tissue sends numerous `non hydraulic’ messages to the shoot, high temperatures, plant tissue has a which influence the way the shoot responds to the rapidly increased rate of respiration that burns up assimilate produced environment. So with many plant functions under the during photosynthesis, leaving control of what goes on down in the roots, temperature much less for growth in the root zone becomes an extremely important factor to be keeping an eye on. and development.

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Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012


While most growers keep a regular check on the air temperature surrounding their plants and aim to keep this within an ideal range for the species being grown, few realize the potential of root zone temperature control. Nutrient temperature buildup can be surprisingly fast and become excessive under hot lights and in systems with very limited root zones, so regular root zone temperature checks are a good idea. Research has shown that even a short duration, less than 30 minutes of root zone heat buildup, can have a very negative effect on many crops, which can not be compensated by having a low daily temperature average. Just a few minutes a day of root zone temperatures over 30°C have been shown to retard the growth of some heat sensitive crops such as lettuce and parsley.

Root zone temperature physiology

It seems that chilling in the root zone via the nutrient solution affects the plant’s physiology in a number of different ways, which allows the aerial portion of the plant to withstand higher than optimal temperatures. Firstly, we know a cooler nutrient solution holds more dissolved oxygen for root uptake, so that oxygen starvation is likely to be far less of problem than it would be with a warm nutrient. Secondly cooling of the roots to well below ambient air temperatures seems to allow higher assimilation rates by reducing both photo inhibition and stomatal closure that typically occur once the plant becomes temperature stressed.What is even more interesting is that the positive effects of nutrient chilling seem to be largely the result of changes in the production of plant growth hormones abcissic acid (ABA) and cytokinins that control a range of plant responses. Cytokinins are mainly synthesized in roots and any environmental stress in this tissue, such as high temperature, results in a shortage of this hormone being sent up to the shoots. Very low cytokinin concentrations in the roots of even warm Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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Root Zone Chilling

Lettuce being grown in a deep flow system with chilled nutrient solution under tropical conditions. (Inset) Showing the impressive root structure of aeroponic production.

season crops have been found after only five days at -12 to 38°C suggesting that the response of cyctokinin deficiency to high temperatures is very rapid. Cytokinins are important as they stimulate cell division, cell enlargement, chloroplast formation, synthesis of chlorophylls and proteins and in general, drive plant growth and development. The small leaf area, stunted growth and leaf yellowing often seen in heat stressed plants may be at least particularly attributable to a reduction in cytokinin synthesis in the roots. ABA is known as a stress hormone and has been found to increase in leaves when roots are exposed to high temperatures. ABA is inhibitory to growth and results in stomatal closure and the reduction in photosynthesis that results as the plant starts to shut down.

Tricking plants into handling the heat

Apart from keeping a close check on root zone temperatures to make sure they are not overheating and cooking the roots, there is a well proven technique that can be used to fool the physiology of many plants into handling higher then optimal air temperatures. Root zone chilling of the hydroponic nutrient solution is a technique being used commercially by many growers in warm or tropical climates, most often with cool season crops such as butterhead lettuce, herbs and other vegetables. In Singapore NFT, aeroponic and deep flow culture systems are utilized with extensive nutrient chilling to grow butterhead and Romaine lettuce, crops that otherwise do not grow or yield well at ambient air temperatures. Chilling the nutrient solution down to as low as 16 to 18°C, allows the cool season vegetables to crop well at ambient air temperatures that are often well above optimal for these crops (28 to 36°C). Without nutrient chilling, the root zone usually warms to the level of the air and this gives numerous growth problems including slow growth, lack of heart formation, bolting, tip burn and low marketable yields. Other researchers have reported that nutrient chilling of lettuce also reduces the occurrence of the fungal root disease Pythium aphanidermatum. Chilling the nutrient tricks the physiology of the plant into growing in air temperatures that would otherwise not be economic. However, trials have shown that while root zone 40

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

chilling via nutrient cooling can have these effects, the root zone cooling must be applied soon after early crop establishment and maintained for the life of the crop for maximum effect. While this technique of root zone chilling is perhaps more economically viable with high value crops in tropical climates such as cool season lettuce, herbs and other vegetables, it has also proven to be beneficial for other species. Warm season plants such as capsicum and cucumber have also been shown in research trials to respond in a similar way to root zone chilling when ambient air temperatures are higher than optimal for their growth and development. Cucumber is warm season plant whose optimal root zone temperature lies around 25°C, once root temperatures increase to 35°C, severe reductions in shoot growth can begin to occur. Cucumbers grown at high air temperatures (38°C) have been found to have a larger leaf area and higher yield when the root zone was cooled to below 25°C. Capsicum (sweet pepper), another warm season crop has been found to respond to nutrient chilling when grown under warm aerial conditions in tropical Singapore. It was found that capsicum plants grown at a root temperature of 20°C had more leaves, greater leaf area and dry weight than plants grown at ambient root zone temperatures of 25 to 40°C even though both were under the same ambient tropical conditions of high temperature and light intensities. Under normal growing conditions for capsicum (22 to 26°C), having a nutrient solution temperature of 20°C would result in growth reductions, however, under the high temperature tropical conditions, root zone chilling to 20°C had significant benefits to crop growth and development via altering the physiology of the plant to handle the temperature stress. Red basil plants, while normally considered a fairly warm season crop, have been found to have increased vegetative growth, more intensive development of purple anthocycanin pigment as well as increased development of aromatic compounds in the leaves when grown in a chilled nutrient at 25 to 26°C under tropical conditions.


