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FRAGMENTS

Matteo Viviano


The fragment as a situation in architecture is very important as perhaps only the destruction completely expresses a fact. Photographs of cities during the war, sections of apartments, broken toys. Delphi and Olympia. This being able to use pieces of mechanisms whose general sense is partly lost has always interested me formally. I am thinking of a unit or a system made up only of recomposed fragments. A.Rossi


INTRODUCTORY NOTE

This book aims to educate the reader to a new building system. I imagine an eco-existence between humans, vegetation and animals. A built environment where both human and non-human actors can live in harmony. Where men no longer have priority on plants and animals. This book is a vocabulary of built architectural fragments. These architectonic elements become interesting situations once humans abandoned them and they are left for nature to invade and inhabit. During the blind domination of man, they start to interact with vegetation and animals, transforming the space, blending human and natural art into pure coexistence. Each of these particles has been analyzed in context. Once decontextualized they express their own relation with the natural elements according to shape, texture and light. This book is a guide for reading the spaces within an eco-perspective. The book is divided into two sections. The first part is an atlas of concrete fragments, with a related explanation of each context and a proposal of value. The second part is a collection of plants and vegetal organisms which are related to the elements of the previews section. This second section can just be read as a proposal since the environment of application of the fragments varies and the plant’s typology with it. A book is never an ended reality: it grows over time with its own history.

Matteo Viviano

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10


PART I

13

Grip: texture - structure

41

Luminosity: light - dark

81

Water: containing - transporting

103

Volume: hollow - solid

PART II

148

Plants Selection

155

Conclusion

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12


PART I

13


14


GRIP

texture - structure

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1. Grip: texture - structure

16


Part I

ROUGH-IRREGULAR TEXTURE

De Bunker Student Center Eindhoven, The Netherlands 1967 Unnkown

A rough anonymous context where the massive forms of concrete allows the vegetation to develop only in cases of high aquifer concentration.

The rough and irregular texture of this fragment invite vegetation to grow and expand along its surface. Climbing plants can easily devevelop on it transforming the anonymous area in a green pannel. Furthermore the undercuts can collect small amount of soil generating a perfect envirorment for seeds.

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2. Grip: texture - structure

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Part I

IRREGULAR-GEOMETRIC TEXTURE

Matsumoto House Ashiya, Japan 1977 Tadao Ando

The smooth and clean building does not allow vegetation to spread on it directly but it perfectly integrate in the organic context of the forest, creating a soft contrast balance.

The geometric texture of this fragment does not give space to big green elements due to its mainly two-dimentional profile. Neverthless, climbing plants can easily develop and algees or composite organism like moss can stick on the relief due to water accumulation.

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3. Grip: texture - structure

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Part I

REGULAR-GEOMETRIC TEXTURE

Museum of Art Cleveland, USA 1970 Marcel Breuer and Hamilton P. Smith

The massiveness of the constructed components is lost in the equally large green lawn. Its clean cut gives an idea of geometric precicision equal to the bi-chromatic texture of the building.

The regular and geometric texture of this fragment is limiting to cheepers typology that can coexist with it. In the other hand, it suggests similar green context qualities such as geometric cut and highly controlled vegetation.

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4. Grip: texture - structure

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Part I

3D PATTERN TEXTURE

Grammar of the City Daejeon, KR 2005 Ofiice KGDVS

This city scale pattern is the first layer of a structure where the human living spaces are frames for vegetation space.

Those 3D patterns of the fragment are human’s division to organize a green space creating bidimensional and three-dimensional areas according to the extrusion degree. They can generate interesting division of plants typology where the composition creates variety, while the growing space shapes are given by the pattern as the division of the city.

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5. Grip: texture - structure

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Part I

IRREGULAR HOLLOW STRUCTURE

Kolumba Museum Masonry Cologne,Germany 2007 Peter Zumthor

The irregular detail of the structure composed with maximum precision generates a solemn environment that respects the ruins on which the building stands.

The irregular hollow structure of the fragment generates a solemn space where plants can grow and develop caged but also free to their natural essence of being wild. The structure allows those specific plant that can grow in heigh to escape from that cage and meet the outside world.

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6. Grip: texture - structure

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Part I

LINEAR HOLL0W STRUCTURE

Plaza de Las Fuentes, Jardines del Pedregal Mexico City, Mexico 1949 Luis Barragan

This fence wall embraces the value of dividing. At the same time, with its wide mash, it stays open merging with the almost deserted context.

