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2014 INDOOR GARDENING EXPO TOUR TACOMA www.maximumyield.com

NOVI

SAN FRAN

BOSTON


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CONTENTS December 2013

FEATURES

50

58

50 Aquaponic Worms F.A.Q. by Sylvia Bernstein

58 Bringing the Forest Inside: A

Closer Look at Christmas Tree Care

70

138 Stunning Succulents by Karen Wilkinson

142 Mychorrhizae:

The Straight Story, Part 2

by Chris Bond

128 138

150 Building an In-Ground Hydro System

by Charles Winslow and Madelyn Ritrosky

156 Friendly Flora

by Russell Landry

by Dr. Robert G. Linderman

64 Lumens are for Humans, PAR is for Plants by David Kessler

70 Seeds and Meristems by Grubbycup

76 What’s Your Hydration Status? Examining the Hydration Status of Softwood and SemiHardwood Cuttings by Bill DeBoer

86 The Evolution of Hydroponic Nutrition by Eric Hopper

102 Breaking Down Biochar by Spencer Bath

116 Permaculture Principles: Sustainable Practices for Permanent Solutions by Helene Isbell

128 A Delicacy from the Dark: Hydroponic Forcing of Witloof

by Dr. Lynette Morgan

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

DEPARTMENTS 12

From the Editor

154

Green Thumb Gardening

14

MaximumYield.com

160

Growers Know

18

Letters to the Editor

162

10 Facts On...

20

Ask the Experts

163

Book Review

22

Max Facts

164

Talking Shop

34

Product Spotlight

166

You Tell Us

84

Avant Gardening

170

Do You Know

100

Tips and Tricks

171

Max Mart

114

Beginner’s Corner

172

Distributors

126

Trends and Technology

186

Coming Up


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FROM THE EDITOR | Linda Jesson December is a time for celebration, but also a time for reflection, when you find yourself thinking about the year's trials, tribulations and accomplishments. From a hydroponics perspective, Eric Hopper takes this concept even further in his latest article, “Evolution of Hydroponic Nutrients”, and examines the improvements made in hydroponic nutrients over the last decade or so, an area where he says some of the most incredible advancements in the industry have been made. Speaking of industry advancements, Dr. Robert G. Linderman returns with the second installment of his three-part series on mycorrhizae, the symbiotic relationship between specialized soil from the fungi and the roots of plants, a topic he's spent a good deal of time researching. This installment evaluates the various mycorrhizal products available on the market today and also discusses Linda Jesson inoculating plants and cultural practices that enhance or harm the formation of mycorrhizae. As for industry trends, we've included an article on biochar, a charcoal produced for use as a soil amendment or a component of a soilless mix that is believed to have a profound effect on soil dynamics. And we revisit the age-old gardening practice of companion planting. To round out the issue, we've included articles on proper hydration of cuttings, building an in-ground hydroponics system, caring for a cut or living Christmas tree over the holidays, the hydroponic forcing of witloof and an introduction to permaculture—a sustainable approach to designing and growing edible landscapes. Be sure to check out the extensive New Products section, where we showcase some great holiday gift giving ideas to keep you growing strong into 2014! Wishing everyone Happy Holidays from all of us here at Maximum Yield!

Message Editor

VOLUME 14 – NUMBER 9 December 2013 Maximum Yield is published monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the editor.

Publication Agreement Number 40739092 Printed In Canada PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson editorial editor@maximumyield.com Editor-in-chief Linda Jesson Assistant Editor Julie McManus Assistant Editor Jennifer McGarrigle ADVERTISING SALES Sales Manager Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Account Executives Kelsey Hepples - kelsey@maximumyield.com Katie Montague - katie@maximumyield.com Jed Walker - jed@maximumyield.com Sarah Dale - sarah@maximumyield.com DESIGN & PRODUCTION ads@maximumyield.com Art Director Alice Joe Graphic Designers Jennifer Everts Dionne Hurd Jesslyn Gosling ACCOUNTING Tracy Greeno - accounting@maximumyield.com Katie LaFrance - ar@maximumyield.com USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations • BWGS • General Hydroponics Humbolt Wholesale • Hydrofarm National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply Nickel City Wholesale Garden Supply Tradewinds CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group • Biofloral • Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. • MegaWatt Quality Wholesale UK DISTRIBUTION Direct Garden Supplies • Growth Technology Future Harvest Development Europe Dutch Bio Power Nutriculture UK • Dutch Pro • Maxigrow AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Dome Garden Supply • House N Garden Futchatec • Growth Technology

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013


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contributors Eric hopper has more than 10 years

dr. robert linderman is a retired research plant pathologist and former research leader at the USDA-ARS Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory in Corvallis, Oregon. He is also a courtesy Professor Emeritus at Oregon State University. He’s been in the industry for nearly 50 years and is currently the science guy for two companies: Plant Health, LLC and Santiam Organics, LLC.

Sylvia Bernstein is the author of Aquaponic Gardening: A Step by Step Guide to Growing Fish and Vegetables Together. She is also the president of The Aquaponic Source, and the cofounder and past vice chairman of the Aquaponics Association. Before discovering aquaponics, she was the vice president of marketing and product development for AeroGrow International.

helene Isbell has a passion for plants. A California native, Helene resides in San Diego where she promotes urban agriculture and sustainable living. She has also been a dynamic player in the hydroponic industry for the past decade. She has incorporated her love of horticulture with hands-on experience, arts and culture, integrated marketing and education. She is the southern California rep for High Caliper Growing/Smart Pots.

dr. lynette morgan holds a B.

chris Bond is the horticulturist at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. His primary role is coordinator of the university’s Farm Food Program. His research interests are beneficial insects, biological pest control and alternative growing methods. He is a certified permaculture designer and nursery technician in Ohio and a certified nursery professional in New York.

Grubbycup has been an avid indoor gardener for more than 20 years. His articles were first published in the United Kingdom, and since then his gardening advice has been published in French, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Czech and German. He is also considered one of the world’s leading authorities on crochet hydroponics.

Karen Wilkinson is a budding

Bill deBoer is a laboratory scientist at Indiana-based steadyGROWpro. A master gardener intern, Bill is responsible for the company’s laboratory operations, including the design and execution of research projects, plant propagation, seed germination and overall plant care. Bill has a BS and MS from Purdue University, and was previously a research technician for the US Department of Agriculture.

russell landry is the former vice

charles Winslow, CEO of GW

Spencer Bath is a soil alchemist,

of experience in the hydroponic industry as both a retail store manager and owner. He continuously seeks new methods and products that could help maximize garden performance. Eric resides in Michigan where he and his family strive for a self-sufficient and sustainable lifestyle.

anarcho-capitalist and promoter of biological and organic growing techniques. He is also the proprietor of Ecological Farming LLC of Ft. Collins, Colorado, and a purveyor of the world’s finest soil amendments. Spencer can be found at agri-charge.com

president of the Great Pumpkin Commonwealth and its competitive weigh-off sites held worldwide. He is now the current president of the Giant Vegetable Growers of Ontario (gvgo.ca). Russ grows giant pumpkins, tomatoes and squash. He has written numerous articles featuring methods to increase vegetable size and fruit yield.

Hort. Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit suntec.co.nz for more information.

gardener with previous experience working in the hydroponics industry. Her background includes daily reporting, technical writing, marketing and promotions. After spending years living along California’s northern coast, she made her way to Sacramento where she currently lives and breathes the yoga lifestyle. Worldwide LLC, has a BS from Cal Poly. He has been principal in multiple start-ups and expansions including BWGS/Sunleaves, Penhall International, Furrows. He currently works with international companies developing JV’s, Co-ventures, and new technologies for energy reduction for horticulture, lighting and building. Contact gw.worldwide@yahoo.com

COMING UP ON THE WEB Announcing Our 2014 Indoor Gardening Expo Lineup We’re pleased to announce the dates for Maximum Yield’s 2014 Coast to Coast Grow Like A Pro Indoor Gardening Expo Tour. We’ve got four exciting locations stretching from coast to coast in the United States: Tacoma, Washington (April 5 and 6); Novi, Michigan (May 31 and June 1); San Francisco, California (July 26 and 27); and Boston, Massachusetts (Oct. 18 and 19). Stay tuned to indoorgardenexpo.com for details so you can plan your 2014 vacation.

Ask an Expert Maximum Yield’s resident experts are ready to answer your modern gardening questions. Email editor@maximumyield.com or fill out the Ask the Experts form on maximumyield.com

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

We Want Your Feedback!

Free Digital Subscription

Help us continue to create an informative and exciting product for the indoor gardening industry for years to come, and earn a chance to win one of three $200 cash prizes to spend at your favorite indoor garden retail store, by participating in the Maximum Yield Reader Satisfaction Survey. Visit maximumyield.com to fill out the survey. Thank you for helping us keep Maximum Yield the No. 1 indoor gardening magazine in the world!

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Connect with US

I’m a Fan Contest Continues Tell us why you are a fan of Maximum Yield and you could win a $100 gift card to your favorite indoor gardening shop and also have a chance at the grand prize of a $1,000 gift card to be drawn Dec. 15. Visit maximumyield.com to enter online.

maximumyield.com indoorgardenexpo.com facebook.com/maximumyield twitter.com/max_yield youtube.com/maximumyieldmagazine


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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Tenth I’m a Fan Winner Announced Kevin Swisher from Michigan is the 10th winner of Maximum Yield’s I’m a Fan Contest! Kevin said, “I really love Maximum Yield. It’s helped me out a great deal with hydroponics and understanding things that you don’t find anywhere else. I’ve grown in soil for years, but over the last few I’ve really jumped into hydro and have had success. Now, after finding your magazine about two years ago, I’ve taken it to another level. Keep up the great work, and I will keep reading and being proactive in horticulture.”

Way to Win Big! Congratulations to William from Rochester, New York, for being selected as the winner of Maximum Yield’s Win Big Grow Big contest for The Green Pad CO2 Generator prize pack. William will receive full packs of Green Pads that include our Innovation in Propagation, The Green Pad Jr., a full pack of our Original Green Pads and a Grand Daddy Pad. We are also including copies of The Grow Book And Equipment Guide featuring The Green Pads. Also Green Pad spray bottles so you can “Hang, Spray and Walk Away!” Thanks to everyone who entered! Mark with Green Pad CO2

Nice Research Kevin Swisher

I’m a fan of Maximum Yield because it does an honest job researching and reporting on cutting edge information. Rob H, via webform

Thank you for the great response, Kevin, and congratulations on winning Maximum Yield’s 10th I’m a Fan contest! We hope you enjoy your $100 gift certificate at your favorite indoor gardening shop, Ultra Green Hydroponics in Redford, Michigan. Tell us why you’re a fan of Maximum Yield and you could be the next winner. Visit maximumyield.com for full contest details.

Thanks for the Info I’m a fan of Maximum Yield because after reading my first issue, I was blown away with all the information you provide us. Thank you for all the effort you put into each issue, it’s well worth it. This magazine is turning average growers into super farmers. George Z, Pueblo, Colorado

Always a Great Show at the Expo! Great times at the Long Beach Expo this weekend! Thanks to everyone who came out and visited our booth! Rx Green Solutions Atom the World’s Fastest Painter, free kittens and Max Fans. Never a dull moment at the Can-Filters booth! Can-Filters We had a blast at the show! NPK Industries The Raw=Soluble booth was happening this weekend! Thank you Maximum Yield Magazine for putting on a great show as always! Raw=Soluble Great turnout for the Xtreme Nutrients booth. Thanks! Xtreme Nutrients

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

Tweet It @Max_Yield came across your website. What a great #Hydroponics resource. Keep up the great work! #indoorgardening #growathome (via Hydroponic Supplies @hydroponicsgear)

We want to hear from you! Maximum Yield Publications Inc. Snail-mail: 2339 Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Email: editor@maximumyield.com Twitter: twitter.com/max_yield Facebook: facebook.com/MaximumYield


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ASK The Experts

I have a question for Jennifer Casey about making the most out of waste water. I have been using reverse osmosis (RO) water for some time and am worried about the amount of waste water that comes out of it. I would like to find a use for this water and have a few options and ideas: leave it in the soil (which I think might increase the salinity of the soil, resulting in unproductive soil); use it for washing clothes or utensils; or recycle in another filter for further treatment. While researching ways to reduce the waste water and reuse the water that comes out of the RO treatment, I came across one of your articles and was impressed by the way you deal with issues and explain things so precisely. Can you help with my issue? Thank you, Bharat

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

Hi Bharat, Here is a short answer: We recommend waste water be used on lawns, mature trees, shrubs and other non-sensitive plants. Reuse of waste water is somewhat dependent on the contamination of source water; source water with high ppm levels (more than 400) will produce much higher ppm waste water than source water with a lower ppm. The question posed mentioned the possibility of increased salinity; this would only be an issue if source water had salinity to begin with, which is relatively rare, or if the RO system was being used to filter water from a water softener. The only way to remove softener salts is to use reverse osmosis, the process of which would definitely concentrate that salt and could potentially build up in soil, causing damage even to non-sensitive plants. If you have a softener, it’s best to send the RO waste water down the drain. If you do not have a softener, try using it on trees, shrubs and lawns. Avoid using it for washing the car or clothing or dishes, as concentrated, hard water can cause spotting and wear out clothing. Kindest Regards, Jennifer Casey Jennifer Casey is the marketing coordinator for Hydrologic Purification Systems. Part of her job includes attending trade shows, writing articles and finding new ways to let people know how important pure water is. Jennifer loves her two dogs, her husband, the amazing garden he grows and living in the country—in that order. Crafting, reading and cooking from the garden are her favorite ways to spend her time.


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MAX FACTS

growing tips, news and trivia

Excellent Grape Exports Promotions are stepping up to support the late California grape season. The late season period (October through January) sees large volumes of California grapes exported—last season, product shipped after October 1 represented 35% of total exports for the entire season, which runs from May until January. To meet the late season export demand, there are plentiful supplies of green, red and black grapes, as a larger crop is expected this year over last season. (Source: freshplaza.com)

MAXFACTS Growing tips, news and trivia California Kiwi Crop Report California’s kiwifruit crop is expected to be similar to last year. The preliminary crop estimate for the 2013/14 crop is 7.1 to 7.5 million 7-lb. tray equivalents. All growing regions experienced strong winds in early summer, resulting in broken canes and crop loss. All growing regions received sufficient chilling hours for the 2013/14 season. (Source: kiwifruit.org)

Protecting Hawaiian Papayas While the debate rages on about the pros and cons of genetically modified crops, a research facility in Hawaii is working on developing a ringspot virus-resistant papaya—the old-fashioned way. The Oahu-based Hawaii Agriculture Research Center has received a federal grant to assist in cross-breeding a hybrid that will be resistant to the disease that ravaged the Big Island papaya industry in the 1990s. Stephanie Whalen, the center’s executive director, says the effort involves what she describes as a distant cousin of the papaya that is native to South America. Vasconcellea pubescens, also known as the mountain papaya, has shown resistance to the virus. Researchers hope to find an offspring of that match that is fertile and carries the virus-resistance gene. (Source: bigislandnow.com) 22

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013


MAX FACTS

growing tips, news and trivia

Exports Grow Organically The United States and Japan have formed a partnership that will recognize the two organic programs as equivalent and allow for access to each other’s markets. The United States Department of Agriculture continues to expand markets for American organic products abroad, works aggressively to break down barriers to trade and assists US businesses with the resources needed to reach consumers around the world. American organic exports to Japan are currently estimated at $80 million, with growth due to the arrangement expected to reach at least $250 million in 10 years. (Source: usda.gov)

Creating a Cranberry Craving Growers of Wisconsin’s largest fruit crop will get some help from the federal government to conduct research industry leaders say will help promote cranberries to markets across the globe. As part of $52 million in US Department of Agriculture grants to support specialty crop producers, the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection will partner with University of Wisconsin researchers to help cranberry growers reduce pesticide use and environmental threats. Leaders with the Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers Association, as well as the US Cranberry Marketing Committee, have been working for several years to draw international interest in the tart fruit, especially in Wood County, which boasts the largest concentration of cranberry marshes in the state and the world’s largest cranberry processing plant. Wisconsin also is the largest cranberry-yielding state in the nation. (Source: postcrescent.com)

Chicago Embraces Aquaponic Greens An online retailer will offer organic, aquaponic greens in the Chicago area from local indoor farmer FarmedHere. Peapod plans to offer FarmedHere’s salad mixes, baby arugula, sweet and Thai basil, mint and vinaigrettes. FarmedHere has the only USDA organic-certified aquaponic indoor growing system. The company does not use chemicals or pesticides, and its vertical farming methods result in 12 times the yield of traditional agriculture. (Source: supermarketnews.com)

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013


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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013


MAX FACTS

growing tips, news and trivia

Connecticut’s Largest Urban Greenhouse

Pitcher Plants

Boot Camp Farms founder and CEO Antonio St. Lorenzo will oversee the construction of a flagship farm and community training center on Central Avenue in the East End of Bridgeport in Connecticut where the company will turn blighted brownfields into sustainable urban farms with 80,000 sq. ft. of computer-controlled greenhouses to produce 800,000 lbs. of fresh produce per year for local consumption. The urban greenhouse will also add 40 full-time green collar jobs to the community and will be the largest hydroponic farm in Connecticut when complete. (Source: bootcampfarms.com)

Pitcher plants are carnivorous plants whose prey-trapping mechanism features a deep cavity filled with liquid, known as a pitfall trap. Foraging, flying or crawling insects such as flies are attracted to the cavity formed by the cupped leaf, often by visual lures such as anthocyanin pigments and nectar bribes. The sides of the pitcher are slippery and may be grooved to ensure that the insects cannot climb out. Through a mechanism of digestion, the prey is converted into a solution of amino acids, peptides, phosphates, ammonium and urea, from which the plant obtains its mineral nutrition (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus). Carnivorous plants occur in locations where the soil is too poor in minerals or too acidic for most plants to be able to grow. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013


MAX FACTS

growing tips, news and trivia

The Root of the Matter Lateral roots, as the name implies, are secondary roots that grow laterally out of a plant’s main root, much like branches grow out of the trunk of a tree. The arrangement of these roots is determined by a complicated combination of environmental signals based on the availability of nutrients and water in the surrounding environment, hormonal signals and external stimuli. The presence and strength of each of these signals act as a cue to the plant, which can then make a decision about when and where to form a lateral root. A new study on nitric oxide, commonly thought to be an important regulatory and signaling molecule in plant root formation, has found that nitric oxide may in fact have the opposite effect as previously found and might actually inhibit root branching. (Source: sciencedaily.com)

Hydroponics Industry on the Increase In the last five years, revenue for the hydroponic crop farming industry has maintained positive growth, states a report from IBISWorld. In the last five years, the number of people shifting to healthy eating and organic produce steadily increased and due to extreme weather conditions damaging many crops for field farmers, grocery stores and farmers’ markets turned to hydroponic farmers to meet this growing demand, states the report. (Source: leamingtongrower.com)

Taking a Good Foodie Photo Considering taking and posting pictures of your hard-earned yields? The one thing you can do to make your food photos look better is to use natural light. Don’t use overhead lighting, which casts a yellow greasy-spoon look to a plated dish, and definitely don’t use an on-camera flash. Set your dish near a window and turn off any nearby artificial lights. The indirect light from a window will illuminate your food just right. Try to photograph with the light at your back or to the side of a dish, so that the shadows are to the side or behind it. If you have a window that lets in loads of direct sunlight, you can cover it with a white sheet to soften the light. You can also use a white sheet or white poster board facing the window to bounce light back on the shadowed side of the food, filling in those shadows with a little bit of extra light. (Source: mnn.com) 28

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013


MAX FACTS

growing tips, news and trivia

Speeding Up Sweet Potato Harvests A machine designed by a group of Mississippi State University researchers could help sweet potato farmers reduce skinning injury to potatoes and speed up harvest. The undercutter prototype, made from off-the-shelf components, shows early potential to help lower harvest and post-harvest losses caused by skinning, says Jason Ward, assistant extension professor in MSU’s Agriculture and Biological Engineering Department. Problems stemming from skin abrasions that happen during digging and handling account for 20 to 25% of storage losses. The undercutter digs below the surface with a V-shaped blade to cut the roots that feed the potato from the soil. This stops the flow of nutrients and water to the potato and induces a state of shock that causes the skin to toughen. (Source: freshplaza.com)

Nation’s First Non-profit Supermarket Opens

NEW company name island (sales)

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

A hunger-relief agency’s pledge to build America’s first non-profit supermarket was greeted skeptically at first. However, Philabundance may be confounding local doubters. Its Fare & Square grocery store, seven years in the making, recently opened its doors in Chester, a low-income area lacking ready access to healthy food. Usually in the business of distributing donated food to pantries in the Delaware Valley, Philabundance has augmented its mission and become a store owner, charging prices eight to 10% lower than small urban grocers. Anyone can shop at the 16,000-sq. ft. store, but low-income people will be offered an advantage. Shoppers with annual incomes equal to or less than twice the federal poverty level of around $23,000 for a family of four can accrue 7% store credit each time they shop, to be applied toward future purchases. (Source: articles.philly.com)


MAX FACTS

growing tips, news and trivia

A Goodwill Greenhouse

Small Potatoes Long fries and large baked potatoes might be less plentiful this holiday season, thanks to Washington’s hot summer. The year started out with wonderful growing conditions, says Chris Voigt, executive director of the Washington State Potato Commission. Then in late June, it got hot and stayed hot, causing potato plants to wither starting August 1, a month sooner than normal. But while the size of this year’s spuds is expected to be smaller than last year’s, quality is good and the prices farmers will receive for fresh market potatoes are better. (Source: thenewstribune.com)

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

Goodwill’s latest classroom doesn’t have desks— it has plants. Goodwill’s Good-to-Grow Greenhouse will be a part of the organization’s job training program. David Tobiczyk, vice president of marketing and development for Goodwill of Southwestern Pennsylvania, says the greenhouse is a one-of-a-kind thing for the organization. “Usually greenhouses are not what people think of Goodwill for, but we know that there’s an opportunity to let people know more about how greenhouses work and maybe get a job in that area,” he says. According to Goodwill, the greenhouse will teach workers how to grow fresh produce and flowers, and will help prepare them for careers in the horticulture, food service and retail industries. The 18-ft. by 30-ft. greenhouse is expected to be in full operation by the first week of December. (Source: wesa.fm)


PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT YOUR GUIDE TO THIS MONTH’S

HOTTEST ITEMS Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store

Aquatic Life’s KDF 85/Catalytic Granular Activated Carbon Cartridges Aquatic Life’s KDF 85/Catalytic Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) cartridges are designed to reduce and remove iron and hydrogen sulfide from municipal and other water supplies. Effective in controlling the build-up of bacteria, algae, fungi and scale, the KDF 85/Catalytic GAC cartridge is ideal for use as an inline carbon filter. The high-quality media, consisting of a mix of KDF 85 and granular activated carbon, reduces the taste, odor and dissolved organic chemicals from water supplies, resulting in the removal of 99% of dissolved metals. Additionally, the high surface area of the cartridge results in an exceptionally high capacity and efficiency. The KDF 85/Catalytic GAC cartridge is a great complement to the RO Buddie and other reverse osmosis systems where there are high levels of chlorine, chloramines and water-soluble heavy metals in the tap water. For more information, visit a specialty gardening store.

iPonic 614

QUEST Dual 155

The iPonic 614 from Link 4 is the ultimate growroom controller. With this fully programmable, versatile and easy-to-use controller, you will be able to monitor, schedule and co-ordinate all of your various growroom equipment, including CO2. Take control of your growroom from anywhere in the world using the Internet, and the results will be better yields, less headaches and big-time money savings. The iPonic 614 offers you complete peace of mind with its web-based control and monitoring capabilities. The controller can even alert you to problems before they become emergencies via text or email. The days of being chained to your growroom are over. Free yourself with the iPonic 614. To learn more, visit an indoor gardening retailer.

Perfect for indoor growing, the QUEST Dual 155 will remove approximately 155 pt. (80ºF/60%RH) in a typical growroom. Using minimal energy, at only 8.0 amps, the Dual 155 is nearly 50% more energy efficient than many Energy Star-rated dehumidifiers (the QUEST 155 Dual performs at 7.3 pt. per kWh). By consuming less energy, the QUEST Dual 155 creates about 22% fewer BTUs than most alternatives. Second only to the QUEST Dual 105, the Dual 155 is one of the most energy efficient dehumidifiers out there. In addition to the estimated annual electrical savings exceeding $1,200 a year, the QUEST Dual 155 includes a five-year warranty and is made in the United States. Visit an indoor gardening retail store for more information.

Autopilot 8-Light and Autopilot 12-Light Controllers Now available from Hydrofarm, Autopilot 8-Light and 12-Light Controllers are designed to safely control modern digital ballasts. These commercial controllers feature an integrated time delay to soft start each bank of four lights, reducing the start-up load. External breakers allow the user to easily shut down power to attached equipment. The Autopilot 8-Light and 12-Light Controllers are built to last, with steel construction and heavy-duty relays. They are designed to operate multiple HID or fluorescent lamps. To find out more, visit a local retailer.

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013


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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Xtreme Gardening CalCarb Foliar Booster CalCarb is the key to dense fruit and flower development. CalCarb is a unique form of calcium carbonate plants are able to absorb through foliage and quickly convert into calcium and carbon dioxide. Calcium is critical to plant health, contributing to the strength of cell membranes and regulation of nutrient use. CO2 is basically jet fuel for photosynthesis, allowing for higher growth rates and heavier yields. Unlike other sources of CO2, CalCarb does not require machinery or regulators, just simply spray the underside of plant leaves once a week and watch your plants take off. CalCarb works from inside the cell wall of leaves, meaning it does not require a sealed room. It can be used both indoors and outdoors. CalCarb helps shield plants from powdery mildew by raising the pH on foliage and can be used with any nutrient line. Use CalCarb and Spray on the SunshineTM. Now available in 15-lb. bags. Visit a local retailer for more information.

Titanium Precision Pruners and Titanium Bonsai Shears

SuperCloset BubbleFlow Buckets SuperCloset’s BubbleFlow Buckets and BubbleFlow Bucket Rings combine deep water culture and bottom flow hydroponic methodologies to promote even nutrient circulation and eliminate uneven pH and nutrient pockets. The size of the BubbleFlow Buckets encourages greater root expansion and ultimately increases overall yield per plant. In addition, the adjustable connections on the buckets allow for various configurations that can suit any grow space. Because of the custom-designed drain valve and tube configuration, BubbleFlow Buckets drain and fill incredibly easy. Overall maintenance on BubbleFlow Buckets is minimal and the system can be stacked and moved easily and efficiently. The BubbleFlow Buckets 6 is sold as six BubbleFlow Buckets, a control reservoir, a 185-gph pump, and all fittings, connections, tubings and air stones. Visit an indoor garden retail store for more details.

Hurricane After Burner Sunlight Supply is pleased to announce the arrival of The Hurricane™ After Burner™ High Output Mixed Flow Fans. These fans offer superior performance and outstanding efficiency at an affordable price. This premium lineup of fans are manufactured to the highest degree of ventilation standards. The After Burner motor was designed to produce intense CFM’s to supply powerful airflow for multiple reflectors and carbon filters in the growing environment. Installation is simple and each fan comes pre-wired with a 7-ft., 120-V power cord. For more information, visit a nearby indoor garden center.

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

Titanium Precision Pruners and Titanium Bonsai Shears are two new offerings from Hydrofarm. Both items feature a titanium blade coating three times harder than steel, making for more durable blades that stay sharper longer. This allows for clean and precise cuts on plants. The Titanium Precision Pruners are ideal for cutting flowers and snipping herbs without bruising delicate stems and leaves. The spring-action feature opens the blades after each cut to reduce hand strain, as do the ergonomically designed, ultra-lightweight, double density comfort grip, anti-slip soft gel handles. The curved-blade shears are 6.5-in. long and come with a convenient holster, a safety lock and a high-quality spring. Titanium Bonsai Shears are designed for making clean and precise cuts on bonsai and other smaller plants, with angled blades for easier access to tight spots. The shears feature ergonomically designed, ultra-light comfort grip, anti-slip soft gel handles. They have a 1.5-in. cutting capacity and are 6-in. long. To find out more about these products, visit your nearest garden or farm supply store today.


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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT Grozone Control LS8 Light Switcher Grozone Control is proud to announce the newest addition to its high-quality controller family, the LS8 Light Switcher. This unit is powerful enough to switch up to eight 1,000-W, 240-V HID lights. This convenient switcher can activate eight lights with one single trigger input, or two 4-light zones with two trigger inputs. The LS8 is expandable and includes a 120-V service outlet for accessories and daisy chaining up to four units. The LS8 is built with reliable, ballast-grade relays for long-term use, and industrial-grade breakers to protect your equipment. Easy to use and built to last, the LS8 is also ETL listed. Switching your lights with Grozone LS8 is a bright idea. For more information, visit a local indoor gardening store.

Have a Bountiful Harvest with a Bountea Hydrate The easy-to-use Bountea Hydrate water purification and enhancement system delivers exceptional water quality without wasting electricity or water. Using patented FDA- and NSF-certified technology, this system decontaminates, purifies and enhances water, making it the key to better compost tea brewing and optimal plant yields. In addition to removing chlorines, chloramines and other chemicals, the Bountea Hydrate enhances water with ions that improve water’s ability to deliver nutrients. And when your system needs a refresh, refill cartridges are also available. Visit an indoor gardening store to learn more.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Xtreme Gardening’s Giant Pumpkin Kit: Growing the Big One After helping shatter seven world records and dozens of state records for plant growth, Xtreme Gardening has created a way for anyone to try their hand at growing the big one. The Xtreme Giant Pumpkin Kit is a take-home kit containing all the essential tools needed for gardening at a competitive level. It includes the three go-to products for maximum growth: Mykos faster and stronger mycorrhizae, Azos growth-promoting microbes and CalCarb foliar booster. It also includes four top-genetic, GPC-certified seeds from proven giants, as well as a how-to book describing and depicting the steps necessary to ensure your pumpkins reach their full potential. Although tailored for giant pumpkins, the kit includes products proven to enhance all plant growth, from tomatoes and peppers to flowers and herbs. Visit the nearest indoor grow store for further details.

Santa’s Favorite Pot Christmas Posters from Smart Pot

Adjust-A-Wings Double Ended Large Reflector

It’s that time of year again—Christmas. It’s one of our favorite times of the year here at High Caliper Growing because, as we all know, the Smart Pot® is Santa’s favorite growing container. To celebrate the season, we are proud to announce the release of our new 2013 Smart Pot Santa’s Favorite Pot Christmas poster. We think this year’s poster is the best one yet. Look for it at your favorite hydroponic shop, or you can find it on our website (smartpots.com). If your favorite store doesn’t have one yet, let us know and we will send them one. If you would like one, they can be purchased on our website, or check out our Facebook page for giveaways. From all of us here at High Caliper Growing, we would like to thank all of you for making Smart Pot number one, and we would like to wish you and yours a very merry Christmas!

Sunlight Supply is pleased to announce the arrival of the Adjust-A-Wings Double Ended Large Reflector. This reflector was made specifically for double-ended 1,000-W HPS horticulture lamps (not included). Full spectrum DE Lamps used in the fixture focus on the red component for increased photosynthetic response. They offer improved PAR values and increased PAR/lumen maintenance (up to 90% PAR at 10,000 hours of operation). Unmatched in output, uniformity and performance, you can’t afford not to have this reflector in your growroom. This great new reflector features all the great Adjust-A-Wing attributes gardeners have grown to love. Your plants will thank you! Visit a local retailer for more information.

Can-Filters Adds Max-Fan Pro Series Some people copy, we innovate. At Can-Filters, we have developed fans that are even more efficient and even stronger than our original Max-Fan™ design. The Max-Fan Pro Series™ has a more robust housing due to the fiberglass reinforced plastic compounds that meet all UL and CSA requirements. The Max-Fan Pro Series is quieter and stronger and features threespeed control for true performance. For more information and contact details, visit a local retailer. The Max-Fan Pro Series is available in the following capacities:

• • • •

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

Max Max Max Max

6-in. Pro Series 420 CFM—EZ Mount, 66 W 8-in. Pro Series 863 CFM—EZ Mount, 179 W 14-in. Pro Series 2,270 CFM—3.5 Amps, 349 W 16-in. Pro Series 2,299 CFM—3.5 Amps, 349 W


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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT QUEST Dual 105 When it comes to energy efficiency, the QUEST Dual 105 is tough to beat. At only 4.9 amps, the QUEST Dual 105 uses less than half the energy of many Energy-Star rated dehumidifiers (the QUEST 105 Dual performs at more than 8.8 pt. per kWh). Perfect for indoor growing, the Dual 105 will remove approximately 105 pt. (80ºF/60%RH) in a typical growroom. The QUEST Dual 105 was designed to be installed overhead, can be placed on a small shelf, or even set on the floor for immediate plug-andplay performance. If additional space is required, an optional duct kit is available, allowing the unit to be installed outside of the growroom. In addition to the estimated annual electrical savings exceeding $1,200 a year, the QUEST Dual 105 includes a five-year warranty and is made in the United States. Visit an indoor garden retail store for more information.

SuperCloset’s SuperRoom The crown jewel of SuperCloset’s SuperRoom collection is the 10-ft. by 20-ft. SuperRoom. This behemoth of a tent enclosure features eight lighting systems powered by Lumatek ballasts and housed in the new Blazer Air-Cooled Reflectors, which are air-cooled by an 8-in. Hurricane Inline Fan. The internal air is exhausted by a 12-in. Hurricane Inline Fan and filtered through a 12-in. Phresh carbon filter. The heart of the system is the Bubble Flow Bucket hydroponic system that supports 48 large plants spread evenly throughout the SuperRoom. A nutrient starter kit, thermometer/hygrometer, TDS meter, pH kit and other accessory components round out the complete SuperRoom package. If you want the best large-scale, commercial-grade grow tent package, the 10-ft. by 20-ft. SuperRoom will delight again and again. For more information, ask a local retail store.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT Choose Your Climate with a Utopian Systems Portable Dehumidifier The UL-listed Utopian Systems Portable Dehumidifier is perfect for removing excess humidity from indoor spaces, and now it’s available in a larger capacity. The new 6-pt. per day model is ideal for areas up to 4,000 sq. ft. and allows users to set the desired humidity level between 35% and 85% relative humidity in 5% increments. When the water tank reaches capacity, the unit automatically shuts off until the tank is emptied. For convenience, the unit has the option to attach a hose for continuous drainage. A removable, washable filter helps ensure good output air quality. The portable dehumidifier also features auto-restart after a power interruption, a 24-hour programmable timer, two fan speeds and a one-year warranty. Visit an indoor gardening store for more information.

Progress Earth’s Vortex Brewer for Compost Tea

See the Light with a 600-W Sunleaves Simple HPS Ballast

The unique Vortex Brewer® Compost Tea System design and proprietary organic and BioDynamic compost tea formulas from Progress Earth help farmers and gardeners grow nutrient-dense produce and plants with amazing results. Brewing compost tea is the act of growing beneficial microorganisms, or microbes, to extraordinary concentrations using premium compost, mineral catalysts, biological food sources and aeration. The air allows the microbes to breathe and replicate, similar to how aeration works in an aquarium. Microbes bring balance to the soil food web and perform miraculous functions in the garden, including resistance to stress and draught, mitigating pests and disease and making perfect plant food. Ask about the Vortex Brewer at a local garden store.

Gardeners looking for an economical ballast to power their indoor garden will love the 600-W Sunleaves Simple HPS Ballast. This magnetic ballast features durable steel housing, UL-listed components and a twoyear warranty to ensure reliable operation. The ballast includes a 120-V power cord but easily switches to 240-V input with a dedicated cord (sold separately). Learn more at an indoor gardening retail store.

Corona Tools Now Available from Hydrofarm An authentic American brand, Corona Tools were born in the orange groves of California in the 1920s. Since then, generations of agriculturists, gardeners, landscapers, arborists and construction professionals have turned to Corona for high-quality performance tools that work as hard as they do. With decades of tool design and innovation, Corona Tools are the preferred choice for skilled professionals right up to the budding novice. The right tool for the job saves, time, energy and money! To find out more, visit your favorite indoor gardening shop.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Secondary Optical Lens for KIND LED’s K3 Series KIND LED has added a secondary optical lens onto the K3 series to provide maximum photosynthetic penetration of plant canopy all the way down to the stem. Now indoor gardeners will be able to mimic the sun’s natural photosynthetic progression of rays as they strike a plant across its entire body. Photosynthetic penetration is important for overall plant health and vitality and the new secondary optical lens on the K3 series does an excellent job of facilitating this penetration. The K3 series is helping to revolutionize the LED grow light industry with all new features, including the secondary optical lens. Visit a local retailer for more information.

EcoPlus Adjustable Flow Rate Water Pumps Sunlight Supply is pleased to announce the arrival of EcoPlus Adjustable Flow Rate Water Pumps. This new line of adjustable water pumps offer an energy efficient magnetic rotor with a ceramic shaft, vastly improving the GPH and head pressure that is needed in hydroponic systems and outdoor fountains. These pumps are manufactured with a built-in flow regulator, allowing full adjustability of water movement. Included with each pump are three sizes of fittings that easily attach to the outside threaded distribution outlet. The 172-gph through 370-gph models include a 6-ft., 120-V power cord. The 528-gph through 1,269-gph models include a 15-ft., 120-V power cord. Every model comes with a one-year manufacturer warranty. Visit the nearest indoor gardening store for more information.