Cool season vs. warm season crops and nutrient chilling

Obviously for the technique of root zone chilling via the nutrient solution to work effectively the correct temperature needs to be constantly maintained and this optimal temperature is likely to be not the same for all species. Cool season crops such as lettuce may benefit from nutrient chilling to a cooler temperature than warm season crops and there is evidence to suggest that root zone chilling is only beneficial when ambient air temperatures are consistently higher than optimal. Furthermore, as with any technique or treatment, overdoing it can have some fairly drastic results—chilling the nutrient in a crop that is not under high air temperatures could potentially result in growth reductions or chilling damage, particularly with warm season plants. Such over chilling results in root tissue damage and decay, reduction in nutrient ion absorption and water uptake.

Best systems for nutrient chilling

Various studies on the effect of nutrient or root zone chilling for hydroponic crops under high heat conditions have shown that deep flow water culture gives the best results for many crops such as lettuce, herbs and other vegetables. Aeroponics and nutrient film techniques are also commonly used for root zone chilling; however, these seem less effective than deep flow methods. It is possible that the larger volume of chilled nutrient solution in deep flow systems maintains cooler temperatures for longer, while the thin (two- to three-millimetres deep) flow of NFT and fine mist of aeroponics tend to heat up more during application. Another possibility is that the more of the root system that is submerged in the chilled nutrient, the greater the effect on the physiology of the plant. In general, however, solution culture methods are the only effective way of providing consistent chilled nutrient solution and in insulated systems can be reasonably cost effective. MY Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

41


you tell us

Shaun Jones, owner (left) with Shane Dalby, operations manager

We sat down recently with SJ Enterprises’s Shaun Jones—the man behind the Cyco line—for a chat about quality control, knowing your product formulations from start to finish and how he chose that crazy name.

that performs effectively and significantly increases yields. The introduction of the Cyco line has simplified things—for both the retailer making sales and the end-users applying our products—by implementing a simple colour-coded system for each week of a plant’s cycle.

Maximum Yield (MY): How do you encourage retailers MY: How does your Dr. Repair product work? to carry your products? Shaun: Cyco’s Dr. Repair treats chlorosis and environShaun Jones: We encourage the sale of our prodmental stresses. Chlorosis is a yellowing of leaf ucts by supplying good product information tissue due to a lack of chlorophyll and possible The product and also assorted promotional material to the causes include poor drainage, damaged roots, retail store interested in the CYCO line. compacted roots, high alkalinity and— name Cyco came about We also supply a Cyco Prokit, which more importantly—nutrient deficiencies approximately six years I found was the best way to introduce the plant. Environmental stress can ago, because when we were indamage all our products and yet keep it all as plant function or development, doing our first product trials simple and user-friendly as possible. shortening the time for photosynthewith several of our clients, (cycoflower.com/Cyco_prokit) sis and in turn reducing yield. A lack the feedback we were of iron is one of the more common MY: What is the Australian market nutrient deficiencies in plants associated getting was “it’s making like for nutrients and additives with chlorosis. Dr. Repair helps to restore the plants go compared to say, the United States your plant to its full potential and thereby psycho!” market? Are consumers looking for increase its potential yield. different products? Shaun: End-users and retailers in Australia are constantly MY: Why did you choose Cyco as a company seeking innovative and unique products that outperform their moniker? Are you guys a little bit crazy? previous brands. Our Cyco line of products has given them Shaun: Good question! The product name Cyco came about this edge, as it is a user-friendly protein-based line of products approximately six years ago, because when we were doing our 42

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012


first product trials with several of our clients, the feedback we were getting was “it’s making the plants go psycho!” So, there was the name—Cyco. MY: Where are your products manufactured? What kind of quality control and testing procedures do you employ? Shaun: Our company office and manufacturing plant is based in Adelaide, South Australia and is regarded as one of the best liquid fertilizer facilities in Australia. Each batch of Cyco product is recorded and strictly tested for quality and to make sure all batches are identical. We use only the best lab-grade British pharmaceutical ingredients, which ensures a perfect product each and every time. Take a look at our factory tour to see more: cycoflower.com/factory_tour Our manufacturing plant and quality control area consists of three major sections: 1. Manufacturing plant area 2. Product and development area 3. Labs and testing facilities (all NATA and ISO approved) MY: Who are the people behind your company? Shaun: Our clients can feel satisfied knowing that as the CEO of SJ Enterprises, I have had 15 years of experience in the hydroponic industry—both retail and wholesale. So I understand what wholesalers, retailers and end-users need to see to make Cyco products a success for all who use them.