The linear hollow structure of the fragment generates a wide open space where plants can grow and develop caged but also free to their natural essence of being wild. Despite the sharp separation, the contact with the outside world is very strong. Furthermore, the structure shape allows expanding plants like climbing plants or vines to became an integral part of it.

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7. Grip: texture - structure

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Part I

LINEAR STAIRCASE STRUCTURE

Brion Cemetery Treviso, Italy 1978 Carlo Scarpa

Despite the extremely geometric and rigid surface of this building, the linear pattern gives the idea of movement both visual and physical in the case of plants.

The linear staircase structure of this fragment generates paths on different levels where plants like climbing plants can develop. The visual and physical movement also allows mix and connection between variation of climbing plants creating micro biodiversity.

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8. Grip: texture - structure

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Part I

LINEAR STAIRCASE STRUCTURE

Brion Cemetery Treviso, Italy 1978 Carlo Scarpa

Despite the extremely geometric and rigid surface of this building, the linear pattern gives the idea of movement both visual and physical in the case of plants.

The linear staircase structure of this fragment generates paths on different levels where plants like cheepers can develop. The visual and physical movement also allows mix and connection between variation of climbing plants creating micro biodiversity.

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9. Grip: texture - structure

32


Part I

CIRCULAR STAIRCASE STRUCTURE

Gate of Creation, University of Monterrey Monterrey, Mexico 2009 Tadao Ando

The monolith building gives a feeling of exclusion from the outside, preserving and giving freedom to its content.

The preservation idea of this fragment perfectly generates a private environment where freedom is the main element. Its leveled circular staircase structure can be the perfect home for climbing plants as well as a good division for a variety of plants culture. Furthermore, water presence can facilitate the growth of bamboo or perennial cane.

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10. Grip: texture - structure

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Part I

HARD STAIRCASE STRUCTURE

Sotogrande House Spain 2004 Ricardo Legorreta

Rational geometric shapes and essencial volumes enriched by warm and bright color contrast in an equally rich vegetation as the Mediterranean one.

The hard staircase structure of this fragment generates levels and space contrast as soon as plants take it over.

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11. Grip: texture - structure

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Part I

ORGANIC VOLUME STRUCTURE

Palazzo della CiviltĂ Italiana Rome, Italy 1940 Giovanni Guerrini, Ernesto Lapadula and Mario Romano

The massive building stands out in an overscaled context. Its dimensions give an idea of what could be contained inside.

The organic volume structure of this fragment suggests the containment of large, mostly monolithic green elements. The pattern of arches allows an organic and direct connection with the outside.

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12. Grip: texture - structure

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Part I

FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE

Public Housing Reggio Calabria, Italy Unnkown

The framework is the skeleton of a building. It has a general shape but can be constantly transformed by the closing or opening volumes. Its abandonment always coexists with its context.

The framework structure of this fragment is highly transformable. Open and semi-closed volumes can be generated at different heights as massive vases for trees or other various cultivation. Those containers can interact with each other and with the outside environment.

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13. Grip: texture - structure

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Part I

HOMOGENEOUS STRUCTURE

Monumento Continuo Rome, Italy 1969 Superstudio

This is a futuristic addition that formally respect the history of its context.

The homogeneous structure of this fragment suggests the containment of large, mostly monolithic green elements. Visually it keeps a distance from the outside but the rectangular windows allow regular access.

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42


LUMINOSITY light - dark

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1. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

LINEAR SHADOW

Swimming pool Leรงa da Palmeira 1961-1962 Alvaro Siza

A swimming pool on the seaside requires to emphasize the bright outdoor context as well as bring small shadow areas.

The lightness of this linear fragment can generate small shadows as well as cover large areas according to its position and sun exposure. The result is a controlled diffusion of the light according to the daylight.

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2. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

IRREGULAR GEOMETRIC SHADOW

Vitra Fire Station Weil am Rhein, Germany 1993 Zaha Hadid

The slender and stretched shape of this shelter stands out in a flat context. Its dynamics gives an idea of what could be the use of the building.

The irregular polygonal shape of this fragment inglobes a triangle making it a perfect example of maximum shadow with minimum material.

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3. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE

Public Housing Reggio Calabria, Italy Unnkown Unnkown

The framework is the skeleton of a building. It has a general shape but can be constantly transformed by the closing or opening volumes. Its abandonment always coexists with its context.