Xtreme Gardening Once & Done 3-Packs Once & Done is a new, unique way of feeding new plant starts. Once & Done is available in biodegradable packets filled with premium organic and natural plant food. The design keeps nutrients near the roots where they need to be and the slow release source of food continuously feeds for up to four months (unlike liquid and soluble fertilizers that leech out almost immediately). The effectiveness of Once & Done for slowly feeding plants makes it ideal for tender new starts that are often overfed and can easily burn. Once & Done also provides Plant Insurance™ by preventing many of the deficiencies that may occur during a plant’s life cycle. Packets are ideal for indoor and outdoor container gardens and can be combined with any other nutrient program (use only one to two packets per plant site). Once & Done is especially great for soil and coco. Visit a local grow shop for more information.

Technaflora Launches the Easy-Pour Spigot Technaflora Plant Products is thrilled to introduce our easy-pour spigot made to function in harmony with our 5.28-gal. carboy product line. Technaflora’s carboy line incorporates a new cap with 0.75-in. threading, purposed to accommodate our easy-pour spigot and ultimately offers the end user a more convenient and mess-free way to distribute our products that eliminates unnecessary waste and overflow. The spigot can be used with a variety of Technaflora’s other products supporting the new cap, such as BC Hydroponic Nutrients™, SugarDaddy™, Thrive Alive-B1™ Red & Green and MagiCal™. For more information, visit your favorite grow store.

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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHT

Pondmaster Clearguard Pressurized Pond Filters There is now a great filtration device available for ponds at an affordable prize through Danner Manufacturing. Pondmaster Clearguard Pressurized Pond Filters are easy to use and versatile, having seven functions including filtering, backwashing, rinsing, winterizing, emptying, circulating and closing. The filters feature reusable pads to remove fine debris and polish water fast, and a combination of biological and mechanical media for maximum water clarity and healthier ponds. Pondmaster Clearguard Pressurized Pond Filters are available in 2,700, 5,500, 8,000 and 16,000-gal. sizes and are available with or without a UV clarifier. Filters include both slip and barbed fittings and can be used with the Clearguard Backwash Air Kit to obtain the ultimate backwash performance. Ask a gardening supply store for more information.

Royal Gold Coco Royal Gold is proud to be one the largest coco fiber soil and soilless producers in North America. Ready for use right out of the bag, Royal Gold Coco is processed and rinsed in Humboldt County, California, with the utmost care and attention. The finest grade of coco fiber is imported from consistent and reputable sources for all Royal Gold products. The Royal Gold crew then washes the select fibers to remove any residual salt content with pure Humboldt rainwater from our in-house water catchment system. We then begin our proprietary buffering process. This gives the grower a ready-to-use product of unparalleled purity and consistency. Royal Gold does all this right here on North American soil, with pride! Use as a stand-alone medium or to enhance the performance of any native or bagged soil you prefer. Visit a local retailer for more information.

Ozone Environmental Technologies’ Uvonair Room Model Ozone Environmental Technologies has been a leader in hydroponic ozonation since 1994. The company’s extensive line-up of Uvonair products are manufactured in North America using only the highest quality components on the market. In an effort to continue to improve its products, the company has developed a new and improved room model, which has a slightly newer design. This new design, built using a stronger polycarbonate plastic, achieves a more aerodynamic design and will increase durability and air flow, which will add an increase of 15 % in ozone production. All models conform to UL safety standards. Ask a local indoor gardening supply store for more details.

General Hydroponics’ AzaMax AzaMax is a broad spectrum botanical insecticide, miticide and nematicide. It is made from Azadirachtin, which is extracted from neem, a tree known for its innumerable benefits. Multiple modes of action eliminate current pests and prevent future generations from forming. The special feature of AzaMax is that it does not use hard chemical solvents and instead uses food-grade formulation ingredients. AzaMax is OMRI listed and licensed in all 50 states. For more information, ask a local indoor gardening store.

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Aquaponic Worms

F.A. Q. in

lvia Bernste y S by

Many people are surprised to hear that worms are an important part of an aquaponic system. Sylvia Bernstein explains why and answers a few frequently asked questions. 50

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013


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AQUAPONIC WORMS Anyone who has taught courses or given presentations about media-based aquaponics has experienced the unique reaction people have when they are told that worms are an important part of the ecology of an aquaponic system. The expression that spreads over their faces reveals a mental connection being made between the futuristic coolness of aquaponics and the comforting familiarity of traditional, soil-based gardening. For many, this linkage is the final piece they needed to become convinced that aquaponics truly is a natural system. But often you will see that expression followed by a frown of skepticism. How can a creature that normally lives in terra firma possibly survive and thrive in the watery environment of an aquaponic grow bed? We get a lot of questions like this about worms and their use in aquaponics, so I thought it was a good idea to dedicate an article to the most frequently asked questions about aquaponic worms. Here goes…

Worms are an important part of the ecology of an aquaponic system."

Q: How do worms benefit my media-based aquaponic system? A: They break down the solid waste from the fish, and excess roots and other materials that plants slough off, and make nutrients from these materials available to the plants through their excrement—vermicompost. This additional

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

metabolic layer in media-based systems is what allows media growers to avoid both the requirement to filter out solid waste and the requirement to frequently clean out their grow beds. A 12-in. deep grow bed with a healthy population of worms will probably only need to be cleaned out every few years. Vermicompost, and the tea that results from soaking vermicompost in highly oxygenated water (such as the conditions


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AQUAPONIC WORMS found in an aquaponic grow bed), have been studied extensively by the Soil Ecology Lab at Ohio State University and found to aid in the following pest and disease issues: • Suppresses plant diseases, including pythium, rhizoctonia, plectosporium and verticillium • Suppresses parasitic nematodes • Suppresses insects and pests such as tomato hornworms, mealy bugs, spider mites and aphids

Q: How do worms survive in an aquaponic grow bed? Don’t they drown? A: We have all seen worms crawling out onto the sidewalk after a soaking rain, seemingly gasping for air. That they choose exposure to the sun and hungry birds over the water-logged soil seems to tell us that worms don’t like soaking wet environments. And what is an aquaponic grow bed if not a soaking wet environment? The difference with aquaponics is that they do not remain constantly full of water, but rather flood, and then drain. This allows for a drying-out period between soakings that also encourages air circulation within the grow media. This brings me to the most important reason why worms thrive within aquaponics—oxygen. The reason why those worms crawl from the soil to their death on the sidewalk is not because of the water, but because the water has forced the oxygen out of the soil. In aquaponics, not only does the flood and drain action pull oxygen into the grow bed media, but the water that is circulating throughout the system is highly oxygenated. In fact, I’ve found worms thriving within my sump tanks.

A 12-in. deep grow bed with a healthy population of worms will probably only need to be cleaned out every few years."

Q: Can you ever have too many worms? A: Sadly, no. My fish certainly wish there were too many worms! But the fact is that worms naturally adjust their population to match the conditions within their environment and as soon as those conditions no longer support additional worms they slow down or stop reproducing.

Q: I’m considering a system inside my home. Will they escape? A: Again the answer is no. Worms hate the light and are happiest in the moist darkness of your grow beds. The only time you will see your worms once they are in your grow bed is

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when you pull out a plant. They will be intertwined in the roots taking care of sloughed-off dead root material.

Q: I heard that worms can carry E. coli. Is this true? A: No. Only if it is present in whatever media they are living in. In fact, worms have been shown to mitigate pathogens that affect humans. An April 15, 2010 article in the Journal of Environmental Protection titled “Earthworms: Charles Darwin’s Unheralded Soldiers of Mankind” stated: “The earthworms also release coelomic fluids that have anti-bacterial properties and destroy all pathogens in the waste biomass [13]. They produce ‘antibiotics’ which kill the pathogenic organisms in the waste and soil where they inhabit and render it virtually sterile. It was reported that the removal of pathogens, fecal coliforms (E. coli), Salmonella spp., enteric viruses and helminth ova from sewage and sludge appear to be much more rapid when they are processed by E. fetida. Of all E. coli and Salmonella are greatly reduced [14].”


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AQUAPONIC WORMS

Q: How do I introduce the worms into my grow beds? A: You should exercise common sense with the introduction of anything into your aquaponic system, whether that be a pest control spray (even if it is organic), new fish (quarantine first!) or a new source of water or media. Accidentally introducing manure from warm-blooded animals that might harbor diseases such as E. coli. into your aquaponic system would not be smart. However, I have been told by our worm vendor that most responsible vermiculturalists rinse their worms after removing them from their compost home, at least twice, and then they use peat moss to ship them. He said that it doesn’t make sense to ship worms in manure or compost because it gives off heat and high heat is the biggest risk when shipping worms. That said, if you buy your worms from a less-than-professional source, or you harvest them from your own compost pile, you should clean the worms of

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Most responsible vermiculturalists rinse their worms after removing them from their compost home."

anything sticking to them before introducing them to your aquaponic system. Better yet, purge their systems (guts) by putting them in wetted-down cornmeal for 24 hours (or use oatmeal or wetted-down Cream of Wheat). Then wash off the worms, and introduce them into the aquaponic system by laying them on top of the grow beds. They will quickly crawl into the media to escape the light.


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Bringing the

t s e r Fo by Chris Bond

Inside:

A Closer Look at Christmas Tree Care

For those who opt for a cut or living Christmas tree during the holiday season, the care and culture of the tree while it is indoors is critical for its prolonged use, and possibly its future life in your landscape. 58

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013


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Bringing the forest inside The debate over buying real versus fake Christmas trees has become almost as cliché as choosing paper or plastic, boxers or briefs. Whichever side you are on, there are a lot of facts that are lost in the debate. A live tree refers to any tree that is grown as a crop on a farm or plantation for the purposes of either being cut down (a cut tree) and used as a Christmas tree, or a tree that has its roots intact (a living tree), and has been dug out of the ground with the intent of transplanting it into another location at another time. A fake tree is manufactured out of synthetic material. If you opt for a cut or living tree, the care and culture of it while it is in your home is critical for its prolonged use, and possibly its future life in your landscape.

BRINGING A CUT TREE INSIDE THE HOME Your cut Christmas tree is going to be a part of your family for several weeks. Even though your tree does not have roots anymore, it will still take up water and respire as if it did for a short time, and you can help to prolong this state. Clear an area for your tree that is away from any heat source such as a

fireplace, wood stove, radiator or register. These speed up the drying out process of your tree and reduce its useful life as well as increase its chance of becoming a fire hazard. If you cut the tree yourself, you can take it inside right away. If the tree has been bound with twine or subject to the elements for a while after being cut, you may need a period of acclimation for your tree. While the tree is still outside, cut the twine so branches can settle. This allows a chance for any chipmunk or other animal that may have taken temporary residence in your tree to scamper away. It also allows any ice or snow to melt and any field debris and dead needles to fall out before bringing it in. Next, make sure your tree stand has an adequate water reservoir. Your tree may drink as much as 1 gal. of water per day at first, and reduce its consumption as the days and weeks progress. If your tree ceases to take up water, and you still require its services prior to Christmas, it may be necessary to remove it from its stand and give it a fresh cut along the bottom. The sap may have clogged up the tree's pores and blocked its ability to take up water.

“If the tree has been bound with twine or subject to the elements for a while after being cut, you may need a period of acclimation for your tree.”

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USES FOR YOUR CUT TREE AFTER THE HOLIDAYS Once your tree has executed its duty faithfully, it can still serve useful purposes that will keep it out of a landfill. A discarded Christmas tree can become shelter and a habitat for a variety of birds and wildlife. You can stake it up in the yard and hang a bird feeder from it. You could also just toss it aside and let the animals find it themselves. Christmas tree branches can be cut up and placed over top of overwintering perennials. The added insulation can help get them through the winter and provide structure to collect falling snow if you live in a northern climate, which adds protection from freezing temperatures. The trunk of your tree can be used as a fence post or stake and the branches could be added to a compost pile. If you are so inclined, a formerly loved Christmas tree may add an element of whimsy to your garden.

CARE OF A LIVING TREE IN THE HOME If would rather purchase a living tree so you can plant it in your yard later, there are a series of steps that will help to make sure your tree survives. Living, coniferous evergreen trees are not conducive for prolonged life inside your home. They need to be acclimated to your home’s environment prior to being brought inside, and can only stay a few days so they do not break dormancy and begin to grow inside. If possible, bring the tree into a garage or unheated porch for several days prior to being brought in and then repeat the process on the tree's way out. Before you bring it in the house is the time to prepare its home for after the holidays. It is good practice to dig the planting hole before you bring the tree inside. You don’t want the tree’s roots exposed to freezing temperatures by being above ground once it is outside. If you cannot properly plant the tree until the spring, putting the tree’s roots in the ground and heavily mulching will keep it alive and healthy until it can be planted.

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

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Bringing the forest inside

CULTURAL PRACTICES INSIDE

“If you cannot properly plant the tree until the spring, putting the tree’s roots in the ground and heavily mulching will keep it alive and healthy until it can be planted.”

Like a cut Christmas tree, keep a living one away from heat sources. Avoid tricking the tree into thinking that it is now spring to prevent it from breaking bud and start growing for the year. Do not allow the tree to dry out, but do not over-water. Unlike a cut tree, which should be taking up a large volume of water over the course of its time in your stand, a living tree should be moistened before coming into the house, but then watered only if there is risk of the roots drying out. To determine this, insert a knife or other object four to six inches into the root ball and check to see if the soil is moist. Do not rely on the apparent moisture of the outside of the roots. You can keep a living tree inside the home for longer periods if you keep it in a cool environment.

POST-HOLIDAY CARE After you have acclimated your tree back to colder temperatures, take the tree out to the pre-dug hole. If the ground is not frozen, plant the tree as you would in the spring or fall. If the ground is frozen, it is critical to keep those roots insulated. Mulch around the tree’s base with pine bark, straw, wood chips or anything you can mound at least 3 to 4-in. thick. The excess can be removed in the spring, and aesthetics should not be the concern at this time. Water the tree as soon as it is practical. If the roots are dry and allowed to freeze, there is a good chance your tree will not emerge out of the winter alive and well.

OTHER LIVING TREE OPTIONS FOR GROWING INSIDE If you want a live or living tree, but cannot use a traditional evergreen tree, you have several options, many of which are suitable houseplants year-round in any climate. The Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria heterophylla) is an excellent substitute and can be grown indoors. It is not an actual pine tree, but it is a coniferous evergreen, and can be decorated and lit up for the holidays just like any other traditional tree. They are quite common in garden centers and anywhere houseplants are sold. Rosemary plants, which are often pruned into a conical shape, are becoming a popular alternative and can live on inside the home for many years as an addition to your kitchen garden. Many other herb plants can be used as well. There is no law that says your Christmas tree has to have needles. A jade tree, an arboricola or any member of the fig family could be made jolly with the addition of some lights and ornaments, and return to service as your household foliage plant after the holidays.

GROWING YOUR OWN CHRISTMAS TREES Starting your own mini Christmas tree plantation can be a fun way to ensure you will have a supply of varieties you like for many years. You will not be able to raise them indoors (if using traditional evergreen species), but you could get them started inside. Evergreen seedlings are often plentiful in early spring. If you buy them in bulk, they can be obtained for as little as a dollar or two per piece. Create a potting mix that is acidic and drains well and pot each one individually in a gallon-sized 62

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013


“Christmas trees help to control erosion, act as a wind block, help to clean the air by absorbing carbon dioxide and give off oxygen.” nursery container. Water them as you would a house plant, until it is warm enough to place them outside. They can spend their first full year in the pot. Allow them to go dormant in the winter by placing them in a garage or by burying the pot for the winter to protect their roots. Seedlings can be planted in the field (or your yard) in early spring. Allow 8 to 10 ft. between each tree and shear them in mid-summer to keep their growth compact and conical.

A FINAL NOTE Christmas trees are a crop, just like corn, pumpkins or berries. They are planted to be harvested. Because they stay in the ground an average of seven to 10 years each, they do a lot of good for the environment. They help to control erosion, act as a wind block, help to clean the air by absorbing carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. And, since Christmas tree farmers are business people, for every tree that they sell, they will be planting at least one, and maybe five to 10 trees to replace those sold. Buying a real tree helps the environment and supports small agri-businesses in your community. The process of selecting and cutting down a tree or taking one home with its roots intact can also be a fulfilling family event to add to the celebration of the holidays. Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

63


Lumens

are for

Humans

PAR Plants is for

by David Kessler

What works best for us humans is not always best for the plants we are growing in our gardens. David Kessler explains light from a plant's perspective. 64

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013


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Lumens are for humans It blew my 10-year-old mind when my all-knowing grandmother told me that the blue jay we were watching was in fact not blue. She explained that light is composed of many colors, and it is the colors that are reflected, not absorbed, that our eyes perceive as the color of an object. This is a necessary reminder that what is perceived might not be what it appears to be. For decades, the indoor gardening community has used lumens as the standard increment for the measurement of light. Lumens were unfortunately a poor choice, and here’s why.

“Lumens are essentially a measure of brightness based on human perception. A lumen is equal to the light emitted by one candle falling on one square foot of surface located one foot away. ” Lumens are essentially a measure of brightness based on human perception. A lumen is equal to the light emitted by one candle falling on one square foot of surface located one foot away. This measurement presumes a human is the perceiver of the light. Plants perceive light differently; from a plant’s perspective, light that is useful for photosynthesis is not necessarily bright. Light– more specifically, visible light– is made up of wavelengths of energy on the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 380 to 770 nm (nanometers). Plants use wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm for photosynthesis. Brightness does not accurately describe if the light will be more or less useful to a plant.

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“Color temperature is often referred to in the horticultural industry on lamp boxes to describe the color of the light emitted by the lamp.” Light can be characterized in other ways when discussing its benefit to plants. Color temperature is often referred to in the horticultural industry on lamp boxes to describe the color of the light emitted by the lamp. Does 4,000 K grow a plant better than 7,500 K? Color temperature is listed in Kelvin (K), which is a measurement of temperature. The temperature of what you might ask? It is a description of the relative whiteness of a piece of tungsten steel when heated to that particular temperature in degrees Kelvin. This accurately characterizes the color of the light as we perceive it, but color temperature again fails to address how effective a particular light source will be at providing the energy necessary to drive photosynthesis.


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Lumens are for humans But not to worry, there is in fact a measurement that precisely describes how effective a particular light will be for growing plants– PAR, or photosynthetic active radiation. PAR spectrum accounts only for light, or more precisely, photons emitted between 400 to 700 nm. Scientists have concluded that it requires about nine photons to bind one CO2 molecule in photosynthesis. Even though blue photons have more energy, scientists have also found that there is little difference between the effectiveness of red versus blue photons at driving photosynthesis as long as the photons are within the 400 to 700 nm range. This leads to a direct correlation between the number of photons produced in the PAR spectrum by a given light, and the photosynthetic potential of that light.

“there is in fact a measurement that precisely describes how effective a particular light will be for growing plants—PAR, or photosynthetic active radiation.” Photons are emitted by light sources in large numbers so we do not talk about billions or quadrillions of photons; instead we refer to them using the multiplier moles, which stand for 6.0221415 x 1,023. To make the numbers even more accessible, the number of moles is often divided by one million, resulting in micro-moles. Light sources emit photons continuously over time so the number of micromoles is more accurately described as μmol per unit of time (most commonly, seconds).

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When trying to quantify how effective a light source is beyond the total output of μmol/second, you must consider one last piece of information– the size or area of your garden. Inevitably some of the photons produced will not reach your garden, so the most accurate representation of a light source’s ability to drive photosynthesis will take into account the area being lit and how many photons reach that given area per second. The formula that represents the effectiveness of a light source for photosynthesis is written as μmol/sq. ft./s. This descriptor is actually referred to as photosynthetic photon flux density, or PPFD for short.

“When trying to quantify how effective a light source is beyond the total output of μmol/second, you must consider one last piece of information— the size or area of your garden.” In light of all of the information above, let’s remember that lumens are not a useful descriptor of a light’s ability to drive photosynthesis. I think I will sit back with a drink and digest all of the information about PAR and PPFD while I watch the not-blue blue jay outside my window. David Kessler heads research and development at Atlantis Hydroponics and writes for their popular blog. David has more than two decades of experience and multiple degrees from the State University of New York. He’s also an accredited judge for the American Orchid Society and travels the world judging orchid events. Follow his blog at atlantishydroponics.wordpress.com


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by Grubbycup

Seeds and Meristems Inside each seed is a small plant, living and waiting for conditions to initiate sprouting. Each seed usually includes a pair of growing tips known as apical meristems. Grubbycup has the details on why meristems are so important throughout the life cycle of the plant, from germination to flowering.

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SEEDS AND MERISTEMS Seeds are amazing storage containers that allow a plant to travel through space and time. Inside each protective casing is a tiny plant held in stasis until it is exposed to conditions that initiate development and growth, along with some stored energy (endosperm) for the plant to get started with. The miniature plant inside often has either one seed leaf or a pair of seed leaves. Along with the seed leaf (or leaves), the miniture plant inside the seed shell also usually has a pair of growing tips (apical meristems), one at the top of the stem (hypocotyl) that develops into the first true leaves at the top of the sprout, and one at the tip of the root (radicle) used for root development. Meristem cells are unusual in that they are a basic building block cell that can differentiate to become different types of cells depending on need and environement. Meristem cells can divide and generate new cells, an ability that becomes lost when they differentiate into the type of plant cell they ultimately become. Stems, leaves, roots and flowers all start as undifferentiated meristem cells that have differentiated into the various cells needed to form the plant parts and organs. Although meristem cells can transform into different cells, once a cell type is determined, it loses the ability to become one of the other types. In a nutshell (pun intended), a seed coat protects a tiny plant that already has a root, stem and a leaf or two. The metabolism of the plant is slowed dramatically, and dehydration stalls development. The embryonic plant is well developed and alive in a viable seed. If the plant dies, or is fatally malformed, then the seed is dead and will not sprout. Some varieties of plant seeds remain viable for years; others are best used the following season. In general, moisture is bad for seeds unless they are being sprouted. Moisture can enter into the seed through small holes in the seed coat called micropyles where it can stagnate and encourage anaerobic bacterial and fungal growth. Most seeds prefer to be stored in a dry, cool location until used. Under proper environmental conditions, moisture entering the micropyles will induce sprouting. If the micropyles are deformed or blocked, germination may be difficult. To assist in sprouting such seeds, they may be soaked in water before

planting, or a small nick may be made in the seed coating (scarification). A small cut opposite the hinge side of the seed can be made to allow moisture to be absorbed. An alternative to cutting the seed coat is to weaken it by scraping the seed against a bit of sandpaper or emery board. As the dried plant takes up the water, it starts to grow. Since the tiny plant is no longer in stasis, it begins to need warmth, moisture and air. In fact, it becomes dependent on them. One way to reduce the number of weeds in a garden plot that relies on irrigation is to water an area so the weeds sprout, and then kill off the tender sprouts by allowing the area to dry out. Once seeds have started to sprout, they must either grow or perish. As the tiny sprout grows, it bursts through the seed coat. The radius spreads underground to become the root system. The seedling leaves will unfurl, the seed coat will drop off and the shoot apical meristem (growth tip) will develop the first true leaves and begin normal growth. Shoot meristems are usually indeterminate and will continue to grow as long as conditions permit and flowering is not triggered. Primary meristem cells add to the height of the plant and the length of the roots, while secondary (lateral) meristem cells add to the girth of the trunk, branches and roots. Many plants have the ability to not only produce a main apical meristem, but also develop lateral growth tips. Plants that exhibit apical meristem dominance will produce a dominant shoot off the trunk that will inhibit the development of the side branches. By removing or pinching off the main apical meristem, lateral growth is encouraged.

“Inside each protective casing is a tiny plant held in stasis until it is exposed to conditions that initiate development and growth.”

“In general, moisture is bad for seeds unless they are being sprouted.”

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SEEDS AND MERISTEMS This is often done to encourage bushier growth. Catnip is an example of a plant that responds well to pinching. While catnip's normal growth habit is a long shoot with a large floral cluster at the top, if pinched back, lateral growth is encouraged, and it will produce several smaller clusters, making for a bushier and more attractive plant. Another important use of the apical meristem is in vegetative propagation (asexual reproduction). In many plants that have multiple growing tip nodes, undifferentiated meristem cells in the stem can develop into root tips. Air layering is one method used. In air layering, a branch is bent downward and a section of it is buried. The growth tip on the end of the branch is allowed to develop normally, but the buried meristem cells develop into root tips. Once the branch has established roots of its own, it can be cut from the parent plant and become independent. When taking cuttings from plants, remove a growth tip and branch from the parent plant and bury the stem for a similar result. The main difference between air layering and cuttings is that with air layering the branch continues to receive support from the parent plant, whereas with cuttings the growth tip is separated from the parent plant before the roots are established. Cuttings tend to need a lot of moisture to survive, at least until they have developed a root system of their own. Cuttings are particularly sensitive to drying out and terminally wilting. They must not be kept too wet or fungal problems such as rots can develop

before the plant can become established. To assist in rooting, sometimes a rooting hormone auxin such as indolebutyric acid or naphthale-

“Plants that exhibit apical meristem dominance will produce a dominant shoot off the trunk that will inhibit the development of the side branches. By removing or pinching off the main apical meristem, lateral growth is encouraged.” neacetic acid is used. Although many cuttings will take directly in soil, it is not uncommon to start cuttings in a deep water culture, aeroponic or hybrid system. Tomato plants are usually easy to reproduce by cuttings and can be helpful in “proof of concept” attempts at rooting cuttings. Note that taking cuttings of certain patented life forms may be illegal, so only take cuttings from heirloom or other legal issue-free plants. Some plants naturally use a reverse air layering technique to self-propagate. They send out shallow roots (runners) that can become exposed, triggering root meristem cells to become shoot meristem cells. This will cause new shoots to develop from the root, which may remain connected to the parent plant, or develop independently if the root connection becomes severed. When a plant becomes sexually mature during flowering, the meristems at budding nodes differentiate into floral meristems. It is the floral meristems that create the flowering and reproductive organs that are used in normal sexual reproduction in plants. To summarize, inside each seed is a small plant, living and waiting for conditions to initiate sprouting. Germination triggers meristem cell division, used for plant growth. Meristem cells are the stem cells of the plant world. They are important throughout the life of the plant from the tiny, embryonic plant encased in a seed coat, to a mature plant forming flowers and fruits.

“Meristem cells are the stem cells of the plant world. They are important throughout the life of the plant from the tiny, embryonic plant encased in a seed coat, to a mature plant forming flowers and fruits.”

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What’s Your

Hydration Status?

by Bill DeBoer

Examining the Hydration Status of Softwood and Semi-Hardwood Cuttings Proper hydration is paramount to an individual’s success rate with cuttings. Softwood cuttings are especially sensitive, but semi-hardwood cuttings should be regarded as well. Here is Bill DeBoer with some good tips on how and why to rehydrate those precious, delicate cuttings. 76

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Hydration status

“A cutting experiencing water stress or lower hydration will have a smaller chance of root formation relative to one that is fully hydrated.”

Most green thumbs who propagate plants by cuttings are concerned with relative humidity, temperature, rooting hormones and media type. While all of these factors play an integral role in the success or failure of rooting, there is one factor that growers may be overlooking: water status. It is so simple and ambiguous that I would argue it is rarely, if ever, addressed by the propagator. So, why do we care about how much water is retained in cuttings? In the case of softwoods, and to a lesser extent semi-hardwood cuttings, proper hydration will directly impact turgor pressure. When the turgor pressure of a softwood cutting is high (in hydrated plants), the cuttings will feel rigid. Cuttings with low turgor pressure (as a result of water stress) will have a soft feel and will be noticeably wilted. A cutting experiencing water stress or lower hydration will have a smaller chance of root formation relative to one that is fully hydrated. Let’s explore some reasons why proper hydration is so important to the success of root formation on cuttings.

No roots and leaves? We may have a problem Roots are a plant’s organs that take up water and nutrients. A combination of water and nutrients is pulled up the plant through the evaporation of water from the leaves. Therefore, a plant’s cuttings will pump water out and become desiccated quickly. Water stress will lead to biochemical signaling events that can partition energy away from reserves that would go toward root formation. In addition, the stress response can lead to the abscission or dropping of leaves in an effort to reduce water loss. Collectively, both factors will significantly reduce the odds of successful root formation.

Leaf abscission (drop) If the leaves are the source of water loss, why should it matter if they drop off? Won’t that help reduce water stress? Plants are certainly adaptable to certain stressors, and dropping leaves is a natural response 78

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Hydration status or cessation (during prolonged and extreme drought conditions) of a plant’s metabolism or the biochemical reactions needed to sustain normal functioning. Maintaining adequate hydration throughout the rooting process will reduce these negative events. Fortunately, there are ways to level the playing field and make sure all of the cuttings start off on the right foot.

How we can rehydrate

“Plants are certainly adaptable to certain stressors, and dropping leaves is a natural response to water stress. But things are not so black and white when we are dealing with a section of a plant.” to water stress. But things are not so black and white when we are dealing with a section of a plant. As you might already know, a plant’s main energy source (sugar) is produced in the leaves by using light energy, carbon dioxide and water. Eliminate the energy producing factories and the cutting will not have sufficient reserves to manufacture roots. Total failure will result. While saturated photosynthesis running on all cylinders is disadvantageous due to nutrient requirements (no roots to take them up), you do not want a complete shutdown either.

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Stress is costly To ensure the highest probability of successful rooting of plant cuttings, a grower must minimize energy sinks and water loss while promoting factors leading to root formation. Water is a lifeline to all levels of proper plant health, and water stress can be viewed as a decline in health. Think of the times when you are fighting a cold. How energetic do you feel, or how well do you perform other tasks? In this example, your body is expending considerable resources trying to fight off these invaders. Water stress will cause a slow down

Is simply placing the cuttings in a beaker of water enough? That may be adequate, but let’s look to the world of the florist to understand what factors will help promote fast, efficient water uptake. Cut flowers are often treated with hydration solutions. A hydration solution may contain any or all of the following chemicals: water, an acid, a germicide and a surfactant. The role of water is obvious, while acids have a two-fold purpose. Lowering the pH level to between 3 and 5 facilitates an opening of the conductive tissue (xylem/phloem), as blockages to the xylem will greatly slow down or completely block water uptake. To this end, make sure you re-cut each plant cutting underwater so that an air embolism or bubble does not form. Lowering the pH also helps to reduce microbial growth, which may or may not be paramount in this application. Next, a germicide will help sanitize microbes that have colonized the cut end or stem of the cutting. Using a germicide may provide dividends down the road in preventing fungal or bacterial infection that can rot the cutting. Lastly, a surfactant may accelerate the speed of water uptake by reducing surface tension. While this may help, I personally don’t believe it is necessary for re-hydrating plant cuttings.

How long to wait While there are significant anatomical differences across plant species, the total length of the cutting will be the largest determining factor in determining how long rehydration will take. As a general reference, a 2 to 3-in. cutting should fully rehydrate within 15 to 30 minutes.


Hydration status

“While some cuttings will respond favorably to simply being immersed in water for rehydration, others will benefit from the addition of an acid or a surfactant to keep the conductive tissue clear and to accelerate water uptake.”

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In Conclusion Proper hydration is paramount to an individual’s success rate with cuttings. Softwood cuttings are especially sensitive, but semi-hardwood cuttings should be regarded as well. The purpose of this article is to stress the importance of maintaining proper hydration of plant cuttings. If a plant is fully hydrated, subsequent rehydration will be of little use. Remember, the role of water in cuttings is multidimensional. Water accumulation within plant cells exerts pressure against the cell wall, which creates the rigidity that keeps a plant upright. Loss of water pressure due to dehydration leads to wilting. Since cuttings do not have roots to uptake water, and a callus will eventually block uptake from the cut portion, the leaves will quickly become a major source of water loss, resulting in wilting and failure of the cuttings to root. Stressors like dehydration can promote undesirable consequences like leaf abscissions or drop that will also decrease root formation. Stress is metabolically costly in that partitioning of resources to alleviate the stress will ultimately be taken away from the energy pool needed for rooting. While some cuttings will respond favorably to simply being immersed in water for rehydration, others will benefit from the addition of an acid or a surfactant to keep the conductive tissue clear and to accelerate water uptake. Even though it is not commercially available, rehydration solutions for cuttings could offer a potential vehicle, reinforcing leaves and thereby reducing leaf drop as well as delivering water soluble compounds promoting root initiation. While the traditional factors of relative humidity, temperature, rooting hormones and media type are quite important when it comes to growing using cuttings, make sure those thirsty cuttings are fully hydrated, and I know you will be happy with the results!


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avant gardening

Trimmi Christmas cactus plants By Heather Rhoades

With its brilliant blooms providing a splash of welcome color over the holiday season, a Christmas cactus is a pleasure to have around the house in the winter. But what if it grows too big for the space you've allotted for it? We have the solution...

Because Christmas cactus plants are so easy to care for, it is not uncommon for a Christmas cactus to eventually grow to a monstrous size. While this is lovely to see, it can create problems for a homeowner with limited space. The solution is to prune the plant. Christmas cactus pruning is not just for large plants, either. Pruning a Christmas cactus, large or small will help it to grow bushier, which in turn results in more blooms in the future. So whether you are looking to simply reduce the size of your plant or make yours look even more beautiful, keep reading to learn more about how to trim a Christmas cactus. 84

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When To Prune Christmas Cactus Plants The best time to prune a Christmas cactus is right after it has bloomed. At this time, the Christmas cactus will be entering a growth period and will start to put out new leaves. Pruning a Christmas cactus right after it blooms will force it to branch out, which means the plant will grow more of its distinctive stems. If you are not able to do your Christmas cactus pruning right after it blooms, you can prune the plant anytime from after it blooms until late spring without doing harm to the Christmas cactus plant.

“you can prune the plant anytime from after it blooms until late spring without doing harm.” How To Trim A Christmas Cactus Because of the unique stems, pruning a Christmas cactus is perhaps one of the easiest pruning jobs there is. All you need to do is give the stems a quick twist in between one of the segments. If this seems a bit harsh on your plant, you can also use a sharp knife or scissors to remove the segments. If you are pruning a Christmas cactus to reduce its size, you can remove up to one third of the plant per year. If you are trimming Christmas cactus plants to make them grow in more fully, you only need to trim one or two of the end segments from the stems. The really fun thing about trimming a Christmas cactus is that you can easily root the Christmas cactus cuttings and give the new plants to friends and family.

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

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of

on

Hydroponic Nutrition O v e r t he l a s t decade or so, t he r e h a s b ee n a lot of development that has i n f l u e n c e d t he way we view hydroponic nutrition. Ever wonder why that is?

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by Eric Hopper

Evoluti t he


evolution of hydroponic nutrition Indoor gardeners have witnessed many technological advancements over the last few years. While strolling through almost any indoor gardening retail store, growers see various new lighting technologies, state-of-the-art atmospheric controllers, complex, ready-to-use hydroponic systems and ventilation and filter equipment. As a hydroponic store owner, I witnessed many new customers walk in and quickly become mesmerized by the various high-tech gadgets. These newcomers did not even realize they were walking right past some of the most incredible advancements in the industry. This is because these products didn’t have flashing lights or colorful boxes. Although many have fancy labels, all are destined to be stored in a plain container on a shelf with many other plain containers that appear no different at first glance. I am, of course, talking about the bottles containing hydroponic nutrients that line the walls of the local hydroponic store.

“Nutrient manufacturers are paying closer attention to the way their products interact with each other.”

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Growers often walk by bottles of nutrients as they gaze at the latest and greatest inventions to hit the indoor horticulture market because nutrient bottles lack a certain satisfaction that only a tangible object can give. I am not saying that gardeners don’t understand the importance of using quality nutrients, but sometimes development of those nutrients is taken for granted. After all, hydroponic nutrients, like indoor gardening hardware,


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evolution of hydroponic nutrition

have evolved immensely over the last 10 years. There have been major breakthroughs in the methods used to extract, create and culture various nutrients and supplements. Nutrient manufacturers are paying closer attention to the way their products interact with each other.

“One of the discoveries that greatly affected the hydroponic nutrient industry was the invention of chelated nutrients for plants.” In other words, more attention is being placed on how combining nutrients affects the end nutrient solution. Manufacturers are paying closer attention to the habits of the growers as well, which influences the way hydroponic nutrients are designed. There have also been major discoveries regarding the microscopic world in and around the plant’s root mass. These discoveries have had a tremendous impact on the evolution of hydroponic nutrients. Many hydroponic nutrients and supplements now include beneficial micro-organisms in their formulation. Over the last decade or so there has been a lot of development that has influenced the way we view hydroponic nutrition. Each of these developments deserves its own recognition as being a major contributing factor in the top-notch fertilizers available to today’s indoor horticulturist.

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Che l a t e d p l a n t n u t r i e n t s One of the discoveries that greatly affected the hydroponic nutrient industry was the invention of chelated nutrients for plants. Many growers use fulvic and humic acids because of their ability to chelate organic compounds and aid in nutrient absorption. Scientists figured out a way to take this naturally occurring phenomenon and re-create it in the laboratory. This occurred in the early 1990s and since then has changed the way our plants take in nutrients, especially micronutrients. The process of chelation describes a way that particular ions and molecules bind with metal ions. Many of the essential micronutrients found in a plant’s diet are metals that, when chelated, can be absorbed more easily and used more efficiently by the plant. To create chelated micronutrients for hydroponics, the desired micronutrient is combined with fulvic acid, ammonia and hydroxy acid, and in some cases heated, until the desired metal chelates form. After the chelates are formed, a stabilizer is added and the chelated nutrients can be added as an ingredient to a fertilizer or supplement. Chelated plant nutrients are stable and can be used in any hydroponic system, including high oxygen systems like aeroponic or top-drip systems. Chelated nutrients can also be used effectively in a foliar feeding program.


evolution of hydroponic nutrition

pH stabilizers Few parameters affect nutrient uptake in a hydroponic system as much as the solution���s pH. In fact, there is a desired pH range that hydroponic gardeners must stay within for their plants to uptake nutrients at all. One of the biggest frustrations for hydroponic gardeners is the constant battle trying to stabilize the nutrient solution’s pH. Nutrient manufacturers are starting to understand that creating a pH-stable product is as important to creating success for the hydroponic grower as anything else. Some nutrient manufacturers have begun to add pH stabilizers to their nutrients to help curb undesired pH fluctuations. Other nutrient manufacturers are constantly testing and reformulating their products so they work synergistically without causing pH stabilization issues.