Our operations manager, Shane Dalby, has also had many years in the hydroponic industry and is driven to make the Cyco brand a premium line and an imperfection-free product.We also have a national quality advisor, a resident chemist and a plant physiologist—and that’s not to mention the dedicated team of skilled workers that makes the Cyco factory function on a day-to-day basis! MY: In a crowded marketplace, what makes Cyco products superior? Shaun: What makes our products superior in the marketplace is the manufacturing process that we use. Not too many companies have a start-to-finish product that is produced in one facility—but we do! I feel this gives us a big edge in the hydroponic industry, as we know our own products intimately and we understand what makes them function—resulting in a perfect combination of quality products and superior product knowledge that allows us to teach our retailers and customers how to get the best results from Cyco formulations every time they are applied. Everyone knows not all products are created equally.As the saying goes,“good quality in equals good quality out.”That’s why SJ Enterprises uses only the highest-quality lab-grade materials to produce the Cyco line. A new benchmark has been set—and it’s simply Cyco! Cyco Flower products are sold in Australia, United States and the UK. MY Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

43


RETAIL

directory

AUSTRALIA ACT

South Pacific Hydroponics #2 - 84 - 86 Wollongong St., Fyshwick ACT 2609 South Pacific Hydroponics 70 Oatley Court , Belconnen ACT 2617

(02) 6239 2598 (02) 6251 0600

NEW SOUTH WALES ABC Aquaculture 54 Wahroonga Road, Kanwal NSW 2259 (61) 2 4393 3131 ASE Hydroponics Factory 10/45 Leighton Pl., Hornsby NSW 2077 (02) 9477 3710 Ballina Hydro 3 Ray O’Niell Crescent, Ballina NSW 2478 (02) 6686 7321 Brunswick Hydro & Aquarium Supplies 19 Booyun Street, Brunswick Heads NSW 2483 (02) 6685 1552 Criscete Hydroponics and Organics Unit 2/15 Kam Close, Morisset, NSW 2264 (02) 4973 5779 Dr. Van Der Bloom’s Hydroponics Supplies 5/5 Forge Drive, Coff’s Harbour, NSW 2450 (02) 6651 9992 Dubbo Hydro & Tobacconist 42c Victoria Street, Dubbo West NSW 2830 (02) 6885 1616 Ezi Grow Hydro 177 Mt Druit Road, Mt Druitt NSW 2770 (02) 9832 1610 Ezi Grow Hydro 1B/340 Windsor Street, Richmond NSW 2753 (02) 4588 5826 Ezi Grow Hydro 56 Fish Parade, Bathurst NSW 2795 (02) 9832 1610 Ezi Grow Hydro - Head Office 18 Part Street, Eglinton NSW 2795 (02) 6337 1485 Favgro Hydroponics Growers 107 Glenella Road, Batehaven NSW 2536 (02) 4472 7165 Felanza - Hydroponics 140 Princess Highway, Arncliffe, NSW 2205 (02) 9556 1494 General Hydroponics 7/14 Sunnyholt Road, Blacktown NSW 9676 (02) 9676 8682 Grow Australia Factory 1/5 Sefton Road, Thronleigh NSW 2120 (02) 9473 5000 Grow Your Own Unit 6/34 Alliance Ave, Morisset NSW 2264 (02) 4973 5179 Happy Grow Hydro 15/The Crescent Street, Penrith NSW 2750 (02) 4732 2870 Hobby Grow 6/46 Through Street South Grafton NSW 2460 (04) 2283 8069 Home Harvest 423 Princess Highway, Rockdale NSW 2216 (02) 9567 8841 Hyalite Moorebank 6/376 Newsbridge Road, Moorebank NSW 2170 (02) 9824 3400 Hyalite Villawood 2/21 Birmingham Avenue, Villawood NSW 2163 (02) 9723 7199 Hydro Masta 100 Station Road, Seven Hills, Sydney NSW 2147 (02) 8812 2845 Hydro Masta Pty Ltd 76 Beecroft Road, Epping NSW 2121 (02) 9869 3011 Hydro Net 2/14 Aific Street, Long Jetty NSW 2261 (02) 4334 6955 Hydro Place 1/68 Nelson Street, Wallsend NSW 2287 (02) 4965 6595 Hydro Shop and Reptile Supplies 2/390 The Esplanade, Warners Bay NSW 2282 (02) 4958 1489 Hydro Shop Pty Ltd Unit 1/5-7 Channel Road, Mayfield West NSW 2304 (02) 4960 0707 Hydro Supplies 57 Flinders Street, Darlinghurst NSW 2010 (02) 9326 0307 Hydro Wise B/385 The Entrance Road, Long Jetty NSW 2261 (02) 4333 5700 Hydroponics Grow All Year 14 Fitzmaurice Street, Wagga Wagga NSW 2650 (02) 6921 5911 Hygrow Horticulture (Greenlite) 252 Oxford Street, Bondi Junction NSW 2022 (02) 9369 3928 Indoor Sun Shop 745 Victoria Road, Top Ryde NSW 2112 (02) 9808 6511 Indoor Sun Shop Unit 2/109 Junction Road, Moorebank NSW 2170 (02) 9822 4700 International Fans PO Box 120, St. Mary’s NSW 2760 (02) 9833 7500 Kyper’s Tools and Hydroponics Stuart & Tincogan Sts, Mullumbimby NSW 2482 (02) 6684 4928 Lismore Hydro 1/106 Canway Street, Lismore NSW 2480 (02) 6621 3311

