INTERNATIONAL BIOHERBICIDE GROUP
IBG NEWS June 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contact Addresses ........................................................ 1 Chairman's Comments .................................................. 2 Next IBG Workshop....................................................... 2 IBG Website .................................................................. 2 People & Places ............................................................ 3 Bioherbicide Research .................................................. 6 Publications ................................................................. 15 Editor's Corner............................................................. 16
CHAIR Karen Bailey Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 0X2, CANADA Phone: +306.9567260; Fax: +306.9567247; e-mail: Karen.Bailey@agr.gc.ca VICE CHAIR Graeme Bourdôt AgResearch Lincoln, Cnr Springs Road & Gerald Street, PB 4749, Christchurch 8140, NEW ZEALAND Phone: +64.3.9833973; Fax : +64.3.9833946; e-mail: email@example.com NEWSLETTER EDITOR Maurizio Vurro Institute of Sciences of Food Production - C.N.R. – Via Amendola 122/O - 70125 - Bari ITALY Phone: +39.0805929331; Fax: +39.0805929374; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
CHAIRMAN’S COMMENTS It will soon be one year since we last met in Waikoloa, Hawaii. I am sure it has been a busy year for all as I have noticed that there have been several recent publications on bioherbicides ( appearing below). In June, I came back from the Canadian Phytopathological Society meetings which held a joint symposium with the Canadian Forum for Biological Control. There were three speakers: Krista Anderson from Bayer CropScience Inc. who spoke on how to obtain “Field research permits – the first step in the regulatory process”, Lilian DeLuna from the Pest Management Regulatory Agency spoke on “Using benefit information and use history to address value data requirements – implications for biopesticide registration submissions”, and Tobias Laengle from the Pest Management Centre spoke on “Getting rich or going broke? Economic considerations to guide research decisions on microbial pest control products”. These presentations will be posted in the near future to the www.biocontrolforum.ca listed under the tab Symposia and AGMs. Although the focus was slanted towards North American systems, there were many points that may be applicable to all. It is the height of summer in Canada, and so I am off to the field to watch my bioherbicidetreated weeds die! Hope you enjoy the newsletter that Maurizio has put together. As one last note, on behalf of all IBG members, I extend heartfelt congratulations to Maurizio and Maria Antonietta who got married in Bari on March 21, 2012! Karen Bailey (Karen.Bailey@agr.gc.ca)
THE NEXT IBG WORKSHOP IS 2013: MARK YOUR CALENDARS NOW! The XI th IBG Workshop will be held in Nanjing, China on August 23-24, 2013. Our host will be Dr. Shen Qiang from the Nanjing Agricultural University (Email: email@example.com). These dates are just prior to the 10th International Congress on Plant Pathology on August 25-31, 2013 in Beijing, China. Dr. Qiang is planning on a 2 day meeting for IBG to be able to include presentations, university tour, and a bioherbicide field trip. Nanjing is only 4 hours from Beijing on the high speed train making it easy to attend both IBG and ICPP. Mark your calendars now so you plan to attend! Karen Bailey (Karen.Bailey@agr.gc.ca)
IBG WEBSITE As you might have seen, the IBG Website (http://ibg.ba.cnr.it) has been updated and renewed. Due to the scarcity of funds, I have prepared it by myself, and of course it hasn't a professional style. I hope you will appreciate it. I was thinking to further rearrange the website, placing it in a free hosting system, which offers some facilities to create and manage it.
I have tentatively registered it as http://bioherbicidegroup.jimdo.com, because the acronym IBG was already used differently by other people. At the present time, it is only a very preliminary stage, but it could be improved with all our documents, a blog, links to social networks, forms for enquiries, visitor counters, etc. Documents as well as new pages can be easily added. Please let me know your opinion, in order to be encouraged or not to proceed in this direction Maurizio Vurro - firstname.lastname@example.org
PEOPLE & PLACES The 6th International Weed Science Congress was held from 17 to 22 June 2012 in Hangzhou (China). During the intense days of the conference, one of the keynote presentations was held on the Strategies for Advancing Mycoherbicides by Susan Boyetchko, Canada, and 2 sessions were dedicated to biological control of weeds. Below you can find the parts of the programme referring to those events, and the extended abstract of the keynote presentation. Interesting biocontrol-related presentations were also held in the "Natural compounds and allelopathy" Session.