“Some nutrient manufacturers have begun to add pH stabilizers to their nutrients to help curb undesired pH fluctuations.”

Amino acids Amino acids are essentially the building blocks of plant life. They are required for virtually every plant function to occur and are directly linked to a plant’s metabolism. Many amino acids are produced by the plants themselves and contribute to the synthesis of cellular molecules, including chlorophyll. Plants grown in less than desirable conditions experience stresses that cause amino acid production to be hindered, which, in turn, causes stunted growth or reduced yields. By supplementing amino acids, a grower can help to negate the effects of many of the everyday stresses that may occur in an indoor garden, before they affect the plant. Hydroponic nutrient manufacturers are not only adding amino acids to many fertilizers, but are also creating specific amino acid supplements so the grower can add them as needed or desired. It wasn’t necessarily the discovery of amino acids themselves that influenced the evolution of hydroponic nutrition, as much as the discovery of how to effectively extract the desired amino acids. Enzymatic hydrolysis extraction of amino acids is one of the most influential discoveries to affect plant health in hydroponic systems. It allows for the separation and concentration of L-form amino acids that can be used to amend existing fertilizers or create powerful stand-alone additives.

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evolution of hydroponic nutrition

Be n e f i c i a l m i c r o - o r g a n i s m s Our further understanding of the complex symbiotic relationships between a plant and the micro-organisms living around the plant’s roots has played a pivotal role in shaping modern hydroponic nutrition. Some of the hydroponic nutrients are broken down into a readily available form and actually bypass the need to be broken down by a micro-organism. This does not mean that the plant does not benefit from supplemental beneficial micro-organisms. Aside from aiding in breaking down nutrients, micro-organisms stimulate root growth and defend a plant’s root zone from pathogens. Many hydroponic nutrient companies offer micro-organism supplements. These can range greatly and be either specific (sometimes containing one particular strain or one type of micro-organism for a specific purpose or benefit) or more generalized (containing a mix of various micro-organisms for a more general benefit). Micro-organisms used for indoor horticulture can be broken down into three categories: mycorrhiza, trichoderma and bacteria. Each category contains many individual strains or varieties that can have varying benefits to plant growth. Each discovery made regarding these beneficial microbes and how they interact with plants (and each other) has contributed to our current understanding of plant nutrition and will contribute to the future of hydroponic nutrients.

“By supplementing amino acids, a grower can help to negate the effects of many of the everyday stresses that may occur in an indoor garden, before they affect the plant.” Enzymes Enzymes are specialized catalysts responsible for numerous chemical reactions happening in and around a plant at all times. Catalysts are substances that accelerate the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs. Enzymes, like other catalysts, are able to increase the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the energy required for the reaction. What makes enzymes different from other catalysts is their selective nature—enzymes only react with one particular substrate. Some of the specialized reactions created by enzymes are of great interest to the indoor horticulturist. Root stimulation and breaking down organic matter (dead root matter) are probably the two most common reasons indoor horticulturists use enzymes in a hydroponic system. Enzymes have become intertwined with many fertilizer regimens so growers could be using enzymes and not even know it. Some nutrient manufacturers sell enzyme formulas for a specific purpose, such as controlling or treating pythium, or for more generalized supplementation, such as root stimulation or maintaining root health. 94

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evolution of hydroponic nutrition

“The future uses of nanotechnology in indoor horticulture could include improving the plant’s ability to absorb nutrients and the molecular treatment of diseases and pathogens.” Nanotechnology One of the newer technologies sure to influence hydroponic nutrition in the future is nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. It is possible that some day all of our hydroponic fertilizers could be greatly influenced by this type of technology. The future uses of nanotechnology in indoor horticulture could include improving the plant’s ability to absorb nutrients and the molecular treatment of diseases and pathogens.

The e v o l u t i o n c o n t i n u e s Hydroponic nutrition is in a constant state of evolution. Over the last couple of decades, we have seen our heightened understanding of plant nutrition, how pH affects nutrient uptake and how the relationship between plants and micro-organisms influence the way hydroponic nutrients are designed and used. There are always new technologies or discoveries just around the corner. Although the various hydroponic nutrient manufacturers are competing against each other, they are all inadvertently working together to bring the grower the latest and greatest breakthroughs in plant nutrition. It is not just the manufacturers that play a crucial role in the evolution of hydroponic nutrients. The growers themselves test and experiment with various combinations to find the best nutrient regimen for their individual needs. There is no sole determiner but instead it is the combination of the scientific discoveries, the manufacturers and the growers that together shape the continuous evolution of hydroponic nutrition.

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Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

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Tips and Tricks

The Myth of

Night Light

by Dr.Linda Chalker-Scott

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True or False? Unless you’re a poinsettia, increased light can’t hurt. Read on to find out...


The Myth Anyone who grows poinsettias and Christmas cacti knows that controlled light exposure is crucial for flower bud development. I heard a nightmarish story last year about a student intern who inadvertently turned on the lights of a greenhouse dedicated to poinsettia production; the entire crop was ruined as flower initiation was delayed past the holiday season. Other than these specialty flowering plants, however, the effects of artificial lighting on plant materials are rarely considered. Two of the high-quality characteristics of an urban or suburban environment are healthy green spaces and substantial night lighting. These two characteristics are most noticeable along streets and in parks. If anything, one might expect that this additional light (especially high-intensity lights) would aid nearby trees and shrubs by prolonging photosynthesis. This is certainly effective in greenhouses—why not landscapes?

The Reality Plants that have evolved under a regime of seasonal changes are exquisitely adapted to these changes. While temperature and water levels can fluctuate dramatically throughout the year, the changes in

day length are constant and predictable. Summer solstice represents the longest day of the year—or, in the case of plants, the shortest night. As the summer continues, day length shortens and nights lengthen. Temperate plants cue into this shift and at a particular light-to-dark ratio will initiate biochemical changes to prepare for winter dormancy. An uninterrupted dark period is critical for this process as well as for flower bud initiation in certain plants. In general, the harsher the winters, the earlier these changes occur, thus allowing native trees in colder environments plenty of time to become cold hardy. When urban trees, especially street trees, are exposed to extended light periods, those leaves and buds nearest the source perceive an endless summer—and keep on growing. While this phenomenon is difficult to see initially, in the autumn it is quite distinctive: affected leaves retain their green color while those leaves under natural conditions have already started to senesce and change colors. When the first autumn frosts arrive, these green leaves die and the tree loses the resources that normally are scavenged during senescence. Recent research has demonstrated that high-intensity light sources, such as high-pressure sodium lamps, have the greatest impact on delaying leaf

When urban trees, especially street trees,

are exposed to extended light periods, those leaves and buds nearest the source perceive an endless summer— and keep on growing.”

senescence and subsequent dormancy of landscape trees. What does this do to the health of the tree? While the long-term effects of altered light periods on street and other urban trees have not yet been studied, the loss of resources puts a small but repeated strain on the tree. This could be manifested by reduced growth compared to similar trees in more naturally lighted environments, or by a die-off of roots most closely associated with the affected branches. Trees in optimal settings probably won’t be affected, but those in marginal areas with poor soil conditions are more likely to become susceptible to other stresses or opportunistic diseases. And, of course, flowering can be disrupted in landscape plants as well as in poinsettias.

The Bottom Line • Artificially prolonged light periods can interrupt flowering cycles and delay winter dormancy. • Marginally hardy plant materials should never be exposed to interrupted dark periods. • Consider the location of high-intensity light sources (such as street lights and security lights) before installing shrubs and trees. • The effects of high-intensity lights can be partially moderated by installing deflectors on the lights. Linda Chalker-Scott, Ph.D., is an extension horticulturist and an associate professor at Washington State University’s Puyallup Research and Extension Center. She can be found online at theinformedgardener.com

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Breaking Down

ath B r ence

r a h c io

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p by S

Biochar, or charcoal produced for use as a soil amendment or a component of a soilless mix, is believed to have a profound effect on soil dynamics. Read on to learn all about the benefits of biochar.

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The rediscovery and ongoing experimentation with biochar, a charcoal specifically produced for use as a soil amendment and soilless mix component, is one of the most fascinating dimensions of contemporary horticulture. Fueled in part by research on terra preta in the Amazon Basin, or ancient soils cultivated by pre-Columbian aboriginal populations, interest in this unique material is expanding exponentially worldwide. Academia, industry and individuals alike are investigating various methods of producing, processing and incorporating biochar into various soil ecologies and growing methods.

“biochar is best understood as a catalyst that continues over time to modulate and improve soil dynamics.” Properly manufactured biochar has a set of distinct and unusual properties believed to have a profound effect on soil dynamics, with benefits including increased nutrient availability and uptake; reduced watering and nutrient requirements; suppression of soil-borne disease; stimulation of systemic plant disease response; increased overall plant growth, vitality, health and yields; improved aeration, drainage, and porosity; improved soil flocculation and structure; prevention of nutrient leaching; stabilization of pH; and increased cation exchange and water-holding capacity. Biochar can also decontaminate soil and is being studied and used for photo submitted

remediation efforts. Biochar will isolate and detoxify soil contaminants by absorbing heavy metals, allelopathic (plant-produced) and pathogenic (bacterial/fungal-produced) toxins, and chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides. This list is far from complete, and many of the more ardent and vocal advocates hail biochar as the ultimate horticultural, energy and climate panacea. Overall, biochar is best understood as a catalyst that continues over time to modulate and improve soil dynamics. Biochar is being studied for its potential ability to sequester large amounts of CO2 gas, mitigating the effects of global warming by acting as an effective and long-term carbon sink. The scientific research is hardly 10 years old, and although there remains an adequate number of credible, peerreviewed studies to validate the claims, some of the published literature shows conflicting results. This ability to boost agricultural productivity without additional petrochemicals while ameliorating climate change has led to an increasingly impassioned debate. The pyrolitic process used to produce biochar can also be harnessed to provide cleaner energy, but aside from whether biochar might be the Achilles’ heel of global warming, it is scientifically verifiable and practically demonstrable that it does benefit overall plant health. This multi-faceted material deserves increased focus and study. Without doubt, what is known about biochar pales significantly in comparison to what is not known; the science at this point has identified causative effects, but not necessarily the underlying modalities and mechanisms responsible. This scientific deficit opens the door for opportunity and

photo submitted

breaking down biochar

A biochar kiln can heat organic matter to maximum of 900°F in some cases.

experimentation by the individual grower. Contemporary attempts to recreate terra preta soil, or engineer new versions, is known as terra preta nova. Use of biochar in hydroponic systems is a fledgling practice, virtually untouched by academia, but it is safe to assume many of the same results can be attained by using it in the grow substrate, mixing biochar powder in the reservoir, or using it as a foliar feed. Pyrogenic, carbon-based agriculture is not a recent development—it has a long and storied history as a method used by indigenous cultures in many parts of the world including Africa, Australia, Europe and, most notably, by the pre-Columbian peoples in the Amazon Basin. For decades, scientists and archeologists remained perplexed as to how these cultures could sustain such massive populations given the rapidly declining soil conditions immediately following removal of the native rainforests for swidden agriculture. <Biochar is known to isolate and detoxify soil contaminants by absorbing heavy metals.

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breaking down biochar Scientists found patches of soil ranging from one to several hundred hectares in size and 7- to 10-ft. deep that exhibited exceptionally high fertility—some of the most fertile soil ever discovered on the planet. These areas stood in stark contrast to the nearly infertile reddish or yellowish clays left following removal of the rainforest. After years of intensive research and analysis, scientists determined that these soils were intentionally cultivated by these pre-Columbian populations using waste agricultural biomass, fish and animal bones, pottery sherds, excrement and charcoal. It was also determined that these peoples manufactured biochar specifically for amending soil, and did not simply include remnants from fire pits. They were practicing what we now know as organic, ecological or biological agriculture, far in advance of what their European counterparts were capable of at the time.

“Biochar is being studied for its potential ability to sequester large amounts of CO2 gas, mitigating the effects of global warming by acting as an effective and long-term carbon sink.” The dark earth of the Amazon exhibits nearmystical properties, including elevated levels of nutrients, minerals, active bacterial and fungal biomass, soil humus, humic and fulvic acids and elevated paramagnetic and cation-exchange capacity. The terra preta also demonstrated the ability to regenerate and grow after mining and removal, and even the ability to support years of continuous crop cultivation without additional fertilizer inputs. That the exceptionally high fertility remained despite 2,000 years of latent inactivity and exposure to unrelenting, torrential rains confounded scientists at the time. Ultimately, investigations into terra preta led to the identification of biochar as the principal change agent, although the research and debate continues. Contemporary research has identified the properties that most likely make biochar so beneficial to soil ecology, though much remains to be learned. It is a light but solid material made up of 90% carbon, produced through a specific process known as pyrolysis, or the chemical decomposition of organic matter in an oxygen-deprived environment. Organic matter such as dead plant refuse, weeds, leaves, manure, bones and wood chips provide the biomass from which the charcoal is made. 106

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breaking down biochar

“Organic matter such as dead plant refuse, weeds, leaves, manure, bones and wood chips provide the biomass from which the charcoal is made.” numerous desirable benefits originate. It is this subsequent porosity and the accompanying surface area, which can range from 4,000 to 12,000 sq. ft. per 0.04 oz. of char, from which the sorptive capacities are derived. This powerful action allows biochar to absorb and store copious amounts of nutrients, minerals, humic substances, plant root exudates, oxygen, water and other essential elements for microbial and plant nutrition. The carbon structure of the char is highly resistant to decomposition, providing favorable habitat that is readily colonialized by beneficial bacteria and mycorrhizae. It is believed that biochar can last thousands of years in the soil with minimal erosion, decomposition or lability.

photo submitted

In a biochar reactor or kiln, the organic matter is heated to anywhere between 450 and 900°F, and due to the lack of adequate oxygen, the organic matter does not fully combust. During the thermal process, numerous physical and chemical changes take place. The cellulose of the plant material becomes fossilized, capturing the carbon that would otherwise decompose and enter the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. The process is not as complicated as it may sound—biochar can be made in the backyard, though it can be dangerous due to extreme heat and open flame. Plans for backyard or small-farm biochar reactors can be found online and are typically constructed from 50-gal. steel drums. Research suggests that the feedstock, firing duration and temperature play a significant role in determining the resulting physical-chemical structure and composition. After firing, what was organic matter becomes a pitch-black, crystalline, lightweight and somewhat brittle material. Under the electron microscope, charcoal reveals a complex lattice structure with extensive nano, meso and macroporous tunneling throughout, from which the

After firing, what was organic matter becomes a pitch-black, crystalline, lightweight and somewhat brittle material. 108

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carbohydrate such as black strap molasses and rock powders to supply ample food for the microflora. Minerals in the rock powders will be broken down from the oxides into a form available to plants. Other beneficial materials that can be integrated into the char are limited only by imagination. The resulting designer biochar is a highly advanced material containing virtually every element both plants and microbes need. Think of it as a technologically advanced compost, or biological growing on steroids. Biochar can be intimately tailored to address any specific growing need, or to create a complete, slow-release plant and microbe fertilization system packaged in an ideal delivery module. Growing with char, you’ll notice Beneficial materials that can be integrated into the char are limited only by the imagination. plant root tips also penetrate the

“Think of it as a technologically advanced compost, or biological growing on steroids.” photo submitted

Many of the profound benefits resulting from the inclusion of biochar in soil blends are directly related to the powerful, dynamic relationship it has with soil microbes. Following pyrolysis, the char is cooled with water but remains sterile. Whether you have made your own, or purchased raw char, several steps are necessary to accentuate the many properties that make it an exceptional catalyst for the rhizosphere-plant continuum, or the microscopic area at which biology, soil particles and roots interact. It is not advisable to use raw char without first inoculating it with beneficial biology (mycorrhizae and bacteria). Methods of inoculation include blending biochar with compost and letting it sit for three or four weeks, soaking it in properly brewed compost tea or mixing in commercially available inoculant powders, the latter of which is my preferred approach. This is a critical step, known as loading or charging, as the biology acts as a buffer to the extreme sorptive capacity of the char. Beneficial bacteria and mycorrhizae will immediately colonize the porous carbon structure and begin digesting residual tars and resins leftover from pyrolysis. Use a

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breaking down biochar photo submitted

Biochar is easily crushed or broken into various sizes, from 1-in. pieces down to powders.

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carbon, likely gorging on the cache of nutrients, air and water while forming symbiotic relationships with their microbiological accomplices. The most important aspect is verifying quality of material. As biochar is often made from refuse, it is essential the biochar you select is free from contaminants. Biochar is easily crushed or broken into various sizes, from 1-in. pieces down to powders, and all sizes are useful for indoor growing. I favor the 3-mm size down to the powder simply for ease of use. Biochar can also be added to existing plants by grinding it into a powder and mixing it with water, and there is some anecdotal evidence that it is useful as a foliar in this form. It is better to add char conservatively, as even a small amount of powder can have a significant effect. There are few standard recommendations for quantity when blending soilless media, as the bulk of the research is centered on outdoor agricultural environments. In reviewing the available literature, biochar may constitute

up to 20% of the total growing media, although in my personal experience, the benefits can be realized at far lower rates, even at 1%. In addition, I have experimented with adding 5 to 10% topsoil or clay to indoor grow medias, thereby more accurately replicating what would be found in natural environments. The pH of biochar varies depending on feedstock, but typically has a pH of between 8 and 9, and has a stabilizing effect on soil pH. Growers using conventional nutrients should use caution when fertilizingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;biochar will absorb and store these salts. I recommend conventional growers cut back fertilizer use by 50 to 80% if using biochar in the soil media, which can save lots of money in the long run. Biochar is a fascinating development in horticulture, with enough evidence to prove results, but also with limitless possibilities left to the individual indoor grower to experiment and develop. I recommend all growers try tailoring their own terra preta nova or designer biochar.


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To foliar feed or not to foliar feed? We have the answer... Foliar feeding is the practice of supplying nutrients to plants through their foliage. It involves spraying water-dissolved fertilizers directly on the leaves. Many believe that foliar feeding is favorable over soil application and it is associated with higher yields and better fruit quality. However, much uncertainty still surrounds this practice.

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Under Which Conditions Should You Use Foliar Feeding?

How to Improve the Effectiveness of Foliar Feeding.

Under certain conditions, foliar feeding has the advantage over soil applications. Limiting conditions: A foliar feeding is recommended when environmental conditions limit the uptake of nutrients by roots. Such conditions may include high or low soil pH, temperature stress, too low or too high soil moisture, root disease, presence of pests that affect nutrient uptake and nutrient imbalances in soil. For example, micro-nutrient availability is greatly reduced in high soil pH. Under such conditions, foliar application of micronutrients might be the more efficient way to supply these nutrients to the plant.

Various factors affect the effectiveness of foliar feeding. The pH of the foliar spray solution: Nutrients must be in their soluble form for the plant to be able to absorb them. The pH affects the solubility of nutrients and their interaction with other components in the water. Generally, acidic pH improves the penetration of nutrients through leaf surfaces. In addition, pH affects foliar absorption of nutrients in three other ways:

Nutrient deficiency symptoms: One of the advantages of foliar feeding is the quick response of the plant to the nutrient application. The efficiency of nutrient uptake is considered to be 8 to 9 folds higher when nutrients are applied to the leaves compared with applying nutrients to soil. Therefore, when a deficiency symptom shows up, a quick but temporary fix would be applying the deficient nutrient through foliar application. In specific growth stages: Plants require different amounts of nutrients in different growth stages. It is sometimes difficult to control the nutrient balance in soil. Foliar applications of essential nutrients during key stages can improve yield and quality.

Limitations of Foliar Feeding Limited dosage: Nutrients applied in foliar application cannot meet the entire nutrient requirements of the crop. Phytotoxicity: Applying high concentrations of nutrients by foliar application might result in leaf burn, as water evaporates and salts remain on the leaves. High cost: Due to phytotoxicity considerations, small amounts of nutrients should be applied at a higher frequency. However, frequent applications at lower concentrations are costly and impractical.

1. The pH affects the charge of the cuticle (a waxy layer covering the leaves) and therefore its selectivity to ions. 2. The ionic form of nutrients is pH dependent, and therefore pH can affect the penetration rate. 3. The pH might affect the phytotoxicity of the sprayed compounds. We can conclude that the pH of the spray solution must be adjusted according to the applied nutrient.

Use of surfactants: Surfactants contribute to a more uniform coverage of the foliage. They increase the retention of the spray solution by reducing the surface tension of the droplets. Time of the day: The best time to foliar feed is early morning or late evening, when the stomata are open. Foliar feeding is not recommended when the temperature exceeds 80°F. Droplet size: Smaller droplets cover a larger area and increase efficiency of foliar applications. However, when droplets are too small (less than 100 microns), a drift might occur. Spray volume: Spray volume has a significant effect on the nutrient absorption efficiency. Spray volume must be sufficient to fully cover the plant canopy, but not too high that the nutrients run off the leaves.

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permaculture PrIncIPleS SUSTAINABLE

PRACTICES FOR

PERMANENT

SOLUTIONS

BY HELENE ISBELL Permaculture is more than just a buzz word. It’s a sustainable approach to designing and growing edible landscapes. There’s a bit more to it than that though, as Helene Isbell explains…

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permaculture principles The organic food movement has secured a noteworthy position for itself in American culture, and it continues to gain momentum. Consumers, both domestic and international, are becoming privy to the importance of eating clean, organically grown food. While this is a tremendous step along the path to a greener and healthier future, large-scale organic farming can still produce many of the same side effects caused by industrial agriculture and still threatens ecological welfare. Permaculture offers an integrated, responsible solution that brings organic gardening back into the hands of individual citizens. Permaculture is a sustainable approach to designing and growing edible landscapes. Derived from the terms permanent agriculture and permanent culture, permaculture borrows practices from indigenous cultures, bridging the gap between ancient knowledge and modern horticulture. It places emphasis on working smarter rather than harder, bringing a fresh approach to intelligent garden design. A permaculture farmer focuses on building healthy soil structure rather than using chemical fertilizer, using smother weeds with mulch in place of herbicides and combating pests naturally without pesticides. The practice encourages gardeners to plant and eat what grows locally, plan for long-term sustainability, maximize the potential of small spaces of land and treat the planet respectfully with regard for future generations. Formalized in the 1970s by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren, permaculture has spread globally as an ecological alternative to conventional farming practices.

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Permaculture

is a sustainable approach to designing and growing edible landscapes.â&#x20AC;?


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permaculture principles

Regard for

our physical Earth is essential to maintaining the integrity of global prosperity.”

Core Ethics of Permaculture

Permaculture revolves around three core tenets that characterize the foundation of the practice: 1. Care for the planet: Regard for our physical Earth is essential to maintaining the integrity of global prosperity. This includes regard for all living systems, from microscopic, such as the intricate soil web, to entire biospheres, such as forests and prairies. Without the plankton that makes up the bottom of the ocean’s food chain, there would be no fish, seals or dolphins. The well-being of humanity is dependent on the care of all life, as everything trickles down from this vital concept. 2. Care for humanity: Provide not only for oneself, but also for family, friends and neighbors. Take others into consideration in all that you do. Our society has been stripped of this notion, as increasing importance is placed on the accumulation of personal wealth. It’s time to look towards the ways of ancient cultures and revisit a tribal community mindset where people work together to meet common goals. 3. Share surplus: In a permaculture, it’s possible to grow a good number of fruit and vegetable varieties. This, however, doesn’t mean that it will be possible to produce every food you want to eat. This is where trade with other growers comes into play. By communicating with one another and sharing surplus, variety and abundance is distributed amongst many people and everyone is satisfied. Sharing is caring. 120

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permaculture principles

Principles of Permaculture

Permaculture is more than just a set of technical rules to follow; it invites the gardener to interweave creativity into their relationship with natural ecosystems. Because nature differs from region to region, each garden design will be unique, adapting to local environmental conditions. Each system will take on its own appropriate characteristics while adhering to the three core tenets of permaculture. In addition to these overlying values, there is a set of 12 design principles that help further define what permaculture embodies: Observe and interact: Use common sense and follow the path of least resistance when planning a garden. Observe natural surroundings and pay attention to local conditions. Take note of seasonal patterns and the flow of wind, rain and sunshine. Try to plant what grows effortlessly in your area. This will help the garden grow with ease and minimal complications.

The goal

is to use the land responsibly so it can be preserved for future generations.”

Catch and store energy: This principle can be applied in so many ways. The idea is to conserve resources when they are in abundance for use in times when they are scarce. Examples include storing energy from the sun with solar panels so it can be used later in the form of light and heat. Catch rainwater run-off and store it in barrels for times without rain. Can and dehydrate fresh produce to preserve it for use when it is out of season. Get creative. Obtain a yield: While producing food is generally the prominent goal of a garden, it’s not the only way that you can yield something positive from the experience. By working with others, you can learn what they know and share your own knowledge so that everyone walks away that much wiser. Apply self-regulation and listen to feedback: Don’t let the fear of making mistakes stop you from starting a garden— accept advice and feedback. Learn from each process and make improvements each time around. You may have to fix the mistakes of previous land users, such as build and remediate depleted soil. The goal is to use the land responsibly so it can be preserved for future generations. Use renewable resources: Use resources that can be regenerated naturally. Our society has become too dependent on non-renewable resources such as plastic and oil. Not only do these resources pollute the environment, but once they are used up, they are gone forever. Incorporate materials into your garden like bamboo—a fast growing grass—or hemp, which is industrially as strong as plastic, yet renewable and non-polluting. Both can decompose rather than sit in a landfill for thousands of years. Produce no waste: A permaculture garden produces no waste. It operates in a closed loop system and all elements get used. For example, remnants from previous harvests, along with kitchen scraps, turn into compost to fertilize future crops. Worms consume plant matter and break down nutrients making them bioavailable to new growth. Imagine having no waste. 122

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Design from natural patterns: Pay attention to patterns in your natural surroundings. Nature is not angular, but rather curvy, soft and fuzzy around the edges. Garden beds don’t need to be symmetrically shaped rectangles placed at evenly spaced intervals; they can be round, oblong, spiraled or flower-shaped. Crops don’t have to be planted in rows. Mimic nature for a truly beautiful individual garden design. Integrate rather than segregate: Strategically planting crops together encourages co-operation among species rather than competition. A polyculture is several plant varieties growing together, versus a monoculture (a single large crop), and helps with the natural give and take of nutrients, rather than quickly depleting the soil. Companion planting is the practice of planting different plants in the same bed that will mutually benefit each other. A great example of companion planting is the trio known as the three sisters used by Native Americans throughout North America and consisting of corn, beans and squash. Beans fix nitrogen into the soil for the corn to use in its vigorous growth, and the shallow-rooted squash provides natural mulch, preventing moisture evaporation. Corn provides a natural pole for the beans to climb, creating a harmonious combination. Food forests are an example of polyculture on a larger scale known as agroforestry. A food forest would include many fruit trees, shrubs and other edible plants growing in unison for a multi-layered harvest. Use small and slow solutions: Patience is a virtue, and permaculture teaches this. Permaculture relies on long-term solutions rather than the quick fix, paying off with greater


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permaculture principles

value in the end. An example of this is planting perennials rather than only annuals. Perennials are plants that return every year on their own. Once established, this means less work for the gardener and less disruption of the soil microsphere. Another example would be to save seeds rather than buy them every time. Make sure to select organic, non-GMO varieties to ensure that they will reproduce. Use and value diversity: Planting many varieties will help ensure the overall survival of the garden by decreasing vulnerability. With fewer crops, they are more susceptible to disease and fungi and if infected, the whole garden could suffer. Integrate beneficial insect attractors and natural pest deterrents throughout the garden to naturally balance insect populations that share the habitat. This is called integrated pest management (IPM) and it is permaculture’s alternative to chemical pesticides.

Integrate beneficial insect attractors and natural pest deterrents throughout the garden to naturally balance insect populations that share the habitat.”

Use the edges: This can be interpreted in a number of ways, but basically, make use of all available growing space. Take advantage of walls and fences to grow vertically, and the sides of garden beds or dark nooks and crannies to grow mushrooms. Get innovative with small areas to maximize potential.

Creatively use and respond to change: Change is inevitable, not only in the garden, but in society as a whole. Being able to creatively adapt to changing conditions is an important aspect of being able to survive what the future holds. Just as weather patterns may change, so too may the political and social environment of a community. Be prepared to shift and adjust accordingly so that slight variations, in any form, won’t interrupt your course. It requires inquisitive and thoughtful individuals to incorporate the ethics and principles of permaculture into their mindset. It takes patience, understanding and humility to experiment and grow throughout the process. But it does get easier with time. Permaculture is more than a sustainable approach to creating edible ecosystems; it builds community, promotes sharing and brings people closer together. It can be implemented virtually anywhere, on any scale. Furthermore, it can be a deep-rooted solution to many of the environmental crises our planet faces in the name of agriculture. Besides that, what is more liberating than being able to grow your own food in an ecologically and socially responsible way? So dig in, start your garden and get downright dirty. 124

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trends and technology

Is there a

Light at the by David Kessler

End of the

Tunnel? Is the future of LED (light-emitting diode) technology for the horticulture industry bright? David Kessler has the answer... We have all seen the plethora of advertisements in magazines about LED grow lights. When LEDs first hit the horticulture market, they were little more than Light-Brite™ toys with expensive price tags and big promises. They claimed that each watt of LED lighting was equivalent to more than 10-w of HID lighting, on top of which they asserted LEDs would produce no heat, have better penetration of light through the canopy and that the technology would revolutionize the growing industry. Unfortunately, the early LEDs were unable to deliver on most of their promises.

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LED stands for light-emitting diode. Unlike traditional light sources with delicate filaments, electrodes or pressurized, gas-filled lamps, LEDs are solid state electronics, and as such are more robust and longer lasting. Solid state by its most simple definition means made without any moving parts. A flash memory card is a solid state device, whereas a typical hard drive is not. By not incorporating moving parts into the design, solid state electronics are less likely to break, wear out or malfunction.


This added level of reliability is one of the biggest benefits of LEDs. Current LEDs are rated for as many as 70,000 hours of operation before they reach the point where replacement is advisable. Although they t will still be working at that point, at 70,000 hours of Ligh row ge G l Sta operation they will have reached a 30% reduction in Dua luminous output, making it cost effective to replace them. Seventy-thousand hours means that a grower using LEDs will not change the diodes for almost 16 straight years, running 12 hours per day, every day.

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BloomBoss fusion 600

LED Grow Light

LEDs have not always had the longevity and reliability they are able to deliver today. The history of LEDs being used in horticultural applications started in the late 1980s with crude arrays of red-only (660-nanometer) LEDs. Early experimentation with LEDs in horticulture was driven by their potential for use in growing food for space travel. In the late 1990s, the crops research group at the Kennedy Space Center conducted several studies on the yield and physiological response of several crops to LED lighting. LEDs became even more promising with two critical advances in LED technology: the advent of blue LEDs and high-output diodes. The advances in LED technology keep on coming. Each decade, LED prices have fallen by a factor of 10, while their performance has grown by a factor of 20, a phenomenon known as Haitz’s law. So it seems the future of LEDs is getting brighter!

David Kessler heads research and development at Atlantis Hydroponics and writes for their popular blog. David has over two decades of experience and multiple degrees from the State University of New York. He’s also an accredited judge for the American Orchid Society and travels the world judging orchid events. Follow his blog at atlantishydroponics.wordpress.com

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A Delicacy From the Dark:

Hydroponic Forcing of Witloof by Dr. Lynette Morgan Belgian endive, also known as witloof, is unlike any other vegetable grown hydroponically and its unique value and sophisticated flavor are two reasons why it is gaining popularity in gourmet vegetable markets.

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Witloof must be grown in the dark during the second stage of production to remain blanched.

Ever wondered what those creamy white leaves were in your gourmet salad? Or the bullet-shaped, leafy, pale vegetable grilled and served at a fancy restaurant? Chances are these pale delicacies are Belgian endive (Cichorium endiva), also known as witloof, which, despite its name, is actually a type of chicory—something we are more familiar with as a leafy salad green.

“While this is a relatively little known crop in the United States, it has a long history of cultivation in Europe.” Belgian endive goes by many names depending on where it is being sold. These include French endive, white endive, Dutch endive and witloof chicory. While this is a relatively little known crop in the United States, it has a long history of cultivation in Europe, where it has been produced and valued as a delicacy since the 1800s. Witloof is unlike any other vegetable we grow hydroponically and its unique value and sophisticated flavor are gaining popularity within gourmet vegetable markets. Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

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A delicacy from the dark

Developing chicons arise from the apical buds on the tap root system under hydroponic forcing conditions.

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“What makes witloof such a fascinating crop is that it has two stages of production.”

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What makes witloof such a fascinating crop is that it has two stages of production. The first takes place as with other salad greens, growing the chicory plants through to maturity. Under commercial production, this is done out in the field from spring to fall. This particular type of chicory develops a large tap root, similar to a thickened parsnip that is cut, harvested, washed and placed into refrigerated storage until it is required for hydroponic forcing. The second stage involves stacking the bare, clean chicory roots into hydroponic trays, through which nutrient solution flows. This process takes place entirely in the dark so that the shoots that form on the roots are blanched white in colour. The white buds (called chicons) are harvested at certain stages, depending on market size requirements, and packaged into cartons to maintain complete darkness. Any light during the growing or shipping process will result in the chicons developing green pigmentation, making them unmarketable.


Witloof history and uses Blanched witloof is a crop that was discovered by accident. In the 1800s, a farmer in Belgium discovered the chicory roots he was storing in his dark cellar over winter to be ground into a coffee substitute sprouted pale buds with creamy colored leaves and a delicate flavor. Early on, long before the development of hydroponic methods, the witloof roots were forced using a soil or sand medium piled over the top of the harvested and trimmed tap roots. The sand excluded light so the chicons formed in darkness. At harvest this had to be scraped back, and the resulting witloof carefully washed. Hydroponic forcing eliminates the need to cover the roots with any granular substrate, so the process of chicon formation can be easily viewed and the resulting buds are free from any grit contamination and don’t require washing. The additional nutrition provided from a well-balanced hydroponic nutrient solution also assists with flavor, quality and prolonged shelf life of the harvested chicons.

“Hydroponic forcing eliminates the need to cover the roots with any granular substrate.”

Under commercial production, witloof is produced in a tiered hydroponic tray system to maximize yield from the growing area.

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“Witloof flavor is unique and highly valued in a range of different dishes.” Witloof roots are stacked side by side in hydroponic trays.

Witloof flavor is unique and highly valued in a range of different dishes. While green leafy endive and chicory foliage typically has a bitterness that some find unpleasant, the blanched chicons lack any strong flavors and are described as mild, but distinctive, tangy, tender and unique. Generally, the whiter the witloof is, the milder the flavor. Used as a raw vegetable, the small inner leaves can be added to baby leaf salads and larger leaves are used as elegant wrappers for fillings of crab, caviar, tuna or shrimp, or served with a range of dips. Witloof is also served cooked in a wide range of dishes, including soups, and a simple entrée can be created by cutting the chicon directly down the middle lengthwise, brushing with olive oil, grilling until tender and serving with lemon or vinaigrette.

Whitloof chicory is grown from seed that can be obtained from many vegetable seed suppliers. Suitable varieties are Zoom, Flas and Totem F1. Seed is sown directly where the plants are to grow as transplanting can damage the young tap root system. Seedlings need to be thinned to 4 to 5-in. apart when large enough to do so. This is an important step as overcrowding of the plants will reduce the size of tap root that develops, which in turn reduces the yield and quality of chicons that develop during the later forcing stage. Witloof plants can be given a standard grow hydroponic nutrient formulation during the first few weeks of development, followed by a bloom formulation or P/K booster as the tap root starts to develop. Ideal day length is 12 to 16 hours with moderate temperature conditions needed to produce the highest quality root system (55 to 77°F). These conditions replicate the outdoor conditions received by the plants, which are typically sown in spring. Tap root production usually takes around 110 days, but this may be sped up under the controlled conditions of an indoor garden. Harvesting of the chicory roots can take place as soon as they are mature and of a sufficient size. Maturity can be determined by examining a vertical-cut section of the root, just below the plant crown. Mature roots will have a white section, approximately a quarter-inch thick in this region. If the white region is smaller than this, the root is not mature enough for later hydroponic forcing. The best quality roots will be 1.5 to 2 in. in diameter at this stage.

Hydroponic witloof: first stage While large-scale, commercial production of witloof roots for forcing typically takes place outdoors, the plant can easily be grown hydroponically during both the first and second stages of production. Witloof chicory grows in much the same way as the endive and chicory plants commonly grown as salad crops. A deep-bed hydroponic system is required to ensure the large, thickened roots can develop without restriction. Suitable growing mediums are fine-grade coco fiber, perlite/vermiculite mixes, granulated rockwool and similar substrates in a growing bed or container at least 1.5-ft. deep. 132

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Nutrient solution flows through the tiered trays and out the base in a recirculating system.


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A delicacy from the dark

Chicon development typically takes around 20 to 22 days under ideal conditions.

