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JOURNAL The publication for all lighting professionals

Light festivals: do they work?

The most cost-effective way to light 1km of road Working model: the first BCO Guide to Lighting

September 2013



Lighting Journal September 2013 03 EDITORIAL





Do light festivals work? And what role do they play in urban lighting? Francis Pearce investigates





MEASURE Nick Smith looks at the most cost-

effective way to light 1km of road


Iain Trent outlines the scope of the British Council for Offices’ first ever Guide to Lighting and explains why its message is essential



This year’s winner of the LGN public lighting award


Kevan Shaw on his belief that LED spectra are being tweaked to achieve high lumen per watt values


How a small and gloomy Norwegian town has brought some sunshine into its citizens’ lives

Alan Jaques, vice president events, examines why conferences and national activities must be both educational and inspirational


In the first of a series that goes behind the scenes at the ILP, Richard Frost outlines the role of senior vice president



Are lighting designers and engineers so very different? asks Graham Festenstein



Future concept: the interactive electronic skin that lights up when you press it

COVER PICTURE Painting the town red: Do light festivals work? See p10


Field of Colour installation,Vivid Sydney 2013


Lighting Journal September 2013

Editorial Volume 78 No 8 September 2013 President Pete Lummis IEng MILP Chief Executive Richard G Frost BA (Cantab) DPA FIAM Editor Jill Entwistle Email: Editorial Board Tom Baynham Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL IALD John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Eddie Henry MILP MCMI MBA Alan Jaques IEng MILP Keith Lewis Nigel Parry IEng FILP Advertising Manager Julie Bland Tel: 01536 527295 Email: Published by Matrix Print Consultants on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 Fax: 01788 540145 E-mail: Website:



udging by the number of them that have sprung up around the world over the past decade or so, the idea of the light festival has really caught on (see p10). Lyons blazed the trail as it were, but now from

Montreal to Osaka and from Colombia to Sydney, cities are celebrating with light and pulling in the punters. As with all these events they are about raising city profiles, generating revenue and increasing the feel-good factor. Bread and circuses in some respects, but that would be a cynical and joyless interpretation of events that have also done a great deal to raise public awareness of light and its power to transform an environment. For any city considering it, the light festival is a complex enterprise and demands a deal of logistical planning if it is to pay off. That generally means making it an intrinsic part of an urban masterplan so that the logistics are less fraught and basic infrastructure can be planned in. The good thing about the proliferation of these events is that there are now lessons to be learned and data to be gathered from the experience of other cities. Lighting Urban Community International (LUCI) has been instrumental in collating information and has formulated a Light Festival Evaluation Toolkit. LUCI is also, of course, involved in other areas that use lighting for urban, social and economic development. One of the earlier papers at this month’s Professional Lighting Summit will look at how Glasgow, host of the Radiance festival, has benefited from involvement with LUCI in a broader sense. It is just one of many papers which look to fulfil Alan Jaques’s ambition (see p36) to make the conference not only educational but inspirational.

Produced by Jill Entwistle Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Unit C, Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 Email: Website: © ILP 2013 The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.

Lighting Journal September 2013



ILP Stem promoter admitted to Primary Engineer body

ILP national events coordinator Steve Anderson, AMILP, has been admitted as one of the first members of the Institution of Primary Engineers. Anderson is a volunteer with Primary Engineer, a not-for-profit organisation established in 2005. Its aim is to encourage young people

to consider careers in Stem-related professions. It believes that science, technology, engineering and maths are key subjects in securing positive opportunities and career paths for future generations, and that this begins in primary school. The specific aim is to apply maths and science