BIOHERBICIDE RESEARCH Mycosphaerella polygoni-cuspidati – a second biological control agent for Japanese knotweed? Originally introduced in 1850s for its ornamental purposes, Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.) has spread dramatically throughout the UK and is also a problem in Europe, the US and Canada. As a result it is listed as one of the world’s top 100 invasive species. By growing rhizomatically this plant forms dense monocultures that out-compete native flora and can also damage infrastructure. It is estimated that the annual cost of this weed to the British economy is £166 million (Williams et al. 2010).
In 2003 a project was initiated looking for a “Natural control of Japanese knotweed in the UK” as an alternative to mechanical and chemical control methods. Numerous field surveys conducted in Japan revealed a suite of natural enemies associated with Japanese knotweed. Initial studies, however, found a sap sucking psyllid (Aphalara itadori Shinji) and leaf-spot pathogen (Mycosphaerella polygoni-cuspidati Hara) to be the most promising agents based on impact and apparent host specificity. Following simultaneous evaluation of both these agents, in 2008 the focus shifted to the psyllid while work on the leaf-spot pathogen was put on the “back-burner”. Based on the PRA compiled, a public consultation and ministerial approval, UK permission for the release of the psyllid was granted in 2010 (Shaw et al. 2011), and mass releases of the agent have since been undertaken in 2011 and 2012. Fortunately, the biocontrol potential of the Mycosphaerella leaf-spot causing severe necrotic lesions on Japanese knotweed leaves thereby resulting in the collapse of plant tissues and premature senescence has very much stayed on people’s minds (Figure 1). With additional funding now provided by the UK Government Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in 2012, a two year study looking further at the suitability of the leaf-spot pathogen for controlling this damaging weed is back in action. Research is currently undertaken in the UK and also by collaborators in Japan, as the centre of origin of both the weed and the pathogen. During the first phase of the project running until 2008, the biology of the leaf spot including its infection parameters was studied, and its host specificity was assessed almost to completion in line with the agreed test-plant list (Djeddour et al. 2008, Kurose et al. 2009). The current project phase is continuing from where we left off, filling remaining gaps in the host-range experiments as well as attempting to complete the life cycle of this pathogen under laboratory conditions, a task that has proven difficult to date.
Figure 1. Japanese knotweed infected by the leaf-spot pathogen, Mycosphaerella polygoni-cuspidati, in Japan.
At the end of this two year project, the research data will be compiled in a PRA for evaluation by the UK authorities to decide whether M. polygoni-cuspidati will be fit to join the psyllid as a biocontrol agent for Japanese knotweed in the UK.
References Djeddour DH, Shaw RH, Evans HC, Tanner RH, Kurose D, Takahashi N, Seier, M. (2008) Could Fallopia japonica be the first target for classical weed biocontrol in Europe? In Julien MH, Sforza R, Bon MC, Evans HC, Hatcher PE, Hinz HL, Rector BG (Eds.) Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on the Biological Control of Weeds, La Grande Motte (France), April 2007. CAB International (Wallingford, UK): 463-469. Kurose D, Evans HC, Djeddour DH, Cannon PF, Furuya N, Tsuchiya K (2009) Systematics of Mycosphaerella species associated with the invasive weed Fallopia japonica, including the potential biological control agent M. polygoni-cuspidati. Mycoscience 50: 179-189. Shaw RH, Tanner RA, Djeddour DH, Cortat G. (2011) Classical biological control of Japanese knotweed – lessons for Europe. Weed Research 51: 552-558. Williams F, Eschen R, Harris A, Djeddour D, Pratt C, Shaw RS, Varia S, Lamontagne-Godwin J, Thomas SE, Murphy ST (2010) The economic cost of invasive non-native species to Great Britain. CABI E-UK report, 198 pp.