“Witloof roots can be refrigerated for up to 10 months before being removed and bud growth forced.”

At harvest, the green tops are cut from the plant to remove as much foliage as possible without harming the growing buds at the top of the tap root. The root system can then be removed from the growing substrate and lifted, with any loose media brushed off. In preparation for storage, the roots can then be washed. They may also be treated with fungicide to help prevent rotting if they are to be kept for several months before forcing. Witloof roots can be refrigerated for up to 10 months before being removed and bud growth forced, as they remain dormant under cool conditions. Once given warmth and moisture in the form of a nutrient solution, the dormant apical buds will start to grow during the forcing process.

Hydroponic witloof: second stage Hydroponic forcing of witloof to produce chicons must take place in complete darkness if high-quality, creamy white, blanched chicons are to be produced. Any light will result in greening of the chicons arising from the production of chlorophyll, which changes the flavor and lowers the quality of the witloof. Under commercial production, hydroponic systems are run inside enclosed sheds with double-door entries to prevent any light from entering. In an indoor garden, witloof production can take place under benches or enclosed, lightproof boxes used to cover the developing buds. Hydroponic systems for witloof forcing set up in dark cellars or other areas can also work, particularly if an indoor garden is being lit to grow other plants and can’t be used for this process. 134

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A delicacy from the dark

“This yield ensures that harvested witloof chicons are considered a high-value delicacy and a niche market crop.”

Once the witloof tap roots are removed from cold storage, they are trimmed to a consistent length of 6 to 8 in., packed side by side into deep trays, and a nutrient solution is applied so that it flows through the roots and out the base of the tray. Nutrient solutions used during the forcing process provide essential nutrients for healthy bud and foliage development, giving a higher quality harvested product. At this stage, temperature is vital as it breaks the dormancy of the apical buds on the tap root system and starts the forcing process. Nutrient solutions are typically warmed to 61 to 72°F, while the air temperature is kept a little cooler at 55 to 65°F with a high relative humidity of 90% (conditions often easy to maintain in a cellar). Under these conditions, the buds present on the roots will start to develop into short, compact Witloof is prized for its pale creamy shoots of white leaves. This norcolor, delicate flavor and tender texture. mally takes 20 to 22 days under ideal conditions. During this time, air flow is required around the hydroponic system while at the same time maintaining high humidity. For this reason, fogging or misting is often used to help keep air temperatures down and prevent the chicons from drying out and developing physical disorders such as tipburn. Under commercial production, each 110 lbs. of roots being forced will produce approximately 18 lbs. of chicons, although not all buds may be of marketable quality. This yield ensures that harvested witloof chicons are considered a high-value delicacy and a niche market crop. At harvest, the chicons are carefully snapped from the roots and any loose outer leaves removed. At this stage, witloof should be 4 to 8-in. long and 1 to 3-in. wide, a whitish yellow color, compact and bullet shaped. Once harvested, the tender chicons must be cooled immediately to prevent desiccation and prolong shelf life if being stored. Commercially produced chicons are wrapped in moisture-proof paper that excludes light and stored under refrigeration at a high relative humidity of 95 to 98%. Typically these will store for a maximum of two to three weeks under these conditions.

Summary Ideally, home-grown, hydroponic witloof should be eaten within a few hours of harvest as this is when sugar levels will be highest and flavor and texture optimized. Freshly harvested whitloof chicons are a delicacy that few ever get to sample, and are a great reward for the time and effort invested in this unique crop. 136

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Stunning Succulents by Karen Wilkinson

While succulents are drought-resistant plants known for their hardiness, that doesn’t mean you can leave them to their own devices. Here are some tips and tricks to keep your plants green and healthy. 138

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Succulents are plants with thick, fleshy water storage organs that have adapted to survive arid, desert-like climates throughout the world. But you can’t ignore them for too long or stick them in a dark corner and let them wither away. Succulents need love just like you and me. Succulents thrive on sunlight and heat, but too much of anything can have undesired outcomes. They’re the ideal plant if you’re looking for something inexpensive and pretty that doesn’t require lots of plant know-how. The best part is succulents can easily be propagated or cloned, either by sticking a clipping directly into soil, or by setting it in a glass of water and allowing roots to pop. From watering to the perfect potting soil, whether to plant in pairs or to simply leave them alone, I’ve compiled some of the best practices for growing succulents indoors. Because when you don’t have a back or front yard, and are stuck in urban apartment dwellings, plants can serve as a reminder that it’s not so bad. And taking care of something other than yourself just feels good and provides a sense of purpose.

“They’re the ideal plant if you’re looking for something inexpensive and pretty that doesn’t require lots of plant know-how.”

Go green When growing indoors, the greener the better. So when choosing a plant, make life easy on yourself and your plant and go green. Gravitate toward crassulas, agaves and aloe plants, while keeping the purple and orange-colored varieties for the outdoors. Some popular indoor succulents include the funky burro’s tail, the beautiful jade, the resilient snake, the ponytail palm, the fuzzy panda plant, the cheerful Christmas cactus, the medicinal aloe plant and the adorable hen-and-chicks.

Climate Succulents thrive in hot, dry environments where sunshine is abundant. Avoid placing them in a dimly-lit corner—go for the windowsill that receives the most natural light in your apartment or home (test out a south-facing window). Ventilate to prevent rotting of the foliage, and to take some moisture away from the soil. High humidity and poor ventilation are not ideal conditions, so open the windows, throw on a fan and use a dehumidifier if necessary.

Find the right light It’s all about balance, right? Succulents don’t like dimly-lit corners, but they also can be hurt if exposed to direct sunlight for too long. While they prefer bright light, you don’t want to scorch them, which can happen to some species if exposed to direct sunlight. A south-facing windowsill will hopefully be a good home, as will an east-facing windowsill. Signs of too much direct light include leaves turning brown, black or white as the soft tissues die off. If this happens, move it somewhere that doesn’t receive as much direct light. While too much light can kill, so can not enough. Underlit succulents will start to stretch (known as etiolation) and become really tall with lots of space between leaves as the plant stretches out in search of more light. The best remedy for this is to provide better light and prune the plant back to its original shape. Another tip for optimal health when it comes to lighting is to rotate the taller varieties, as they will often lean toward the sun. Keep them standing upright by periodically rotating the container.

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stunning succulents

“Signs of too much direct light include leaves turning brown, black or white as the soft tissues die off.”

Don’t crowd them Don’t crowd them In outdoor settings, succulents can thrive when planted beside one another, but when indoors and fighting for all the light possible, it’s best to space them apart, preferably in separate pots. This allows the maximum amount of sunlight to reach them. If you decide to combine succulents in the same container to create a dish garden, the secret lies in plant selection. Basically, be sure you find plants with similar growth and care requirements, so as to not disrupt their patterns.

Go easy on the watering This may be the key to your plants’ livelihood— water sparingly and allow the soil to dry completely between cycles. To prevent them from becoming water-logged, plant succulents in unglazed planters, which will help them drain completely between waterings. The thicker the leaves on the succulent are, the less water it needs. This is because water is stored there. If leaves become droopy and skinny, it’s time to give your plant a drink. Overwatered plants become soft and discolored, with leaves that turn yellow or white, or simply lose their color. Once in this condition, the plant may be beyond repair, but you should make sure. Remove the plant from its pot and inspect the roots; if they’re brown and rotted, cut away the dead roots and repot into drier potting soil, or take a cutting and clone the plant. Just as overwatering can be a death sentence, so can under-watering. During the growing season (spring and summer), succulents prefer to be watered well. Signs of an under-watered plant include stunted growth, shedding of the leaves and brown spots on the leaves. Watering is dependent upon the season—in the winter, water less frequently, and if the air is cool and dry, cut back

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watering to every two or three weeks, or even once a month. Don’t water too much at once; just give the plants enough to pacify their thirst. The general rule is to overwater during the summer and under-water in the winter. Shove a finger into the soil two knuckles deep to make sure it’s dry before watering, water enough so that the water runs through the drainage holes and empty the drainage saucer so plants don’t sit in the water.

Find the right fit While it’s OK and encouraged to pot some plants in containers that are larger than necessary, that’s not the case with succulents. They prefer a snug fit and holes on the bottom. Ideally, the pot should be at least 4-in. deep and 0.5- to 1-in. wider than the plant’s base. A terracotta clay pot is perfect for the needs of these plants.

Temperature Just because succulents are desert plants, doesn’t mean they can’t weather drastic drops in temperature. These beauties are more cold-tolerant than people may think, and in the desert survive dramatic temperature changes between day and night. Ideally, succulents like daytime temperatures between 70 and 85°F, and nighttime temperatures between 50 and 55°F, but can even thrive when the thermometer drops down to 40°F.

Soil Succulents generally have shallow roots that form densely just below the soil surface. Therefore, succulents prefer a fast-draining mixture specialized for cacti and succulents. If you can’t use such a soil, you can always modify regular potting soil with inorganic matter such as perlite to increase aeration and drainage. What you’re looking for is well-draining soil that allows your succulent’s roots to dry out between waterings. Follow these tips and your reward will be healthy, vibrant plants that provide a welcome touch of green to your home!


PART 2

by dr. robert G. Linderman

Last month, Dr. Robert G. Linderman described how mycorrhizal fungi benefit plants. In part two of his three-part series, he talks about evaluating mycorrhizal products, inoculating plants and cultural practices that enhance or harm the formation of mycorrhizae.

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mycorrhizae: the straight story

Evaluating products

Greetings again, plant people. Dr. Bob Linderman here, a retired research plant pathologist with a 50-year career There are many mycorrhizal fungi products on the focused on ornamental and nursery crop diseases and market. How do you decide what to buy? Some of the emphasizing the epidemiology and control of soil-borne, claims are complete bogus, some are misleading. For root-infecting, fungal plant pathogens, and the biology example, microbial content and spore numbers of mycorand application of beneficial micro-organisms, especially rhizal fungi are often confusing. Some products include mycorrhizal fungi and antagonistic rhizobacteria. This is both endo and ectomycorrhizal fungi, plus a lot of other the second installment of a three-part series giving the bacteria and fungi. straight story on mycorrhizae based on my Depending on which plants you plan to knowledge and experience on the subject. inoculate, such as tomato transplants, for In the first installment last month, I example, only the endomycorrhizal fungi described what mycorrhizae is—the will associate with tomato, and the symbiotic relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungi are wasted. On specialized soil fungi and the the other hand, if you are planting roots of plants—and how hazelnut trees, the ectomycorthis relationship benefits rhiza part is needed and the the growth and health of endomycorrhizal fungi are plants. Given that these wasted. And don’t be deceived relationships have been by the spore numbers listed, helping plants grow for which are often a combinasome 460 million years, tion of all the fungi. they definitely have proven Ectomycorrhizal fungal spore their worth. An important numbers are usually much point to remember is that higher than endomycorrhizal there are three main types fungi numbers. To determine the of mycorrhizal fungi and each endomycorrhizal fungi numbers for type forms with different plant your tomato plants, consider how many groups. The largest group, the spores per gram of product are listed. I endomycorrhizal fungi, form an assohave seen labels listing several endomycorciation with many different plants, including rhizal fungi but with a total of less than one spore most crop plants. per gram—not enough to do much good! Different endoThe second group, the ectomycorrhizal fungi, colonize mycorrhizal fungi species have different soil preferences, so roots of pines, firs, oaks, eucalyptus, hazelnut and birch. providing a mixture of species allows the plant and its soil The last group, ericoid mycorrhizal fungi, associate only with ericaceous plants like rhododendron, blueberry and azalea. And don’t forget that some plants simply don’t form mycorrhizae, so don’t bother to inoculate cabbage, broccoli, beets, turnips, radishes and carnations. The most important part of last month’s article was to describe the benefits that mycorrhizal fungi give to their host plant partner: improved root development, improved transplant success, increased yield and quality, greater tolerance to plant diseases, improved soil structure due to aggregation, improved fertilizeruse efficiency, improved tolerance to soil drought and improved tolerance to soil toxicities, like salinity. So now, let’s address how to evaluate mycorrhizal fungi products from the label, how to inoculate your plants and what cultural practices may enhance or harm the formation of mycorrhizae and thus the benefits you The increased number of antagonistic bacteria against a root rot pathogen in the rhizosphere seek. These comments are largely for soil of plants inoculated with a holistic mycorrhizal product (red bars) compared to nonmycorrhizal plants (green bars). endomycorrhizal fungi.

Microbial content and

spore numbers of mycorrhizal fungi are often confusing.”

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mycorrhizae: the straight story environment to determine the best of the lot. Often the label includes a long list of other bacteria and fungi, supposedly ones that could help your plant. The truth is that most of those microbes are thrown in to convince you that the combination would be good. Many on that list may be of little or no benefit to the inoculated plant. Products that are truly holistic are the ones where the endomycorrhizal fungi are produced in such a way that the end product contains a team of microbes grown up with the fungi from the beginning. I call that the mycorrhizosphere phenomenon and the resulting benefits to plant growth and health are the results of the team effort. Back to spore numbers, sometimes the spore number listed can be in the In vitro antagonism of bacteria streaked at the top of a petri dish against the root rot fungal pathogen on the bottom. When the fungus grows near the bacterium, it is inhibited by chemicals hundreds of endomycorrhizal fungal produced by the bacterium. spores per gram. Such high spore numbers are not likely the product of pot culturing, but rather the spores are transplanting with granular products. Finally, produced in vitro (on roots grown under you could place granular products under sterile conditions); those spores may or around the root ball of transplants form mycorrhizae but without or in the furrow under the seed at the benefits that would result planting. Those methods seek from spores produced on to place the inoculum where plant roots. This topic is the new roots will make contact focus of current research, with spores and initiate the but initial studies seem to mycorrhizal symbiosis as indicate that higher spore quickly as possible. In that count doesn’t always process, spores near the mean better results. roots will germinate, and the germ tube will grow toward the root, contact I have heard stories of it, and grow into the root. people being told to coat The fungus will spread seeds with endomycorinside the root, but will also rhizal fungal spores. In grow out from the root into fact, that is bad advice. the surrounding soil to mine First of all, the fungi the soil for mineral nutrients don’t produce millions and water. The microbial associof spores, so what might ates then begin to assemble the get stuck on seeds would be team due to the selective influence of very few spores at best. You food leaking from both the roots and don’t want the spores stuck on the endomycorrhizal fungus. the seed coat, anyway; you If the product already has those want them to be near or in team members included and contact with the plant roots. To deliver waiting, the team can form and function the spores to the roots, you could use right from the get-go. Products that have a root dip approach with soluble only endomycorrhizal fungus spores take products. That method gets the a long time to assemble a good team of inoculum right to the roots. Or microbial associates. Failure to form an you could dust the roots while effective team could mean failure to reap

To deliver the spores to the roots,

How to inoculate

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you could use a root dip approach with soluble products. That method gets the inoculum right to the roots.”


the potential benefits of the mycorrhizal association. Once mycorrhizae have formed, the fungal partner will go where the roots go. So the earlier the association is established, the sooner plant growth will be enhanced, and the sooner the plant will yield its products. In these cases, more inoculum is better than too little, so use enough that will ensure early and thorough root colonization. Some people want to inoculate plants already in the soil or potting medium. This can be difficult because you cannot easily deliver inoculum to as many roots as with pre-plant inoculation. Drilling holes around the plant and filling them with inoculum mixed into the soil could result in some mycorrhizae establishment, but not as much as any pre-plant treatment. Injecting fungal spore suspensions into the root zone is also possible, but mycorrhizae formation would be limited to the injection sites, and it would take time to spread to other areas of the root system. The fungus will eventually spread, but it takes longer before plant benefits are recognized.

Endomycorrhizal fungi (stained blue) showing internal colonization of root and external colonization of soil (washed away) with new spores produced at the end of the fungal hyphae (upper left corner).

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mycorrhizae: the straight story

A close-up of arbuscules (nutrient exchange sites) within root cortical cells. Mineral nutrients are delivered from the soil to the roots by the endomycorrhizal fungus and carbon nutrients, resulting from plant photosynthesis, are provided to the fungus by the plant.

Cultural practices

Once you have inoculated your plants with mycorrhizal fungi, there are some things to keep in mind as you manage your plants, specifically fertilization and pesticide applications. For most crop plants grown in soils or potting mix, fertilizers with a high amount of available phosphorous can be inhibitory, so choose fertilizers with low phosphorous in their formulation. This is truer for potting mixes than for soil. Better yet, choose organic fertilizers instead of inorganic fertilizers. And if you think you might have some root diseases, choose a fungicide that will not inhibit the mycorrhizal fungi; if pythium or phytophthora root rots are involved, most of the fungicides that target those fungi do not harm mycorrhizal fungi. For other root diseases, however, the fungicides of choice are often inhibitory. I can tell you which ones are good and those that are not good,

so contact me. And if you want to know if you have formed mycorrhizae, I can help you there, too. We analyze roots sent to us to determine the level of mycorrhizae formation. If you suspect a root disease, I can analyze roots for pathogens and recommend treatment (if possible) that will not interfere with the mycorrhizae.

If you think you might have some root

Next installment

In my third and last installment, I will introduce some exciting products built around the mycorrhizosphere phenomenon. My hope is that you will have come to better understand what mycorrhizal fungi are all about, and how to better harness their power in growing healthier plants that yield more highquality products with superior flavor and nutritional value. I will conclude with some cautions about mycorrhizal products that are on the market, and guide you to the ones you need to use. Just knowing that folks want to use mycorrhizal fungi pleases me and makes my studies and teaching worthwhile.

diseases, choose a fungicide that will not inhibit the mycorrhizal fungi.â&#x20AC;?

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Photos courtesy of the author.


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Building an by Charles Winslow & Madelyn Ritrosky

In-Ground

Hydro System Simple in-ground hydroponic systems can be an extremely cost-efficient solution for hydroponic growing. Read on to find out what you’ll need to get started.

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Building an in-ground hydroponic system can be a fun, easy, low-cost and efficient solution for producing crops. So, we’re here to help you build your very own in-ground system! Outdoor hydroponic systems are often much easier to run than indoor systems and they tolerate much more fluctuation in pH, total dissolved solids and electro-conductivity. Outdoor systems are also kinder to your energy bill and are often not as space constrained. Installing an in-ground reservoir for your outdoor hydroponic system is beneficial in many ways. The reservoir stays cooler, increasing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the solution, and thus what’s available for root intake. Dissolved oxygen drops significantly as temperatures rise over 70°F. The solution stays more temperate when buffered in an in-ground reservoir in either a greenhouse or outdoors because the ground always gravitates toward an ambient temperature of around 57°F. With water that cool, you really need to be a die-hard enthusiast to soak in one of these reservoirs. When he was younger, our son Jared enjoyed initiating new reservoirs. Brrrr!

The author’s son Jared chilling out in a resevoir.

Components

Included with this article is a photo I took (left) illustrating everything you need to build an advanced, solar-run system (excluding the solar panels). We have built several of these on retaining walls so you can walk up to the wall and pick vegetables at chest height. We have also built some of these systems inside greenhouses.

“With water that cool, you really need to be a die-hard enthusiast to soak in one of these reservoirs.”

Everything you need to build an advanced, solar-run system.

The base system uses 1.5-in. PVC plumbing pipes and standard fittings. The configuration can be as intricate or simple as you want. The fittings do not need to be glued. The feed system we use is a standard garden drip system or spaghetti tubes connected to half-inch tubing. The hydroponic pots we use are buckets designed specifically to be fed by drip emitters. Rough plumbing can be found at any hardware store. The drip system, reservoir and buckets can be purchased at your favorite hydroponics store, online or at select hardware stores.

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in-ground hydro systems Trellises can be made of hog fence or wire mesh with metal fence posts, all of which can be purchased from the hardware store. Solar panels can be purchased at certain hardware stores, online and possibly at select hydroponic stores.

Tips for building the unit

To figure out the specific items required on your material list, first measure out the run of your pipe for your overall system. Next, you’ll need to figure out your count of connecting components, such as T’s, elbows and caps, for both the system pipe and the drip tubing. The connecting components are relatively cheap, so buy a few extra to avoid multiple trips to the store. If you have an odd angle, you can use special 1.5-in. adapters. Once the pipe is laid out and the connections determined, drill 0.87-in. holes for the buckets. You will need either a 0.87-in. spade or drill bit for drilling holes in the 1.5-in. PVC main pipe. If you count on a long growing season or large plants, position the holes 16-in. to 24-in. apart. Big plants need space to grow. I’ve grown habanero pepper plants using this system, and they reached 3 ft. in soil! As a side note, one of those peppers actually seared a hole in a rubber glove, and we burned out every last person at a Thai restaurant for which we grow produce. Now that’s hot.

Buckets required for the set-up.

Next, find the lowest point of your system and dig a hole for your plastic, food-grade storage bin (reservoir). Spread sand to level out and set your reservoir. Simultaneously fill the bin with water and support around it with soil. Next, drill or cut out a 1.75-in. hole near the top for the 1-in. return pipe, and add your float valve if you want auto water. The float valve must be plumbed with 0.25-in. Pex tubing. The Pex tubing can be run in another white tube to protect it from the sun.

“I’ve grown habanero pepper plants using this system, and they reached 3 ft. in soil!”

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Any time you can use white tubing it helps lower the temperature. Keep in mind that ultraviolet sunlight will degrade Pex tubing over time if it’s not covered. For an access port in the reservoir’s lid, determine your size/plug cap requirements and cut with a hole saw or knife. You can always lift the lid rather than cut an access port. If you want a heavy-duty reservoir, ask a clerk at your favorite hydro store. If you live in a region when temperatures will drop to freezing during the winter, either drain the reservoir, or drop in a piece of Styrofoam board to keep it from freezing and cracking.


Extras

Just like standard hydro systems, in-ground systems can have added features such as solar-powered auto watering, water level sensing, TDS readouts, auto feeding and solar-powered nutrient pumping. They can be as simple or elaborate as you wish. The more automated the system, the less work once the system is set up. I gave up packing water and hoses a long time ago; plants going through a gallon an hour per plant is a lot of water to move. Certain solar water timers on the market right now have a water sensing adjustment and can be purchased as solar or battery powered and the water sensing functions can also be used for drip organic soil production.

“The more automated the system, the less work once the system is set up.”

In-ground hydroponic systems can also be run in conjunction with organic soil gardens. The solar 12-V, 380gph bilge pump will need a deep cell battery and solar panel system. If you skip the solar pumping, you can use a small mag-drive pump to run the system with low energy consumption. It’s amazing how small these pumps can be, from 280 to 500-gph, depending on the size of your system. My small solar 12-V pump ran roughly 40-ft. of hydroponically connected plants along with three tiers of organic gardens—all powered from the sun.

Conclusion

Simple, in-ground hydroponic systems can be an extremely cost-efficient solution for hydroponic growing. With a little elbow grease and a bit of ingenuity, you can create a really wonderful, productive unit that can be easily modified and expanded over the years. Don’t forget to incorporate solar as you experiment and grow. Happy growing!

The authors wish to express their thanks to those who contributed to the work and development of this product: Vee from Grodan for her many contributions to the industry and their research; Maggie from Ancnoble for her incredible solar water sensing timer; Neil for his New Millennium nutrients; EZ FLO for its fertigation systems; and Roberts Manufacturing for its float valves that automate the many systems the authors have built over the years. Photos submitted via authors. Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

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green thumb gardening

Soaking Seeds: A How-To by Heather Rhoades

“Seeds have developed over millions of years with defenses to survive awful conditions.” Sometimes it seems to take forever for seeds to germinate. Want to speed up the process? Try soaking them first.

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Soaking seeds before planting is an old-time gardener’s trick that many new gardeners are not aware of. When you soak seeds before planting, you can significantly decrease the amount of time it takes for a seed to germinate. Let’s look at the reasons for soaking seeds and how to soak them successfully.

“When you soak seeds before planting, you can significantly decrease the amount of time it takes for a seed to germinate.” Reasons for Soaking Seeds

What happens to seeds when you soak them? Why should you soak your seeds? The short answer is because your seeds were designed to be abused. Mother Nature is not kind to a little seed. In the wild, a seed can expect to encounter harsh heat and cold, wet or dry conditions and may even need to survive through the acid-filled digestive tracts of animals. In short, seeds have developed over millions of years with defenses to survive awful conditions. But, in your modern day garden, a seed is relatively pampered. Soaking seeds before planting helps you to break down the seed’s natural defenses against what it expects from Mother Nature, which then allows it to germinate faster. While Mother Nature actively assaults seeds, she also gives those seeds an internal gauge to help them know when they should grow. For most seeds, moisture levels play a big role in alerting a seed to optimal grow times. By soaking the seeds, you can quickly boost the moisture content around the seeds, which signals to the seed that it is now safe to grow. Lastly, some types of seeds actually contain germination inhibitors that are designed to prevent a seed from germinating inside the fruit. These inhibitors must be leached away before a seed

can germinate. In nature, relying on rainfall, this process can take some time. Soaking seeds can speed this process up.

How to Soak Seeds Before Planting

Seed soaking at a basic level needs two things: seeds and water. Some methods for seed soaking may substitute the water for slightly acidic solutions, such as weak tea or coffee or even acidic chemicals. These acidic solutions are meant to imitate loosely the stomach acid of an animal, but these solutions are not necessary in most cases. For most seeds, water will work just fine. Take a small bowl and fill it with water from your tap, as hot as your tap will allow. Some seeds can tolerate boiling water, but as the tolerance for heat can vary greatly from species to species, hot tap water is safest for seed soaking. Once your bowl is filled with hot water, place your seeds inside and allow the seeds to stay in the water as it cools down. Common questions at this point include, “How long should seeds be soaked?” and, “Can you over-soak seeds?” Yes, you can over-soak seeds. Too much soaking in water and a seed will drown. It is recommended that you only soak most seeds for 12 to 24 hours and no more than 48 hours. The seeds of some species of plants can survive longer soakings, but you should only do this if the specific instructions for this species recommend it. There are things you can do to improve how well your seeds react to soaking. Large seeds or seeds with particularly hard coats can benefit from scarification before soaking. Scarification means damaging the seed coat in some way so that the water is better able to penetrate the seed. Scarification can be done in several ways, including rubbing the seed on fine grain sandpaper, nicking the seed coat with a knife and even gently tapping the seed with a hammer to help crack the seed coat. After soaking your seeds, they can be planted as directed. The benefit of soaking seeds before planting is that your germination time will be reduced, which means you can have happily-growing plants faster.

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Friendlya by Russell Landry

Flor

Companion planting is a form of polyculture where certain types of crops are planted in close proximity to one another to boost crop yields or deter pests. Read on to learn more about this age-old gardening practice...

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friendly flora

Companion planting is defined as the planting of certain crops in close proximity to each other to aid or boost crop yields and productivity. It is a type of polyculture where multiple crops planted adjacently or in close proximity can be used to promote or enhance the growth of all of the plants.

“Native Americans had the most well-known system of companion planting—the Three Sisters method of planting corn, beans and squash was used to augment each plant’s growth while supplying beneficial nitrogen, support and shade.” The practice of companion planting has proven that some types of plants do in fact grow better when they are near other specific plant species.

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Friendly types of plantings have been in use for thousands of years. First thought to be practiced by the ancient Egyptians, companion planting was practiced before herbicides and fertilizers changed our well-seasoned views about natural and effective plant propagation. Native Americans had the most well-known system of companion planting—the Three Sisters method of planting corn, beans and squash was used to augment each plant’s growth while supplying beneficial nitrogen, support and shade. Corn was planted first and allowed to grow several inches high. The corn stalk was then used as a support to hold up the beans. Climbing beans are legumes that fix nitrogen and feed nitrogen-consuming plants like corn. Lastly, squash was planted between the rows of beans and corn. The squash, being shade tolerant in the shadow of the corn, also protects the soil surface as a ground cover. Moisture conservation is achieved along with weed inhibition and reduced heat stress to all three crops. Besides the favorable aspects of companion planting, it must be appreciated that some plants cannot be effectively planted close to each other. It is known that some plants do indeed deter insects, but they can also hinder, contaminate or slow the growth rate of nearby plants. Hindering growth of companion plants is called negative allelopathy. Interfering with the growth of a neighboring plant can be problematic for the grower. However, knowing that certain plants also exude objectionable compounds that hinder root growth or seed germination is advantageous. The negative allelopathic effects of corn gluten meal in controlling the germination of weed seeds is now widely used in gardens to control weeds. The outcome of companion planting in modern gardens can go beyond protecting plants—it can reduce the need for modern control methods. The opportunity to reduce the use of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers lowers production costs while increasing yield. Maximizing yield and fruit quality is time and again the primary goal of many gardeners. The contemporary use of monoculture, or single crop growth, has discouraged the use of companion plantings, but this narrow field of view has changed in recent times. Growers today acknowledge the limits and potential harmful effects of modern pesticides. They are becoming keenly aware that co-plantings will enhance a backyard garden plot in a more naturally effective manner while protecting the environment, and in turn they are fostering ever-increasing harvests. In some cases, companion plants are used as bait to trap unwanted insects while protecting a primary crop, often referred to as trap cropping. Growers use the pestattractive, sacrificial crops to protect a main cash crop from


infestations. For example, marigolds are often planted with tomatoes to fend off harmful, root-feeding nematodes or tomato hornworms. Hubbard squash is commonly used as a trap crop for other cucurbit-type vine crops to attract striped cucumber beetles. The beetles vector bacterial wilt or mosaic virus and can cause greatly reduced yields. Companion plants can also be planted to provide a nursery area and habitat for beneficial insects. These advantageous, incubated predator insects then move on to wreak havoc on the unsuspecting, harmful pests that feed on the primary crops. Pest-attractive plants can be used in concentrated zones in which pesticides may be used only sparingly. Insect traps and pheromone lures can also be used amongst these plantings to further reduce harmful insect populations. Hunting the harmful pests on the sacrificial crops can allow for a more targeted and efficient use of chemical controls. Planting flowers amongst the main crops can persuade pollinators to visit gardens. Honey bees, butterflies and hummingbirds will come to forage the blossoms. Vegetables like squash and cucumbers that need pollination greatly benefit in these types of plantings. Placing herbs and flowers within your vegetable patch is one of simplest ways to create this natural kind of companion planting. Cover crops can also be used as in-season companion plants. They are grown to reduce pathogens and insects or to supply nutrients. Giant vegetable growers have discovered in recent years that companion plants help boost weight gains. One of the main factors that improved fruit size is inoculating the sacrificial plants with mycorrhizal fungi. The main plant roots are colonized much faster by these beneficial fungi because the primary plant’s roots grow into the sacrificial plant’s roots and soil areas that have already been colonized by the fungi. Early season companion crops can also be returned back into the soil to increase organic matter and nutrient storage for future plant growth. The fresh organic matter then becomes food for the myriad of various and beneficial microbes in the rhizosphere. These stored nutrients will not leach away, become insoluble or get tied up in the soil. They are available when plants are actively growing and serve to boost productivity. Plants such as buckwheat sequester calcium and phosphorus. The companion cover crop can be plowed down into the soil ahead of the main plant’s growth. This supplies the developing crop with a readily available source of root-building phosphorous and fruit-bulging calcium. Nutrients are vitally important to developing plants and in-season cover crops such as legumes can supply nitrogen. Beans planted around nitrogen consumers such as cabbages and corn greatly benefit the nitrogen consumers. Nature will always endure as it fosters living communities

that stand the test of time. Observation and common knowledge indicate that many vegetables and herbs have natural compounds in their roots, flowers and leaves. These compounds may deter or fend off harmful pests and attract beneficial insects. Some plants assist other plant varieties to thrive and grow by providing shade, fungi, bacteria or conservation of water and soil moisture.

“Companion planting helps harmonize the garden’s flora and fauna, allowing the grower to use and maximize the skills that modern controls and nature provide.” The essential growth requirements of a thriving garden plot can be influenced by companion plantings. Essentially, companion planting helps harmonize the garden’s flora and fauna, allowing the grower to use and maximize the skills that modern controls and nature provide.

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Growers know

Getting it Down

on Paper by Matt LeBannister

A journal can help a gardener keep track of the progress of plants and compare the results of using different techniques, tools and nutrients. Matt LeBannister has the details about how keeping a garden log will make you a better gardener. 160

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When I managed a hydroponic retail store, I would be hit with a litany of questions involving nutrients, media and equipment. The overall theme of the questions were, “What’s the best?” There were some things I could say with confidence that were better. Hydroponics will give you higher yields compared to soil; horticulture lamps produce better plants with larger yields than industrial lamps; and high-grade plant fertilizer will give you better results than the run-of-the-mill 10-10-10 fertilizers. But a lot of other hydroponic store items are up for debate: whether one nutrient works better than the other, which soilless mediums are ideal for each crop, and whether your plants grow better with certain additives or if you’re better off spending that money elsewhere. These questions are difficult and often impossible to answer accurately. To know exactly what result you would get, I always recommended that people experiment and keep a plant journal. Plant journaling will allow you to track progress and compare various techniques, gear and nutrients. It will allow you to document the progression of nutrient deficiency, toxicity, insect and disease symptoms and eventually come up with a strategy to maximize the potential of your garden.

At each plant feeding, one to two times per week, you also want to take a close look at the overall health of your plants. Check for signs of nutrient deficiencies and toxicities such as yellowing leaves, leaf curl, leaf tip burning and yellowing veins. You should also look closely for any signs of disease, molds or insect infestations. Catching any of these problems before they become too severe can rescue your plants and save you a lot of time and money. Plant journaling allows you to scientifically compare the effectiveness of different nutrients on your plants. First you need control plants—plants that aren’t being fed the nutrient or additive you wish to test. Then you must have plants that are being fed a measured and recorded amount of the nutrient or additive throughout its life cycle. Then you have to record the growth and overall yield of both the control plants and plants being fed the nutrients and additives to accurately gauge whether the plant growth has exceeded the growth of the control plants or not.

Plant journaling will allow you to track

No matter what, it is always important to measure your overall yield just to get an idea of how your plants are doing. If you start to notice a drop in yield from harvest to harvest, you can make adjustments or replace your bulbs. Diminished yields are often caused by the gradual decline of lumen output by your bulbs. This just happens as the bulbs are used each day.

progress and compare various techniques, gear and nutrients.”

There are many different aspects of your garden that can be documented in your plant journal. The first thing I like to check and keep a written record of is the condition of all my gear. Check your pumps and make sure that your table is flooding and even record how long it takes to flood and drain. Make sure that any drippers you are using aren’t clogged. Check your ballasts for burns and heat marks. Make sure your reservoir is not leaking and that your lights are all in working order. It is important to record when your lights need replacing and change them so your plants are not starved for light. You should make notes in you plant journal every time you water you plants or change the nutrient in your reservoirs. Record exactly what nutrients and additives you are using, how much of each and which plants are receiving what. Measure and record the pH level of the nutrient solution before watering and then measure the pH of the runoff water. Also, check and record in your journal the EC, TDS or ppm of your nutrient solution so that you can accurately adjust this if you notice any signs of toxicity or deficiency.

Don’t leave your garden to guess work. Plant journaling is the most effective way of gaining first-hand knowledge of what makes your plants grow well and is certain to make you a better gardener. Matt LeBannister developed a green thumb as a child, having been born into a family of experienced gardeners. During his career, he has managed a hydroponic retail store and represented leading companies at the Indoor Gardening Expos. Matt has been writing articles for Maximum Yield since 2007. His articles are published around the world.

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10 facts on... Carbon Dioxide by philip mcintosh

1

Carbon dioxide

(CO2), as you may have heard, is the gas taken in and used by plants, through the process of photosynthesis, to make glucose. It’s kind of a big deal.

2 As the concentration

of CO2 rises in the atmosphere, it might be good for some, but not all, plants. Too bad it is not so good for the planet, as CO2 contributes to global warming via the greenhouse effect.

3 The CO 4

Carbon dioxide

consists of one carbon atom covalently bonded to two oxygen atoms to form a rather stable molecule.

2 concentration in the atmosphere was fairly stable at around 280 ppm up until the mid 1800s, at which time it started to rise, and it has been rising faster and faster ever since.

5 Is more 6

The atmospheric CO concentration has 2

remained above 350 ppm since the late 1980s.

carbon dioxide actually good for plants? Under greenhouse conditions, increasing the CO2 concentration does indeed increase the growth rate of some plants. But it also increases the need for water and other nutrients.

7 Plant uptake 8 Most people 9

Studies show that plants can handle as much as 10,000 ppm CO2 in the air with no ill effects.

of CO2 is limited to about 2,000 ppm, and the plant growth rate can be as much as doubled at that concentration.

believe plants have “carbon dioxide in, oxygen out” systems that help recycle and maintain the balance of carbon and oxygen in the environment. This is true, up to a point.

10 Plants, being

eukaryotic organisms, have mitochondria in their cells and mitochondria use glucose to synthesize the energy molecule ATP. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of this process. So, plants are releasing CO2 all the time and in the dark they release much more than they absorb.

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book review

Christopher Sloper’s

The LED Grow Book Christopher Sloper’s new book, The LED Grow Book, is an illuminating read for many reasons...