44

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

Lismore Hydroponics rear of 28 Casino St., South Lismore, NSW 2480 Northern Nursery Supplies Pty Ltd 14-16 Nance Road, Kempsey NSW 2440 Nowra Hydro 68 Bridge Road, Nowra NSW 2541 Nutriflo Hydroponic Systems 19/5 Daintree Place, Gosford West NSW 2250 Parkview Plants 250 Princess Highway, Nowra South NSW 2541 Port Pumps and Irrigation 20 Uralla Road, Pt Macquarie NSW 2444 Quik Grow 510a Great Western Hwy., Pendle Hill NSW 2145 Quick Grow 823 King Georges Road, S. Hurstville NSW 2221 Quik Grow Pty Ltd 490 Parramatta Road, Petersham NSW 2049 Simple Grow Hassall Street & Windem, Wetherill Pk NSW 2164 Tweed Coast Hydroponics 2/58 Machinery Dr., Tweeds Head South NSW 2486 Uncle Wal’s Gardenland 31 Crescent Avenue, Taree NSW 2430 Home Grown Aquaponics 13/8a-8b Hartley Drive, Thornton NSW 2322 Westside Lighting & Electrical (Ezi Range) PO Box 274, Mascot NSW 1400 Wollongong Hydroponic Center 318 Crown Street, Wollongong NSW 2500 NORTHERN TERRITORY Katherine Hydroponics Centre 17 Rundle Street, Katherine NT 0850 QUEENSLAND A Happy Medium Hydroponics Unit2/10 Central Court, Browns Plains QLD 4118 Allgrow Hydro 13 - 58 Bullock Head St., Sumner Park QLD 4074 Aquatic Oasis Unit 2/33 Smith Street, Capalaba QLD 4157 Billabong Hydroponics Lot 1, Billabong Court, Childers QLD 4660 D-Bay Hydroponics Shop 5/404 Deception Bay Road, Deception Bay QLD 4508 E.T. Grow Home Unit 1/4 Windmill Street, Southport QLD 4215 Eye Lighting Australia Pty Ltd PO Box 306, Carole Park QLD 4300 Green Power Hydroponics 2/80 Beerburrum Road, Caboolture QLD 4510 Grow Hydro 22 Mining Street, Bundamba QLD 4304 Hyalite Varsity 5/11 John Duncan Crt.,Varsity Lakes QLD 4227 Hydroponic Roots & Shoots Lot 3 Herberton Road, Atherton QLD 4883 Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 93 Cook St., Portsmith QLD 4870 Hydroponics Today PO Box 785, Stanthorpe QLD 4380 Indoor Solutions Unit 2 / 79 Oxford Tce., Taringa QLD 4068 J&K Hydroponics 10 Wacol Station Road, Wacol, Brisbane QLD, 4076 KY Garden 3/31 Argyle PDE, Darra Brisbane QLD 4076 Nerang Hydroponic Centre 27 Lawrence Drive, Nerang QLD 4211 North Queensland Hydro Supplies Shop 2B/20-22 Fleming St., Townsville QLD 4810 Northern Hydroponics 383 Mulgrave Road, Cairns QLD 4870 Pioneer Hydroponics 194 Doyles Road, Pleystowe QLD 4741 SA Hydroponics Shed 3, 1191 Anzac Avenue, Kallangar QLD 4503 Simply Hydroponics Gold Coast 42 Lawrence Drive, Nerang QLD 4211

(02) 6621 3311 (02) 6563 1599 (02) 4423 3224 (02) 4323 1599 (02) 4423 0599 (02) 6581 1272 (02) 9636 7023 (02) 9546 8642 (02) 9568 2900 (02) 9604 0469 (07) 5524 8588 (02) 6550 0221 (02) 4028 6388 1 800 661 475 (02) 4225 8773

(08) 8972 1730

(07) 3809 3322 (07) 3376 7222 (07) 3245 7777 (07) 4126 3551 (07) 3204 8324 (07) 5591 6501 (07) 3335 3556 (07) 5428 1133 (07) 3816 3206 (07) 5593 7385 (07) 4091 3217 (07) 4035 5422 (07) 4683 3133