Kate Pollard (K.Pollard@cabi.org) and Marion Seier, CABI E-UK, Bakeham Lane, Egham, UK
Investigating the classical biological control of Crassula helmsii in the UK Crassula helmsii, or Australian swamp stonecrop is an invasive semi-aquatic plant that has been present in the UK since its introduction as a pond plant in 1911. Native to Australia and New Zealand, the plant has since spread throughout the United Kingdom and is considered one of Western Europe’s most troublesome water weeds. Crassula has the ability to dominate slow moving water bodies and bank sides, threatening native species particularly in conservation areas of significance such as the New Forest and the Lake District in the UK. Once established, it is almost impossible to eradicate completely; local action groups have spent thousands of pounds and man hours trying to control this weed by any means possible, and are running out of options. There are new restrictions on chemical usage in aquatic systems and with mechanical control essentially useless due to fragmentation, an alternative is desperately needed. Therefore in 2011, the UK government (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) funded CABI to investigate the potential for classical biological control of this weed, alongside CABI’s continuing studies for the biocontrol of Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) and floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides). Investigative surveys have now taken place with potential agents observed and imported to CABI’s quarantine facilities, with several insects and plant pathogens under analysis and identification. CABI’s pathologists have identified potentially two Collitotrichum species and a Cercospora-like fungus which have been observed causing significant damage in the field. Infection parameters are currently being determined and life cycle studies carried out in order for host specificity studies to commence. Sonal Varia (email@example.com) and Marion Seier
Biological control of stump sprouting species using the silverleaf fungus Chondrostereum purpureum in New Zealand 1ÂŞ
Bellgard SE , Johnson VW , Than DJ , Anand, N , Winks CJ , Ezeta G and Dodd SL 1 Landcare Research, 231 Morrin Road, St Johns Auckland 1071, New Zealand 2 EnForm Tech, 19 Laureston Ave Papatoetoe Auckland, New Zealand 3 Auckland Council, Head Office, Hereford Street Auckland City, New Zealand
Conventional willow control in wetland areas is undertaken in New Zealand using a cutstump application of glyphosate. The presence of herbicide residues in catchment water supplies has seen the investigation of non-chemical alternatives to poplar and willow control in Auckland water catchment areas. We have demonstrated in glasshouse trials, the efficacy of an aqueous, gel-based formulation of C. purpureum to control the re-growth of poplar and crack willow. C. purpureum isolate ICMP 16392 (isolated from a Prunus sp.) produced the fastest biomass accumulation in liquid culture. Crack willow (93%) appeared to be more susceptible to cut-stump infection by C. purpureum than poplar (52%) as demonstrated by the presence of C. purpureum fruiting bodies at the end of the trial period. At the end of the trial, there was no significant difference between monthly biomass accumulation for formulation EFT 1, 2, and 3. However, formulation EFT 12 (commenced in July), significantly reduced the biomass of both poplar and crack willow. Formulation EFT 12 is based upon ICMP 16392, which was identified as producing the highest biomass in liquid broth. There was no significant correlation between lesion length and distance to fruiting body. Results of this research has enabled further product development through screening the efficacy of the formulations in field-based applications in both and summer and winter treatments.
Stanley Bellgard - BellgardS@landcareresearch.co.nz
Nigrospora crown rot for biocontrol of giant Parramatta grass David Officer, Research Agronomist, Grafton Primary Industries Institute
Introduction This factsheet describes recent research into a naturally occurring (endemic) fungus Nigrospora oryzae, which causes crown rot in weedy Sporobolus grasses (WSGs). Until recently the control of WSGs has been dependent on chemicals that are expensive and often provide only short term suppression. Biological control in the form of Nigrospora crown rot is now a viable option for WSGs, particularly giant Parramatta grass. As producers are becoming aware of Nigrospora crown rot they are switching from longterm chemical use to biocontrol. Except in cases where an immediate reduction in GPG is required, chemical control is becoming less necessary. Nigrospora crown rot fungus is generally a saprophyte (uses dead plant material for nutrients), or is occasionally a secondary cause of disease. In introduced WSGs it produces crown rot. The disease is known to kill giant Parramatta grass (GPG) and reduce infestations to non-economic levels over a couple of years. Up to 78% reduction in tussock size (over 15 months) and 64% reduction in tussock presence (over 12 months) has been observed in the field, due to the effects of Nigrospora crown rot. Nigrospora oryzae has also been observed inducing disease in Parramatta grass (PG) and giant rats tail grass (GRT). How effective it will be as a biocontrol agent in these species is discussed below.