IALD glows global for guerilla event The International Association of Lighting Designers has organised a global guerilla lighting event this November ‘to demonstrate the power of light in urban communities’. In an exercise reminiscent of the New Year celebrations, Chase the Dark will begin in Sydney, Australia, at 7pm local time on 14 November and will follow the setting sun across the globe. Other cities involved are Melbourne, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Berlin, Stockholm, London, New York, Philadelphia, Washington DC, Chicago, Mexico City, Denver, Seattle and, finally, San Francisco. ‘Chase the Dark is an opportunity for lighting enthusiasts around the world to share their creativity with the public,’ said Kevin Theobald, IALD president and associate director at GIA Equation. ‘But it’s also a chance for us to unite IALD’s many local communities around the globe in one activity that emphasises and champions the power of light in human life.’ Each host city will invite participants to shape an urban environment with light, creating miniature lit scenarios over the course of one to two hours. These displays will be installed for just a matter of moments, but the images of each light project will be captured permanently on camera and shared on Twitter using the hashtag #IALDchasedark throughout the evening. The event will be locally hosted and organised by chapters of the IALD. ACDC Lighting is the lead sponsor for the event, and will provide all of the lighting equipment for each city. For more information on IALD’s Chase the Dark visit

Street technology companies team up Wireless street lighting technology company Telensa and Central management software provider Streetlight.Vision have formed a partnership to integrate their hardware and software systems. The collaboration will involve interfacing Telensa’s PLANet (Public Lighting Active Network) system with Streetlight.Vision’s central management software platform. Telensa’s systems have been sold to more than 25 UK local authorities to control and monitor over 600,000 street lights. Streetlight.

Lighting Journal September 2013

Vision’s software is used by many cities across 15 countries, including Europe, China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia and South America. ‘This partnership effectively brings together the best-of-breed in hardware and software for the street lighting controls industry,’ said Will Gibson, Telensa managing director. Telensa and Streetlight.Vision are both members of the TALQ Consortium (www., which is working for the standardisation of a management software interface for outdoor lighting networks.

to design-and-make activities, inspiring both children and teachers. ‘This is a very welldeserved honour,’ said ILP president Pete Lummis. ‘Primary Engineer plays an excellent and important role in inspiring and supporting young people and their teachers, and the ILP is very proud of Steve’s infectious enthusiasm, passion and dedication in encouraging children to develop as engineers of the future.’ Among the bodies supporting Primary Engineer’s work are the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, IChemE, the Royal Academy of Engineers, the Institution of Engineering and Technology, Institution of Civil Engineers and IESIS, as well as the ILP.

Cambridge looks for sponsors

The e-Luminate Festival in Cambridge is currently looking for more technical sponsors among manufacturers and distributors for its 2104 event. Staged from 12-23 February, it is the UK’s first event designed to showcase the ‘imaginative and inspirational potential of new art’ using low carbon/energy efficient technology, according to the organiser. Panasonic and Cambridge-based Pulsar are backing the event, now in its second year, and under the artistic direction of projection specialist Ross Ashton. Interactive lighting control specialist amBX is also sponsoring e-Luminate for the second year running. The aim is to team artists up with technology partners to create a series of installations for the event. Several levels of sponsorship are available. For more information go to or call Ross Ashton on 020 8293 4270


Harding takes over from new senior VP Cooper Guy Harding of Woodhouse (left) will take over from Mark Cooper as vice president membership, as this month Cooper (below left) assumes his new role as senior vice president. (see p38). Harding’s nomination gained unanimous support from the ILP executive board. The position was open to the entire membership. Harding is a long-serving member of the membership committee, a qualified membership assessor and a member of the applications panel. Joining the ILP in 1982, he brings a wealth of experience and knowledge of both institution and Engineering Council procedures. ‘I am delighted that Guy is bringing his expertise to the vice-presidential team, he will be a great asset,’ said president Pete Lummis. ‘As Mark Cooper moves to the senior vice president position, I would like to thank him for his dedication and commitment to the role over the years which I know Guy will emulate.’