(07) 3271 6210 (07) 3375 9098 (07) 5527 4155 (07) 4728 3957 (07) 4054 5884 (07) 4959 2016 (07) 3285 1355 (07) 5596 2250

Sunstate Hydroponics 1137 Ipswitch Road, Moorooka QLD 4105 Sunstate Hydroponics 67 Aerodrome Road, Maroochydore QLD 4558 The Hydroponic Warehouse Shop 3/73 PIckering Street, Enoggera QLD 4051 Tumbling Waters Hydroponics 2 Clarkes Track, Malanda QLD 4885 Walsh’s Seeds Garden Centre 881 Ruthven Street, Toowoomba QLD 4350 SOUTH AUSTRALIA Amazon Aquariums & Gardening Unit 5, 16 Research Road, Pooraka SA 5095 Ascot Park 753 Marion Road, Ascot Park SA 5043 Barry’s Hardware Saints & Main North Rd., Salisbury Plains SA 5109 Bolzon Home & Garden 103 Tolley Road, St Agnes SA 5097 Chocablock Discount Variety Store 15-17/1220 Grand Junction, Hope Valley SA 5090 Complete Hydroponics 1581 Main North Road Salisbury East SA 5109 Country Hydro 434 Saddleback Road, Whyalla SA 5600 D & W Dependable Hardware 45B Kettering Road, Elizabeth South SA 5112 Festive Hydro 2 Kreig Street, Evanston Park SA 5116 Fulham Gardener Nursery 597 Tapleys Hill Road, Fulham SA 5024 Futchatec Distribution 4 Symonds St. Royal Park, 5014 Glandore Hydroponics 644 - 646 South Road, Glandore SA 5037 Greener then Green 52 - 54 Cliff Avenue, Port Noarlunga South SA 51 Greenhouse Superstore Lonsdale 35 to 37 Aldenhoven Road SA 5160 Greenhouse Superstore Royal Park 4 Symonds St. Royal Park SA 5014 Ground-Up Service Nursery 3 Copinger Road, Pt. Pirie SA 5540 Harvest Time Hydroponics Shop 3/146-148, Findon Road, Findon SA 5023 Hindmarsh Hydroponics 39a Manton Street, Hindmarsh SA 5095 Highland Hydro 14/1042 Grand Junction Road, Holden Hill SA 5088 Hong Kong Hydro 13 Research Road, Pooraka SA 5095 Hydro Heaven Kane Motors-Hunt Road, Mount Barker SA 5251 Hydro Sales & Service 1 Salisbury Crescent, Colonel Light SA 5041 Hydro Technics 321 South Road, Croydon SA 5008 Hydro Warehouse 181 Seacombe Road, South Brighton SA 5048 Hydro World 40 Folland Avenue, Northfield SA 5085 Koko’s Hydro Warehouse Unit 2/2 McGowan Street, Pooraka SA 5095 Larg’s Bay Garden Supply 239 Victoria Road, Largs Bay SA 5016 Martins Road Hydro # 5- 353 Martins Road, Parafield Gardens SA 5107 Mitre 10 Drive In 152 Hanson Road, Mansfield Park SA 5012 New Age Hydroponics 135-137 Sir Donald Bradman Dr., Hilton SA 5033 Owen Agencies 17-19 Railway Terrace, Owen SA 5460 Professional Hydro 4/522 Grange Road, Fulham Gardens SA 5024 Professional Hydro Shop 5/645 Lower North East Road SA 5075 Professional Hydroponics 113 Maurice Road, Murray Bridge SA

(07) 3848 5288 (07) 5479 1011 (07) 3354 1588 (07) 4096 6443 (07) 4636 1077

(08) 8359 1800 (08) 8357 4700 (08) 8281 4066 (08) 8265 0665 (08) 8396 3133 (08) 8258 4022 (08) 8645 3105 (08) 8287 6399 (08) 8523 5100 (08) 8235 2004 (08) 8447-1122 (08) 8371 5777 (08) 8386 2596 (08) 8382 0100 (08) 8447 5899 (08) 8264 9455 (08) 8244 0222 (08) 8346 9461 (08) 8395 4455 (08) 8260 2000 (08) 8391 1880 (08) 8272 2000 (08) 8241 5022 (08) 8377 1200 (08) 8262 8323 (08) 8260 5463 (08) 8242 3788 (08) 8283 4011 (08) 8445 1813 (08) 8351 9100 (08) 8528 6008 (08) 8353 0133 (08) 8365 5172 (08) 8532 3441