Abbreviations GPG = giant Parramatta grass (Sporobolus fertilis) GRT = giant ratâ€™s tail grass (Sporobolus pyramidalis or Sporobolus natalensis) PG = Parramatta grass (Sporobolus africanus) WSGs = weedy Sporobolus grasses (includes GPG, GRT, PG and Sporobolus jaquemontii)
Figure 1. GPG affected by crown rot (pale orange leaves).
Figure 2. Crown rot in a GPG tiller.
Nigrospora crown rot symptoms Nigrospora crown rot produces pale orange leaves on diseased tillers. The diseased tillers are easy to remove from the crown and have a brown-coloured base instead of the normal white colour. Yellowing caused by crown rot will always occur in the central folded leaf of a tiller, not just in the outer leaves as can be caused by frost or age.
Month Year, http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/factsheets for updates Primefact DRAFT first edition
Biosecurity Research Unit
The symptoms of crown rot become obvious in spring 7-10 days after the first effective rainfall event after winter. By late December through to mid January the disease is usually easiest to spot. The amount of disease and rate of spread can be dependent on rainfall.
they can locate suitable material. Crown rot disease has been found from the Tweed to the lower mid-north coast in NSW. Contact your local weeds officer or District Agronomist who may be able to recommend sites with active crown rot disease infections.
During autumn and winter the symptoms of the disease tend to disappear, reappearing the following spring.
Using Nigrospora crown rot as a biocontrol agent Nigrospora crown rot may need to be introduced to an infestation and managed for maximum effect, or it may already be present in small amounts and only require better management to increase its spread and effectiveness.
Introducing Nigrospora crown rot to an infestation Ideally, Nigrospora spores will be available as a commercial preparation for inoculating large areas of GPG. Until a commercial preparation is developed the only way to introduce the crown rotcausing spores is by transplanting diseased plants. Diseased plants can be introduced from other infestations, but an initial check for crown rotaffected plants that may have gone unnoticed and could provide local transplanting stock is best practice. The natural spread of the disease has been patchy, but with more producers introducing diseased plants this situation will improve. Transplanting diseased plants Crown rot-diseased plants should be transplanted along ridges and areas of high cattle traffic. Dig up diseased plants using a mattock or spade and take 5-10 cm depth of soil and roots. Keep the plants cool between digging up and planting. Try to plant when the soil is moist. Use a mattock to open the soil up next to a healthy WSG plant. Plant the diseased plant in this hole and stomp around it to ensure good root ball and soil contact.
Figure 3. Planting diseased plants in research plots.
Restrictions on the movement of diseased plants Movement of prohibited plants including WSGs across a state border needs a permit. It is best practice to identify and use any local infection sites for diseased plant transfers.
Spreading crown rot through an infestation The spores of Nigrospora oryzae are spread in a number of ways: •
in water with overland flows after rain
in air, short distances to new host plants, and
through animal and vehicle movement.
Water movement after rain
Research is underway to determine the best time of year to introduce diseased plants. Because diseased plants are hard to find in late autumn and winter, most diseased plant transfer will take place between late spring and early autumn.
Over time rain water will move spores downhill. By planting diseased plants into an infestation at the top of a ridge or hill, rain water will spread the spores through an infestation. A single diseased plant can spread spores and infect plants over 0.1 ha in 12 months.
Where can I get diseased plants?
Northern NSW coastal cattle producers are using Nigrospora crown rot as a control measure by moving diseased plants onto their properties when
Spores from diseased plants can move in the air a short distance to new host plants.
p 2 Crown rot in weedy Sporobolus grasses
Animal and vehicle movement Disease incidence is often highest along cattle tracks and is more likely to show up in areas where cattle movements are more frequent. It is also likely that vehicles aid the movement of spores. Slashers and other cutting equipment are also likely to move diseased plant material around a property.
Crown rot disease symptoms have been seen on both burnt and slashed GPG. Burning and slashing also result in a flush of new shoots and it is likely both management options may assist in the spread of crown rot disease. Research is planned to confirm this theory.
Figure 5. Well grazed GPG on the left side of fence. Figure 3. A diseased plant was planted at the top of this ridge. Over 2 years water has spread the spores downhill and the depressions are now GPG free.
Figure 6. Pale orange new leaves of a diseased GPG plant after burning. Figure 4. 90% of GPG plants along this cattle track were diseased compared with 30% of plants away from the track.