The framework structure of this fragment is highly transformable. Open and semi-closed volumes can be generated at different heights as massive vases for trees or other various cultivation. Those containers can interact with each other and with the outside environment. This interaction can be guided by the accessibility of the light.

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4. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

IRREGULAR GRID

Assembly Building Chandigarh from 1951 Le Corbusier

Assembly Building is a huge office building where light is highly needed to generate comfortable environments.

The thin and irregular grid of this fragment has a strong aesthetical value masking the windows. At the same time, it creates a filter control of the light.

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5. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

ARCHED STRUCTURE

Labyrinth Home Barcelona, Spain from 1941 Xavier Corberò

A labyrinth is a fascinating construction, whose shape must intrigue and surprise.

The arched fragments are the most resistant structures. They generate plays of light to embrace the position and the composition. They are ideal for window facades and open structures.

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6. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

ORGANIC VOLUME STRUCTURE

Palazzo della CiviltĂ Italiana Rome, Italy 1940 Giovanni Guerrini, Ernesto Lapadula and Mario Romano

The massive building stands out in an overscaled context. Its dimensions give an idea of what could be contained inside.

The organic volume structure of this fragment suggests the containment of large, mostly monolithic green elements. The pattern of arches allows an organic and direct connection with the outside. The massive arched structure regulates the light stream during all daylight hours.

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7. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

REGULAR GRID

Assembly Building Chandigarh from 1951 Le Corbusier

Assembly Building is a huge office building where light is highly needed to generate comfortable environments.

The regular grid of this fragment mask powerfully the windows behind. Despite this strong action, it isolates each module giving privacy or division.

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8. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

GRADIENT MASK

Rokko housing I-II-III Kobe, Japan 1978 - 1999 Tadao Ando

The housing complex tent to integrate within its shape into the hill in which has been built generating a liveable extension of it.

The gradient mask of the fragment allows liveable space inside and plants growth outside. The mask itself it does not remove the light from the outside and it channels it sufficiently inside, creating an excellent coexistence between indoor and outdoor spaces.

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9. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

PORTHOLES STRUCTURE

Brion Cemetery Treviso, Italy 1978 Carlo Scarpa

Despite the extremely geometric and rigid surface of this building, the linear pattern gives the idea of movement both visual and physical in the case of plants.

The portholes structure of this fragment allows big quantities of light to spread organically even in dark and hard geometrical spaces.

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10. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

TIGHT GRID

Capilla de las Capuchinas Mexico City 1960 Luis Barragan

A chapel is often represented as an austere space, mostly closed with a dim light. In this case, saturated colors and grid openings create an antithetical atmosphere.

The tight grid fragment is a perfect solution to deflect light or reduce intensity in bright areas, as well as generating atmospheres and situation of public and private spaces.

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11. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

POLYGONAL FRAMES

Assembly Building Chandigarh from 1951 Le Corbusier

Assembly Building is a huge office building where light is highly needed to generate comfortable and private environments.

The polygonal frames of this fragment allow the total control of the light and the projection of spotlights. In the case of dark spaces, specific plants growth can be optimized.

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12. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

STRUCTURE OF SHADOWS

Tower of Shadows Chandigarh from 1951 Le Corbusier

With this building, Le Corbusier proved that “it is possible to control the sunlight in the 4 corners of a building, play with it even in a hot country and finally obtain low temperatures�.

The shadows structure of this fragment has a perfect balance between dark and light. This influences the temperature variation inside and outside the construction.

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13. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

VOLUMES FRAME

Avelino Duarte House Ovar, Portugal 1985 Alvaro Siza

A characteristic feature of the construction is the “excavation� of the main facade which has established itself as one of the themes of composition most dear to Siza.

The volumes frame structure of this fragment creates environments with balanced light and shadow by playing with extrusion of the volumes of the facade.

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14. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

POSITIVE - NEGATIVE CONTRAST

Serralves Museum Porto, Portugal 1999 Alvaro Siza

The building presents particularities of the different spaces within this architectural work, that has a strong organizational structure and great flexibility and transformational capacity. This contrast is also shown by its minimalist appearance set in a perfect English garden.

The positive - negative contrast of this fragment creates empty volumes, constantly filled up by shadows when full, by light when bare.

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15. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

CEILING WINDOWS

Chichu Art Museum Naoshima, Kagawa, Japan 2004 Tadao Ando

The complex of buildings is the entire volume of the building below ground level, to preserve the wonderful scenery of the sea. In this way, the only natural light comes from the ceiling.