Seaton Hydroponics 129 Tapleys Hill Road Seaton SA 5023 Soladome Aquaculture & Hydro 44 Chapel St., Norwood SA 5067 South Coast Hydroponics 6/25 Gulfview Road, Christies Beach SA 5165 State Hydroponics 174 Semaphore Road, Exeter SA 5019 Tea Tree Gully Hydro 32 Famechon Cresent, Modbury North SA 5092 Two Wells Hardware 86 Old Port Wakefield Road, Two Wells SA 5501 Urban Grow Solutions 1/111 Main Sth Rd, O’Halloran Hill, S.A 5189 West Garden Centre Peachey Road, Elizabeth West SA 5113 TASMANIA Advanced Hydroponics 26 Mulgrave Street, South Launceston Tas 7249 Ezy Grow 625 East Derwent Highway, Lindisfarne Tas 7015 Garden World 717 West Tamar Highway, Legana Tas 7277 Green Acres Hydroponics Unit 1 46-48 Bingalong Rd, Mornington, TAS 7018 Growers Choice 225 Main Road, Derwent Park Tas 7009 Hydroponics Systems 131 Main Rd, Moonah, TAS 7009  Hydroponic World 322 Bass Highway, Sulphur Creek Tas 7316 Organic Garden Supplies Tas 17 Don Road, Devonport Tas 7310 Tas Hydroponic Supplies 99 Lampton Avenue, Derwent Park Tas 7009 The Hydroponic Company 69 Charles Street, Moonah Tas 7009 The Hydroponics Company 289 Hobart Road, Kings Medow Tas 7428 VICTORIA Albury Hydroponics 62 Thomas Mitchell Drive, Springvale Vic 3171 All Seasons Hydroponics 3 Springvale Road, Springvale Vic 3171 Banksia Greenhouse and Outdoor Garden 530 Burwood Highway, Wantirna Vic 3152 Barb’s Hydro and Nursery 15 Wallace Avenue, Interverloch Vic 3196 Bayside Hydroponics Factory 2/8 Rutherford Road, Seaford Vic 3196 Belgrave Hydroponics 5/ 60-68 Colby Drive, Belgrave Heights Vic 3160 Brew ‘N’ Grow 4 - 479 Nepean Highway, Edithvale Vic 3199 Casey Hydro 12 The Arcade Street, Cranbourne Vic 3977 Casey Hydro 78 Spring Square, Hallam Vic 3803 Chronic Hydroponics 31 Anderson Street, Templestowe Vic 3106 Complete Garden Supplies 580 Ballarat Road, Sunshine Vic 3020 Discount Hydroponics 752 Waverley Road, Chadstone Vic 3148 Echuca Hydroponic Nursery & Supplies 23 Ogilvie Avenue, Echuca Vic 3564 Echuca Pump Shop 128 Ogilvie Avenue, Echuca Vic 3564 Excel Distributors Pty Ltd 2/41 Quinn Street, Preston Vic 3072 F.L.O.W. Plants and Environments 66B Chapel Street, Windsor Vic 3181 Gardensmart 810-834 Springvale Road, Keysborough Vic 3173 Global Hydroponics 10 Knight Avenue, Sunshine Vic 3020 Greenleaf Hydroponics 9a Church Street, Traralgon Vic 3844

(08)82682636 (08) 8362 8042 (08) 8384 2380 (08) 8341 5991 (08) 8264 9455 (08) 8520 2287 (08) 8322 0040 (08) 8255 1355

(03) 6344 5588 (03) 6243 9490 (03) 6330 1177 (03) 6245 1066 (03) 6273 6088 (03) 6278 3457 (03) 6435 4411 (03) 6424 7815 (03) 6272 2202 (03) 6273 1411 (03) 6340 2222

(03) 9540 8000 (03) 9540 8000 (03) 9801 8070 (03) 5674 2584 (03) 9775 0495 (03) 9754 3712 (03) 9783 3006 (03) 5996 3697 (03) 9796 3776 (03) 9646 8133 (03) 9311 9776 (03) 9568 1860 (03) 5480 2036 (03) 5480 7080 (03) 9495 0083 (03) 9510 6832 (03) 9769 1411 (03) 9356 9400 (03) 5176 0898