In his recent book, The LED Grow Book, author Christopher Sloper shares insights gained from years of researching and growing indoors with LED grow lights. He shines the light on how LED lights work, how to pick them and how to use them in your indoor garden. The second half of his book outlines everything you need to know to create a thriving indoor garden in a beginner-friendly fashion. Sloper’s practical, conversational style of writing makes it easy for those new to the industry to follow along, not to mention simply an enjoyable read for anyone. He starts off by describing how many developments and trends make LED grow lights the right choice for Christopher Sloper indoor gardeners received his bachelor now, from better of science degree emitters and in chemistry from Loyola Marymount improved secondUniversity, then ary optics to higher earned a master’s electrical rates— degree in business Sloper claims that administration from using LED grow Pepperdine University. Christopher is focused on making gardening easier, lights can cut a both indoors and out. He thinks that everyone grower’s electric should grow their own fruit, veggies and herbs, bill in half or more. and that society should collectively work to convert He also emphasizes the food mile into the food meter. When he is not that growers need glued to his computer screen, Christopher enjoys riding his bicycle and working in his front-yard to adjust their garden in Long Beach, California. Christopher is available for consulting engagements.You can reach him at christophersloper@gmail.com

gardening styles to work with these lights—replacing an HID grow light with an LED grow light means you need to re-examine everything about your garden set-up and practice. For example, because the LED light produces less heat, you may need a different fan, a revised watering schedule and a different nutrient solution due to your plants’ slower transpiration rate in lower temperatures. After explaining the why now, Sloper goes on to debunk some myths about grow lights, describes how LED lights work and what to look for when choosing one. At the end of chapter five, he includes a helpful checklist that covers off all of the elements of selecting an LED grow light, which you can bring into a gardening store or use to ask retailers about different products. For the beginner gardener, whether you are planning to use LED lighting technology or not, the second half of Sloper’s book is a must-read. He outlines everything someone building an indoor garden needs to know, including planning your grow space, the different grow systems, feeding plants and pest prevention. Throughout the book, Sloper includes plenty of helpful tips to benefit both beginner and experienced gardeners and he rounds things out with handy charts, lists and diagrams. To pick up your copy of The LED Grow Book today, please go to amazon.com

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talking shop

The Green Box owner David Ventura (left) and store manager Adam Sussman (right).

AT A GLANCE

Company

The Green Box

Owner

David Ventura

Location

495 9th Ave, New York, NY 10018

Phone

1-212-967-4777

Website

thegreenboxhydro.com

Email

thegreenbox@ymail.com

Motto

Live Within Nature

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Hector L. Santiago, stock manager.

One of the principle goals of The Green Box in Manhattan is bringing sustainable growing to the confined spaces common in New York City. Its owner David Ventura founded the store in 2011 after realizing hydroponics could be more than just a hobby. Amid the bright lights, concrete and skyscrapers of mid-town Manhattan is a small storefront with an inconspicuous green awning. The awning catches the eye of most people who walk past it, often beckoning them to look inside and find out what lies behind the window it hangs over. What they find is an unexpected and unique sight in New York City—a hydroponics shop and consulting agency. The Green Box is the only hydroponics store in Manhattan and one of only a few that exists in New York City. The store opened in 2011 after owner David Ventura decided to turn his hobby into his profession. After 12 years in

the fashion industry, David decided he needed a change in his life, and since he was passionate about growing, he decided to open The Green Box. “I was losing interest in the fashion industry, and had been growing my own vegetables for several years. Over the years I had gained a good amount of knowledge about the growing industry and had plenty of retail experience from working in the fashion industry. It only made sense to turn my passion into my job, so I opened a hydroponics store.” Since there were few hydroponics shops in New York City, David felt it was important to provide the growers of Manhattan with a reliable place to


purchase their hydroponic supplies, gain knowledge about hydroponic and indoor growing, and get advice on hydroponic systems. Opening a storefront in Manhattan came with its own set of unique challenges, particularly those of size restrictions, which have not slowed David one bit. The store itself is not large, but this matches the typical spaces its customers grow in. One of the principle goals of The Green Box is to bring sustainable growing to the confined spaces of New York City. Providing the supplies and knowledge of how to grow in small spaces is integral to living a sustainable lifestyle in big cities, with the added bonus of allowing people to experience food right off the plant who would not otherwise have that option. The store also provides its customers a place to interact with other growers and increase their knowledge base. It is a common event to have several people in the store discussing their methods and sharing ideas with one another. This has created an environment where people come to not only to buy their supplies, but also to learn and share. The learning does not stop with the customers: “I am constantly learning about new techniques and products every day,” says David. In 2012, manager Adam G. Sussman joined The Green Box team. Adam brought new insights and experience to the company, having spent 10 years studying and working in the theatrical production industry as well as the restaurant industry. It was this combination of technical knowledge and food

knowledge that led him to the world of hydroponic and indoor gardening. This varied background provided Adam with a unique view of the possibilities in urban gardening and he is working towards a bachelor’s degree in biology. The most current addition to The Green Box team is Steven Meyer as operations manager. Steve has come to the team from the hospitality industry where he specialized in operational development and IT solutions. His background is integral to the current success of The Green Box as he maintains the website, helps keep the store’s technology up to date and generates consulting leads. The Green Box places a strong emphasis on bringing gardens to the urban environment and educating those living in urban areas. Working with schools in and around the New York City area is one way The Green Box has encouraged the education and implementation of urban gardening. “Our work with the schools is some of the most rewarding work we are doing,” shares Adam. “Education in urban gardening and hydroponics provides young people with the skill sets to help them become part of a quickly growing professional industry.” Some of the current projects The Green Box is involved in include building a hydroponic system growing greens at the W Hotel of New York, implementing a rooftop garden at Lenox Hill Hospital, building a medicinal plant garden with Pacific College of Oriental Medicine and continual consulting with Fountain House in Manhattan. All of these projects

Providing the

supplies and knowledge of how to grow in small spaces is integral to living a sustainable lifestyle in big cities, with the added bonus of allowing people to experience food right off the plant who would not otherwise have that optioN.”

have a common focus: bringing sustainability and gardening into the urban environment. Food can often be the focus of urban gardening, but it is far from the only reason to garden in urban spaces. These projects also highlight the therapeutic, health and environmental benefits of hydroponics and indoor gardening. The future is looking bright for David and The Green Box. In an industry that is growing at a rapid pace, The Green Box is always looking to stay ahead of the curve and provide its customers with the best products and service it can offer. There are always new products and techniques to be developed and discovered, and it is this continual evolution of the industry that excites The Green Box team to no end. “We are looking forward to growing along with our customers for years to come,” says David. Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

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You tell us

Xtreme Gardening RTI Reforestation Technologies International

“We Don’t Add the Biology, We Start with It!” From its home base in Gilroy, California, Xtreme Gardening/RTI is one of the world’s largest producers of mycorrhizal fungi and beneficial microbes. Here’s Ryan Miller, vice president of global sales, sharing details about the company.

Dan and John farming fungi.

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Xtreme Gardening’s Pumpkin Contest winners’ entries on display.

Tell us a little about how your company started. Xtreme Gardening was born from an idea to inspire a new generation of gardeners and growers looking to maximize yield through organic inputs. John Anderson, founder of Xtreme Gardening, had learned through experience gardening with his father and mother (Neil and Maria Anderson—owners of Reforestation Technologies) that nature’s models, her designs and her processes, were the key to unlocking the true potential of plants. Neil had, over the course of his life, pioneered new developments in the forestry, restoration and agricultural fields, the crowning achievement of which was the commercial production of arbruscular (endo) mycorrhizae. John recognized the importance of his father’s technologies and decided it was time it was shared with the world. John’s father had for more than a decade, been supplying restoration companies for bioremediation, forestry services for replanting, government and city agencies for landscaping and municipalities, transportation companies for erosion control, and even a small community of competitive pumpkin and fruit growers, helping them

Dan’s son applying Mykos in his garden.

break World Records for plant growth, but he had not yet brought these amazing products to the doorsteps of everyday Americans. John set out with the goal of bringing this new technology, a sustainable and organic means of successful gardening, to every backyard and indoor garden in America. Little did he know, it would soon grow to reach nearly every corner of the globe. 


Tell us about your products and the benefits of mychorrizae? The backbone of the product line is the Mykos, Azos and Tea Brew trifecta. We also have CalCarb, a foliar booster for density and weight; Kryptomite to battle mites and mildew and Once & Done, a new and unique way of feeding new plant starts that involves using biodegradable packets filled with premium organic and natural plant food. Mycorrhizae is the Internet super highway of the soil, absorbing and transporting nutrients and water from different areas of the soil food web to the modems (roots) and hosts (plants) that require them. There is an old adage that if you garden organically, you get a higher quality and more nutrition, but lower yield and if you grow chemically, you get a higher yield, but lower quality (less nutrition). This couldn’t be farther from the truth. The truth is that organic-based nutrients are plant and animal based and are not easily absorbed by plant roots. A fish, for example: if thrown in a hole and planted over, nutrients from the fish cannot be readily absorbed by plant roots. It must first be broken down by fungi and bacteria in the soil.   

How are your products unique?

They enhance all stages of plant growth, from rooting to flower, and may be used or combined with any nutrient program organic or synthetic alike.  

Can you explain how your products have helped achieve seven world records for fruit and vegetable yield? The big secret is in the roots. Competitive growers bury all their nodes (sites below the broad leaves on pumpkin vines that can take root) with Mykos and Azos. These microbes spark new root development, deep within the soil. Utilizing these microbes, a single pumpkin can form more than 150 separate and unique root sites to mine nutrients and moisture from the ground and put them to use (adding up to 50lbs of growth a day during peak growth). There hasn’t been

a single record-breaking pumpkin in the last six years that has not used these two microbes. The top growers have used these, as well as our Tea Brews and CalCarb foliar spray. 

Is there anything happening at the R&D stage you can tell us about? We are in the process of developing new means of producing organic mycorrhizae in a concentrated form. This new technology we are pioneering has never been seen and the results and effectiveness of this process are unparalleled. I am not at liberty to dive further into this, but there has been much talk of mycorrhizae on the market, which boasts huge spore counts but are not delivering the expected results. These products are developed using genetically-modified carrot roots in labs. Essentially they are grown on “Frankenroots” that have no carrot or fruiting body attached, in a chemical hormone solution. They are able to get large spore counts, but the spores have never been exposed to real world conditions such as temperature, humidity and other microbes, and have never actually grown a plant to harvest. They are sterile and effectively impotent—most are unable to survive in the garden and have a low rate of inoculation. What we have found is a way to organically produce mycorrhizae in a fashion that has taken our spore counts to astronomical numbers. More information will be available as we get closer to bringing this product to market. 

How are you able to pull all of this off? What are your facilities like? We recently moved into a state-of-theart 16-acre facility with a 96,-000-sq.-ft. warehouse, two huge labs for bacteria culturing and microbial research, one of which rivals Stanford University’s stem cell research lab, as well as two light deprivation automated greenhouses for trials, more than 16 offices and conference rooms, and enough room to grow over more than million pounds of mycorrhizal fungi per

One of two new light deprivation automatic greenhouses with water walls at Xtreme’s facility.

harvest. We have dozens of machines, conveyors, loaders, mixers, driers and packaging machinery. From small-scale to large-scale packaging, we manufacture all of our products in house. We have made this growth over the last 12 months thanks to our successes in all divisions of our company, from hydroponics and garden marketplaces, to restoration, forestry, agriculture, landscaping and sport turf maintenance. 

What else should we know about Xtreme Gardening? We are currently taking the agricultural market by storm. Our biologicals are negating the need for numerous applications of chemical fertilizers, costing farmers less money, while improving their yield (fruit number and weight) and quality of harvest. In tomatoes alone, the Mykos/Azos combination has increased lycopene content (an essential antioxidant) by more than 300% in independent field trials. With all the new regulations in California and across the country on the use of phosphates, nitrates and pesticides, we are helping both organic and synthetic farmers save their farms and out-produce their conventionalfarming competitors. Strawberries, which usually have a hollow and pithy center, are now growing full—red inside and out and bursting with flavor, thanks to our biologicals. Many of the strawberries, tomatoes and other produce that reaches your plate are now grown using our unique biology. Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

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DO YOU KNOW? MAX-mART

1. 2.

Primary meristem cells add to the height of a plant and the length of the roots, while secondary (lateral) meristem cells add to the girth of the trunk, branches and roots.

Diminished yields are often caused by the gradual decline of lumen output of a light’s bulbs.

3.

Many of the essential micronutrients found in a plant’s diet are metals that, when chelated, can be absorbed more easily and used more efficiently by the plant.

4. 6.

5.

Companion planting is defined as the planting of certain crops in close proximity to each other to aid or boost crop yields and productivity.

Foliar feeding is not recommended when temperatures exceed 80°F.

7.

Belgian endive goes by many names depending on where it is being sold. These include French endive, white endive, Dutch endive and witloof chicory.

8. 170

Derived from the terms permanent agriculture and permanent culture, permaculture bridges the gap between ancient knowledge and modern horticulture, placing emphasis on working smarter rather than harder.

When adding worms to an aquaponic system, a grower should clean the worms of anything sticking to them before introducing them to the fish.

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MAX mART

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors ALABAMA Alabama Organics 3348 Bethel Rd. Hammondville, AL 35989 256-635-0802 Hydro-Ponics Inc. (of Birmingham) 2969 Pelham Pkwy. Suite. 3 Pelham, AL 35124 205-358-3009

Sea of Green West 2340 W. Bell Rd., Suite 116 Phoenix, AZ 602-504-8842 Show Low Hydroponics 1400 E. Deuce of Clubs #2 Show Low, AZ 85901 928-537-4606

ALASKA

ACI Hydroponics 1325 South Park Lane Tempe, AZ 85282 800-633-2137

Far North Garden Supply 2834 Boniface Parkway Anchorage, AK 99504 907-333-3141

Home Grown Hydroponics 1845 East Broadway Tempe, AZ 85282 480-377-9096

Southside Garden Supply AK 12870 Old Seward Hwy., Unit 114 Anchorage, AK 99515 907-339-9997

Sea of Green Hydroponics 1301 E. University Dr. Tempe, AZ 85281 800-266-4136 _________________________

Holmtown Nursery Inc. 1301 - 30th Ave. Fairbanks, AK 99701 907-451-8733 Home Grown Hydroponics 2401 East Baseline Rd. Gilbert, AZ 85234 480-633-2100 Ground Control Hydroponic & Garden Supplies 1392 Ocean Dr. Homer, AK 99603 907-235-1521 Northern Lights Greenhouse & Garden Supply Suite 105-9737 Mud Bay Rd. Ketchikan, AK 9901 907-225-GROW (4769) Alaska Jack’s Hydroponics and Garden Supply 1150 S. Colony Way, Suite 9 Palmer, AK 99645 907-746-4774 Peninsula Garden Supply AK 44224 Sterling Hwy., Suite 4 Soldotna, AK 99669 907-420-0401

Gonzo Grow 10297 W Van Buren St., Suite 8 Tolleson, AZ 85353 623-780-GROW (4769) _________________________ Sea of Green Hydroponics 402 North 4th Ave. Tucson, AZ 85705 520-622-6344 Sea of Green Tuscon East 7955 E. Broadway Blvd., #151. Tucson, AZ 85710 520-751-7745 _________________________

Tucson Hydroponics & Organics 4235 W. Ina Rd., Suite 131 Tucson, AZ 85741 520-395-2052 _________________________

Alaska Jack’s Hydroponics and Garden Supply 244 S Sylvan Way, Unit 25 Wasilla, AK 99654 907-373-4757

ARKANSAS

Far North Garden Supply 300 Centaur Street Wasilla, AK 99654 907-376-7586

Mickey’s Mercantile 1303 Hwy., 65 South Clinton, AR 72031 501-412-0214

ARIZONA

Old Soul Organics and More 1771 Crossover Rd. Fayetteville, AR 72701 479-444-6955

Happy Harvesters Hydroponics 1400 S. Arizona Ave. Suite 11 Chandler, AZ 85286 480-857-8878 Arizona Hydroponics 3900 E Western Dr. #D Cottonwood, AZ 86326 928-649-1138 Sea of Green Flagstaff 204 East Route 66 Flagstaff, AZ 86001 928-774-7643 Home Grown Hydroponics 2401 East Baseline Rd. Gilbert, AZ 85234 480-633-2100 The Hydro Closet 5826 West Olive Ave. #106 Glendale, AZ 85302 602-361-2049

A Fertile World 5565 W End Rd Arcata, CA 95521 707-825-0255 _________________________ American Hydroponics 286 South G St. Arcata, CA 95521 800-458-6543 Let It Grow 160 Westwood Center Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-8733 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 639 6th St. Arcata, CA 95521 707-826-9998 _________________________ Sweet Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 1041 E. Grand Ave. Arroyo Grande, CA 93420 805-473-0004

Greenleaf Hydroponics 1839 W Lincoln Ave. Anaheim, CA 92801 714-254-0005

The Grow Shop LLC 1733 E. McDowell Rd. Phoenix, AZ 85006 602-340-7591

Grow It Yourself Gardens 401 Sunset Dr., Suite F Antioch, CA 94509 925-755-GROW

Home Grown Hydroponics 1838 W. Bell Rd. Phoenix, AZ 85023 602-368-4005

High Desert Hydroponics 13631 Pawnee Rd., #7 Apple Valley, CA 92308 760-247-2090

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

Sky High Garden Supply 3081 Alhambra Dr., Suite 105 Cameron Park, CA 95682 530-676-4009

G & G Organics and Hydroponics 901 W. Victoria Street Unit D Compton, CA 90220 310-632-0122

Precision Hydroponics 132 Kennedy Ave. Campbell, CA 95008 408-866-8176 Advanced Hydroponics 17808 Sierra Hwy. Canyon Country, CA 91351 Myron L Company 2450 Impala Dr. Carlsband, CA 9210-7226 760-438-2021; 661-299-1603 _________________________

San Diego Hydroponics North County Coastal 6352 Corte Del Abeto #J Carlsbad, CA 92011 760-420-8934 _________________________

Quail Mountain Ranch 230 Palm Ave. Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-2390

NorCal Creations PO Box 28 Cedar Ridge, CA 95924 _________________________

Tell 2 Friends Indoor Gardening 62 Sutherland Dr. Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-8171 Bakersfield Hydroponics Bakersfield, CA 661-808-4640 Green with Envy 3903 Patton Way #103 Bakersfield, CA 93308 661-588-8269 Kern Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 Super Starts PO Box 732 Bellmont, CA 94002 650-346-8009

Berkeley’s Secret Garden 921 University Ave. Berkeley, CA 94710 510-486-0117

Hydroponics and More Inc 3519 Vandyke Rd Almont, CA 810-798-2524

Under The Sun 13361 East Highway 20 Clearlake Oaks, CA 95423 707-998-GROW

Auburn Organic 4035 Grass Valley Hwy. Auburn, CA 95602 530-823-8900

Fermentables 3915 Crutcher St. N. Little Rock, AR 72118 501-758-6261

CALIFORNIA

Advanced Garden Supply 3113 Alhambra Dr., Unit F Cameron Park, CA 95682 530-676-2100

The Greenhouse Garden Supply 7619 Fair Oak Blvd. Carmichael, CA 95608 916-515-9130 thegreenhousegardensupply.com _________________________

Berkeley Indoor Garden 844 University Ave. Berkeley, CA 94710 510-549-2918

Mesa Hydroponics 1720 W. Southern Ave. Suite C7 Mesa, AZ 85202 480-969-4769

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Growfresh Organics & More 2900 Zero St., Suite 106 Fort Smith, AR 72901 479-648-8885

Anuway Hydroponics 2711 W. Walnut St. Rogers, Ar 72756 479-631-0099

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

The Hydroponic Connection Berkeley 2816 San Pablo Ave. Berkeley, CA 94702 510-704-9376 _________________________

Brentwood Hydroponics & Organics 560 Valdry Ct Suite B-1 Brentwood, CA 94513 925-634-6704 _________________________ Hydro Galaxy 3314 W. Burbank Burbank, CA 91505 800-818-6128 Good To Grow & Global Garden Supply 1350 Rollins Rd. Burlingame, CA 94010 650-733-4420

The Hydro Shop of Cerritos 15961 S. Piuma Ave. Cerritos, CA 90703 562-653-0700 _________________________ Chico Garden Center 3028 Esplanade Ave. Unit E Chico, CA 95973 Garden Connection, The 629 Entler Ave. #32 Chico, CA 95928 530-342-7762 Hydro King 2540 South Whitman Place Chico, CA 959282 530-893-GROW (4769) Grow4Less Garden Supply & Hydroponics 320 Trousdale Dr., Suite L Chula Visa, CA 91910 619-425-GROW Mothers Earth 871 Harold Place. #108 Chula Vista, CA 91914 619-240-3235 _________________________

San Diego Hydroponics North 645 Marsat Court #101 Chula Vista, CA 91911 619-737-9272 _________________________ Citrus Heights Hydrogarden 8043 Greenback Lane Citrus Heights, CA 95610 916-728-4769 Green Thumb Hydroponics 6412 Tupelo Dr. Citrus Heights, CA 95621 916-721-6969 Conrad Hydroponics Inc. 14915 Unit E, Olympic Dr. Clearlake, CA 95422 707-994 3264

Concord Indoor Garden 2771 Clayton Rd. Concord, CA 94519 925-671-2520 Hydroponics Plus 2250 Commerce Ave., Suite C Concord, CA 94520 925-691-7615 123 Grow 2175 Sampson Ave. #123, Corona, CA 92879 951-280-9232 Hydrostar Hydroponics & Organics 1307 W. Sixth St., #211 Corona, CA 92882 951-479-8069 _________________________

The Hydro Spot 21785 Temescal Cyn Rd. Corona, CA 92883 _________________________ A+ Hydroponics & Organics 1604 Babcock St. Costa Mesa, CA 92627 949-642-7776 The Hydro Source 671 E. Edna Pl. Covina, CA 91723 877 HYDRO 82; 626-915-3128 Let It Grow 1228 2nd St. Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-9086 Pacific Coast Hydroponics 4147 Sepulveda Boulevard Culver City, CA 90230 310-313-1354 Dr. Greenthumbs Hydroponic Garden Supplies 566 San Ramon Valley Blvd. Danville, CA 94526 925-314-9376 Constantly Growing - Davis 123 D St. Davis, CA 95616 530-756-4774 Central Valley Gardening 9884 Stephens St. Delhi, CA 95315 209-668-2178 Constantly Growing 6200 Enterprise Dr., Suite A Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-642-9710 Appleseed Hydroponics 6650 Merchandise Way, Suite B Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-622-5190 Victory Garden Supply 1900 N Lincoln St., #100 Dixon, CA 95620 707-678-5800 Watch It Grow Hydro 9453 Firestone Blvd. Downey, CA USA 562-861-1928 _________________________

East County Garden Depot 1529 North Cuyamaca St El Cajon, CA 92020 (619)270-8649 _________________________ Grow A Lot Hydroponics, San Diego 1591 N. Cuyamaca St. El Cajon, CA 93612 619-749-6777

Indoor Garden Solution Inc. 12424 Exline St. El Monte, CA 91732 626-453-0443 Encinitas Hydroponics 463 Encinitas Blvd. Encinitas, CA 9202 Go Green Hydroponics 15721 Ventura Boulevard Encino, CA 91436 818-990-1198 _________________________

A Fertile World (Eureka) 6th St. Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-0200 _________________________ Bayside Garden Supply 4061 Highway 101 Ste 6 Eureka, CA 95503 707-826-7435 ________________________

Humboldt Hydroponics 1302 Union St. Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-4304 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 60 West 4th St. Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-9999 _________________________ Happy Green Lawn Care 3890 Walnut Dr. Eureka, CA 95534 707-497-6186 Constantly Growing 4301 Hazel Ave. Fair Oaks, CA 95628 916-962-0043 Fallbrook Hydro 208 E Mission Rd., Suite B Fallbrook, CA 92028 760-728-4769 Tulare County Growers Supply 435 W. Noble Ave., Unit A Farmersville, CA 93223 559-732-8247 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - North 6241 Graham Hill Rd. Felton, CA 95018 831-335-9000 _________________________

Eel River Hydroponics & Soil Supply 164 Dinsmore Dr. Fortuna, CA 95540 707-726-0395 _________________________ The Shop 8635 Mirabel Rd. Forestville, CA 95436 866-223-0198; 707-887-2280 Dirt Cheap Hydroponics 17975 H Hwy. 1 Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-964-4211 Headlands Garden Supply 630 North Franklin St. Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-964-4447 Hydrogarden Mendocino County 1240 North Main St. Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-962-9252


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A Fertile World (Fortuna) 610 7th St. Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-0700 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 357 Main St. Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-5550 _________________________ Nature’s Secret Garden and Supply 41451 Albrae St. Fremont, CA 94577 510-623-8393 _________________________

Gro More Gard en Supply & Hydroponics Gro More Garden Supply & Hydroponics 2686 Clovis Ave., Suite 109 Fresno, CA 93727 559-348-1055 _________________________

Roots Grow Supply 1330 North Hulbert, #101 Fresno, CA 93728 559-840-0122 _________________________ North Side Garden Supply 4529 N. Marty, Suite 102 Fresno, CA 93722 559-495-1140 Full Scale Soil & Hydro 2501 Business Park, Suite A Fresno, CA 93727 559 292 ROOT Valley Hydroponics 207 E. Sierra Ave. Fresno, CA 93710 559-449-0426 Grow Wurks Hydroponics 765 S. State College Blvd., Suite J Fullerton, CA 92831 714-253-Grow (4769) SB Hydro 1109 W. 190th St., Unit #F Gardena, CA 90248 310-538-5788 Golden Gecko Garden Center 4665 Marshall Rd. Garden Valley, CA 95633 530-333-2394 Probiotic Solutions 20889 Geyserville Ave. Geyserville, CA 95441 707-354-4342 _________________________

Hydroponics Outlet 320 Kishimura Dr., Unit #3 Gilroy, CA 95020 408-848-0884 _________________________

Zen Hydroponics 1801 Victory Blvd. Glendale, CA 91201 877 ZEN Grow; 818-806-4500 _________________________ Laid Back Gardens 340 Pine Avenue Goleta, CA 93117 805-845-2471

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Grass Valley Hydrogarden 12506 Loma Rica Dr. Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-477-2996 grassvalleyhydrogarden.com _________________________

AG Natural 403 Idaho Maryland Rd. Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-274 0990 _________________________ West Coast Growers Hydroponics 13481 Colifax Hwy. Grass Valley, CA 95945 888-924-4769 530 Hydo & Soil 10021 Wolf Rd. C-16 Grass Velley, CA 95949 Joy’s Green Garden Supply 340-A Elm Ave. Greenfield, CA 93927 831-674-1416 All Seasons Hydroponics 17614 Chatsworth St. Granada Hills, CA 91344 818-368-4388 Dirt Cheap Hydroponic 151 N 7th St. #4 Grover Beach, CA 93433 805-473-3478 Growers Choice Hydroponics 42089 Watkins St. Hayward, CA 94544 510-278-6200 M.G.S. 22540 D FoothillBlvd. Hayward, CA 94541 510-582-0900 American Ave Hydroponics 1208 W. Winton Ave. Hayward, CA 94545 510-785-4376 Thrive Hydroponics 30-A Mill St. Healdsburg, CA 95448 707-433-4068 Hydro Zen 3518 Tanya Ave. Hemet, CA 92545 951-392-5016 Bear Valley Hydroponics & Homebrewing 17455 Bear Valley Rd. Hesperia, CA 92345 760-949-3400 Emerald Garden 13325 South Hwy. 101 Hopland, CA 95482 707-744-8300 Surf City Hydroponics 7391 Warner Ave., Suite B Huntington Beach, CA 92647 714-847-7900 Hydroluv Hydroponics 16582 Gothard St. Huntington Beach, CA 92647 714-916-0428 Dutch Garden Supplies Park Circle, Suite 12 Irvine, CA 92614 949-748-8777 West Coast Hydroponics, Inc. 27665 Forbes Rd., Unit 10 Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 949-348-2424 Hydro Life Hydroponics 18109 E Valley Blvd. La Puente, CA 91744 626-581-8800 La Habra Hydroponics 1301 S Beach Blvd., Suite O La Habra, CA 90631 562-947-8383

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Grass Roots Hydroponics 31875 Corydon, Suite 130 Lake Elsinore, CA 92530 951-245-2390 _________________________

South County Hydroponics 22511 Aspan St., Suite A Lake Forest, CA 92630 949-837-8252 _________________________ Clover Hydroponics & Garden Supply 43 Soda Bay Rd. Lakeport, CA 95453 707-263-4000 _________________________

Valley Rock Landscape Supply 2222 N H St. Lompoc, CA 93436 805-736-0841; 805-735-5921 562 Hydro Shop 717 East Artesia Blvd. Long Beach, CA 90805 562-726-1101 _________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 2405 Mira Mar Ave. Long Beach, CA 90815 562-627-5636 _________________________ Grow Light Express 5318 East Second St., Suite 164 Long Beach, CA 90803 888-318-GROW _________________________

Long Beach Hydroponics & Organics

1772 Clark Ave.

San Diego Hydroponics East County 11649 Riverside Dr., Suite 141 Lakeside, CA 92040 619-562-3276 _________________________

Total Hydroponics Center Inc 4820 Paramount Blvd. Lakewood, CA 90712 562-984-GROW (4769) _________________________ Room to Grow 43511 13th St. W Lancaster, CA 43511 661-940-5599 _________________________

Hydro Bros. 1471 B St., Suite F Livingston, CA 95334 209-394-7319 _________________________ Big Daddy Garden Supply 42400 Hwy. 101 Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-7181 Weather Top Nursery 44901 Harmon Dr. Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-6385 Livermore Hydroponics 22 Rickenbacker Crl. S Livermore, CA 94551 925-454-9376 DL Wholesale 6764 Preston Ave., Suite D Livermore, CA 94551 510-550-0018 _________________________

Long Beach, CA 90815 562-498-9525 _________________________ Atwater Hydroponics 3350 Glendale Blvd. Los Angeles, CA 90039 323-663-8881 _________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 16705 Roscoe Blvd. Los Angeles, CA 91406 818-672-8880 _________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 3865 Grand View Blvd. Los Angeles, CA90066 310-398-0700 _________________________ Green Door Hydro and Solar 830 Traction Ave. Los Angeles, CA 90013 212-625-1323 Hardman Hydroponics 3511 Youree Dr., Shreveport Los Angeles, CA 71105 318-865-0317 Hollywood Hydroponics & Organics 5109 1/2 Hollywood Blvd. Los Angeles, CA 90027-6105 323-662-1908 Hydroasis 2643 S. Fairfax Ave. Los Angeles, CA 90232 888-355-4769 LAX Hydro 10912 S. La Cienaga Boulevard Los Angeles, CA 90304 310-337-6995 Nirvana Hydroponics 340 South San Pedro Los Angeles, CA 90013 310-795-2914 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 6485 Brisa St. Livermore, CA 94550 888-570-4678 (Southern CA) _________________________ VIP Garden Supply 203 Commerce St., Suite 101 Lodi, CA 95240 209-339-9950

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Superior Hydroponic Supply 5651 Hollywood Blvd. Los Angeles, CA 90028 323-465-grow (4769) _________________________

Hydro Bros. 521 Winmoore Way, Suite A Modesto, CA 95358 209-537-8220 _________________________

Green Giant Hydroponics 7183 Hwy. 49 Unit B Lotus, CA 95651 530-622-4465

Growers Choice Hydroponics 1100 Carver Rd. #20 Modesto, CA 95350 209-522-2727

Big Momma’s 11455 Clayton Creek Rd. Lower Lake, CA 95457 707-994-1788

Hydro Max 664 Bitritto CT Modesto, CA 95356 209-491-2816

California Green Hydroponics 16491 Rd., 26, Suite 101 Madera, CA 93638 559-674-1400

Year Round Garden Supply 11000 Carver Rd. #20 Modesto, CA 95350 209-522-2727 _________________________

Grow 22333 Pacific Coast Hwy., Suite 101 Malibu, CA 90265 310-456-2910 Deep Roots Garden Center & Flower Shop 207 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 310-376-0567 B & S Gardening Supplies 592 Commerce Court Manteca, CA 95336 209-239-8648 Monterey Bay Horticulture Supply 218 Reindollar Ave., Suite 7A Marina, CA 93933 831-38-HYDRO Two Chix Garden Supply 1230 Yuba St. Marysville, CA 95901 530-923-2536 _________________________

Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1580 Nursery Way, Suite D McKinleyville, CA 95519 707-839-9998 _________________________ Mendocino Garden Shop 44720 Maint St. (at Hwy. 1) Mendocino, CA 95460 707-937-3459 Hooked Up Hydroponics 1004 W. 15th St. Suite B & C Merced, CA 95340 209-723-1300 Indoor/Outdoor Garden Supply 1501 W. Main St. Merced, CA 95340 209-580-4425 The Urban Farmer Store 653 E. Blithedale Ave. Mill Valley, CA 94941 415-380-3840 Hydroponics Inc. 3811 Wacker Dr. Mira Loma, CA 91752 951-685-4769 Mission Viejo Hydroponics 24002 Via Fabricante Suite 502 Mission Viejo, CA 92691 949-380-1894 Central Valley Gardening 509 Winmoore Way, Suite T Modesto, CA 95358 209-537-GROW

Sunland Hydroponics 4136 Eagle Rock Blvd. Los Angeles, CA 90065 323-254-2800 _________________________

Coca’s Central Valley Hydroponics 116 West Orangeburg Ave. Modesto, CA 95350 209-567-0590

Green Light Hydroponics 2615 Honolula Ave. Montrose, CA 91020 818-640-2623 _________________________ 247 Garden 1101 Monterey Pass Rd., Unit B Monterey Park, CA 91754 323-318-2600 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - Mtn. View 569 East Evelyn Ave. Mountain View, CA 94041 650-968-4070 Murphys Hydroponics & Organics 785 Murphys Creek Rd., Suite C2 Murphys, CA 95247 209-728-8058 Redwood Garden Supply 55 Myers Ave. Myers Flat, CA 95554 707-943-1515 _________________________

Endless Green Hydroponics 25 Enterprise Court, Suite 3 Napa, CA 94558 707-254-0200 _________________________ Wyatt Supply 4407 Solano Ave. Napa, CA 94558 707-251-3747 _________________________ Conejo Hydroponics 3481 Old Conejo Rd., #106 Newbury Park, CA 91320 805-480-9596 _________________________

Vital Landscaping Inc. 204 Gold Flat Ct. #7 Nevada City, CA 95959 530-273-3187 _________________________ Big Momma’s 2581 Stokes Ave. Nice, CA 95464 707-274-8369 Foothill Hydroponics 10705 Burbank Blvd. N. Hollywood, CA 91601 818-760-0688

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

One Stop Hydroponics 12822 Victory Blvd N. Hollywood, CA 91606 818-980-5855

Greenback Garden Supply 9341 Greenback Ln., Suite C Orangevale, CA 95662 530-391-4329

New Leaf Hydro 34150 123rd St. Parablossom, CA 93553 661-944-2226

Mission Hydroponics 1236 East Mission Pomona, CA 91766 909-620-7099

Lumatek Digital Ballasts 33 Commercial Boulevard, Suite B Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4273

Igro Hydro 2280 Veatch St. Oroville, CA 95965 530-534-4476 _________________________

Alternative Hydro 3870 East, Colorado Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91107 888-50-HYDRO

Hand’s On Hydroponics 3320 North Cedar Ave. Presno, CA 93726 559-222-7770

Marin Hydroponics 1219 Grant Ave. Novato, CA 94945 415-897-2197 Roots Grow Supply 40091 Enterprise Dr. Oakhurst, CA 93644 559-683-6622 3rd Street Hydroponics 692 4th St. Oakland, CA 94607 510-452-5521 Grass Valley 1920 E 12 St. Oakland, CA 94606 Medicine Man Farms 1602 53rd Ave. Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Plant-N-Grow 1602 53rd Ave. Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Hydrobrew 1319 South Coast Hwy. Oceanside, CA 92054 760-966-1885; 877-966-GROW Socal Hydroponics 1727-B Oceanside Blvd. Oceanside, CA 92054 760-439-1084 Cultivate Ontario 2000 Grove Ave. #a110 Ontario, CA 91761 909-781-6142

Advanced Soil & Garden Supply 350 Oro Dam Blvd. Oroville, CA 95965 530-533-2747 _________________________ Orville Organic Gardens 5250 Olive Hwy., Suite 1 Oroville, CA 95966 530-589-9950 Amazon Garden Supply 29 Ridge View Lane Oroville, CA 95966 530-589-5054 Amazon Greenlight 521 Cal Oak Rd. Oroville, CA 95966 530-534-4769 Amazon Growing Needs 5369 Old Olive Hwy. Oroville, CA 95966 530-589-9850 US Orchid & Hydroponic Supplies 1621 South Rose Ave. Oxnard, CA 93033 805-247-0086 _________________________

Flairform 1751 S Pointe Ave. Ontario, CA 91761 213-596-8820 _________________________

Green Coast Ontario Unit 102-103 1920 S. Rochester Ave. Ontario, CA 909-605-5777 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 1950 C South Grove Ave. Ontario, CA 91761 888-888-3319 _________________________ Palm Tree Hydroponics 2235 E 4th St., Suite G Ontario, CA 91764 909-941-9017 _________________________

America’s Best Hydroponics & Gardening Center 641 W. Palmdale Blvd., Unit D Palmdale, CA 93551 661-266-3906 _________________________

Hydroponics Unlimited 641 W. Palmdale Blvd., D Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-3906 _________________________

174

Garden All Year Inc. 3850 Ramada Dr., Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333 Supersonic Hydroponic & Organic Garden Supply 3850 Ramada Dr., Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333 Foothills Hydrogarden 3133 Penryn Rd. Penryn, CA 95663 916-270-2413 _________________________

Four Seasons Landscape Materials 17115 Penn Valley Dr. Penn Valley, CA 95946 530-432-9906 _________________________ Deep Roots Hydroponics 830 Perry Lane Petaluma, CA 94954-5320 707-776-2800 _________________________

DNA Hydroponics Inc 19345 North Indian Canyon Dr., Suite 2-F N. Palm Springs, CA 92258 760-671-5872 _________________________