The ceiling windows of this fragment allows natural light to come in the underground level. The windows shape can be studied according to the need for light control and canalization.

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16. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

CEILING CUT

Azuma House Sumiyoshi, Osaka, Japan 1976 Tadao Ando

The space devoted to daily life, it is composed of an austere geometry, with the insertion of an abstract space dedicated to the play of wind and light. The objective was to challenge the inertia that has invaded our everyday lives.

The ceiling cut represented by this fragment allows natural elements like wind and light to interact with the indoor space, expanding the outside inside.

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17. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

3D SHADOW

Porch Shadow, Photography Twin Lakes, USA 1916 Paul Strand

The author attempt to give his understanding of Cubist art - abstraction through fragmentation, multiple points of view, and a reduction of people and objects to basic geometry - a photographic form.

The three-dimensional shadow of this fragment generates an almost anamorphic conception of space. The projection makes the environment multifunctional by adding a new layer.

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18. Luminosity: light - dark

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Part I

VERTICAL CUT

Koshino House Ashiya, Kobe, Japan 1984 Tadao Ando

The house, is a veritable maze of lights and shadows. The architect seeks to reconcile the tenets of international modernism with tradition and landscape which is barely interrupt.

The vertical cut of this fragment projects on parallel and vertical axes light and shapes. This subtle action generates a three-dimensional effect on a flat and dark environment.

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19. Luminosity: light - dark

80


Part I

IRREGULAR HOLLOW STRUCTURE

Kolumba Museum Masonry Cologne,Germany 2007 Peter Zumthor

The irregular detail of the structure composed with maximum precision generates a solemn environment that respects the ruins on which the building stands.

The irregular hollow structure of the fragment generates a solemn space where plants can grow and develop caged but also free to their natural essence of being wild. The structure allows those specific plant that can grow in heigh to escape from that cage and meet the outside world.

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WATER

containing - transporting

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1. Water: containing - transporting

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Part I

SOLID CONTAINER

Capilla de las Capuchinas Mexico City 1960 Luis Barragan

A chapel is often represented as an austere space, mostly closed with a dim light. In this case, saturated colors and grid openings create an antithetical atmosphere.

The solid container fragment is one of the most ancient human artifacts. According to size and extension, it can be conceived as a simple container, pond or pool.

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2. Water: containing - transporting

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Part I

ORGANIC CONTAINER

Church of Light Tomamu, HokkaidĹ?, Japan 1988 Tadao Ando

The building creates a microcosm in which it is combined concepts related to the sacred and the secular, the artificial and the natural, the hidden and the exposed, the infinity and the void.

The organic container fragment melts its shape in the context blending itself with the landscape. According to size and extension, it can be conceived as a simple container, pond or pool.

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3. Water: containing - transporting

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Part I

GEOMETRIC CONTAINER

Church of Light Osaka, Japan 1989 Tadao Ando

The Church of Light is a box of 6 x 6 x 18 crossed by a wall at an angle of 15 °, which energizes the space because being separate from the cover that allows light to filter inside creating the impression of a floating roof.

The geometric container fragment allows the collection of water on different levels. This generates a composition of several environments which of them has its own micro-habitat and shape.

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4. Water: containing - transporting

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Part I

OPEN CONTAINER

Amphitheater Santa Fe, New Mexico 1970 Paolo Soleri

The concrete structure was created using Soleri’s methods of earth-forming to create a type of desert-scape.

The open container structure of this fragment allows the collection and transport of water. Its organic shapes blend into a desert-like landscape.

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5. Water: containing - transporting

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Part I

CIRCULAR CONTAINER

Rokko housing I-II-III Kobe, Japan 1978 - 1999 Tadao Ando

The housing complex tent to integrate within its shape into the hill in which has been built generating a liveable extension of it.

The circular container fragment allows the collection of water on different levels within small spaces. If all containers are connected it could be used for transporting water from the top level to ground level using the centrifugal force.

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6. Water: containing - transporting

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Part I

SEMI - CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER

Assembly Building Chandigarh from 1951 Le Corbusier

Assembly Building is a huge office building where light is highly needed to generate comfortable environments.

The semi-cylindrical shape of this fragment allows the collection and transport of high quantities of water like an aqueduct.