Greenleaf Hydroponics Factory 7, Industrial Park Drive, Lilydale Vic 3140 (03) 9739 7311 GreenLite - Ringwood 291 Maroondah Highway, Ringwood Vic 3134 (03) 9870 8566 Grow 4 XS Rear 24 Simms Road, Greensborough Vic 3088 (03) 9435 6425 Holland Forge Pty Ltd. 5 Hi-tech Place, Rowville Vic 3178 (03) 9764 1372 Hydroware 59a Lara Way, Campbellfield, Vic, 3061 (03) 9357 8805 Hyalite Airport West Unit 4/504-506 Fullarton Road, Airport West 3042 (03) 9331 5452 Hyalite Bayswater 4/19 Jersey Road, Bayswater Vic 3153 (03) 9720 1946 Hyalite Global 10 Knight Avenue, Sunshine North Vic 3020 (03) 9356 9400 Hyalite Westend 3 Third Avenue, Sunshine Vic 3020 (03) 9311 3510 Indoor Garden Company 29 Glasgow Street, Collingwood Vic 3066 (03) 9416 1699 Impact Distribution PO Box 2188, Salisbury Downs 5108 (08) 8250-1515 JB Lighting 492 - 500 Neerim Road, Murrumbeena Vic 3163 (03) 9569 4399 Just Hydroponics Deer Park Unit 11 29-39 Westwood Drive, Deer Park, VIC 3023  (03) 8390 0861 Just Hydroponics Geelong Unit 7 36-38 Saunders street, North Geelong, VIC 3215 (03) 5278 6478 Latrove Valley Home Brew Supplies PO Box 802, Morwell Vic 3804 (03) 5133 9140 Living Jungle 345 Sommerville Road, Footscray West Vic 3012 (03) 9314 0055 Melton Hydroponic Supplies 18/10 Norton Drive, Melton Vic 3194 (03) 9746 9256 Midtown Hydroponics Factory 1, 821B Howitt St., Wendouree Vic 3355 (03) 5339 1300 One Stop Sprinklers 1 Burwood Highway, Wantirna Vic 3152 (03) 9800 2177 Pam’s Home Brew & Hydroponics 61 McArthur Street, Sale Vic 3850 (03) 5143 1143 Palms & Plants 175 Salisbury Highway, Salisbury S.A. 5108 (08) 8285 7575 Prestige Hydroponics Pty. Ltd. S 2.10 Level 2, 343 Little Collins St. Melbourne VIC Australia 3000 61 4 187 81083 Shepparton Hydroponics 87A Archer Street, Shepparton Vic 3630 (03) 5831 6433 Simply Hydroponics 5/ 411-413 Old Geelong Rd., Hoppers Cros. 3029 (03) 9360 9344 Simply Hydroponics 8, 59-61 Miller St., Epping 3076 (03) 9408 4677 Sunlite Hydroponics 1/104 Shannon Avenue, Geelong West Vic 3281 (03) 5222 6730 Simply Hydroponics - Pakenham Factory 6/3-11 Bate Close Pakenham, Victoria 3810 03 5940 9047 Sunray Hydro 157 Tenth Street, Mildura Vic 3500 (03) 5023 6422 Supply Net International P/L PO Box 171, Highbury Vic 5089 (88) 264-3600 The Hydroponic Connection 397 Dorset Road, Boronia Vic 3155 (03) 9761 0662 Waterworks Hydroponics Unit 1, 5 Brand Drive, Thomastown Vic 3074 (03) 9465 1455 WESTERN AUSTRALIA Accent Hydroponics Unit 2/141 Russell Street, Morley WA 6062 Aqua Post Unit 2B 7 Yampi Way, Willetton WA 6155 Aquaponics Lot 12 Warton Road, Canning Vale WA 6155 Bunbury Alternate Growing Supplies 8/13 Worcestor Bend, Davenport, WA 6230 Creative Hydroponics 1/95 Dixon Road, Rockingham WA 6168 Great Southern Hydroponics Shop 1, 21 Hennessy Road, Bunbury WA 6230 Greenfingers World of Hydroponics Albany Hwy & Kelvin Rd.,Maddington WA 6109

(08) 9375 9355 (08) 9354 2888 1800 640 222 (08) 9725 7020 (08) 9528 1310 (08) 9721 8322 (08) 9452 0546

Greenfingers World of Hydroponics Unit C 14-16 Elliot Street, Midvale WA 6056 Greenlite Hydroponics 4/91 Wanneroo Road, Tuart Hill WA 6060 Growsmart Hydroponics 47768 South Coast Highway, Albany WA 6330 Hydro Nation 41A Rockingham Road, Hamilton Hill WA 6163 Hydroponic Solutions 1/1928 Beach Road, Malaga WA 6090 Hydroponic Warehouse Unit 7/627 Wanneroo Road, Wanneroo WA 6065 Hydroponica 317 Guildford Road, Maylands WA 6051 Isabella’s Hydroponics 66 Jambanis Road, Wanneroo WA 6065 Johnson’s Nursery Garden Centre 30 Blencowe Road, Geralton WA 6530 Neerabup Organic & Hydroponic Supplies Unit 1, 21 Warman St. Neerabup WA 6031 One Stop Hydroponics 947 Beaufort Street, Inglewood WA 6052 Perth Hydroponic Centre Shop 4, 171-175 Abernathy Road, Belmont WA 6104 Reptile and Grow Store Unit 7 - 117-119 Dixon Road, Rockingham WA 6168 Southwest Hydroponics Lot 29, Pinjarra Road, Mandurah WA 6210 The Grow Room 1/1451 Albany Highway, Cannington WA 6107 Bloem PO Box 1816, Subiaco WA 6008 The Watershed Water Systems 150 Russell Street, Morley WA 6062 The Watershed Water Systems 2874 Albany Highway, Kelmscott WA 6111 The Watershed Water Systems 1/146 Great Eastern Highway, Midland WA 6210 Water Garden Warehouse 14 Drake Street, Osborne Park WA 6017