Green Bros Hydroponics 14072 Osborne St. Panorama City, CA 91402 818-891-0200 _________________________ Mission Hydroponics 1236 East Mission Pomona, CA 91766 909-620-7099

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

Emerald Garden 8249 Archibald Ave. Ranch Cucamanga, CA 91730 909-466-3796 The Growbiz 3127 Fite Circle Rancho Cordova, CA 95827 916-315-3580 Shadow Valley Aquatics 75 Kimick Way Red Bluff, CA 96080 530-526-0479 Bare Roots Hydroponics 1615 East Cypress, #5 Redding, CA 96002 530-244-2215 Hydro King 105 Hartnell Ave., Suite C and D Redding, CA 96002 888-822-8941 _________________________

The Hydro Shop of Redondo Beach 1304 S. Pacific Coast Hwy Redondo Beach, CA 90277 310-540-2005 _________________________ Radiant Roots Gardening & Hydroponics 1394 S Pacific Coast Hwy. Redondo Beach, CA 90277 310-540-2005 _________________________

Funny Farms Hydroponics 963 Transport Way, #12 Petaluma, CA 94954 707-775-3111 _________________________

Dazey’s Supply 3082 Redwood Dr. Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3002 _________________________

House of Hydro 224 Weller St., #B Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-4769

Humboldt Hydroponics 2010 Tunnel Rd. Redway, CA 95560 707-923-1402

Hydrofarm, Inc. 2249 South McDowell Ext. Petaluma, CA 94954 800-634-9990

Redway Feed Garden & Pet Supply 290 Briceland Rd. Redway, CA 95560 707-923-2765

Wyatt Supply 1016 Lakeville St Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-3747 JNJ Hydroponics 4774 Phelan Rd., Suite 2 Phelan, CA 92371 760-868-0002

RH Distribution 1751 S. Pointe Ave. Ontario, CA 91761 888-545-8112 _________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 496 Meats Ave. Orange, CA 92865 714-974-4769 _________________________

365 Hydroponics 2062 Lincoln Ave. Pasadena, CA 91103 626-345-9015

Turbo Grow 1889 San Pablo Ave. Pinole, CA 94564 510-724-1291 All Elements Hydroponics & Gardening Supply 5623 Motherlode Dr. Placerville, CA 95667 530-642-4215

Sylvandale Gardens 1151 Evergreen Rd. Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3606 Orsa Organix 111 Willow St. Redwood City, CA 94063 650-369-1269 _________________________

Mendocino Greenhouse & Garden Supply 960 East School Way Redwood Valley, CA 95470 707-485-0668

Hillside Hydro & Garden 4570 Pleasant Valley Rd. Placerville CA 95662 530-644-1401

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IGS Hydroponics & Organics 57 California Ave., Suite 1 Pleasonton, CA 94566 925-426-GROW

Hi-Tech Gardening 5327 Jacuzzi St., #282 Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-4710

Best Yield Garden Supply 3503 West Temple Ave., Unit A Pomona, CA 91768 909-839-0505

Hydro Hills Hydroponics 19320 Vanowen St. Reseda, CA 91335

The Urban Farmer Store 2121 San Joaquin St. Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-1604

All Ways Hydro 2220 Eastridge Ave., Suite C Riverside, CA 92507 888-HYDRO98 Calwest Hydroponics 11620 Sterling Ave., Suite A Riverside, CA 92503 800-301-9009 _________________________

Discount Hydroponics 4745 Hiers Ave. Riverside, CA 92505 877-476-9487 _________________________ Green Forest Hydro 570 E La Cadena Dr., Suite #1D Riverside, CA 92507 951-784-5733, Fax 951-704-4633 Hydro Depot 5665 Redwood Dr., #B Rohnert Park, CA 94928 707-584-2384 Constantly Growing 1918 16th St. Sacramento, CA 95811 916-448-1882 Green Acres Hydroponics 1215 Striker Ave., Suite 180 Sacramento, CA 95834 916-419-4394 Greenfire Sacramento 3230 Auburn Blvd. Sacramento, CA 95821 916-485-8023 Green Thumb Hydroponics 1537 Fulton Ave. Sacramento, CA 95825 916-934-2476

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Reforestation Technologies International 1341 Daton St., Unit G Salinas, CA 93901 800-784-4769 _________________________

Xtreme Gardening 1341 Dayton St., Annex B Salinas, CA 93901 800-784-4769 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 1900 Bendixsen St., Bldg. 1 Samoa, CA 95564 800-683-1114 (Northern CA) _________________________ Sanger Garden Supply 725 Academy Ave. Sanger, CA 93657 559-259-7597 Greenmile Hydroponic Garden Supply 1480 South E. St., Suite D San Bernardino, CA 92408 909-885-5919 Pure Food Gardening/ Microclone 830 H Bransten Rd. San Carlos, CA 94070-3338 _________________________

Green Thumb Hydroponics 35 Quinta Court, Suite B Sacramento, CA 95823 916-689-6464 _________________________

KY Wholesale 8671 Elder Creek Rd. #600 Sacramento, CA 95828 916-383-3366 _________________________ Hydro City 8510 Morrison Creek Dr. Suite 200 Sacramento, CA 95828 916-388-8333 J Street HydroGarden 2321 J St. Sacramento, CA 95816 916-444-4473 Mystic Gardens 8484 Florin Rd., #110 Sacramento, CA 95828 916-381-2464 Sac Hydroponics 9529 Folson Blvd., Suite C Sacramento, CA 95827 916-369-7968 Skywide Import & Export Ltd. 5900 Lemon Hill Ave. Sacramento, CA 95824 916-383-2369 Tradewinds Wholesale Garden Supplies 1235 Striker Ave. #180 Sacramento, CA 95834 888-557-8896 Green Joint Ventures 61 Tarp Circle Salinas, CA 93901 831-998-8628

Green Gopher Garden Supply 679 Redwood Ave., Suite A Sand City, CA 93955 831-899-0203 _________________________ Best Coast Growers 4417 Glacier Ave., Suite C San Diego, CA 92120 800-827-1876 City Farmer’s Nursery 4832 Home Ave San Diego, CA 92105 619-284-6358 Home Brews & Gardens 3176 Thorn St. San Diego, CA 92104 619-630-2739 Indoor Garden Depot 1848 Commercial St. San Diego, CA 92113 619-255-3552 Innovative Growing Solutions (IGS) 5060 Santa Fe St., Suite D San Diego, CA 92109 858-578-4477 _________________________

Mighty Garden Supply 4780 Mission Gorge Pl. #A-1 San Diego, CA 92120 619-287-3238 _________________________ Miramar Hydroponics & Organics 8952 Empire St. San Diego, CA 92126 858-549-8649


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Oracle Garden Supply 5755 Oberlin Dr., Suite 100 San Diego, CA 92121 858-558-6006 _________________________

San Diego Hydroponics Beach Cities 4122 Napier St. San Diego, CA 92110 619-276-0657 _________________________ Direct Hydroponics Wholesale 1034 W. Arrow Hwy. #D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 _________________________

House of Hydroponics 732 W. Arrow Hwy. San Dimas, CA 91773 877-592-5111; 909-592-5111 _________________________ Liquid Gardens 1034 West Arrow Hwy. #D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 _________________________

Grow Your Own Hydroponics & Organics - West 3401 Taraval St. san Francisco, CA 94116 415-731-2115 _________________________ Hydro Depot 2090 Cesar Chavez St. San Francisco, CA 94124 415-282-5200 The Hydroponic Connection Warehouse 1995 Evans Ave. San Francisco, CA 94124 415-824-9376 The Hydroponic Connection San Francisco 1549 Custer Ave. San Francisco, CA 94124 415-864-9376 Nor Cal Hydroponics 4837 Geary Blvd. San Francisco, CA 94118 415-933-8262 Plant It Earth Warehouse 1 Dorman Ave. San Francisco, CA 94124 415-970-2465 San Francisco Hydro 123 Tenth St. San Francisco, CA 94103 Urban Gardens 1394 Lowrie St. San Francisco, CA 94080 650-588-5792 _________________________

US Garden 417 Agostinio Rd. San Gabriel, CA 91776 626-285-5009

San Rafael Hydroponics 1417 Fourth St. San Rafael, CA 94901 415-455-9655

Hydro Depot 13 West 3rd St. Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-542-3866

Inland Empire Hydrogarden 1301-C South State St. San Jancinto, CA 92853 _________________________

55 Hydroponics 1727 Boyd St. Santa Ana, CA 92705 714-259-7755

Organic Bountea 1919 Dennis Lane Santa Rosa, CA 95403 800-798-0765

Glow Hydroponics 124-H Blossom Hill Rd. San Jose, CA 95123 408-455-7720 _________________________ Hahn’s Lighting 260 E. VA Suite 1 San Jose, CA 95112 408-295-1755 Plant Life 32 Race St. San Jose, CA 95126 408-283-9191 _________________________

Rasa Hydroponics 5725 Winfield Blvd., Suite 8 San Jose, CA 95123 408-227-7272 _________________________ Sunny Tool 580 Parrott St. San Jose, CA 95112 408-278-1800 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - San Jose 1185 South Bascom Ave. San Jose, CA 95128 408-292-4040 Urban Gardens 1999 Monterey Rd. San Jose, CA 95125 408-298-8081 Beach Cities Hydroponics 33155 Camino Capistrano Unit F. San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675 949-493-4200 D&S Garden Supplies 17-130 Doolittle Dr. San Leandro, CA 94577 510-430-8589 Hydrogarden Delight 13762 Doolittle Dr. San Leandro, CA 94577 510-903-1808 Central Coast Hydrogarden 1951 Santa Barbara St. San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-544-GROW Healthy Harvest Hydroponics and Organics 2958 S. Higuera St. San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-596-0430 _________________________

Gro Pro Garden Supply 841 Racheros Dr. San Marcos, CA 1906 760-735-8604 _________________________

San Diego Hydroponics North County Inland 802 N. Twin Oaks Valley Rd #108 San Marcos, CA 92069 760-510-1444 _________________________

Urban Gardens. 704 Filbert St. San Francisco, CA 94133 415-421-4769 _________________________

Murphy’s Hydroponics & Organics 799 W. Stocktan St. Sanora, CA 95370 209-532-2022

The Urban Farmer Store 2833 Vicente St. San Francisco, CA 94116 415-661-2204

Marin Hydroponics 721 Francisco Blvd. East San Rafael, CA 94901 415-482-8802

Nutes Int’l 204 N Quarantina St. Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-687-6699 _________________________

Sonoma Hydro LLC 3535 Industrial Dr., Suite B2-3 Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-544-3383 _________________________

Green Coast Hydroponics 135 Nogal Dr. Santa Barbara, CA 93110 805-898-9922 _________________________ Planet Earth Hydroponics 102 East Haley St. Santa Barbara, CA 93101 805-899-0033 _________________________

Urban Grow Systems 204 N Quarantina St. Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-637-6699 _________________________ Modern Gardens 26620 Valley Center Dr., Unit #104 Santa Clarita, CA 91351 661-513-4733 _________________________

Santa Clarita Valley Hydroponics 25835 Railroad Ave. #26 Santa Clarita, CA 91350 661-255-3700; 661-255-3701 _________________________ Hydro-Logic Purification Systems 370 Encinal St., Suite 150 Santa Cruz, CA 95060 888-H2O-LOGIC Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - West Side 815 Almar Ave., Unit K Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-466-9000 Hydrofarm Southwest 12991 Leffingwell Rd. Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670 800-634-9990

Santa Rosa Hydroponics 4880 Sonoma Hwy. Santa Rosa, CA 707-595-1340

Garden Spout, The 1236 Briggs Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-528-3500 Deep Roots Hydroponics 3715 Santa Rosa Ave. Suite A2 Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-540-0773 Gottagrow Garden Supply 769 Wilson St. Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-544-7782 _________________________

Green Logic Garden Supply 860 Piner Rd, #38 Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-843-3156 _________________________

Advanced Garden Supply 2660 Lake Tahoe Blvd. Building C, Unit 9 S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-4769 ________________________ Farm Hydroponics, The 1950 Lake Tahoe Boulevard #3 S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-3276 East County Hydroponics 9903 Campo Rd. Spring Valley, CA 91977 619-825-5097 ________________________

Santa Rosa Hydroponics 4130 S Moorland Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 707-584-9370 _________________________ Wyatt Supply 747 Yolanda Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-578-3747 Next Generation Hydroponics 10658 Prospect Ave., Suite A Santee, CA 92071 619-438 2415 Santee Hydroponics 7949 Mission Gorge Rd. Santee, CA 92071 619-270-8649 Gardening Unlimited 60 Old El Pueblo Rd. Scotts Valley, CA 95066 831-457-1236

Orange County Hydroponics 12797 Beach Blvd. Stanton, CA 90680 714-893-9493 ________________________

HomeGrown Indoor Garden Supply 681 A Grider Way Stockton, CA 95210 209-477-4447 ________________________

Hydro Depot 6731 Sebastopol Ave. Sebastopol, CA 95472 707-829-1510

M&M Garden Supply 2509 West Lane, Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 209-939-0664

loom Brothers Garden Supply, Inc. 3293 Industry Dr. Signal Hill, CA 90755 562-494-0060 ________________________

Pacific Ave Indoor Garden Supply 4633 Pacific Ave Stockton, CA 95207 209-955-0945

Green Universe Inc. 19618 8th St. E Sonoma, CA 95476 707-320-0554 Valley Hydro and Organics 19230 Sonoma Hwy. Sonoma, CA 95476 707-396-8734 Motherlode Hydroponics and Organics 799 W Stockton St. Sonora, CA 95370 209-532-2022 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - East Side 4000 Cordelia Lane Soquel, CA 95073 831-475-9900

Grass Roots Hydroponics 27250 Madison Ave. Suite C Temecula, CA 92590 951-296-1090 ________________________ Hydroponics 4 Less 41669 Winchester Ave. Temecula, CA 92590 800-A1-HYDRO Inland Empire Hydrogarden 28822 Old Town Front St. #206 Temecula, CA 92590 886-74-HYDRO

Green Thumb Lighting & Garden 1647 W. Sepulveda Blvd., Unit 5 Torrance, CA 90501 888-326-GROW Los Angeles Hydroponics & Organics 3007-3009 W. Artesia Blvd. Torrance, CA 90504 310-323-4937

Deep Roots Hydroponics 2661 Gravenstein Hwy. S #E Sebastopol, CA 95472-8200 707-829-7668

We Grow Hydroponics 3350 East Los Angeles Ave. Simi Valley, CA 93063 805-624-4566 ________________________

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805 Hydroponics & Organics 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Blvd. Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-494-1785

Golden Harvest Hydroponics & Garden Supply 8626 Lower Sacramento Road #48 Stockton, CA 95210 209-951-3550

California Hydroponics 600 N. Broadway Santa Maria CA 93454 805-614-9376 Big Daddy Garden Supply 3236 Dutton Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-535-0996

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Hydroponics Depot 8712 Sunland Blvd. Sun Valley, CA 91352 818-771-0600 ________________________

Growers Choice Hydroponics 470 W. Larch Rd. #1 Tracy, CA 95304 209-833-1212 Tracy Hydroponics 543 W. Grant Line Tracy, CA 95376 209-207-9065 Anything Grows 10607 W. River St., Bldg. 3 Suite C Truckee, CA 96161 530-582-0479 Aloha Hydroponics 225 Lander Ave. Turlock, CA 95380 209-667-6653 Garden Depot Hydroponics 1460 Freitas Park Turlock, CA 95380 209-250-0101 Hooked Up Hydroponics 339 S. Golden State Blvd. Turlock, CA 95380 209-668-1300 Big Daddy Garden Supply 310 Mason St. Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-9234

Sunland Hydroponics 8300 Foothill Blvd. Sunland, CA 91040 818-352-5300 ________________________ South Bay Hydroponics & Organics - Sunnyvale 1205 W. El Camino Real Sunnyvale, CA 94087 650-968-4070 Beyond Hydro Inc. 12639 San Fernando Rd. Sylmar, CA 91342 818-362-5373

Emerald Garden 307 East Perkins St. Ukiah, CA 95482 707-463-2510 HydroPacific - Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 351 C Hastings Ave. Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-0400 Northcoast Hydrogardens 3450 North State St. Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7214

Tahoe Garden Supply 645 Westlake Blvd., Suite 2 Tahoe City, CA 96145 530-581-3200

Wyatt Supply 2200 N. State St. Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7473

The Otherside Hydroponics 19425 Ventura Blvd. Tarzana, CA 91356 818-881-HYDRO (4937)

TNC Supply 9490 Main St., P.O. Box 763 Upper Lake, CA 95485 707-275-9565

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors ________________________

North Bay Hydroponics 1650 Lewis Brown Dr. Vallejo, CA 94589 707-647-0774 ________________________

Green Coast 16705 Roscoe Blvd. Van Nuys, CA 91406 818-672-8880 ________________________ Hydroponics Market 15816 Arminta St. Van Nuys, CA 91406 818-305-6261; 886-72-HYDRO Blazzin Hydroponics 6650 Cresent St. Ventura, CA 93003 805-644-9376 Kinney Nursery 4115 Rowles Rd. Vina, CA 96092 530-839-2196 The Green Shop 66420 Mooney Blvd., Suite 1 Visalia, CA 93277 559-688-4200 ________________________

BWGS-CA 7530 W. Sunnyview Ave. Visalia, CA 93291 888-316-1306 ________________________ Kaweah Grower Supply 1106 1/2 N. Ben Maddox Way Visalia, CA 93293 559-625-4937 Greentrees Hydroponics Inc. 2581 Pioneer Ave., Unit D Vista, CA 92081 760-598-7551 Home Life Hydroponics and Organics 1745 East Vista Way Vista, CA 92084 760-643-2150 ________________________

Flower Hut Nursery 603 4th St. Wheatland, CA 95692 530-633-4526

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GreenWay Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Blvd. Whittier, CA 90601

The Big Tomato Indoor Garden Supply 14440 E. 6th Ave. Aurora, CO 80011 303-364-4769 _________________________

Lazy Gardeners Hydroponics ‘N’ More 14626 East Whittier Blvd. Whittier, CA 90605 562-945-0909 Garden Spout, The 260 Margie Dr. Willits, CA 95490 707-456-0196 ________________________

Evergreen Farm Feed and Garden 1131 Main St. Weaverville, CA 96093 530-623-2884

Jolly Rancher Hydroponics 399 Business Park Ctr., Suite 205 Windsor, CA 95492 707-838-0842 ________________________ Green Acres 20946 Victory Blvd. Woodland Hills, CA 91367 Sparetime Supply 208 E. San Francisco Ave. Willits, CA 95490-4006 Farmer Browns Garden Supply 80 Country Club Rd. Willow Creek, CA 95573 530-629-3100 Urban Gardens 22516 Ventura Blvd. Woodland Hills, CA 91364 818-876-0222 ________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 _________________________ Garden Highway Garden Supply 598 Garden Highway #22 Yuba City, CA 95991 530-755-2877 Golden Valley Hydroponics 870 W. Onsott Rd. Suite F Yuba City, CA 95993 530-763-2151

Yucca Valley Hydroponics 56825 Twentynine Palms Hwy. Yucca Valley, CA 92284 760-369-0300

COLORADO South Park Hydroponics 42 E Buckskin Rd. Alma, CO 80420 719-836-1533

Art of Hydro 5740 Corsa Ave. #102 Westlake Village, CA 91362 818-865-2227

Green Spot Garden Center & Antiques 711 State Ave. Alamosa, CO 81101 719-589-6362

California Hydro Garden 1043 S. Glendora Ave., Suite A West Covina, CA 91790 626-813-0868

The Hydro Store 6695 Wadsworth Blvd. #C Arvada, CO 80004 720-328-3746

No Stress Hydroponics 7543 Santa Monica Blvd. W. Hollywood, CA 90046 323-845-9874

The Grofax 25797 Conifer Rd. #A-8 Aspen Park, CO 80433 303-838-5520

Hydronation 2491 Boatman Dr., Suite B W. Sacramento, CA 95691 916-372-4444

Aurora Hydroponic LLC 4250 S Chambers Rd. Aurora, CO 80014 303-400-6941

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National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 3550 B Odessa Way Aurora, CO 80011 866-877-4188 (Northeast) _________________________

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

J&D Organic Growing Solutions 217 1/2 Clayton St. Brush, CO 80723 970-310-5408

Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 666 S. Buchtel Blvd. Denver, CO 80210 303-954-9919

Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 439 Edwards Access Rd Unit B101 Edwards, CO 81632 970-926-2100

BIG BloomZ 1011 Caprice Dr. Castle Rock, CO 80109 303-688-0599

Greenlight Garden Supply 7741 E Colfax Ave. Denver, CO 80220 720-389-8320

Indoor Garden Warehouse 8100 S Akron St., Suite 322 Centennial, CO 80112 720-496-2110

The Grofax 7540 East Colfax Ave. Denver, CO 80220 720-328-2127

Bath Nursery & Garden Center 2000 E. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-5022

Indoor Gardener, The 3225 I-70 Business Loop, Unit A10 Clifton, Co 81520 970-434-9999

The Grofax 755 South Federal Blvd. Denver, CO 80219 720-328-5164

Garden Tech 737 Garden of the Gods Rd. Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-278-9777

The Grow Outlet 4272 Lowell Blvd. Denver, CO 80211 303-586-5543 _________________________

Grotools 2408 East Platte Ave. Colorado Springs, CO 80909 719-475-7699

Southern Humbolt Garden Supplies 31653 Outer Highway 10 Yacaipa, CA 92373 909-794-6888 Specialty Garden Supply 7 Hangar Way, Suite B Watsonville, CA 95075 831-768-0420 ________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Nick’s Garden Center 2001 S. Chambers Aurora, CO 80014 303-696-6657 ________________________ Rooted Hydroponics & Organics – Vail 910 Nottingham Road Unit N-11 & N-12 Avon, CO 81620 970-748-1222 ________________________

\ Black Dog LED 2885 Aurora Ave. #38 Boulder, CO 80303 720-420-1209 sales@blackdogLED.com ________________________ Boulder Hydroponics 1630 N 63rd St. Boulder, CO 80301 303-415-0045 Candy Shop Hydroponics LLC 2740 Canyon Blvd. Boulder, CO 80302 303-444-3355 One Love Garden Supply 3620 Walnut St. Boulder, CO 80301 303-586-1715 Polar Ray 5171 Eldorado Springs Dr. Boulder, CO 80303 303-494-5773 Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 2125 32 St. Boulder, CO 80301 303-996-6100 Way To Grow 6395 Gunpark Dr. Boulder, CO 80301 303-473-4769 Deep Roots Garden Supply 1790 Airport Rd., Unit 1 Breckenridge, CO 80424 970-453-1440 Mile High Hydroponics 37 Strong St. Brighton, CO 80601 303-637-0069 ________________________

ACME Hydroponics 300 Nickel St., Suite 3 Broomfield, CO 80020 720-524-7306 ________________________ Hydrofarm Mountain 400 Burbank St. Broomfield, CO 80020 800-634-9990

Greenhouse Tech 917 East Fillmore Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-634-0637 Hydro Grow Supply 644 Peterson Rd. Colorado Springs, CO 80915 719-596-2600 Purple Mountain Hydroponics LLC 1530 S Nevada Ave. Colorado Springs, CO 80906 719-635-5859 Room To Grow LLC 422 South 8th St. Colorado Springs, CO 80905 719-633-8682 Roots and Rocks Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 1014 S. 21st St. Colorado Springs, CO 80904 719-634-1024 ________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 5275 Quebec St. Commerce City, CO 80022 720-222-0772 _________________________ Grow Your Own 27051 Barkley Rd. Conifer, CO 80433 303-816-GROW (4769) Happy Grow Lucky 11873 Springs Rd. Conifer, CO 80433 1-303-838-8700 Whetstone Garden Supply 300 Belleview Ave. Crested Butte, CO 81224 970-349-9666 Global Organics & Hydroponics 11 N Broadway Cortez, CO 81321 970-564-8100 Joy of Growing 1410 Valley View Dr. Delta, CO 81416 970-874-2550 _________________________

BWGS-CO 11685 E. 55th Ave. Denver, CO 80239 888-316-1306 _________________________

Chlorophyll 3801 Mariposa St. Denver, CO 80211 303-433-1155 _________________________

Grow Your Own 2118 S Bellaire St. Denver, CO 80222 303-990-1929 _________________________ Hydro Terra Corp 3893 Steele St. Denver, CO 80205 954-260-3377 HyGrow Indoor Gardening Supplies 6271 Beach St., Unit F Denver, CO 80221 303-396-1420 Indoor Paradise Denver 7100 N Broadway, Suite 3D & E Denver, CO 80221 303-428-5020 NoDo Urban Garden Supply 1330 27th St. Denver, CO 80205 303-296-3424

Gold Coast Hydroponics West 8101 S.W. Frontage Rd. Suite 300 Fort Collins, Co 80528 970-232-3220 The Grow Shop LLC 1711 S. College Avenue Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-1042 Indoor Paradise Hydroponics 309 S. Summit View, Unit 17, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1462 970-221-3751 Way To Grow 3201 E. Mulberry Street, Fort Collins, CO 80524 970-484-4769 _________________________

Hydro Shack, The 753 10 Mile Drive Frisco, CO 80443 970-668-0359 _________________________ Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 7800 Colorado 82 #203 Glenwood Springs, Co 81601 970-947-9551 Green Head Hydroponics 809 E. Jasper Court Granby, CO 80446 970-557-3031 _________________________

Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 1717 39th Ave. Denver, CO 80205 800-58-HYDRO Ultimate Hydroponics & Organics 2380 S. Broadway Denver, CO 80210 303-282-0034 Way To Grow 301 East 57th Ave. Denver, CO 80216 303-296-7900 _________________________

Desert Bloom Hydroponics 445 Pitkin Ave., Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-245-6427 _________________________ Greeley Nutrients 700 11th Street Unit 101 Greeley, CO 80631 970-673-8302 Green Thumb Garden Supply Co. 2830 W 27th St. Greeley, CO 80634 970-506-1711

All Seasons Gardening 434 Turner Dr., Suite 2B Durango, CO 81303 970-385-4769 _________________________ Blue Sky Hydroponics 1301 Florida Road Unit C Durango, CO 81301 970-375-1238 DHL Garden Supply 178 Bodo Dr.Unit B Durango, Co 81303 970-247-1090 _________________________

The Grow Store South 5050 S. Federal Boulevard, #37, Englewood, CO 80110 303-738-0202 _________________________

The Grow Shop LLC 1701 Greeley Mall Rd. Greeley, CO 80631 970-352-5447 _________________________

Your Grow Bud 6801 South Emporia St., Suite 106 Greenwood Village, CO 80112 303-790-2211 _________________________ Green Gardens 133 E. Tomichi Ave. Gunnison, CO 81230 970-641-1161 Grow in Peace 1241 Mine Rd. Idaho Springs, CO 80452 303-567-GROW GroWize 3225 S. Wadsworth Blvd. Lakewood, CO 80227 303-986-2706


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The Grow Store 8644 W. Colfax Ave, Lakewood, CO 80215 888-510-0350 _________________________

MileHydro 355 S. Harlan St. Lakewood, CO 80226 303-935-4769 _________________________ Way to Grow 11989 West Colfax Ave. Lakewood, CO 80215 303-546-3600 The Flower Bin 1805 Nelson Rd. Longmont, CO 80501 303-772-3454 _________________________

Victory Hydro Gardening 1387 E. South Boulder Rd. Louisville, CO, 80027 303-664-9376 _________________________ WarHammer Supply 1112 Munroe Ave. Loveland, CO 80537 970-635-2602 Colorado Hydroponics & Organics 2740 Commercial Way, Unit 1 Montrose, CO 81401 970-252-7450 Greener Mountain Indoor Gardening 20 Lakeview Dr., Unit 210 Nederland, CO 80466 303-258-7573 Grow in Peace 176 Hwy. 119 S. Nederland, CO 80466 303-258-3520 Grow Depot 1434 W. 104th Ave. Northglenn, CO 80234 303-459-7878 Four Corners Organics & Hydroponics LLC 68 Bastille Unit #3, PO Box 627 Pagosa Springs, CO 81147 970-731-1685 _________________________

Majestic Hydro-Gardening 860 Hwy. 105 Palmer Lake, CO 80133 719-481-0777 _________________________ Pueblo Hydroponicss and Organics - Downtown 113 W 4th St. Pueblo, CO 81003 719-542-6798 Pueblo Hydroponics and Organics- South 2704 S Prarie Ave., Suite C Pueblo, CO 81005 719-564-2660 Pueblo Hydroponics and Organics 609 E Enterprise Dr. Pueblo West, CO 81007 709-647-0907 Salida Hydroponic Supply 1242 C St., Salida, CO 81201 719-539-4000

Little Shop of Growers 2560 Copper Ridge Dr. Steamboat Springs, CO 80487 970-879-8577

Palm Coast Hydroponics 4490 N Hwy US1, Suite 108 Bunnell, FL 32110 386-246-4119

Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 7615 W.38th Ave., Suite B111 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-954-9897

East Coast Hydroponics & Organics 461 Forrest Ave., Suite 105 Coca, FL 32922 321-243-6800

Hydro Planet 5022 Kippling St. Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-279-6090

GreenTouch Hydroponics Inc. 5011 S State Rd. 7, Suite 104 Davie, FL 33314 954-316-8815

CONNECTICUT

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CT Home Grown 45 South Canterbury Rd. Canterbury, CT 06331 860-546-6161 _________________________ Grow Crazy 11 Berlin Rd., Unit 2 Cromwell, CT 06416 203-660-8486 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 775 Silver Lane E. Hartford, CT 06118 860-568-4067 LiquidSun® CT 10C South Main St. E. Windsor, CT 06088 860-254-5757 _________________________

Rogue Hydroponics 160 Broadway Hamden, CT 06518 866-277-4432 _________________________ Organix Hydroponics 749 Saybrook Rd., (Tradewinds Plaza) Middletown, CT 06457 860-343-1923 _________________________

Absolute Hydroponic Garden Center Inc 336 North Boundary Ave. Deland, FL 32720 386-734-0696 Organic Grow Hut 2 780 Deltona Blvd. #107 Deltona, Fl 32725 1-888-574-GROW; 386-259-5777 _________________________

Grow with Us 10 Middle River Dr. Stafford Springs, CT 06076 860-684-1595

Delaware 1st State Seed And Garden Supply People’s Plaza Suite 950 Newark, DE 19702 302-834-0440 Sunny Day Organics 1867 Coastal Hwy. Rehoboth Beach, DE 19917 302-703-2538

FLORIDA Urban Sunshine 1420 E. Altamonte Dr. Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 407-830-4769 Full Bloom Hydroponics 1489 W. Palmetto Boca Raton, FL 33486 888-725-4769 Best Hydro 4920 Lena Rd. Bradenton, FL 34211 941-756-1928

Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – West 14703 Southern Blvd. Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-296-8555 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2975 West New Haven Ave. Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-0853 ________________________ Advanced Hydro Gardens 4960 NW 165 St., Suite B-4 Miami, FL 33014 305-474-4376 All Star Hydroponics Inc 8901 SW 129th St. Miami, FL 33176 800-842-8582

Biofloral 6250 NW 27th Way Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 877-735-6725 _________________________

Blossoms Experience, The 7207 NW 54th St. Miami, FL 33166 866-452-4769 _________________________

Gold Coast Hydroponics 1539 SW 21st Ave. Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312 1-800-780-7371 Green Thumb Hydroponics Supplies 13482 North Cleveland Ave. Fort Meyers, FL 33903 239-997-4769

Florida Garden Supplies 9545 Sunset Dr. Miami, FL 33173 800-931-5215 _________________________

Gator Hydroponics 4460 SW 35th Terrace, Suite 310 Gainesville, FL 32608 352-301-5383 _________________________

Future Farms Inc., The 14291 SW 120th St., Suite 105 Miami, FL 33186 305-382-2757

Florida Garden Supplies 2692 W 79 St. Hialeah, FL 33016 1-800-931-5215 _________________________

Good To Grow 335 Westport Ave. Norwalk, CT 06851 203-956-5600 www.goodtogrowct.com _________________________

GrowSmart Indoor Garden Centers 14587 Southern Blvd. Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-429-3527

Simply Hydroponics & Organics (North) 3642 South Suncoast Blvd. Homosassa, FL 34448 352-628-2655 _________________________

Grower’s Choice & Hydroponics 11855 North Main St. Jacksonville, FL 32218 904-683-4517 _________________________

Growers Choice South 8535 Baymeadows Rd., Suite 13 Jacksonville, FL 32256 904-647-7156 _________________________ Hydroponics International Inc. 7029-10 Commonwealth Ave. Jacksonville, FL 32220 904-693-6554 Urban Organics & Hydroponics 5325 Fairmont St. Jacksonville, FL 32207 904-398-8012 Simply Hydroponics & Organics 7949 Ulmerton Rd. Largo, FL 33773 727-531-5355

Gold Coast Hydroponics 4241 SW 71st Ave. Miami, FL 33155 1-800-780-6805 Growing Garden Inc., The 12811 SW 42nd St. Miami, FL 33175 305-559-0309 VitaOrganix 7921 NW 67th St. Miami, FL 33166 786-845-8633 3D Hydroponics and Organics 7139 US Highway #19 New Port Richey, FL 34652 727-847-3491 _________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 8442 Tradeport Dr., Unit 200 Orlando, FL 32827 _________________________ Urban Sunshine 6100 Hanging Moss Rd., Suite 50 Orlando, FL 32807 407-647-4769 Urban Sunshine 6142 S. Orange Ave. Orlando, FL 32809 407-859-7728 Vertical Food Growers 10964 Dearden Circle Orlando, FL 32817 407-671-4241 Green Winters Inc. 147 Tomoka Ave. Ormond Beach, FL 32174 386-235-8730; 800-931-5215 The Healthy Harvest Suite 126, 21113 Johnson St. Pembroke Pines, FL 33029 954-538-1511

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Atlantis Hydroponics 8042 N. Palafox St., Suite C Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-8796 _________________________

Eden Garden Supply 3111 N. Davis Hwy. Pensacola, FL 32503 850-439-1299 _________________________ Healthy Gardens and Supply of Florida, Inc. 196 East Nine Mile Rd., Suite F Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-4545 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 455 S. Andrews Ave. Pompano Beach, FL 33069 877-649-3567 (Southeast) _________________________ Hydroponic Depot II 2395 S Tamiami Trail #19 Port Charlotte, FL 33952 941-255-3999 EZ Grow Green 604 S.W. Bayshore Blvd. Port St. Lucie, Fl 34983 772-807-7755

Stoney Hydro @ Schiro’s Barn-N-Garden Supplies 7812 Causeway Blvd. Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902 _________________________

Worm’s Way Florida 4412 North 56th St. Tampa, FL 33610 800-283-9676; 813-621-1792 _________________________ Happy Planet Hydroponics 1179 E. Alfred St. Tavares, FL 32778 352-253-1001 365 Hydroponics 13054 W Colonial Dr. Winter Garden, FL 34787 407-656-GROW(4769) Monkey Hydroponics 940 West Oakland Ave., Unit A1 Winter Garden, FL 34787 407-574-8495 Cultivating Eden Hydroponic Supplies 946 18th Ave. SW Vero Beach, FL 32962 772-564-8880 _________________________

Florida Garden Supplies 8020 Belvedere Rd.,Unit 4 W. Palm Beach, FL 33411 800-931-5215 _________________________ Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – East 968 North Congress Ave. W. Palm Beach, FL 33409 561-296-6161

GEORGIA

_________________________

Urban Sunshine Organic & Hydroponic Gardening 2841 South Nove Rd., Suite 5 S. Daytona, FL 32119 386-236-9989; 386-492-6978 Avid Brew Company 1745 1st Ave S. St. Petersburg, FL 33712 727-388-6756 Avid Brew Company 1745 1st Ave. S. St. ST. Petersberg, Fl 33712 727-388-6756 Mr. Nice Guy Hydroponics 1800 NW. Federal Hwy. Stuart, FL 34994 772-934-6785 Esposito Garden Center 2743 Capital Circle NE Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-386-2114 Evershine Hydroponics 1519 Capital Circle NE Unit #35 Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-765-0040 Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center 8877 North 56th St. Tampa, FL 33617 813-514-9376 Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center 8707 Temple Terrace Hwy. Tampa, FL 33637 813-514-9376 Hydroponics of Tampa 120 W. Bougain Villea Tampa, FL 33612 813-333-6828 Schiro’s Barn-N-Garden Supplies Inc. 7812 Causeway Blvd. Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902

Atlantis Hydroponics 1422 Woodmont Lane, #4 Atlanta, GA 30318 404-367-0052 _________________________ Flora Hydroponics Inc. 2475 Jefferson Rd., Suite 600 Athens, GA 30607 866-404-0551 Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 195 Paradise Blvd. Athens, GA 30607 800-470-6881 Atlantis Hydroponics 2561 West Point Ave. College Park, GA 30337 678-510-0032 Alpha Hydroponics and Garden Supply Inc. 3904 N Druid Hills Rd., Suite 247 Decatur, GA 30033 404-590-4769 _________________________

Savannah Hydroponics & Organics 4107 Eighth St., Suite C Garden City, GA 31408 912-349-4030 _________________________ Atlantis Hydroponics 5182-B Brook Hollow Parkway Norcross, GA 30071 770-558-1346

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors Flora Hydroponics, Inc. 1239 Fowler St. North West Atlanta, GA 30318 404-532-0001

HAWAII Eco-Island Supply 810 Haiku Rd., #394 Haiku, HI 96708 808-575-9171 Aqua Plant Hawaii / Kahala Hydroponics 4224 Wailae, Suite 1A Honolulu, HI 96816 808-735-8665