Pain centre installs light therapy system A daylight therapy system from Osram has been installed at the Interdisciplinary Pain Therapy Centre in Munich. The clinic is the world’s first pain centre to use a lighting system as part of its therapy programme, and aims to use it to improve the health and wellbeing of patients suffering from chronic pain problems. The ceiling-mounted system has been installed in physiotherapy and group therapy rooms, as well as the clinic’s reception and waiting area. Based on a mix of Dali-controlled LED and fluorescent light, it produces different colour temperatures and patterns. The system has an output of 4000 lux, eight times brighter than ordinary office lighting and close to natural daylight conditions. Patients with conditions such as arthritis and muscle inflammation will receive a concentrated dose of light. The aim is to improve their sleep at night, increase alertness during

the day and improve their overall physiological and psychological health. ‘The solution has been designed to be both cost-efficient and adaptable for other pain centres, clinics and doctors’ practices, and we anticipate it being adopted at other pain centres across the globe,’ said Osram’s innovation manager, Andreas Wojtysiak. ‘We have developed various concepts suited to different room sizes and arrangements, as well as varying light at different times of day,’ he added. ‘If the light concept works in the manner we envisage in pain therapy, the next few years will certainly see it being established as a standard treatment for specific therapeutic units,’ said Prof Thomas Tölle, director of the Interdisciplinary Pain Therapy Centre in Munich and president of the German Pain Society. ‘It could also be used in places where a high degree of concentration is required, for instance in schools or fire service control centres.’


Bath cleans up in LGN awards

Bath and North East Somerset Council has won the public lighting category of this year’s Street Design Awards for its LED street lighting upgrade project. Organised by Local Government News (whose editor Laura Sharman presented the prize, above) and backed by the ILP, the awards recognise best practice and innovation in street design schemes across the UK. Runner-up in the public lighting section was the scheme by Stainton Lighting Design Services for Newcastle Toffee Factory, Newcastle City Council (pictured top). Short Blue Place, London Borough of Barking and Dagenham, was highly commended. For full details of the Bath project, see p40

Bristol to cut £1m from its annual lighting costs Bristol City Council aims to cut almost £1m a year from its lighting costs by upgrading its street lighting with ceramic metal halide lamps. The council has so far replaced around 8000 existing high-pressure sodium street lights with GE Lighting’s CMH StreetWise ceramic metal halide lamps. Phase two began in July last year, and will involve replacing 12,000 more lamps in the city’s residential areas. Bristol’s energy costs were originally £2.53m a year but are projected to fall to £1.94m when the upgrade is completed, reducing costs by £590,000. Rising energy prices bring this to a saving of £920,000 a year, says the council. Energy usage should drop from 23.5m KWh to 15.5m KWh for 2013/14. Dimmable ballasts have also been installed as part of the upgrade. ‘Along with other energy-reduction projects, financed with interest-free loans from Salix, the overall result is astounding,’ said Robbie Park, principal lighting officer for Bristol City Council.

Lighting Journal September 2013



News in brief

Earthshaking discovery

Lora Kaleva and Colin Ball of BDP Lighting are appealing to all lighting professionals involved in urban lighting projects for their views on blue light. They are writing a paper on the use of blue light in exterior projects, Why the Blues?, which they will present at the 2013 PLDC in Copenhagen later this year. Participants are asked to go to the website (address below) and answer four simple questions. The exercise will take less than two minutes.

Mathmos, inventor of the lava lamp, is celebrating its 50th birthday this month. To mark the occasion the company is releasing a limited edition Astro with commemorative certificate signed by Christine Craven-Walker, wife and business partner of Mathmos founder and lava lamp inventor, Edward Craven-Walker.

Lamp-posts have been put to some unorthodox uses but teaching the world about the nature of earthquakes is probably a first. The lamp-post in question is a full-size iron specimen on the Isle of Wight. Acquired from a local ironmonger, it was part of a homemade horizontal seismograph devised by a Victorian scientist named John Milne to pick up signs of tiny ground tremors. His pioneering experiments apparently caused a bit of a stir on the island. Slight movements in his instruments’ lights at night convinced drinkers at the Barley Mow pub that the Isle of Wight was tipping up and down. Others thought it was evidence of paranormal activity in the fields. While Milne has been largely forgotten until now in his native land – a series of commemorative events is marking his centenary this year – the Japanese still have a soft spot for him because he established the basic mechanisms by which the country copes with earthquakes. While working in Japan in the 1880s and 1890s, Milne built what is believed to be the world’s first seismograph and identified the fault line which was subsequently the epicentre of the 2011 disaster. He moved to the Isle of Wight in 1895 with his Japanese wife, and collated and analysed earthquake information sent from around the world at his laboratory at Blackwater Road in Shide. Another piece of his monitoring equipment installed at a sailing club proved less reliable than the lamp-post, however. It showed increased readings at the same time each evening. This was eventually attributed to a regular liaison between a butler and a chambermaid in an adjoining room.