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7. Water: containing - transporting

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Part I

STAIRCASE CONTAINER

Brion Cemetery Treviso, Italy 1978 Carlo Scarpa

Despite the extremely geometric and rigid surface of this building, the linear pattern gives the idea of movement both visual and physical in the case of plants and water.

The staircase fragment is not directly made to access into the water. Indeed, it allows water plants and semi-water plants to climb or connect to the pond. It is a functional bridge between spaces.

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8. Water: containing - transporting

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Part I

LINEAR ENGRAVED STRUCTURE

Plaza de Las Fuentes, Jardines del Pedregal Mexico City, Mexico 1949 Luis Barragan

This fence wall embraces the value of dividing. At the same time, with its wide mash, it stays open merging with the almost deserted context.

The linear engraved structure of the fragment allows water flow control. A constant humid stream would generate the growth of organisms like moss, likens, mold and other algae.

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9. Water: containing - transporting

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Part I

LINEAR TRANSPORTER

Los Clube Mexico City 1972 Luis Barragan

The architecture creates spaces that do not exist elsewhere, it moves through water, the geometric abstraction of planes and color.

The linearity of this fragment allows water transportation with small spaces and small size. The sharpness of its shape contrasts the homogeneous essence of water.

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10. Water: containing - transporting

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Part I

SOLID TRANSPORTER

House and Studio Mexico City 1948 Luis Barragan

The house integrated modern and traditional artistic and vernacular currents and elements into a new synthesis.

This solid fragment allows water transportation within volumes making it suitable for integrated environments.

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VOLUME hollow - solid

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1. Volume: hollow - solid

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Part I

OGIVAL ARCH STRUCTURE

International Fair Tripoli, Lebanon 1975 Oscar Niemeyer

The masterplan is a striking representation of modernist vision of the time with an emphasis on form over function, the fair has dominated Tripoli’s skyline since its development.

The ogival arch fragment presents a light structure, hollows on the sides which could hold other situations leaving the bottom space mainly open.

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2. Volume: hollow - solid

108


Part I

BRIDGE STRUCTURE

A18 Tunnel Messina - Catania Unknown Unknown

The highway is an interesting space being a tool made for machines instead of humans. They have strong structural needs but quite often they are not integrated into their context.

As the name suggests this massive fragment is used to contain a large amount of soil and vegetation allowing space under it. It could be used as a volumes creator and container.

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3. Volume: hollow - solid

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Part I

OPEN CONTAINER

Amphitheater Santa Fe, New Mexico 1970 Paolo Soleri

The concrete structure was created using Soleri’s methods of earth-forming to create a type of desert-scape.

The open container structure of this fragment allows the collection and transport of water. Its organic shapes blend into natural environments almost disappearing into it. The big containing structure could host stem trees.

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4. Volume: hollow - solid

112


Part I

SEMI - CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER

Assembly Building Chandigarh from 1951 Le Corbusier

Assembly Building is a huge office building where light is highly needed to generate comfortable environments.

The semi-cylindrical shape of this fragment allows the collection and transport of high quantities of water like an aqueduct as well as wild growth vegetation.

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5. Volume: hollow - solid

114


Part I

GEOMETRIC CUT

Matsumoto House Ashiya, Japan 1977 Tadao Ando

The complex it is composed of a geometric structure and a wall inserted in a wooded hill.

The geometric cut of this fragment defines a structure which breaks with the context. Its shape its a mixture of hard and soft geometry like cylinder and rectangular whichrecalls one of the trees.

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6. Volume: hollow - solid

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Part I

HOLLOW CIRCLE

International Fair Tripoli, Lebanon 1975 Oscar Niemeyer

The masterplan is a striking representation of modernist vision of the time with an emphasis on form over function, the fair has dominated Tripoli’s skyline since its development.

The hollow circle fragment generates a top surface with low structural encumbrance on the bottom. Here the shadow will be regular on all the side creating a balanced cultivable area.

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7. Volume: hollow - solid

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Part I

PRIVATE CONTAINER

Brion Cemetery Treviso, Italy 1978 Carlo Scarpa

Despite the extremely geometric and rigid surface of this building, the linear pattern gives the idea of movement both visual and physical in the case of plants and water.

This fragment generates an inside space privatized by single access. The division is hard and generates a relation of inclusion and exclusion.