(08) 9274 8388 (08) 9345 5321 (08) 9841 3220 (08) 9336 7368 (08) 9248 1901 (08) 9206 0188 (08) 9371 5757 (08) 9306 3028 (08) 9921 6016 (08) 9404 7155 (08) 9471 7000 (08) 9478 1211 (08) 9527 2245 (08) 9534 8544 (08) 9356 7044 (08) 9217 4400 (08) 9473 1473 (08) 9495 1495 (08) 9274 3232 (08) 9443 7993

NEW ZEALAND

Easy Grow New Lynn 3018 Gt North Rd New Lynn, Auckland Easy Grow Manukau 15/69 Wiri Station Road, Manukau, Auckland Guru Gardener 14 Molesworth St., New Plymouth Otaki Hydroponics 1083 S.H. 1 South Otaki House of Hydro 221 Waiwhetu Rd., Lower Hutt Wellington Pet and Garden 10 Fitzgerald Ave., Christchurch Grow and Brew 14a Flexman Place, Silverdale Auckland Green Day Hydroponics Cnr of Maunganui Rd & Tawa St., Mt Maunganui Switched on Gardener Number 189 (Lower) Dent Street, Whangarei Switched on Gardener Unit 159 Central Park Drive, Henderson Switched on Gardener Unit 1/60 Ti Rakau Drive, Pakuranga Switched on Gardener Number 1c Sunshine Ave, Hamilton Switched on Gardener Number 513 Heretaunga Street West, Hastings Switched on Gardener Number 62 Kaiwharawhara Road, Wellington Switched on Gardener Unit 7/67 View Road, Glenfield Switched on Gardener Number 1 Rata Street, New Lynn Switched on Gardener Number 57 Cavendish Drive, Manukau Switched on Gardener Number 427 Cameron Road, Tauranga Switched on Gardener Number 1060 Fergusson Drive, Upper Hutt Switched on Gardener Number 3 Pascoe Street, Nelson Switched on Gardener Number 9 Buckley Road, Linwood Switched on Gardener Number 143 Tuam Street, Christchurch CBD Switched on Gardener Number 313 King Edward Street, Dunedin

09 827 0883 09 263 7560 06 758 6661 06 364 2206 03 377 2507 09 426 2095 07 575 4090 (09)438 0223 (09) 837 1210 (09) 576 0296 (07) 850 8351 (06) 876 7885 (04) 472 5265 (09) 443 0106 (09) 826 4444 (09) 263 4336 (07) 579 9840 (04) 526 3913 (03) 546 4769 (03) 381 0937 (03) 374 5682 (03) 456 1980

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

45


COMING UP IN Mar-Apr

The Pythium Predator Do you run and cower when you hear the word Pythium? You’re not alone. This plant plague can strike at any time leaving behind wilted leaves and brown roots. By understanding how and why it spreads, you will more easily be able to control and eventually prevent this devastating disease.

Vermicomposting: Worms and Recycling Minimize waste and make your own nutrient rich plant food with the help from our wiggly friends, worms.

Talking Shop With… Get to know your local hydro shop. We could feature your favourite grow gurus in the next issue. Recommend your favourite shop to be featured in Maximum Yield by e-mailing editor@maximumyield.com Buying a grow room on a budget, understanding nutrient deficiencies, heirlooms, hydro vocab and more!

www.maximumyield.com Maximum Yield March/April will be available March 1 for FREE at selected indoor gardening retail stores across Australia and New Zealand. Subscriptions are available by contacting editor@maximumyield.com or visiting maximumyield.com/subscriptions.php

46

Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

DO YOUDO YOU KNOW?

1. 2.

Electrodes for pH testers and pH metres should be rinsed between samples with distilled or deionized water and gently blotted (never wiped) dry with a lab wipe. The Wiley Guide to Chemical Incompatibilities lists over 9,000 incompatible chemical combinations.

3. 4. 5.

6.

Cooling of the roots to well below ambient air temperatures seems to allow higher assimilation rates by reducing both photo inhibition and stomatal closure that typically occur once the plant becomes temperature stressed. The easiest indicator of anaerobic microbial growth in compost tea is a foul smell. In daylight, photosynthesis enhances hydrogen levels, which lowers pH levels. Sometimes an incompatibility between two chemicals can be made workable by adding an acidifier or water conditioning product.

7.

Red basil plants have been found to have increased development of aromatic compounds in the leaves when grown in a chilled nutrient at 25 to 26°C under tropical conditions.

8.

Even if nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon are present and plentiful at the root level, insufficient airflow will result in a missing element in the plant’s construction material.


Maximum Yield  | January/February 2012

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Maximum Yield Australia | November/December  | January/February 2012 2010


Maximum Yield AUS Jan/Feb 2012