Managing crown rot for maximum control Crown rot can be managed for maximum suppression and control of WSGs. Grazing, slashing and burning Initial research has observed a greater rate of disease spread in GPG infestations that are well grazed. Moderate to heavy grazing produces a flush of new growth. Disease symptoms occur in new shoots while they are still short and green, and do not occur in tall, hayed-off plants. Any management practice that produces a flush of new growth is more likely to help the spread and effectiveness of disease.
Figure 7. Two years after slashing a section of Nigrospora crown rot-infected paddock there is less GPG in that part of the paddock.
Crown rot in weedy Sporobolus grasses p 3
Effects on Parramatta grass and giant rat’s tail grass
the transfer of Nigrospora oryzae to this important native species.
Nigrospora crown rot is now known to occur in two other WSGs, PG and GRT. Both these species have been found with crown rot disease in the field and a survey has found diseased GRT as far north as central Queensland. It is still too early to know what economic impact Nigrospora crown rot will have on these species.
Given its genetic closeness to GPG, PG is likely to respond similarly to Nigrospora crown rot, and current trials are suggesting high susceptibility. Disease symptoms exhibited by GRT in the field are slightly different to GPG. The initial symptoms of the disease occur when plants become progressively wilted, leaf colour bleaches and stems produce very few seed heads compared to healthy plants.
Solid culture of Nigrospora oryzae using vegetable juice (V8) agar does produce spores but is labour intensive and unsuitable for the production of commercial amounts of spores. Further research and funding are needed to develop commercial preparations of Nigrospora oryzae spores. Research into the inoculation of PG in southern NSW and Victoria and GRT in Queensland is also required. Diseased plants have been collected from the field but it is not yet known if the course of the disease is the same as it is with GPG. Additional work on the susceptibility of Sporobolus virginicus to Nigrospora oryzae is also needed.
Acknowledgements Technical review: Rod Ensbey, Birgitte Verbeek, Sethu Ramasamy Editing and layout: Elissa van Oosterhout
Images Figure 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 - David Officer Figure 3 – Sethu Ramasamy
Publications available Figure 8. Pale, diseased GRT with few seed heads in the foreground, with darker green healthy plants behind.
Effects on native Sporobolus species Native Sporobolus grasses are not usually present in high densities in pastures as they lack the competitive ability of the introduced WSGs. There have been no observations of Nigrospora crown rot in any native species in the field. Host specificity testing with the natives Sporobolus creber and Sporobolus diandrus has shown no evidence of crown rot symptoms. Nigrospora oryzae will grow on the native Sporobolus virginicus but to date no evidence of disease has been noticed. Because Sporobolus virginicus is an important plant for maintaining the stability of sandy coastal areas, more research is needed to confirm its level of susceptibility to Nigrospora crown rot. Fortunately there is usually geographic separation between Sporobolus virginicus and other WSGs which may minimise
p 4 Crown rot in weedy Sporobolus grasses
Weedy Sporobolus Grasses Best Practice Manual (2007), Queensland Department of Primary Industires and Fisheries. View or download at www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/weeds © State of New South Wales through Department of Trade and Investment, Regional Infrastructure and Services 2012. You may copy, distribute and otherwise freely deal with this publication for any purpose, provided that you attribute the Department of Trade and Investment, Regional Infrastructure and Services as the owner. ISSN 1832-6668 Disclaimer: The information contained in this publication is based on knowledge and understanding at the time of writing (June 2012). However, because of advances in knowledge, users are reminded of the need to ensure that information upon which they rely is up to date and to check currency of the information with the appropriate officer of the Department of Primary Industries or the user’s independent adviser.Published by the Department of Primary Industries, a part of the Department of Trade and Investment, Regional Infrastructure and Services. Trim reference