Lighting Journal September 2013

Street lighting specialist Lucy Zodion has appointed Tracey Hollis as area sales manager for the East Midlands, Cambridgeshire and East Anglia. Hollis has six years sales experience within the electrical industry Members of the OLED 3D research consortium have presented the first large-area, threedimensional OLEDs used in the rear lighting of a vehicle. The three-and-a-half-year project received €5.7m in funding from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The consortium was led by Philips (Aachen) and consisted of Audi, Automotive Lighting, Merck and the University of Cologne.

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LIGHT Minded... Why must the general public remain in the dark when it comes to



LIGHT Hearted

lighting their homes? asks outgoing LET chairman Hugh Ogus

New VP for membership Guy Harding on the appeal of engineering complexities

Domestic lighting is a minefield, never rating a mention except obliquely by opticians who rub in how much extra light we need for every 10 years of advancing age. Commercial and industrial users get lighting design advice readily. The home user, the entire population, spends more time in the house during darkness hours than elsewhere yet has little access to guidance. This enormous fragmented market is served by DIY sheds, furniture and department stores, and a small number of specialist lighting shops. With few exceptions, what they have in common is selling fittings and parts either as commodities or fashion items. The retailer offers chandeliers, wall lights, lampshades, spotlights and floor lights, unable to advise on suitability for purpose; occasional newspaper lighting supplements are product oriented. How does the householder even know what questions to ask about, say, distributing light around the room, the amount required for different tasks, effects, selective switching or concealed lighting? No light-technical data is measured, let alone published for domestic luminaires so most products are chosen purely for appearance; they add decoration to a room but won’t necessarily light it well. What they look like during the day ignores what they do (or don’t do) at night. Table lamps try to be objets d’art, their decorative effect as important as any contribution to overall illumination. A crystal chandelier over a grand staircase makes a beautiful marriage but the same thing in a low-ceilinged room produces glare in the middle and gloom round the edges. Money is lavished on curtains, carpets, furnishings and wall coverings. Where can the resident obtain advice if the room is not to change character and appear to shrink in size when the curtains are closed? The full beauty of the curtains is only apparent when they are drawn, so why not light them? The chair for dozing in front of the TV is also used for reading or other tasks. The lighting variations are not difficult to achieve

Having been involved in designing both standard and bespoke lighting products for more than 20 years, what I love about lighting is the number and diversity of varied engineering disciplines involved. From the structural calculations, material selection and heavy engineering involved in fabricating lighting masts, through to the surface treatments and corrosion protection of the luminaire itself that can use up to 20 different materials, never mind an equal number of fabrication processes to form and shape the components. Couple this with the design process, involving 2D and 3D CAD, choosing the fabrication method for components – casting, injection moulding, laser cutting, pressing, extruding, or forming – and then designing the seals and fixings, and selecting surface finishes. All of this calls for a wide knowledge of engineering processes, as does specifying the control gear and electrical wiring to ensure safe operation and maintenance. When these components arrive from many different subcontractors and come together is the exciting bit, as is making sure it all goes together correctly both in the factory and on site. Then there is the photometric aspect, including reflector design, the choice of the light source and also lighting calculations to ensure the fitting complies with standards. Now, with the advent of LEDs, there are new challenges: heatsinking, lens design, life testing, right through to Dali and DMX addressing and programming on colourchanging schemes. Exterior lighting is something the man in the street often takes for granted, but there is a vast spectrum of engineering processes going on behind the scenes.