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8. Volume: hollow - solid

120


Part I

GEOMETRIC CONTAINER

Church of Light Osaka, Japan 1989 Tadao Ando

The Church of Light is a box of 6 x 6 x 18 crossed by a wall at an angle of 15 °, which energizes the space because being separate from the cover that allows light to filter inside creating the impression of a floating roof.

The geometric container fragment allows the collection of natural material on different levels. This generates a composition of several environments which of them has its own micro-habitat and shape.

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9. Volume: hollow - solid

122


Part I

CIRCULAR CONTAINER

Rokko housing I-II-III Kobe, Japan 1978 - 1999 Tadao Ando

The housing complex tent to integrate within its shape into the hill in which has been built generating a liveable extension of it.

The circular container fragment allows the collection of natural material on different levels within small spaces generating a system of overlapped vases.

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10. Volume: hollow - solid

124


Part I

RECTANGULAR VOLUME I

De Bunker Student Center Eindhoven, The Netherlands 1967 Unnkown

A rough anonymous context where the massive forms of concrete allows the vegetation to develop only in cases of high aquifer concentration.

The rectangular volume fragment presents a solid volume which could hold other elements, contain vertical vegetation without external contamination or canalize water for collection.

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11. Volume: hollow - solid

126


Part I

RECTANGULAR VOLUME II

Assembly Building Chandigarh from 1951 Le Corbusier

Assembly Building is a huge office building where light is highly needed to generate comfortable environments.

The rectangular volume fragment presents a solid volume which could hold other elements, contain vertical vegetation without external contamination or canalize water for collection.

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12. Volume: hollow - solid

128


Part I

IRREGULAR GEOMETRIC VOLUME

Dam Tropè, Italy Unknown Unknown

Highways and dams are a hard intervention of the on nature guided by a needy man.

This irregular geometric fragment presents a massive volume which aims to hold. Its surface, full of treedimentional undercuts, can be the perfect location for sporadic and wild plants.

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13. Volume: hollow - solid

130


Part I

SILOS CONTAINER

La Fabrica Garden Barcelona, Spain 1975 - present Ricardo Bofill

“Surrealism in paradoxical stairs that lead to nowhere; the absurdity of certain elements hanging over voids. Abstraction in the pure volumes, which revealed themselves at times broken and raw. Brutalism in the abrupt treatment and sculptural qualities of the materials.�

Silos shaped fragment like those for concrete factory represents an interesting architectonical situation since their state of abandonment. The function can be multiple and their rough texture can host vegetation.

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14. Volume: hollow - solid

132


Part I

ASSEMBLED VOLUMES I

Villa Taddei Fiesole, Italy 1966 Leonardo Savioli

The house develops longitudinally, supported by pilots with the volumes aggregated together according to a sculptural logic.

The assembled volumes of this fragment suggest a constructive technique. A composition of different environments with as well as values, divided by geometry but connected by assembling.

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15. Volume: hollow - solid

134


Part I

ASSEMBLED VOLUMES II

Experimental Town Arcosanti, USA 1970 - present Paolo Soleri

Arcology, combines architecture and ecology. The project aim to combining the social interaction and accessibility of an urban environment with minimal resource use and access to the natural environment.

The assembled volumes of this fragment suggest a constructive technique. A composition of different environments with as well as values, divided by geometry but connected by assembling.

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16. Volume: hollow - solid

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Part I

UNDERGROUND CONTAINER

Church of Light Tomamu, HokkaidĹ?, Japan 1988 Tadao Ando

The building creates a microcosm in which it is combined concepts related to the sacred and the secular, the artificial and the natural, the hidden and the exposed, the infinity and the void.

The underground container fragment generates subterranean liveable space leaving the contextual environment untouched. Moreover, it links with the exterior generating collaboration between man and nature.

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17. Volume: hollow - solid

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Part I

PIRAMID VOLUME

Assembly Building Chandigarh from 1951 Le Corbusier

Assembly Building is a huge office building where light is highly needed to generate comfortable environments.

The pyramid volume fragment generates a closed environment. The cover shape allows an equal distribution of water on the sides, making it suitable for water containers or watering plantations.

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18. Volume: hollow - solid

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Part I

STAR PYRAMID VOLUME

International Fair Tripoli, Lebanon 1975 Oscar Niemeyer

A The masterplan is striking representation of modernist vision of the time with an emphasis on form over function, the fair has dominated Tripoli’s skyline since its development.