RECENT PUBLICATIONS - Andolfi A., Cimmino A., Vurro M., Berestetskiy A., Troise C., Zonno M.C., Motta A., Evidente A., 2012. Agropyrenol and agropyrenal, phytotoxins from Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a fungal pathogen of Elitrigia repens. Phytochemistry, 79: 102108. - Bailey K.L., Falk S., 2011. “Turning Research on Microbial Bioherbicides into Commercial Products ─ A Phoma Story.", Pest Technology, 5 (Spec. Issue 1), 73-79. - Bailey K.L., Pitt W.M., Falk S., Derby J.-A., 2011. The effects of Phoma macrostoma on nontarget plant and target weed species., Biological Control, 58 (3) 379-386. doi: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.06.001 - Bailey K.L., Pitt W.M., Leggett F.L., Sheedy C., Derby J.-A., 2011. Determining the infection process of Phoma macrostoma that leads to bioherbicidal activity on broadleaved weeds. Biological Control, 59(2), pp. 268-276. doi: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.06.019 - Cimmino A., Andolfi A., Zonno M.C., Troise C., Santini A., Tuzi A., Vurro M., Ash G., Evidente A., 2012. Phomentrioloxin: a novel phytotoxic pentasubstituted geranylcyclohexentriol produced by Phomopsis sp., a potential mycoherbicide for Carthamus lanatus biocontrol. Journal of Natural Products, 75:1130-1137. - Cripps M., Bourdot G., Bailey K., 2012. Plant pathogens as biocontrl agentcs for Cirsium arvense – an answer to Műller and Nentwig. Neobiota, 13:31-39. doi 10.3897/neobiota13.3137 - Glare T., Caradus J., Gelernter W., Jackson T., Keyhani N., Kőhl J., Marrone P., Morin L., Stewart A., 2012. Have biopesticides come of age? Trends in Biotechnology 30 (5):258. - Hoagland R., Molin W., Nandula V., 2011. ARS-UDA Annual Project Report on the Characterization and Mitigation of Herbicide-resistant and Recalcitrant Weeds (http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=420135) - Marrone Bio Innovations, 2012. US EPA approves MBI’s broad-spectrum bioherbicide. http://news.agropages.com/News/NewsDetail---6915.htm - Műller E., Nentwig W., 2011. Plant pathogens as biocontrol agents of Cirsium arvense – an overestimated approach? NeoBiota, 11:1-24. doi:10.3897/neobiota.11.1803 - Omer A. Balah M., 2011. Using Rhizo-microbes as bioherbicides for weeds. Global Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry 6(3):102-111. (idosi.org/gjbb/gjbb6(3)11/2.pdf ) - Ortiz-Ribbing et al., 2011. Performance of two bioherbicide fungi for waterhemp and pigweed control in pumpkin and soybean. APSnet Vol 95 (4): 469-477. (http://www.apsnet.org/publications/plantdisease/2011/April/Pages/95_4_469.aspx) - Pest Management Regulatory Agency, Health Canada. 2011. Proposed Registration Decision PRD 2011- 03, Liquid Corn Gluten (http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cpsspc/pest/part/consultations/_prd2011-03/prd2011-03-eng.php)
- Pitt W.M., Bailey K.L., Fu Y.B., Peterson G.W., 2012. Biological and genetic characterization of Phoma macrostoma isolates with bioherbicidal activity. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 22(7), pp. 813-835. doi: 10.1080/09583157.2012.691159
- Vurro M., Andolfi A., Boari A., Zonno M.C., Caretto S., Avolio F., Evidente A., 2012. Optimization of the production of the herbicidal toxins by the fungus Ascochyta caulina. Biological Control, 60: 192-198.
EDITOR'S CORNER Dear All, Thanks for the contribution received for the preparation of this issue of the bulletin. In particular, please let me thank (in alphabetical order): - Karen Bailey - Stanley Bellgard - David Officer - Kate Pollard - Marion Seier - Sonal Varia Although this time I didn't receive too many contributions, I decided to prepare and distribute a new issue of our bulletin, always hoping that the future issues will contain many more contributions and information. Please remember that this bulletin is prepared on a voluntary basis and it contains only the information sent by the newsletter subscribers, under their responsibility. Only some editorial changes could be done to the material received. The newsletter is not an official journal and cannot be considered exhaustive. Please also remember that the mailing list can be used as a moderated list for distributing information related to weed biocontrol at any time during the year. Please feel free to deliver the newsletter to any person that could be interested in it, or invite him/her to subscribe the mailing list. To subscribe please go to the following web address: http://nautilus.area.ba.cnr.it/mailman/listinfo/ibg-news and follow the instructions Thanks Regards Maurizio
Published on Dec 3, 2012