Lighting Journal September 2013

but the householder does not have a clue about how or where to start. Leaving aside electronic controls and other wizardry, multiple switching is one of the simplest ways to change the ‘mood’ of a room. Dimmer switches are gimmicks. They are ubiquitous but mostly pointless – the average home doesn’t need a dimmer, it needs a brightener. The search just for fashion and flair in luminaire design is myopic; there is an equal need for lighting design, the imagination to change static decoration into dynamic application. See what lighting does, not just what hardware looks like. Lighting designers are not on the radar, or within the budget, of the general public though interior designers sometimes get a look in and the majority have at least picked up some basic lighting concepts. However, with the honourable exception of those who further their knowledge through the LET Diploma, their rules of thumb are fairly basic, usually revolving around recessed spotlights which seem to get used whatever the application. No one would argue that spotlights are not versatile, directing and controlling the light, producing a dramatic effect, so by all means use a few to highlight a feature, to provide sparkle or a pool of light to add interest. That is what display lighting is for, but not for the whole area; do you really want headlights all over your (perforated) living room ceiling? Who wants such puddles of light in a kitchen, for instance? It isn’t an art gallery in need of highlights; it’s a workroom that should have shadow-free, glare-free and well-distributed illumination. Do you just see to undress in the bedroom or can you read comfortably in bed? What’s more, if every kitchen and staircase in the land were adequately lit, the reduction in accidents would better any antidrink and drive campaign. And here’s a challenge to lighting professionals: how many of you would be happy to open your homes as examples of good lighting? Or, like the shoemaker’s children, do you go barefoot?

Play of light and shadow. Sharp



Torch with hat

The new Metronomis LED is characterised by its diversity of design and by its wide range of applications. With its variety of bowls and dedicated masts the luminaire can be adapted in detail to suit any surroundings: contemporary, modern and heritage. On top of the modular versatility Metronomis LED offers the unique possibility to play with lighting effects in the bowl or on the ground. This enables creative specifiers to create ambiances and enhances urban areas to achieve city customisation.

To see what light can do in your city, contact a Philips expert today at: or visit


Light festivals

Painting the town red Light festivals are now mainstream events but are they worth it and what role do they play in urban lighting? Francis Pearce looks at various measures of their success

Customs House, Vivid Sydney


n the positive side, light festivals have a part to play in showing that light is a creative medium, says lighting designer Mark Major of Speirs and Major. ‘A festival can bring people together, it can have economic benefits and it can make us realise that darkness is our friend. If well done, a festival can bring a lot of people into a town centre after dark who might otherwise not go there. The downsides are the legacy of lighting festivals, the money that is spent on them and the energy they consume. Do they just leave a memory or can they contribute something more on a longer-term basis?’ Lighting Urban Community International (LUCI), which is concerned with lighting’s role in urban development, says that nearly 40 of its 66 city members are organising some form of lighting festival, from the world famous Fête des lumières in Lyons to the Christmas lights in Medellin, Colombia, which are said to provide temporary employment for close to 1000 workless residents.

Light festivals


Projections on Sydney Opera House, Vivid Sydney

Setting aside carnivals, light festivals range in duration from light nights or nuits blanches through to seasons (often around Christmas, in the West) and vary in scope from lighting-only events to multi-themed celebrations of art and culture. And, as lighting designer Graham Festenstein of Graham Festenstein Lighting Design points out, ‘if you look at Lyons, that is very much an arts festival that uses lighting as a theme, and there are others. But then you have events such as the PLDA lighting workshops at Alingsås in Sweden that have turned into festivals – technically Alingsås is not a festival but the public comes to see the workshop pieces and it’s no longer purely for the industry.’ So, what are they for and how do we know that they work? The Fête des lumières in Lyons takes place each year for four nights in December around the Christian Feast of the Immaculate Conception and draws on a tradition of putting lit candles on window ledges to propitiate the Virgin Mary. Festival administrator Jeanne Nicolle says that in its recent, multimedia, city-wide and hi-tech incarnation, the festival has become ‘important for economic factors but also very important for the city’s image around the world. Lyons