The pyramid volume fragment generates a closed environment. The cover shape with its undercut allows an equal distribution of water on the sides, canalizing the water in an exact location. Furthermore, the canals became the perfect location for natural organisms growth.

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19. Volume: hollow - solid

142


Part I

ORGANIC SOLID

Planetary Lucca, Italy Unknown Unknown

The unfinished brings with it the charm of an interruption that preserves all the potential of an eternal unresolved tension. What remains unfinished can continue to evolve with nature.

This organic solid fragment imposes itself excluding its contents from the outside with a clean cut. The material and the form represent the division between public and private.

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20. Volume: hollow - solid

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Part I

CUBICLES

Whitewash, Photography Los Angeles, USA 2002 - present Nicholas Allan Cope

LA contrasts as seen exclusively through its everyday architecture. Searching for the sublime core of the city’s true nature, the focuse is on the sheer beauty and simplicity of the cityscape.

The monolithic cubes of this fragment have been assembled constructively, generating sharp spaces with an exclusion value. The outside shadow creates new ethereal fragments.

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146


PART II

147


148


Part II

Creating a landscape inside architecture. Creating nature inside architecture. Creating nature that can coexist with humans. Applying different values from different angles in approaching nature. J. Ishigami

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Part II

PLANTS SELECTION

This selection of plants and natural organisms it is based on the availability of the European environment and it includes extracontinental elements imported to Europe during the centuries. Each element of the list has a description of its qualities and it is connected to one or more groups of the previous section according to its features. This selection works as a general example of combination between natural elements and concrete fragments. The context of the application of the ecofragments system give the choice of the natural element according to local availability.

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152

Equisetum Fluviale

Glyceria Maxima

Sagittaria

Sparganium

Water

Water

Water

Water

Bamboo

Arundo Donax

Algee

Pteridophyte

Water

Water

Water - Grip

Humid / Dark Water - Volumes

Peace Lily

Rag Weed

Areca Palm

Ficus Robusta

Humid / Dark Water - Volumes

Humid / Dark Water - Volumes

Moisturizer Volumes

Moisturizer Volumes


Part II

English Ivy

Spider Plant

Pothos

Parlor Plant

Moisturizer Volumes - Grip

Moisturizer Volumes - Grips

Low Light Volumes - Grip

Low Light Volumes

Zz Plant

Boston Fern

Dracena

Low Light Volumes

Low Light Volumes

Low Light Volumes

Sansevieria Trifasciata Low Light Volumes

Succulents

Cacti

Aloe Vera

Ponytail Palm

Bright Spaces Volumes

Bright Spaces Volumes

Bright Spaces Volumes

Bright Spaces Volumes

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Pine Tree

Berry Bushes

Winter Pansy

Cold Spaces Volumes

Cold Spaces Volumes - Grip

Cold Spaces Volumes

European Wild Ginger Cold Spaces Volumes

Ajuga

Lavander

Cacti

Eucalyptus

Cold Spaces Volumes

Hot/Dry Spaces Volumes

Hot/Dry Spaces Volumes

Hot/Dry Spaces Volumes

Pine Tree

Olive Tree

Succulents

Hot/Dry Spaces Volumes

Hot/Dry Spaces Volumes

Prickly Pear Cactus Hot/Dry Spaces Volumes

Windy Spaces Volumes


Part II

Bluegrass

Moss

Ivy

Windy Spaces Volumes - Water

Windy Spaces Grip - Water

Windy Spaces Volumes - Grip

Herbaceous Perennial Windy Spaces Volumes

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CONCLUSION

How can architecture connect human artifacts and nature? In a period where housing gets more dense with the ever-growing population, natural biotopes and habitats for plants and animals are displaced to the fringes of urbanized areas and far beyond. The need for green cities is about balancing the use of available space between all actors in an eco-centric society. The mighty concrete walls set a limit, beyond which there is no passage, except the open one of the will of the craftsman. A second impression is its tangibility. Solid walls appear solid to the touch. They exclude and then wrap, letting penetrate the light, the wind and the passing visitor, who can leave behind the disorder of everyday life to take refuge in a kingdom of tranquility. Then the sense of emptiness. Inside, the visitor is enveloped only by light and emptiness. Simple shapes, if modeled with mastery of lights and materials, can create a transcendental space. Dear reader I please you to learn from the neglected knowledge and historical experience of how natural elements are able to invade ruins.

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FRAGMENTS - dictionary for a green democracy  

FRAGMENTS - dictionary for a green democracy  

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