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Alternative Garden Supply Brew and Grow- Crystal Lake 176 W. Terra Cotta Ave. Crystal Lake, IL 60014 815-301-4940 _________________________

Ohana Greenhouse & Garden Supply 300 Hukilike St. #2M, Kahalui, HI 96732 808-871-6393

Goldman’s Grow Shop 910 Greenwood Rd. Glenview, IL 60025 847-657-7250 _________________________

Aiyah’s Garden 4558 Kukui St. Kapa’a, HI 96746

Grow Masters 4641 Old Grand Ave. Gurnee, IL 60031 224-399-9877 Big Grow Hydroponics 9225 Trinity Dr. Lake In The Hills, IL 60156 847-854-4450

Pahoa Feed & Fertilizer 15-2754 Old Government Rd. Pahoa, HI 96778 808-965-9955

Grow Big Hydroponics 7817 B North 2nd St. Manchesney Park, IL 61115 815-637-4769

IDAHO

Green Fields 8137 N. Milwaukee Niles, IL 60714 847-965-5056

Boise Hydroponics 614 North Orchard St. Boise, ID 83706 208-344-3053 Four Seasons Garden Supply 6218 Overland Rd. Boise, ID 83709 208-377-3030

Organic Garden Center 9223 Skokie Blvd. Skokie, IL 60077 847-675-2722 _________________________

One Stop Grow Shop 2326 E.44th St. Indianapolis, IN 46205 317-546-GROW _________________________

Midwest Hydroganics 20647 Renwick Rd. Crest Hill, IL 60403 815-838-0100 _________________________

Green Hands of Aloha 1713 Mary St. Honolulu, HI 96819 808-847-4263

Aiyah’s Garden 3-3122 Kuhio Hwy. Unit B-2 Lihue, HI 96766 808-245-2627

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Prairie House Garden Center 15151 South Harlem Ave. Orland, IL 60462 708-687-3131 _________________________

Greenthumb Greenhouses 5895 Ensign Ave. Boise, ID 83714

Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 3427 Old Chatman Rd. Springfield, IL 62704 217-341-0821 Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 2110 North Grand Ave. Springfield, IL 62702 217-341-0821 _________________________ Water Works Indoor Gardening 1900 South Dirksen Parkway Springfield, IL 62703 217-553-6929 Joe Dirt’s Organics & Hydroponics 760 Heartland Dr. Sugar Grove, IL 60554 630-466-8346

INDIANA Sunleaves Garden Products 7854 North State Rd. 37 Bloomington, IN 47404 888-464-9676 _________________________

Maximum Grow Gardening 140 Frontage Rd. Suite D Lafayette, IN 47905 765-464-6689 _________________________ The Wine-N-Vine Inc. 1524 East McGalliard Rd. Muncie, IN 47303 765-282-3300 _________________________

BWGS-IN 1400 Hancel Pkwy., Mooresville, IN 46158 800-316-1306 _________________________ Five Point Gardens 56555 Oak Rd. S. Bend, IN 46619 574-287-9232

KANSAS Kan-Grow Hydro Farm LLC 5555 S. Meridian Ave. Wichita, KS 67217 316-214-3022

KENTUCKY Worm’s Way Indiana 7850 North State Rd. 37 Bloomington, IN 47404 800-598-8158 _________________________

Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th St. Covington (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843 _________________________

ILLINOIS Aerostar Global 824 South Kay Ave. Addison, IL 60101 Aerogro 502 N Prospect, Suite 18 Bloomington, IL, 61704 Brew and Grow 181 Crossroads Parkway Bolingbrook, IL 60194 847-885-8282 Let it Grow - Carbondale West Main St. Carbondale, IL 62908 573-450-5401 Versaponics.COM Box 166 West Main St. Carbondale, IL 62901 573-450-5401 Alternative Garden Supply 615 Industrial Dr., Unit A Cary, IL 60013 800-444-2837 Brew and Grow 3625 N. Kedzi Ave. Chicago, IL 60618 773-463-7430 Brew and Grow 19 South Morgan St. Chicago, IL 60607 312-243-0005 Chicago Roots Hydroponics & Organics 4020 W. Irving Park Rd. Chicago, IL 60641 773-545-4020 Fertile Ground 463 West MacArthur Dr. Cottage Hills, IL 62018 618-259-5500

178

Autumn Bloom Alternative Indoor Gardening 1020 Derby St. Pekin, IL 61554 309-642-6943 _________________________

GroUp Gardening 221 N. 5th St. Pekin, IL 61554 309-349-4407 _________________________ Grow Shop of Peoria 2621 N University Peoria, IL 61604 309-299-0953 _________________________

Heartland Hydrogardens 7403 Broadway St. Quincy, IL 62305 217-214-GROW(4769) _________________________ Brew and Grow 3224 South Alpine Rd. Rockford, IL 61109 815-874-5700 Rock Valley Garden Center 785 N.Bell School Rd. Rockford, IL 61107 815-398-9419 Brew and Grow 359 W. Irving Park Rd. Unit E Roselle, IL 60172 630-894-4885

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

Worm’s Way Mail Order 7850 North State Rd. 37 Bloomington, IN 47404 800-274-9676 _________________________ Frogs Lilly Pad, The 706 Citation Rd. Carmel, IN 46032 317-846-4610 Hops & Harvest 4616 E. DuPont Rd., Suite Q Fort Wayne, IN 46825 260-918-3035 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 1336 East Washington St. Indianapolis, IN 46202 317-780-8020 Magic Bulb Garden Center 6221 Allisonville Rd. Indianapolis, IN 46220 317-202-2852 _________________________

Maximum Grow Gardening 6117 E Washington St. Indianapolis, IN 46219 317-359-GROW (4769) _________________________ Next Generation Gardening & Hydroponics 6805 Madison Ave. Indianapolis, IN 46227 317-786-0066

Worm’s Way Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Hwy. Suite A Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088 _________________________ Grow Shop, The of Lexington 2320 Palumbo Dr., Suite 130 Lexington, KY 40509 859-268-0779

Ourcrazydeals Hydroponics 201 Angus Dr. Yungsville, LA 70592 337-303-6146

MAINE The Urban Garden Center 600 Wilson St. Brewer, ME 04412 207-989-2020 LiquidSun of Maine 51 West Gray Rd. Gray, ME 04039 207-657-8033 Natures Palate Indoor Garden Store 1321 Mercer Rd. (route 2) Mercer, ME 04957 877-587-4150; 207-587-4150 Newfield Farms 122 Water St. Newfield, ME 04095 207-956-3334 _________________________

Evergreen Garden Center 301 Forest Ave. Portland, ME 04101 207-761-2800 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply Maine 178 Rand Rd. Portland, ME 04102 207-899-4387 _________________________ The Urban Garden Center 659 Warren Ave. Portland, ME 04103 207-347-2350 Here We Grow 30 Parsons St. Presque Isle, ME 04769 207-SOY-BEAN (769-2326) Green Thumb Indoor Gardening 19 Stage Rd. St. Albans, ME 04971 207-938-5909

Success Hydroponics Lexington, KY 4505 859-294-4769 Louisville Hydroponics 3471 Taylor Blvd. Louisville, KY 40215 502-366-4000

Urban Garden Center 235 Lewiston Rd. Topsham, ME 04086 207-373-0990

New Earth Garden Center 9810 Taylorsville Rd. Louisville, KY 40299 800-462-5953

Greenlife Garden Supply 611 US Route 1 York, ME 03909 207-363-0844

Bluegrass Hydro Garden 13529 S. Dixie Hwy. Upton, KY 42784 270-369-9000

Montgomery Hydroponics 8950 Brookville Rd. Silver Springs, MD 20910 301-588-1935 _________________________ Purple Mountain Organics 100-7010 Westmoreland Ave. Takoma Park, MD 20912 877-538-9901

MASSACHUSETTS Grow it Green 122 Pulaski Blvd. Bellingham, MA 02019 508-883-GROW Greenlife Garden Supply 481 Boston Rd., Unit 4 Billerica, MA 01821 978-262-9966

New England Horticulture Supply 125 John Roberts Rd., Suite 1 S. Portland, ME 04106 207-899-0510

Bluegrass Organic Grow Shop 125 Quinn Dr. Nicholasville, KY 40356 859-887-0677

Meadowview Feed & Garden Center 1202 Meadowview Rd. Pasadena, MD 21122 443-817-0018 _________________________

MARYLAND East Coast Organics 2800 Sisson St. Baltimore, MD 21211 Healthy Gardens and Supply 5001-F Harford Rd. Baltimore, MD 21214 443-708-5144

Mass Hydro 1753 Main St. Brockton, MA 02301 GYOstuff – Grow Your Own 2400 Massachusetts Ave. Cambridge, MA 02140 617-945-1654 Mass Hydro 390 Rhode Island Ave. Fall River MA 02721 704-GO-HYDRO Harvest Moon Hydroponics 29 Washington St., Route 1 Foxboro, MA 02035 800-660-6977 _________________________

New England Hydroponics 855 Worcester Rd. Route 9 Framingham, MA 01701 888-529-9025 _________________________ Here We Grow 123 Russell St. (Route 9) Hadley, MA 01035 413-584-FARM (3276) LiquidSun® MA 8 Lynwood Ave. Holyoke, MA 01040 413-539-6875 Cape Cod Hydroponics 195 Ridgewood Ave. Hyannis, MA 02601 508-737-2555 Indoor Garden Center 236 Mystic Ave. Medford, MA 02155 781-874-1693 _________________________

Laughing Buddha Nursery 4516 Clearview Parkway Metairie, LA 70006 504-887-4336

Eco Greenworks 7814 Parston Dr. Forestville, MD 20747 301-278-7541

Rootdown Hydroponics Indoor Garden Center 236 Mystic Ave. Medford, MA 01255 781-874-1693 _________________________

Urban Organics 285 St. Claude Ave. New Orleans, LA 70117 504-352-4709

Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 10051 North 2nd St. Laurel, MD 20723 301-490-9236

Green Path Garden Supply 276 West Main St. Northborough, MA 01532 508-393-4181

LOUISIANA


LiquidSun® RI 1179 Central Ave. Pawtucket, MA 02861 401-722-2724 _________________________

Allegan Hydroponic Supply 1177 Lincoln Rd. Allegan, MI 49010 269-355-1595 _________________________

Happy Harvesters Hydroponics 4410 South Saginaw St. Burton, MI 48529 810-496-3005 Hydroponic Gardening 4204 Davison Rd. Burton, MI 48505 810-406-3355

Evergreen Garden Center 216 Newbury St. Peabody, MA 01960 978-854-5541 _________________________ Hydroponics N More Garden Center 331 Centre Ave. Rockland, MA 02370 781-421-3356 Mass Hydro 679 Washington St. S. Attlevoro, MA 02703 508-761-4937 _________________________

Tru Bloomz Hydroponics 1201 Fall River Ave. Seekonk, MA 02771 508-336-4443 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 560 Boston Turnpike (Route 9) Shrewsbury, MA 01545 508-845-4477 _________________________ Nor’easter Organic Life 515 College Highway Unit J Southwick, MA 01077 413-998-3951 _________________________

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 6540 Allen Rd. Allen Park, MI 48101 313-383-1766 _________________________

Cultivation Station 2734 Jackson Ave. Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-213-7740 _________________________ U Can Grow Hydro 2247 W. Liberty Ann Arbor, MI 4810 734-369-3387 _________________________

Discount Hydro & Indoor

Garden Supplies

Gro Blue Discount Hydro and Indoor Garden Supplies 4072 Packard Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48108 734-913-2750 _________________________ Grow Show, The 4095 Stone School Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48108 734-677-0009; 734-677-0509 HotHydro® 5245 Jackson Rd., Suite F Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-761-5040; 877-893-0716 All Things Good and Green 501 E. Michigan Ave. Augusta, MI 49012 269-978-8550 Battle Creek Indoor Gardening 1125 E.Michigan Ave. Battle Creek MI 49014 269-282-0554

New England Hydroponics 15 D College Hwy. (Route 10) Southampton, MA 01073 888-529-9025 _________________________ Nor'easter Organic Life 515 College Highway Unit J Southwick, MA 01077 413-998-3951 _________________________

BIG Green Tomato 1775 E. Columbia Ave. Battle Creek, MI 49014 269-282-1593

LiquidSun East 12 Bay St. Unit 105 Wilmington, MA 01887 978-447-5442

Hydro Giant #4 6199 Haggerty Rd. West Bloomfield, MI 48322 248-668-6100 _________________________

Grow Supply Center 3131 Benzie Hwy. Benzonia, MI 49616 231-882-9270

Hydro Vision 11820 Belleville Belleville, MI 48111 734-325-6210 One Stop Grow Shop Inc., The 397 Main St., Suite A. Belleville, MI 48111 734-325-7242

MICHIGAN

Let’s Grow It! 225 S. Michegan Ave Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-792-2775

Get Growing Urban Garden Centre 142 S. Main St. Adrian, MI 49221

Growers Outlet 7720 Clyde Park SW Byron Center, MI 49513 616-878-4444

HydroMaster 36345 Grosebeck Hwy. Clinton Twp, MI 48035 586-792-0277 Hydro Pro’s Indoor Garden 20560 Hall Rd. Clinton Township, MI 48038 586-263-5793 H2O Grow Supply 3364 Arent Ct. Coloma, MI 49038 269-468-3890 Lets Grow Hydroponics 1141 W Randall Coopersville, MI 49404 616-997-0420 Van Hydro 7480 N State Davison, MI 48423 810-653-8267 _________________________

Caledonia Gardens 9750 Cherry Valley Ave. SE Caledonia Gardens, MI 49316 616-891-0706 Greenway Gardens 916 W 13th St. Cadillac, MI 49601 231-775-7075 Indoor Grower’s Edge 8998 E. 34 Rd., Suite B Cadillac, MI 49601 231-468-3343 Easy Growing 5748 N. Canton Centre Rd. Canton, MI 48187 734-451-4500 Hydro Helper 6445 Canton Center Rd. Canton, MI 48187 734-354-3900 _________________________

The Great Lakes Hydroponics Co. 5998 US.31 South Charlevoix, MI 49720 231-237-9153 _________________________ Hydro Pro’s Indoor Garden 30504 23 Mile Rd. Chesterfield, MI 48047 586-741-8805 _______________________

Homelight Gardens 3471 S. Huron Rd. Bay City, MI 48706 989-922-0088

J&L Growco 206 S. Michigan Ave. Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-796-1528 Worm’s Way Massachusetts 121 Worc-Providence Turnpike Sutton, MA 01590 800-284-9676 _________________________

Two Guys and a Grow Shop 3374 Atherton Rd. Burton, MI 48509 810-820-4275 _________________________

Clio Cultivation 11394 N.Saginaw Rd. Clio, MI 48420 810-686-4769

Cultivation Station 3 Inc. 46912 Gratiot Chesterfield, MI 48051 586-949-7453 ________________________ Horti-Toad Hydroponic Supply 21323 Harper St. Clair Shores, MI 48080 586-944-0650 Hydro 411 411 West 5th St. Clare, MI 48617 989-941-4157

The Grow Station 5670 Telegraph Rd. Dearborn, MI 48127 313-406-5147; 800-797-4769 (GROW) _________________________

Hydro Giant #1 14455 Ford Rd. Dearborn, MI 48126 313-216-8888 ________________________

_________________________

Superior Growers Supply 4870 Dawn Ave. E. Lansing, MI 48823 517-332-2663 _________________________

Home Grown Hydroponix 5333 Plainfield, Suite C Grand Rapids, MI 49525 616-361-2924 _________________________

Sunnyside Hydroponics 24930 Gratiot Ave. Eastpoint, MI 48021 586-777-2528 GroMart Indoor Gardening Solutions 68991 M-62 Suite Q Edwardsburg, MI 49112 269-414-4385 Bay de Noc Hydroponic & Garden Supply 1501 Sheridan Rd. Escanaba, MI 49829 906-553-7006

Cultivation Station – Eastern Market, The 2518 Market St. Detroit, MI 48207 313-394-0441 ________________________ Growers R Us 19317 West Warren Detroit, MI 48228 313-633-1617 _________________________

Hydro Giant #3 21651 W. 8 Mile Rd.(8 Mile & Lahser) Detroit, MI 48219 313-387-7700 _________________________ Hydro Heaven 73647 W 8th Mile Rd. Detroit, MI 48235 313-861-0333; 877-823-2076 _________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro ultralohydro.com 937-252-8224 _________________________

Urban Gardening Center, The 2520 22nd St. Detroit, MI 48216 313-898-0200 _________________________

Horizen Hydroponics 1614 Leonard St., NW Grand Rapids, MI 49504 866-791-1664 _________________________ Grand Rapids Hydroponics Inc. 524 Leonard St. Grand Rapids, MI 49504 616-454-2500 _________________________

Hydro Vision 495 Fenway Dr. Fenton, MI 810-714-1719

Garden Doctor 2974 28th St. SW Grandville, MI 49418 616 530 2500 _________________________

Green Thumb Garden Center 22963 Woodward Ave. Ferndale, MI 48220 248-439-1851

Holland Hydroponic Outlet 604 N. Beacon Blvd. Grand Haven, MI 49423 616-847-1277

Urban Garden Supply 4516 Pasadena Ave. Flint, MI 48504 810-733-0420

BSS Garden Supplies 8899 Peck Rd. Unit #2 Greenville, MI 48838 616-225-7000

Urban Garden Supply 3410 S. Dort Hwy. Flint, MI 48507 810-875-9580 Granny Green Thumbs 103 W. Grand River Flowerville, MI 48836 517-223-1302

Michigan Hydro Depot 571 E. Chicago St., Suite B Coldwater, MI 49036 517-278-9600 All American Indoor Gardening Warehouse 11504 N. Saginaw Rd. Clio, MI 48420 810-640-1156

_________________________

Indoor/Outdoor Garden Shop 105 N. Seymour Rd. Flushing, MI 48433 810-867-4351 _________________________

The Grow Shop of Garden City 28505 Ford Rd. Garden City, MI 48135 734-956-5400 _________________________

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 799 S. Wisconsin Ave. Gaylord, MI 49735 989-731-8800 _________________________

Growco Garden Supply 1042 Michigan St. NE Grand Rapids, MI 49503 877-939-6900 NEW 2nd LOCATION! 4640 West River Dr. Comstock Park, MI 49321 _________________________

It is Green Ville Gardens 11500 Morgan Mills Rd., NE Greenville, MI 48838 616-745-0500 _________________________

Hydroharrys- HP 24047 Dequindre Rd. Hazel Park, MI 48030 248-541-0099 _________________________ Garden Doctor 2974 28th St. SW Grandville, MI 49418 616-530-2500 Holland Hydroponic Outlet 1220 Phoenix Rd. S. Haven, MI 49090 269-637-5941 Absolute Wholesale Garden Supply 3255 Highland Rd. Highland, MI 48357 248-714-6558 _________________________

Flower Factory, The 2223 East Highland Rd. Highland, MI 48356 248-714-9292 _________________________ Holland Hydroponic Outlet 587-40 East 8th St. Holland, MI 49423 616-298-7395 Mr. Grow it All 6660 Blair Lane Holland, MI 49424 616-392-3028 Hydro Grow Room 15201 N. Holly Rd., Unit B Holly MI, 48430 248-369-8333

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179


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors Holland Hydroponic Outlet 1220 Phoenix Rd. S. Haven, MI 49090 269-637-5941 ________________________

_________________________

Howz It Growing 700 Main St. Suite 101B Lapeer, MI 48446 810-245-8687

Sunshine Supply Co. 5800 East Pickard St. Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-775-3700

Horizen Hydroponics 4646 W. Main St. Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-567-3333 _________________________

Two Guys and a Grow Shop 11917 E. Lennon Rd. Lennon, MI 48449 810-621-3790 _________________________

Big Blue Hydroponics 590 Ottawa St. Muskegon, MI 49441 231-571-9400

HGR Garden Supply 15231 N. Holly Rd. Holly, MI 48442 248-369-8333 _________________________ J&W Farm & Garden Center 10906 Main St. Honor, MI 49640 231-325-3433 _________________________

Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 705 S. Loxley Houghton Lake, MI 48629 989-422-2800 _________________________ Hydro Vision 1247 E. Grand River Howell, MI 48843 517-552-4965 Grow Fast Gardens 5015 South Straits Hwy. Indian River, MI 49749 231-238-4113 _________________________

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply W. 8065 US Highway 2 Iron Mountain, MI 49801 906-828-2000 _________________________ Grow Maxx 1220 S. Stephenson Ave. Iron Mountain, MI 49801 920-447-2211 Hydro Magic 595 South Cedar St. Imlay City, MI 48444 810-721-7232 Ionia Hydroponics & Indoor Garden Supply 2555 N. State(M-66) Rd. Ionia, MI 48846 616-523-6111 Hydrocapitol 258 Cooper St. Jackson, MI 49201 517-795-2633 Mighty Grow 2418 West Michigan Ave. Jackson, MI 49202 517-962-4822 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 1745 West Main St. Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-978-8697 _________________________

180

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Superior Growers Supply Inc. 292200 Seven Mile West Livonia, MI 48152 248-473-0450 _________________________ Kalamazoo Indoor Garden 450 W. Maple Kalamazoo, MI 49001 269-344-2550 _________________________ Plainwell Indoor/Outdoor Garden Center 8201 Douglas Ave. Kalamazoo, MI 49009 269-532-1167 Zoo City Grower Supply 3514 S. Westnedge Kalamazoo, MI 49008 269-903-2450 Halms Hydro 2368 S. Huron Rd. Kawkawklin, MI 48631 989-402-1296 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2815 East Grand River Ave. Lansing, MI 48912 517-580-0555 _________________________ Howz It Growing 1290 S. Lapeer Rd. Lake Orion, MI 48360 248-693-5747 Capital City Growers 2208 E. Michigan Ave. Lansing, MI 48912 517-853-9988 _________________________

Horizen Hydroponics 5425 W. Saginaw Hwy Lansing, MI 48917 517-323-ROOT _________________________

Superior Growers Supply Inc. 3928 West Saginaw Hwy. Lansing, MI 48917 517-327-1900 _________________________ H2O Hydroponics 5210 W. Saginaw Hwy Lansing, MI 48917 517-703-8120 Edenz Hydro 560 Oak St. Lapeer, MI 48446 248-291-6691

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

Growing Consultant Hydroponics & Things 2260 Apple Ave. Muskegon, MI 49442 231-773-5600 _________________________

Green Lantern H2O 1383 E. Laketon Ave. Muskegon, MI 49442 231-722-0420 _________________________

Edenz Hydro 1411 West 14 Mile Madison Heights, MI 48071 248-291-6691 Northern Lights Hydroponic & Garden Supply 29090 Campbell Rd. Madison Heights, MI 48071 248-439-6269 Hypnotic Hydroponics 321 Deer St. Manistique, MI 49854 906- 341-GROW BIg Creek Hydroponics 555 Old Little Lake Rd. Marquette, MI 49855 906-249-5297 Sweet Greens Hydroponics 113 Fifth St. Michigan Center, MI 49254 517-764-9232 Stealth Hydro 14630 King Dr. Milan, MI 48160 734-961-4333 _________________________

The Grow Shop 2609 Telegraph Rd. Monroe, MI 48162 734-384-4769 _________________________ Cedar Garden Wholesale 132 North Bound Gratiot Mt. Clements, MI 48043 586-738-0030 Cedar Garden Wholesale 132 North Bound Gratiot Mt. Clements, MI 48043 586-738-0030 Green Grow LLC 9046 N. Dort Mt. Morris, MI 48458 810-687-9500 Indoor Grower’s Edge 2410 S. Leaton Suite 5 Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-317-0944

Hydro Giant #5 290 S. Telegraph Pontiac, MI 48341 248-706-7600 _________________________ Super Grow 288 W. Montcalm Pontiac, MI 48342 248-24SUPER (78737)

The Barefoot Gardener 11635 Fulton St. Suite 300B Lowell, MI 49331 616-987-3457 Plant Paradise 4593 W. US 10 Ludington, MI 49431 231-843-3000

Hydro Grow Source 10609 East Lovejoy Perry, MI 48872 517-376-8583 _________________________

Green Earth Hydroponics 8127 Portage Rd. Portage, MI 49002 269-342-4190 _________________________

_________________________

Green Thumb Hydroponics & Organic Indoor Supply 8460 Algoma, Suite G Rockford, MI 49341 616-884-5500 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 28000 Groesbeck Hwy. Roseville, MI 48066 586-435-2335 _________________________ Plant Paradise 7657 Michigan Ave. Rothbury, MI 49452 231-843-3000 GrowMart 2137 Warwick St. Saginaw, MI 48603 989-799-6330

Third Coast Horticulture Supply 1965 Holton Rd Muskegon, MI 49445 231-288-1762 _________________________ Harbor Country Hydro 17648 US Highway 12 New Buffalo, MI 49117 269-469-2242 _________________________

Flo-N-Grow Hydroponics Co. 214 North 2nd St. Niles, MI 49120 269-683-1877 www.FNGhydro.com _________________________

HGR Garden Supply 200 E. Main St. Owosso, MI 48867 989-472-4999 _________________________ Owlyn Solutions for Growers 2398 Jolly Rd., Suite 300 Okemos, MI 48864 517-203-5070 Watch it Grow Hydroponics 407 W. Center St. Omer, MI 48749 989-653-2141

Hydroponics Highway Inc. 2708 14th Ave. Port Huron, MI 48060 810-982-4769 _________________________ Ultra Green Hydroponics 9300 Telegraph Rd. Redford, MI 48239 313-534-9377 Hydro Vision 66783 Gratiot Ave. Richmond, MI 48062 586-430-1956 _________________________

Garden Wise 16010 King Rd. Riverview MI 48193 734-225-6414 amgardensupply@yahoo.com _________________________ Happy Gardening 20840 Telegraph Rd. Romulus, MI 48174 734-486-4115 _________________________

Third Coast Garden Supply LLC 2327 Auburn Rd. Shelby Township, MI 48195 586-997-2700 _________________________

Superior Growers Supply, Inc. 5716 South Pennsylvania Ave. S. Lansing, MI 48911 517-393-1600 _______________________

Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 23529 Little Mack Ave. St. Clair, MI 48080 586-775-9485 _______________________ Horti-Toad Hydroponic Supply 21323 Harper St. Clair Shores, MI 48080 586-944-0650 Advanced Hydroponic Growers 705 N. US 27 St.Johns, MI 48879 989-227-0408

Happy Harvesters Hydroponics 1772 S. Ortonville Dr. Ortonville, MI 48462 248-793-3357 Healthy Harvest Garden Supply 233 South State St. Oscoda, MI 48750 989-569-3006

Home Grown Hydroponics 4880 Gratiot Rd., Suite # 2 Saginaw, MI 48638 989-781-1930

Growers Edge 175 Marcell Dr. Rockford, MI 49341 _________________________

Hydro City LLC 34863 Schoenherr Sterling Heights, MI 48312 586-883-9075


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Hydro Giant #2 19363 Eureka Rd. Southgate, MI 48195 734-281-8888 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 7889 Telegraph Rd. Taylor, MI 48180 313-908-7554 _________________________ Hydro Grow, The 8210 Telegraph Rd. Taylor, MI 48180 313-633-0641 Cultivation Innovations 6652 Lewis Ave. Suite 7 Temperance, MI 48182 419-725-4769 Great Lakes Green Horticultural Supply 757 S. U.S. Highway 131 Three Rivers, MI 49093 269-278-130 Grow Depot 9 North Main St. Three Rivers, MI 49093 269-273-4769 _________________________

Cultivation Station 1990 US-31 N. Suite C Traverse City, MI 49686 231-421-8118 _________________________ Grow Store, The 90 N U.S. Highway 31 South Traverse City, MI 49685-7923 231-421-5191 _________________________

H2 Hydro 702 N. Pontiac Trail Walled Lake, MI 48390 248-669-6063 _________________________

Hydroharrys – WL 1138 E. West Maple Rd. Walled Lake, MI 48390 248-896-0099 _________________________ Greco’s Nursery & Garden Supplies 12219 E. 11 Mile Rd. Warren, MI 48093 586-759-1335 Hydro King Indoor Garden Supply 32000 Van Dyke Ave. Warren, MI 48093 586-939-0518 _________________________

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Indoor Eden 9281 East-M 36 Whitmore, MI 48189 810-355-1465 _________________________ AAA Hydroponics LLC 22 50th St. Wyoming, MI 49504 616-249-8338 _________________________

Happy Harvesters Hydroponics 5720 Highland Rd. Waterford, MI 48327 248-599-9761 Light Green Water 3661 Highland Rd. Waterford, MI 48329 248-681-0001 Bubonic Hydroponics 38540 Michigan Ave. Wayne, MI 48184 734-331-2316 _________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 720 South Garfield Ave. Traverse City, MI 49686 231-668-6913 _________________________ Woodland Shore Garden Center 956 W. South Airport Rd. Traverse City, MI 49686 231-421-5901

Hydrospot 34236 Michigan Ave. Wayne, MI 48184 734-722-1285 _________________________

Hydro Vision 1910 West Rd. Trenton, MI 48183 734-301-3745

B&B Hydro Supply 28974 Warren Rd. Westland, MI 48185 734-469-280

Hydro Pro’s Indoor Garden 45410 Van Dyke Ave. Utica, MI 48317 586-803-0966

Ultra Green Hydroponics 8067 N. Wayne Rd. Westland, MI 48185 734-425-1000

Forever Green 340 S. Main St. Vassar, MI 48768 989-882-9177

G.C. II 1006 E. Colby St., Suite A Whitehall, MI 49417 231-893-2400

American Garden Supply 601-6th Ave. N. Princeton, MN 55371 763-631-0543 _________________________ Still-H2O Inc. 1266 Frontage Road W Stillwater, MN 55082 651-351-2822 _________________________

Midwest Hydroponics 5825 Excelsior Blvd. St. Louis Park, MN 55416 888-449-2739 _________________________ Eco Garden Supply 800 Transfer Door 25 in rear St. Paul, MN 55114 651-647-1896

Cultivation Station – Grand Rapids, The 4907 S. Division Ave. Wyoming, MI 49548 616-855-4440 _________________________

The Grow Stop 7380 Highland Rd. Waterford, MI 48327 248-599-9231 _________________________ Indoor Garden Superstore 2570 Dixie Hwy. Waterford, MI 48328 248-673-2200; 877-22-HYDRO

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MISSISSIPPI Urban Organics 2217 E Canal St. Picayune, MS 39466 504-352-4709

MISSOURI Versaponics LTD 879 South Kingshighway Cape Girardeau, Mo 63703 573-450-5401 _________________________

Stealth Hydro 15 E. Cross St. Ypsilanti, MI 48198 866-998-1916 _________________________

MINNESOTA Duluth Hydroponics 26 W 1st St. Duluth, MN 55802 218-341-7253 The Interior Tomato, LLC 519 N. Central Ave. Duluth, MN 55087 218-260-5167 _________________________

Indoor Gardening 10 NE 3rd St. Faribault, MN 55021 507-209-1546 _________________________ Brew and Grow 8302 Highway 65 NE. Minneapolis, MN 55432 763-780-8191 Interior Gardens 115 -1620 Central Ave. NE Minneapolis, MN 55413 800-498-4178; 612-870-9077 Eden Indoor Organic Gardens 831 Highway 75 N. Moorhead, MN 56560 218-477-EDEN (3336)

Heartland Hydrogardens 705 Vandiver Dr., Suite G Columbia, MO 65202 573-474-4769 _________________________ Advanced Garden Supply 901 Missouri Blvd., Suite C Jeffeson City, MO 65109 573-635-7878 Grow Your Own Hydroponics 3617 Saint John Ave. Kansas City, MO 64123 816-241-2122 U-Grow 1724 North, 13th St. St. Louis, MO 63106 314-452-6368 _________________________

Worm’s Way Missouri 1225 North Warson Rd. St. Louis, MO 63132 800-285-9676 _________________________

Green Thumb Organics 249 Mid Rivers Mall Dr. St. Peters, MO 63376 636-397-4769 (GROW) _________________________

MONTANA Heightened Harvests 3103 Harrison Ave. Butte, MT 59701 406-494-4222

One World – Life Products 906 Broadwater Billings, MT 59101 406-839-9969

Lorraine Indoor Gardens 290 Spear Court Fernley, NV 89408 775-575-7757

Heightened Harvest 1415 S 32nd St. West Billings, MT 59102 406-656-1156 _________________________

Hydro Store, The 1014 W. Sunset Rd. Henderson, NV 89014 702-434-7365

Butteopia 127 Main St. Butte, MT 59701 1-406-782-8476 _________________________ Alpengrow Nursery Supplies 238 Highway 93 S. Eureka, MT 59917 406-882-4496 Big Sky Garden Supply 528 West Idaho Kallispell, MT 59901 406-755-1465 Box of Rain INC 860 North Meridian Rd., Suite B #19&20 Kalispell, MT 59901 406-755-RAIN (7246) Cornucopia Grow Your Own 127 Stoner Creek Rd. Lakeside, MT 59922 406-709-1076 Dr. Green Thumbs 1106 West Park Livingston, MT 59047 406-222-7440 Bizzy Beez LLP 5785 Highway 93 South Whitefish, MT 59937 406-863-9937

NEBRASKA Bodhi Organic Garden Supply 1438 S1 St., Suite 6 Lincoln, NE 68502 402-438-6785 Patio-Ponics 3255 Cornhusker Hwy., Suite 4 Lincoln, NE 68504 402-466-9218 ________________________

Paradigm Gardens 8949 J St., Suite 5 Omaha, NE 68127 402-339-4949 _________________________

NEVADA Carson Valley Hydroponics 2520 Empire Ranch Rd. Carson City, NV 89701 775-884-4769

AAA Indoor Organic Garden SuperCenter 2101 S. Decatur Blvd. #21 Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-450-4769 Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 7850 Dean Martin Dr., Suite 506 Las Vegas, NV 89139 702-247-4769 All American Hydroponics 2675 East Patrick Lane, Unit 8 Las Vegas, NV 89120 702-894-9888 Best Hydroponic Supply 6818 W Cheyenne Las Vegas, NV 89108 702-750-9300 Grow Hydro Gardens 5870 S. Decatur, Suite 11 Las Vegas, NV 89148 702-997-7053; Toll Free 866568-4769 Hydro Store, The 7145 W. Ann Rd. Las Vegas, NV 89130 702-434-9376 Nevada Hydroponics 4700B Maryland, Suite 1 Las Vegas, NV 89119 702-798-2852 Anything Grows 190 West Moana Lane Reno, NV 89509 775-828-1460 Everything Green Hydroponics Reno, Nv 89533 The Hydro Store 121 Woodland Ave #160 Reno, NV 89523 775-787-2760

NEW HAMPSHIRE The Beez Kneez Garden Supply 180 Emerald St. Keene, NH 03431 603-903-1488 Greenlife Garden Supply 885 Second St. Manchester, NH 03102 603-782-8259 _________________________

Hydro101 545 Hooksett Rd. #24 Manchester, NH 03104 603-782-8894 _________________________

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors Natural Roots Hydroponics 24 Crown St. Nashua, NH 03060 603-204-5528 Four Seasons Horticulture Supply 2076 White Mountain Hwy. N. Conway, NH 03860 603-733-5444

Santa Fe Hydroponics 851 W. San Mateo Rd., Suite 4 Santa Fe, NM 87505 505-467-8454 Taos Gardening Supply 120 Bertha Taos, NM 87571 575-758-9131

Healthy Harvest Organics & Hydro 163 Broadway Fort Edwart, NY 12828 518-480-4698

NEW JERSEY

NEW YORK

Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 10 Saratoga Ave. S. Glen Falls, NY 12803 518-798-820

Garden State Hydroponics 511 Avenel St. Avenel, NJ 07001 888-300-8711

Organica: Garden Supply & Hydroponics 296 Delaware Ave. Albany, NY 12209 518-618-7666

Hydroponic Shops of America 2568 Western Ave. Guilderland, NY 12009 518-355-1503

The Grow Room 32-32 49th St. Astoria, NY 11103 718-218-GROW (4769)

Hydroponic Shops of America 720 Willow Ave. Ithaca, NY 14850 607-697-0199

Boyer Indoor Gardening 57 Crescent Blvd. Gloucester City, NJ 08030 856-456-5000 Bergen County Hydroponics 70 Essex St. Hackensack, NJ 07601 201-342-2001 Garden Indoors of New Jersey 600 Meadowlands Pkwy., Suite 25 Secaucus, NJ 07094 201-865-1616 East Coast Horticultural Supply 1652 Hurffville Rd. Sewell, NJ 08080 856-228-5290 77HYDRO 37 Fairfield Pl. W. Caldwell, NJ 07006 877-774-9376 Claraqua 4 Redwood Court W. Windsor, NJ 08550

NEW MEXICO

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AHL Year Round Garden Supply 1051 San Mateo Blvd. S. Albuquerque, NM 87108 505-255-3677 _________________________

All Seasons Gardening 3600 Osuna Rd., Suite 406 Alburquerque, NM 87109 505-508-4292 _________________________ Common Shaman 1319 San Mateo N.E. Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-255-6463 Heavy’s Grow Supply 1325 San Mateo Blvd. NE. Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-315-4573 Dr. Green Hydroponics 129 E. Idaho Ave. Las Cruces, NM 88005 575-524-6751 _________________________

Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 19 Front St. Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-885-2005; 800-850-4769 The Grape Vine 4020 Hempstead Turnpike Bethpage, NY 11714 516-731-1100 Bronx Hydro & Garden 39 Bruckner Blvd. Bronx, NY 10454 718-993-3787 Bklyn Hydro & Garden 316 McGuiness Blvd. Brooklyn, NY 11222 718-383-0095 Brooklyn Farms 51 Hicks St. Brooklyn, NY 11231 347-725-3491 Indoor Outdoor Gardener 8223 5th Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11209 718-836-2402 Buffalo Roots Hydroponics and Organics 3231 Main St. Buffalo, NY 14214 716-240-9075 Hydroponics of Buffalo 1497 Hertel Ave. Buffalo, NY 14216 716-838-3545 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 340 West at 59 Central Nyack, NY 10960 California Hydroponics 27 Corporate Circle E. Syracuse, NY 13057 315-432-9387 Upstate Hydroponics 2026 Lake Rd., Unit B Elmira, NY 14903 607-483-9199 _________________________

FutureGarden Inc. 59 Central Ave. Farmingdale, NY 11735 516-420-0884 _________________________ All Seasons Gardening 1228 Parkway, Suite E. Sante Fe, NM 87507 505-438-GROW _________________________ New Mexico Hydroponics 923 W. Almeada Santa Fe, NM 87501 505-316-5855

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Sunflower Supplies, LLC 176-18 Central Ave. Farmingdale, NY 11735 631-651-8281 East Coast Hydroponics 14649 Horace Harding Exp. Flushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Greentree Garden Supply 606 Elmira Rd. Ithaca, NY 14850 607-272-3666 Mike’s Nursery & Grower Supplies 199 E. Fairmount Ave. Lakewood, NY 14750 716-763-1612 Crossroads Hydroponics and Organics 181 South Plank Rd. (Route 52) Newburgh, NY 12550 845-561-4769 KG Garden Supply 4575 Commercial Dr. New Hartford, NY 13413 877-KG-HYDRO Harvest Moon Hydroponics 217 Route 32 N. New Paltz, NY 12561 845-255-3633 _________________________

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Hydro Garden Center 1069B Lyell Ave. Rochester, NY 14606 1-800-277-1322 ________________________ Sunset Hydroponics & Home Brewing 1590 West Ridge Rd. Rochester, NY 14615 866-395-9204 Hydroponic Garden Centers Inc 146 49 Horace Harding Exp. Rushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880 LiquidSun of New York 1702 Fiero Ave. Rotterdam, NY 12150 518-952-4654 Hydroponics Shops of America 2606 Erie Blvd. Syracuse, NY 13224 315-251-2516 _________________________

Green Zone Hydroponics 2148 Niagara Falls Blvd. Tonawanda, NY 14150 716-693-9663 _________________________ Green Zone Hydroponics 2928 Southwestern Blvd. Orchard Park, NY 14127 716-677-9663 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 147 Fourth St. Troy, NY 10960 Follow The Sun 1185 B Yonkers Ave. Yonkers, NY 10704 914-237-2760

NORTH CAROLINA The Green Box 495 9th Ave. New York, NY 10018 212-967-4777 thegreenboxhydro.com _________________________ Sunlight Solutions Hydroponics 2045 Niagara Falls Blvd., Suite 13 Niagara Falls, NY 14304 888-GROWBOX The Grow Room 8 Bridge St. Nyack, NY 10960 800-449-9630 Revolution Hydroponics 309 West State St. Olean, NY 14760 716-373-GROW (4769) Mor Gro Hydroponics 5680 State Route 104 E Oswego, NY 13126 315-877-8725 Environmental Gardens 8 John Walsh Blvd., Suite 310 Peekskills, NY 10566 800-254-0507; 914-736-6676 Harvest Moon Hydroponics Henrietta Townline Plaza 3047 West Henrietta Rd. Rochester, NY 14623 716-865-7353

Advanced Hydroponic Garden 55 Shiloh Rd. #6 Asheville, NC 28803 1-828-277-3488 Fifth Season Gardening Company 21 B Westside Dr. Asheville, NC 28806 828-225-5007 Fifth Season Gardening Company 45 Banks Ave. Asheville, NC 28801 828-253-4112 Fifth Season Gardening Company 106 South Greensboro St. Carrboro, NC 27510 919-932-7600 ________________________

Flow & Grow Hydroponics & Organic Garden Center 4521 Cumberland Rd. Fayetteville, NC 28306 910-423-FLOW (3569) Hydro Garden Zone 2222 Patterson St. Suite #1 Green Grove, NC 27407 336-854-0788 Fifth Season Gardening Company 1616 D-3 Battleground Ave. Greensboro, NC 27408 336-271-3373 Good Harvest Garden Center 629 Oakridge Farm Hwy. Mooresville, NC 28115 704-658-9136 Fifth Season Gardening Company 5619-A Hillsborough St. Raleigh, NC 27606 919-852-4747 New Age Gardens 2236A US Highway 70 Swannanoa, NC 28778 828-299-9989 Progressive Gardens 6005 Oleander Dr. Wilmington, NC 28403 910-395-1156 LiquidSun East 12 Bay St., Unit 105 Wilmington, NC 01887 978-447-5442

OHIO Akron Garden Center 434 W Wilbeth Rd. Akron, OH 44314 330-724-2700 Summit Hydroponics 1030 Kenmore Blvd. Akron, OH 44314-2114 330-753-5222 Hydro House of Ohio 2234 South Union Ave. Alliance, OH 44601 330-680-4014 _________________________

Purely Hydroponic, LLC 1507 Lear Industrial Pkwy. Avon, OH 44011 866-787-5060 _________________________ Campbells Indoor Gardening Supplies 1721 Greenville Rd. Bristolville, OH 44402 330-889-0049 Magic Home Gardens 209 Cemetery Rd. Canal Winchester, OH 43110 614-837-2440 Dumont Seed Co. 619 30th St. N.W. Canton, OH 44709 330-492-0204 _________________________

BWGS-NC 4045 Perimeter West Dr., Suite 400 Charlotte, NC 28214 800-316-1306 ________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 2712 B Freedom Dr. Charlotte, NC 28208 704-697-0911 ________________________

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The Bubbling Bucket 11156 Kenwood Rd. Cincinnati, OH 45242 513-469-2825 _________________________ Kissed by the Sun Hydroponic 10740 Reading Rd. Cincinnati, OH 45241 513-769-0159 Cleveland Garden Center Inc. 727 East 185th St. Cleveland, OH 44119 216-481-7868 The Grow Wizard 5700 Denison Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44102 216-961-2500 Herb-N-Garden Center 14901 Puritas Ave. Cleveland, OH 44135 216-252-2001 Garden Indoors of Ohio 4720 Indianola Ave. Columbus, OH 43214 800-833-6868 Magic Home Garden 4538 Indianola Ave. Columbus, OH 43214 614-263-2440 _________________________

Dayton Hydroponics 3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Rd. Dayton, OH 45449 937-859-3999 _________________________ Miami Valley Hydro 8220 N. Dixie Dr. Dayton, OH 45414 937-280-4468 _________________________

Ultra Lo Hydro DAYTON, OH 45431-2046 937-252-8224 ultralohydro.com _________________________

USA Hydrogarden 542 Griswold Rd. Elyria, OH 44035 440-324-4769 _________________________ Garden Connections 3341 Centerpoint Dr. Grove City, OH 43123 614-871-0707

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Advanced Hydrorganics Indoor Garden Center 5204 Darrow Rd. Hudson, OH 44236 234-380-1287

Eastside Hydroponics 834 Ohio Pike #318 Cincinnati, OH 45245 513-528-4769

Sweet Greens 5540 Brecksville Rd. Independence, OH 44131 800-421-7084

Dayton Hydroponics 4920 Provident Dr. Cincinnati, OH 45246 513-942-7111


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Hydro Gardens Wholesale 1144 N Memorial Dr. Lancaster, OH 43130 855-210-5599 _________________________ Carefree Garden Center 134 West Dr. Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 CropKing 134 West Dr. Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 USA Hydrogarden 7450 Industrial Pkwy., Suite A Lorain, OH 44053 440-282-4880 The Grow Shop 165 Davids St. Marion, OH 43302 740-223-7467 _________________________

Urban Gardens 3665 Likens Rd. Marion, OH 43302 740-375-2800 _________________________ Top Garden Products 8600 East Ave., Suite C Mentor, OH 44060 440-290-8773 _________________________

USA Hydrogarden - West 11001 Route 250 Suite B9 Milin, OH 44846 419-499-0480 ________________________ Green Garden Indoor Garden Center 1664 North Main St. N. Canton, OH 44720 330-494-1234 _________________________

Gardening-Indoor 5851 Youngstown-Warren Rd. Niles, OH 44446 USA 330-932-1023 _________________________ Pet Finatics LLC 3150 Navarre Ave., Suite A Oregon, OH 43616 USA Hydrogarden 542 Griswold Rd. Elyria, OH 44035 440-324-4769 USA Hydrogarden - West 11001 Route 250 Suite B9 Milin, OH 44846 419-499-0480 Indoor Gardens 1222 Hill Rd., N. Pickerington, OH 43147 614-866-6065 _________________________

Trinity Hydro Organics 465 Woodman Dr. Riverside, OH 45431 937-252-GROW _________________________

Hot Hydro ® 855 S. Holland-Sylvania Rd. #2 Toledo, OH 43615 419-866-1266 Organic Garden Center 5215 Monroe St. Toledo, OH 43623 419-517-8110 Toledo Hydroponics Ltd. 855 S. Holland-Sylvania Rd., Suite 2 Toledo, OH 43615 877-893-0716 _________________________

Plant Lighting Hydroponics 2201-A Pinnacle Parkway Twinsburg, OH 44087 888-258-0670 _________________________

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Aqua Serene 465 Applegate Way, Ashland, OR 97520 541-482-7600 _________________________ Rogue Silicates Inc. POB 21 Azalea, OR 97410 541-837-8590 American Agriculture 9966 SW. Arctic Dr. Beaverton, OR 97005 503-641-3500 _________________________

Greenleaf Hydroponics 1805 Elm Rd. Warren, OH 44483 330-372-1039

B.I.G.S. 35 NW Bond Bend, OR 97701 541-385-5222 _________________________

Dayton Hydroponics 3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Rd. W. Carrolton, OH 45449 937-859-3999 _________________________

Northern Light & Garden 9290 SW Beaverton-Hillsdale Hwy. Beaverton, OR 97005 503-297-7331

Gardening-Indoor 9215 Market St. Youngstown (North Lima), OH 44452 330-758-0272 _________________________ Indoor Garden Worx 304 West Monroe St. Zanesville, OH 43701 866-900-9679

OKLAHOMA Aeroponic Tower Garden 204 W. 5th St. PO Box 712 Beggs, OK 74421 918-221-4630; 1-877-213-8868 Tulsa County Hydro-Organics 1928 W. Albany Broken Arrow, OK 74012 918-259-HYDRO AAAAHA! Hydroponics Unlimited P.O. Box 74 Oakhurst, OK 74050 Organics OKC Garden Supply 2800 N Pennsylvania Ave. Oklahoma City, OK 73107 405-528-GROW The OKC Urban Gardener 3711 N. Western Ave. Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-521-9300

Vital Organix 932-B S.E. “M” St. Grants Pass, OR 97526 541-226-9283 _________________________

Healthy Harvest Indoor Garden Suite #1, 1635 S.E. Tualatin Valley Hwy. Hillsboro, OR 97123 503-640-0995 _________________________ Gorge Garden Center 1203 12th St., Suite H Hood River, OR 97031 541-386-4769 _________________________

In & Out Gardens 93484 Hwy 99 South Junction City, OR 97448 541-234-2342 _________________________

The Good Earth Organics 30088 Redwood Hwy. Cave Junction, OR 97523 541-592-4496

Basin Indoor Gardening 417 N. Spring St. Klamath Falls, OR 97601 541-273-2023

Anthony’s Garden & Light Supply 93779 B Troy Lane Coos Bay, OR 97420 541-266-8822

Just the Tip Gardening 631 Main St. Lebanon, OR 97355 541-258-3234

Corvallis Hydroponics & Organics 5490 SW Philomath Blvd. Corvallis, OR 97333 541-738-2820 Emerald Valley Gardens Inc. 88680 McVay Hwy. Corvallis, OR 97405 541-636-3763 _________________________

Aqua Serene 2836 W. 11th Ave. Eugene, OR 97402 541-302-9073 _________________________

The Mad Farmer Tulsa LLC 11630 E. 51st Tulsa, OK 74146 918-615-3735 Urban Garden 3141 E. 15th St. Tulsa, OK 74104 918-289-0018

Vital Organics Northwest 457 River Ave. Eugene, OR 97404 541-688-0028

OREGON

Oregon’s Constant Gardener 2385 West 11th Eugene, OR 97402 541-636-4220

Astoria Indoor Garden Supply 1343 Duane St., Unit C Astoria, OR 97103 503-468-0606

Redwood Nursery 1303 Redwood Ave. Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-2642

Westcoast Organic & Hydroponic Supply 12410 SE 282nd Ave., Unit C Boring, OR 97009 503-512-7710

Aurora Innovations PO Box 22041 Eugene, OR 97402 866-376-8578 _________________________

Indoor Hydroponic Garden & Lights 5990 SW 185th Ave. Aloha, OR 97006 503-848-3335

Paradise Supply LLC 560 N.E. “F” St., Unit C Grants Pass, OR 97526 541-955-7293

Advanced Indoor Gardens 17831 S.E. 82nd Dr. Gladstone, OR 97027 503-305-6341 Northern Light & Garden 1203 Rogue River Hwy. Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-1700

Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 1845 S.W. Hwy. 101 Suite 3 Lincoln, OR 97367 541-994-7070

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Gorilla Garden Supply 2011 Union Ave N. Bend, OR 97459 541-756-5005 _________________________ Green Garden Indoor Garden Center 1664 North Main St. N. Canton, OH 44720 330-494-1234 Indoor Garden Depot 3260 SE Oak Grove Blvd. Oak Grove, OR 97267-1421 503-786-2445 All About Hydroponics 633 Claude Rd. Ontario, OR 98914 208-731-9823 Phoenix Organics 4543 S. Pacific Highway Phoenix, OR 97535 541-535-1134 American Agriculture 9220 SE Stark St. Portland, OR 97216 800-433-6805 Bloom Garden Supply 518 N.E. 20th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 971-255-1336 _________________________

BWGS-OR 18201 N.E. Portal Way, Suite 104 Portland, OR 97230 888-316-1306 _________________________

Green Thumb Hydrogarden & Organic Supply 2021 West Main St. Medford, OR 97501 541-779-8600

Cascade Horticulture 19959 E. Burnside Portland, OR 97233 503-661-1700

Growing Crazy (Hooked On Hydroponics) 817 W. 2nd St. Medford, OR 97501 _______________________

Evergreen Garden Supply 3393 SE 21st Ave. Portland, OR 97055 503-206-5670

In & Out Gardens 1574 Skypark Dr. Medford, OR 97501 541-858-3333 _________________________ Ladybug Indoor Gardens 3960 W. Main St. Medford, OR 97501 541-618-4459 Advanced Organics & Garden Supply 290- B Merlin Ave. Merlin, OR 97532 541-659-1466 _________________________

Wizard’s Garden, LLC 621 Spruce St., Unit C Myrtle Point, OR 97458 541-572-2333 _________________________ Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 454 S.W. Coast Hwy. Newport, OR 97365 541-265-8252

Evergreen Garden Supply 8830 N.E. Sandy Blvd. Unit C Portland, OR 97220 503-408-6635 Everybody’s Garden Center 2701 S.E. 14th Ave. Portland, OR 97202 800-669-5483 Garden Spout, The 4532 SE 63rd Ave. Portland, OR 97206 503-788-GROW Indoor Hydroponic Garden & Lights 1409 S.E. 82nd Ave. Portland, OR 97216 503-445-2250 Jantzen Beach Hydroponics 909 N. Tomahawk Island Dr., Suite 103 Portland, OR 97217 503-546-3185

Roots Garden Supply 5426 North Gay Ave. Portland, OR 97217 503-285-4768 Urban Flora 2865 South East Portland, OR 97214 503-236-3344 BIGS Warehouse 2606 S.W. 4th St., Unit B Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-8886 Green Solutions Garden Supply 628 SW Glacier Ave. Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-2604 Indoor Garden Supply 536 S.W. 6th St. (rear alley) Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-7750 DC Hydroponics & Organics 7275 Green Siding Rd. Roseburg, OR 97471 541-679-3700 Roseburg Hydroponics 853 SE Stephens St. Roseburg, OR 97470 541-229-1420 Indoor Garden Center 1697 SE 25th St. Salem, OR 97302 503-566-7888 Northern Light & Garden Salem 1915 Lancester Dr. Salem, OR 97305 503-364-4769 Grow Big Inc. 16572 SE 362nd Dr. Sandy, OR 97055 503-826-8277 Greener Side of Life 623 West Centennial Blvd. Springfield, OR 97477 541-636-3552 Oregon’s Constant Gardener 2053 Laura St. Springfield, OR 97477 541-747-8170 Moonshine Park Farm 135 South East 62nd, Unit F South Beach, OR 97366 541-444-2298 Rogue Farmers 1007 S. Pacific Hwy. Talent, OR 97540 541-512-4600 Samurai Greenhouse Supply 32067 Old Hwy. 34 Tanget, OR 97389 541-928-3431 Grow America Garden Supply LLC 11511 S.W. Pacific Highway Tigard, OR 97223 503-841-6868 Portland Hydroponics & Organics 11564 S.W. Pacific Highway Tigard, OR 97223 503-746-4303

Lights Distributing 9843 S.W. 55th Ave. Portland, OR 97219

Pharmer Hydroponics 11135 S.W. Industrial Way, Bldg 10-4 Tualatin, OR 97062 503-486-5751

Rain or Shine 13126 N.E. Airport Way Portland, OR 97230 503-255-1981

Splatt Hydroponics 23842 NE Halsey St., Suite B Wood Village, OR 97060-1002 503-912-0231

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MAXIMUM YIELD distributors PENNSYLVANIA Pocono Hydroponic Solutions 25 Route 611 Bartonsville, PA 18321 570-730-4544 Green Solutions Hydroponics 1700 Orange St. Berwick, PA 18603 570-752-1530 Garden Indoors of Pennsylvania 208 Route 13 Bristol, PA 19007 800-227-4567 422 GROW 1775 North Main St. Ext. Butler, PA 16001-1327 724-561-3777 ________________________

High Tech Garden Supply 20232 Route 19, Unit 6 Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-473-1113 ________________________ Hydrofarm East 270 Canal Rd. Fairless Hills, PA 19030 888-780-4567 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 830 Route 119 Greensburg, PA 15601 724-836-1118 Buds to Blooms Garden and Supply Co., LLC 509 Orchard Ave. Kennett Square, PA 19348 610-388-0100 _________________________

The Companion Plant 363 E. Main St. Kutztown, PA 19530 610-683-9676 _________________________ The Companion Plant 363 E. Main St. Kutztown, PA 19530 610-683-9676 Flairform PO 1417 Lansdale, PA 19446 215-395-6353 ________________________

Full Bloom Hydroponics 84 South 24th St. Pittsburgh, PA 15203 888-872-3602 _________________________

Esbenshades Greenhouses 546A E. 28th Div Hwy Lititz, PA 17543 717-626-7007 Hydro Ponics of Harrisburg 310 S. 10th St. Lemoyne, PA 17043 877-684-3808

Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 2008 Smallman St. Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-232-7030

Grow With Us 709 Warwick Ave. Warwick, RI 02888 401-270-6998

Healthy Gardens and Supply 1008 Lincoln Ave. Prospect Park, PA 19076 866-32-HYDRO

Live to Grow 719 Bald Hill Rd. Warwick, Rl 02886 401-615-5122

Northeast Hydroponics & Homebrewing 221 Scranton Carbondale Hwy. Scranton, PA 18508 570-209-7924

Mother Nature Hydroponics 1268 Post Rd. Warwick, RI 02888 401-780-0600

Full Time Garden Supply 1011 Ritner Hwy. Shippensburg, PA 17257 717-477-0350 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 9 N. Main St. Washington, PA 15301 724-222-0200 Western Pennsylvania Innovative Gardening 1177 Pittsburgh Rd., Suite 103 Valencia, PA 16059 724-903-0800 Organic Garden Center 1307 Park Ave. Williamsport, PA 17701 570-322-3120 _________________________

GrowRI 105 Franklin St., Unit # 38 Westerly, RI 02891 401-596-0904 _________________________

\ Good To Grow 34 Nooseneck Hill Rd. W. Greenwich, RI 02817 401-392-3100 _________________________ Growin’ Crazy 93 Kingston Rd. Wyoming, RI 02898 401-284-0810

SOUTH CAROLINA National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 450 Grim Lane York, PA 17406 877-779-7111 (Northeast) _________________________ PA Hydroponics & Home Gardening Supply 20 Quaker Church Rd. York Springs, PA 17372 717-528-4175

RHODE ISLAND

Solar Seed Hydroponics, Inc. 2406 Putman Pike Chepachet, RI 02814 401-710-9010

GreenSpirit Hydrogarden 1864 Meeting St. Charleston, SC 29405 843-225-1GRO Skyes the Limit 455 B Fleming Rd. Charleston, SC 29412 843-566-2121 247 Garden Supply 535 D Clemson Rd. Columbia, SC 29229 803-788-4445 The Urban Garden Hydroponics 9557 Two Notch Rd., Suite E Columbia, SC 29223 803-788-9313 _________________________

Hydro-Earth 1243 Mineral Springs Ave. North Providence, RI 02904 401-305-5520

New Stanton Hydro 150 Post Ave. New Stanton, PA 15672 724-635-0297

The Organic Grow Hut 375 Putnam Pike, Suite 13 Smithfield, RI 02828 401-349-4141

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Central Austin) 5605 Burnet Rd. Austin, TX 78756 512-459-4769

Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics 5121 Crest Way Dr., Suite 203 San Antonio, TX 78239 210-248-9309

Green Earth Products Inc. 5700 Highway 79 S., Unit 1 Rapid City, SD 57702 605-342-1307 _________________________

Texas Hydroponics & Organics (South Austin) 2125-A Goodrich Ave. Austin, TX 78704 512-440-4769

TENNESSEE

Third Coast Horticulture Supplies 7010 Burnet Rd. Austin, TX 78757 512-459-4353

Texas Hydroponics & Organics (San Antonio) 3412 Copeland San Antonio, TX 78219 210-226-4769

Innovative Hydroponic Supply Inc. 3286 North Park Blvd., Unit G Alcoa, TN 37701 865-984-0280 _________________________

Atlantis Hydroponics 1800 Rossville Avenue, #3 Chattanooga, TN 37408 423-752-5400 _________________________ Advanced Hydroponic Garden 783 French Mill Rd. Dandridge, TN 37725 800-521-1643 Perpetual Harvest 75 Riverport Dr. Jackson, TN 38301 877-422-3391 Advanced Hydroponic Garden 6912 Clinton Hiwy. Knoxville, TN 37921 866-938-3318 Grow Green Garden Shop 3625 Fairmont Blvd. Knoxville, TN 37917 865-249-8259 Sun City Hydroponics 2235 Whitten Rd., Suite 104 Memphis, TN 38133 901-372-8100 _________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 126 Belinda Parkway Mt. Juliet, TN 37122 888-265-9005 _______________________ All Seasons Gardening and Brewing Supply Co. 924 8th Ave. S. Nashville, TN 37203 800-790-2188 _________________________

Worm’s Way Tennessee 901 Main St. Nashville, TN 37072 800-397-4153 _________________________

Organically Grown 768 Atwood Ave. Cranston, RI 02920 401-944-0549 GrowRI 184 Admiral Kalbfus Rd. Newport, RI 02840 401-619-0776

SOUTH DAKOTA

_________________________

Good To Grow 51 Old Tower Hill Rd. Wakefield, RI 02879 401-783-1733 _________________________

Always Green Garden Supply 4400 Old William Penn Hwy., Suite 106 Monroeville, PA 15146 412-646-1243

184

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Gardening-Indoor 20550 Rt. #19 Cranberry Twp. Pitsburgh, PA 16066 724-591-8086 _________________________

Oakworld Garden Center 39 West St. Barrington, RI 02806 401-245-5705 RH Distribution PO 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 888-545-8112 _________________________

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

TEXAS All Seasons Indoor & Outdoor Supplies 1350 Hwy. 501 Business, Store 3&4 Conway, SC 29526 843-347-9266 _________________________ Green Thumb Unique Gardening & More 1230 Rutherford Rd. Greenville, SC 29609 864-271-8830

Abundant Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 3101 Ave. E. Arlington, TX 76011 817-649-0100 Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics 4201 South Congress Ave., Suite 310 Austin, TX 78745 512-444-2100

Jolly Green Hydroponics (Greenhouse Horticultural Supplies) 13628 Neutron Rd. Dallas, TX 75244 866-WE-JOLLY; 469-341-5555 Lone Star Hydroponics & Organics 10550 Markinson Rd. Dallas, TX 75207 214-634-9376 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Deep Ellum) 2715 Main St. Dallas, TX 75226 214-745-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Dallas) 2606 Manana Dr. Dallas, TX 75220 214-744-4769

Texas Hydroponics & Organics (San Antonio West) 6729 Bandera Rd. San Antonio, TX 78238 210-684-4769 Innergrow Hydroponics 24451 Interstate Hwy. 20 Wills Point, TX 75169 866-475-4769

UTAH Wasatch Hydroponics 60 W 3300 S. Suite #6 Salt Lake City, UT 84115 801-716-4133

VERMONT Greenthumb - Vermont 394 Route 15 Jericho, VT 05465 802-899-4323 _________________________

Earth Organics 1360 Lee Trevino Dr., Suite 105 El Paso, TX 79936 915-591-9500 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Ft. Worth) 2501 Airport Frwy. Ft. Worth, TX 76111 817-834-4769 Hydrofarm Central 950 Ave. S. Grand Prairie, TX 75050-1133 800-634-9999 Botani Garden 15120 Bellaire Blvd. Houston, TX 77083 281-575-1999 Houston Discount Hydroponics 9380 Richmond Ave. Houston, TX 77063 713-464-9406 HydroShack 1138 W. 20th St. Houston, TX 77008 713-292-1921

How’s It Growing 193 Route 15 West Johnson, VT 05656 802-635-9931 avespo@myfairpoint.com _________________________ Peak Hydroponic Garden Supplies 20 School St. Plainfield, VT 05667 802-454-8000 LiquidSun® VT 1 Bellows Falls Rd. (Route 5 North) Putney, VT 05158 802-387-1100 Green Thumb Gardening P.O. Box 235, Route 15 Underhill, VT 5489 800-564-9376

VIRGINIA

Hydroponic Nation 9001 Frey Rd. Houston, TX 77034 713-943-1115

Fifth Season Gardening Co. 900 Preston Ave. Charlottesville, VA 22903 434-293-2332

Progressive Garden 3582 W T.C. Jester Blvd. Houston, TX 77018 713-681-7764

Clean & Green Technologies 196 Corning Dr. Christiansburg, VA 24073 866-694-1628

Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Houston) 2420 Rusk St,. Houston, TX 77003 713-641-4769

Maryland Hydroponics 1061 West Broad St. Falls Church, VA 866-324-9376

Ultimate Hydroponic Garden Supply 6125 W. Sam Houston Pkwy. N. #206 Houston, TX 77041 713-856-8425

Lucky Roots 612 North Sheppard St. Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020

Texas Growers Supply 5990 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E. #602 Humble, TX 77396 281-441-3739

Blue Ridge Hydroponics & Home Brewing Company 5327 D Williamson Rd. Roanoke, VA 24012 540-265-2483

Hydro Mart 3841 Main St. Rowlett, TX 75088 972-475-6114

Inside-Out Garden Supply 6517 Backlick Rd. Springfield, VA 22150 703-451-3259


I Love Hydroponics 368 Newtown Rd. #105 Virginia Beach, VA 23462 757-490-5425

Kitsap Garden & Lighting 2130 6th St. Bremerton, WA 98312 360-377-1277

Hydroponics & Growlights 13400 Occoquan Rd. Woodbridge, VA 22191 703-490-0700

M & R Lighting Unit C 22914 Hwy 410 Buckley, WA 98390 360-707-5999 ________________________

West VIRGINIA Panhandle Hydroculture 800 East Moler Ave. Martinsburg, WV 25401 304-240-7587 Mountaineer Gardening and Hydroponics 258 Kingwood St. Morgantown, WV 26505 304-290-2460 Almost Heaven Hydroponics 3476 University Ave. Morgantown, WV 26505 304-598-5911

WASHINGTON AJ’s Indoor Gardening 1317 Summit St. Aberdeen, WA 98520 360-533-1170 _________________________

Island Horticulture Supply 8608 S March Point Rd. Anacortes, WA 98221 360-293-0000 _________________________ Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 6121 172nd St. N.E. #A Arlington, WA 98223 360-474-1900 _________________________

Pro Grow Horticulture Supplies 3411 169th Pl. N.E. Suite C Arlington, WA 98223 360-925-6358 _________________________ Belfair Garden & Lighting 24090 N.E. State Route 3 #F Belfair, WA 98528 360-275-2130 Green Gardens Distributing 12738 Bel-Red Rd. Bellevue, WA 98005 425-454-5731 In Bloom 2119 Lincoln St. Bellingham, WA 98225 360-778-1668 Northern Lights Gardening 4159 Hannegan Rd. Bellingham, WA 98225 360-715-8585 _________________________

North West Hydro Supply 5659 Guide Meridian St. Bellingham, WA 98226 360-778-3254 _________________________ Liquid Sunshine Hydroponics 5087 Lincoln Rd. Blaine, WA 98230

Island Horticulture Supply 1500 Port Dr. Burlington, WA 98233 360-707-5999 _________________________

Indoor Tropics 5930 Sunburst Lane #B Cashmere, WA 98815 509-470-7782 _________________________

Indoor Gardening 111 W. Main Centralia, WA 98531 360-807-4259 _________________________ Sauk Solutions 7460 S Dillard Ave. Concrete, Wa 98237 360-853-8498

Kent Garden Supplies Ltd. 18817 East Valley Hwy. Kent, WA 98032 425-251-9299 Grogro Hydro 12403 N.E. 124th St. Kirkland, WA 98034 888-7-GROGRO; 425-820-6200 Hefty Harvest Garden & Hydroponic Supply 2825 Marvin Rd. N.E., Suite M Lacey, WA 98516 360-628-8964 _________________________

KP Indoor Garden Store 8912 Key Peninsula Hwy. N. Lakebay, WA 98349 253-884-SURE (7873) ________________________

Indoor Gardening 1158 Commerce Longview, WA 98632 360-353-3851 ________________________

Grow Center, The 615 South Fir DeerPark, WA 99006 509-276-GROW Cascadia Garden Supply 188 A St. Eastsound, WA 98245 360-376-6040 _________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 20505 Highway 99 Lynnwood, WA 98036 425-673-2755 _________________________ Go-N-Green Hydroponics 1241 State Ave., Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 360-386-8230

Healthy Grow Indoor Garden Supplies 10 S.E. Everett Mall Way, Suite B Everett, WA 98208 425-374-2227

Green Acres Indoor Garden & Lighting 514 State Ave, Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 360-658-GROW (4769)

Indoor Garden Depot 1401 S. 324th St. federal Way, WA 98003 253-874-1112

Island Hydroponic & Supplies 1515 5th St. #B Marysville, WA 98271 425-299-5855

Fife Indoor Garden Center 1422 54th Ave. E. Fife, WA 98424 253-922-5352

Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 1204 East Wheeler Rd. Moses Lake, WA 98837 509-766-5856

Good 2 Gro 3507 W. Clearwater Ave. Kennewick, WA 99336 509-737-1313 _________________________

M & R Lighting 17238 Memorial Dr. Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-848-1080

Indoor Garden & Lighting 714 South Central Ave. Kent, WA 98032 253-373-9060 _________________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 8606 Preston Fall City Rd. S.E. Preston, WA 98050 425-222-9661 ________________________ Linda’s Gardening & Hydroponics 11522 Canyon Rd. E. Puyallup, WA 98373 253-531-9641 Purple Spring Horticulture Supply 711 Nesses Corner Rd. Pt. Hadlock, WA 98339-9411 360-344-2500 Renton Indoor Garden Center 329 Wells Ave. S. Renton, WA 98057 425-917-9000 Eco Enterprises 1240 N.E. 175th St. #B Shoreline, WA 98155 800-426-6937 ________________________

Aqua Serene 3839 Stone Way N. Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-GROW (4769) ________________________

Indoor Tropics 801 N. Prospect Ellensburg, WA 98926 509-933-4441 _________________________

Indoor Garden Depot 8630 Evergreen Way, Suite B Everett, WA 98208 425-347-0700

________________________

Grogro Hydro 12316 32nd AVE N.E. #103 Seattle, WA 98125 Hydro-Tech 2121 Aurora Ave. N. Seattle, WA 98109 206-547-2202 ________________________

509 Grow 2718 N. Division Spokane, WA 99207 509-327-GROW (4769) Grow Center, The 2808 W. Sprague Spokane, WA 99202 509-456-GROW River City Hydroponics 1514 East Francis Ave. Spokane, WA 99208 509-464-0246 Rootz Indoor Garden Supply 923 E. Hoffman Spokane, WA 99207 509-443-5999 _______________________

_________________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 5408 N.E. 88th St. Building A Vancouver, WA 98665 888-478-6544 _________________________ Indoor Garden Supply LLC 1250 Atlantic Ave. Woodland, WA 98674 360-841-8055 Artificial Sun Hydroponics 3506 Summitview Ave. Yakima, WA 98902 509-823-4026

WISCONSIN

_________________________

\ Spokane Organic & Hydroponic Supply 4823 East Sprague Avenue E. Spokane Valley, WA 99212 509-534-4055 ________________________ Spokane Organic & Hydroponic Supply 8701 North Division, Suite D Spokane Valley, WA 509-468-4800 Garden City Hydroponics 14103 Pacific Ave. S. Tacoma, WA 98444 253-301-3985 _______________________

Indoor Garden & Lighting 3839 6th Ave. Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-7478 ________________________

Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 1104 West Wisconsin Ave. Appleton, WI 54914 920-574-3258 _________________________ Grow BIG Hydroponics 954 S. Westland Appleton, WI 54914 920-749-4769 2oGrow 1150 Madison Rd. Beloit, WI 53511 608-289-1852 Brew and Grow 285 N. Janacek Rd. Brookfield, WI 53045 262-789-0555 Sustainable Growth LLC 218 N. Dewey St. Eau Claire, WI 54703 715-901-0511 Garden Supply Guys 752 Memorial Dr., Suite A Green Bay, WI 54303 920-857-9493 Hydro Your Own 8501-75th St. Unit C Kenosha, WI 53142 262 697 6112 Brew and Grow 1525 Williamson St. Madison, WI 53703 608-226-8910 _________________________

Seattle’s Hydro Spot 917 N.W. 49th St. Seattle, WA 98107 206-784-2161 _________________________

Sodo Hydro 1727 1st Ave. S. Seattle, WA 98134 206-682-9377; 888-90-HYDRO (904-760) _____________________

Northern Lights Gardening 1524 Riverside Dr, #2 Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-982-2217

Northwest Horticulture Supply 161 Hooker Rd. #1 Sequim, WA 98057 360-582-0702

Poulsbo Indoor Garden and Lighting 22275A Stottlemeyer Rd. POULSBO, WA 98370 360-930-0853

SnoGro Indoor Gardening Supply 502 Maple Ave. Snohomish, WA 98290 360-863-6935

Waterworks Hydroponics 5039 S. Washington Tacoma, WA 98409 253-301-4343 waterworkshydro@hotmail.com ________________________ Solar Shop 306 West 4th St. Tonasket, WA 98855 509-486-4508 Indoor Garden Depot 6400 N.E. Highway 99, Suite H Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 ________________________

Paradigm Gardens 4501 Helgesen Dr. Madison, WI 53718 608-241-3800 _________________________ Spread Eagle Garden Center 4413 N. Lake Rd. S. Florence, WI 54121 715-696-3910 Brew and Grow 2246 Blue Mound Rd., Suite B Waukesha, WI 53186 262-717-0666

PUERTO RICO

______________________

National Garden Wholesale/ Sunlight Supply 4525 N.W. Fruit Valley Rd. Vancouver, WA 98660 888-478-6544 (Northwest) _ _______________________

Tecno-Hydro Ave Campo Rico GJ17, PO Box 1450 Carolina, PR 00982 787-752-8252 _________________

Maximum Yield USA  |  December 2013

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Diving Into Deep Water Culture After making the decision to grow hydroponically, the next step is deciding on a specific hydro system. One of the easiest and most effective methods for the first-time hydroponic gardener is the deep water culture system, sometimes called the direct water culture system. Matt LeBannister shares a few pointers on this popular method of growing hydroponically.

Growing Stevia at Home Have you heard of the natural sweetener called stevia yet? Currently, Europe is leading the world in the stevia market, but in March of 2013, the US FDA officially approved stevia extracts for the beverage industry. Stevia use is a trend that promises to continue as consumers search for improved substitutes for processed sugars and artificial sweeteners.

The Benefits of Activated Carbon Activated carbon is one of the most important tools for cleaning up our world and is standing center stage for most technologies used for cleaning our environment in the future. Dr. McLaughlin talks about how activated carbon works in relation to air filters for the gardening industry. Maximum Yield USA January will be available next month for free at select indoor gardening retail stores across the country and on maximumyield.com. Subscriptions are available at maximumyield.com/subscriptions

Have an Idea? Maximum Yield wants to hear your ideas. Get in touch with editor@maximumyield.com and let us know what you’d like to see in future issues of the magazine. Also get in touch if you’re interested in being a contributor. We’d be happy to have you!

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Maximum Yield USA Dec 2013