is associated with the lighting festival. It was gastronomy and football, but now it is gastronomy and the lights.’ But calculating its economic value is not easy. ‘There are no tickets so it is hard to be exact on numbers, but two to three million people enjoy the Fête des lumières,’ says Nicolle. ‘We know six million use local public transport and we have information from local businesses. The city’s hotels are 98 per cent booked for the four days, eight months ahead, but half of the visitors stay with family or friends. And the Centre Commercial de la Part Dieu Lyons [the city’s largest mall] sells more over the weekend of 8 December than during the whole of Christmas’. LUCI has developed a Light Festival Evaluation Toolkit to help authorities measure the economic and cultural benefits of light festivals and other night-time events. Economic benefits include visitor spending, job creation and increased tax revenue, but there is also a value to event publicity and increased brand awareness or image. Sponsors and funders need to know that they are getting value for money, including in-kind support such as media coverage for which notional

Fête des lumières, Lyons

values can be calculated. The toolkit includes information on multipliers, a means of extrapolating benefits that last well beyond an event and affect nearby businesses. Other benefits include improvements in infrastructure and the physical appearance of cities, and positive impacts on the local community such as increased participation in community activities or volunteering. These benefits have to be set against negative factors, including increases in CO2 emissions and the energy consumption per event attendee, which can be used to shape policy and have a bearing on policies such as lighting strategies and urban masterplans.

Lighting Journal September 2013


Light festivals

Photogrophy: Kippa Matthews

‘Having more and more PFI-style contracts and fewer local authority engineers is going to make it much more difficult to achieve temporary events in the public realm. If you want to turn off or modify street lights it’s much more difficult’

Rose, by Ross Ashton and Karen Monid, York Minster

Visitor numbers tend to be guesstimates. Festivals often take place over large urban areas with no clear entry points. In Osaka visitors are counted as they come over bridges on to the island, but in Helsinki organisers have to base their estimate of 20,000 visitors on feedback from police and security personnel who measure peak crowd numbers. They acknowledge that they do not know how long people spend on the streets or whether peak numbers are the same as total numbers. LUCI says it is easy to overestimate visitor numbers but they are important in terms of direct economic impact, which is usually calculated as visitor spend (the additional money that visitors and participants bring in) minus operational spend. The latter includes the recurring expenses and capital outlay related to the festival including office space, wages and marketing set against sponsorship benefits, both financial and in kind. ‘It is more difficult for a big city to quantify the benefits because there is so much else going on,’ says Michael Grubb whose practice, Michael Grubb Studio, recently completed a masterplan for Bournemouth’s six-week Garden of Light festival. Concepts for the festival include an illuminated hot air balloon displaying

colours and messages in response to mobile phone text messages.‘The festival is based on the Christmas period. From a retail point of view if you have a bad Christmas you are playing catch-up for the rest of the year. Creating a family event over a longer period of time allows for people to tell their friends about it and build up momentum,’ he explains. ‘But you need to have a clear measure of success. If the local population loves it and comes into the city centre that is one form of success, but we also want people to come in from further afield. We want to hear the hotels say they are getting noticeably busier during this period.’ This year’s four-day Lumiere festival in Durham is the third since 2009 and will include large-scale projections and installations created by artists and lighting designers, including pieces created by artists from the north east of England recruited through the festival’s Brilliant competition. The 2011 Lumiere included an illuminated waterfall over the River Wear, a giant Snowdome encasing an equestrian statue, and an otherworldly fire garden inside Durham Cathedral. It is organised by events management organisation Artichoke, with support from The European Commission Culture Programme, Arts Council England, Durham

Light festivals


Installation by Matthew Andrews at Durham’s Lumiere festival


In addition to staging a third Lumiere festival in Durham (14-17 November 2013), creative company Artichoke is organising Lumiere as the closing event for Derry, UK City of Culture 2013 from 28 November-1 December 2013. ‘We believe that these events have the potential not only to temporarily transform these cities, but also to give residents

and visitors a joyful and unifying shared experience they will remember forever,’ says Nicky Webb, co-director of Artichoke. Commissioned works include Brilliant competition winner Deepa Mann-Keir’s neon ‘balloon dogs’ and RMS Design’s indoor, glowing Grove of Oaks created from electroluminescent wire.


Illuminating York Festival 2013 (30 October-2 November) combines digital arts and lighting. Organisers estimate that the festival attracts up to 75,000 visitors, residents and tourists, and more than £1m in economic benefits.

This year’s reflects the fact that it is 1000 years since King Sweyn ‘Forkbeard’ of Denmark was named king of England and celebrates the city’s Viking heritage.

Lighting Journal September 2013


Discussion Light festivals

‘The simplest example is local authorities installing extra isolators and power supplies in columns for Christmas lighting. It’s about thinking ahead and making your festival part of a wider strategic view of lighting in your city’


County Council and a range of business sponsors and other funding bodies. Durham City Council’s Regeneration Statement for 2010-2012 says that Lumiere had an estimated economic impact of around £4.3m in 2011, up from £1.5m in 2009. This includes £404,000 worth of local contracts. In addition, the festival generated an estimated £2.25m of PR value for Durham, including national press coverage. ‘The BBC World Service covered us around the world,’ says Durham councillor Neil Foster, cabinet member responsible for regeneration. ‘We had people contacting us from China, Vietnam, the USA. We couldn’t have paid for that type of publicity. Things like Lumiere give you a hook to hang stories on and people who saw it last time saw how visual it was, which makes making the call to sponsors and funders easier too. It’s a kind of stage for selling Durham, not just in terms of tourism but also business.’ The City of Glasgow commissioned Cambridge Policy Consultants to analyse how host cities actually gauge the economic, social and cultural impact of light festivals, using case studies from Chartres, Durham, Eindhoven, Glasgow, Gothenburg, Jerusalem, Lyons, Medellin, Montreal and Osaka. Osaka and Montreal, for example, measure the economic impact of their light festivals by the tax revenues they generate. When an impact study was carried out, the Japanese government estimated that it gained from its festival, as did Osaka Prefecture, where the increase in tax revenue outweighed direct public investment but, looked at separately, Osaka city put in more than it took

out. Quebec gained tax revenue from Montreal High Lights, but the government treated this as a bonus, regarding the festival’s chief benefits as social and cultural. LUCI has set up a number of commissions looking at different aspects of lighting festivals and says that ‘anecdotal evidence from cities and wider research suggests that events and festivals can have substantial impacts on community cohesion and empowerment through facilitating community participation’, among other benefits. The tools available include interviews, focus groups, social media, crime figures and volunteer numbers. Artichoke director Helen Marriage says that not only has Durham’s Lumiere ‘become part of the regional cultural agenda’ but ‘people like the idea that it’s on the horizon and feel different and better about the people they share the experience with.’ To this day, Glasgow City Council continues to quote anecdotal evidence from the comments books and website that people felt safer in the Merchant City area of the city centre covered by its Radiance festival in 2007. ‘A lot of festivals have the objective of connecting people to their place so a light festival relates very closely to urban masterplans and lighting strategies,’ says Cathy Johnston, who is in charge of the council’s development plan. ‘In Glasgow, it was about taking people through different routes to unfamiliar places.’ Mark Major says that if a host city’s lighting infrastructure is designed to ‘allow lighting festivals and other events to be staged easily at other times, they become more sustainable and more easily staged and controlled. The simplest example is local authorities installing extra isolators and power supplies in columns for Christmas lighting. It’s about thinking ahead and making your festival part of a wider strategic view of lighting in your city.’ Between 2005 and 2006, Speirs

Light festivals


Vivid Sydney

Vivid Sydney 2013, ‘the Southern Hemisphere’s biggest annual festival of light, music and ideas’, took place over 18 days in May and June. The number of attendees topped 800,000 with Vivid Light events including an interactive programmable lighting installation on Sydney Harbour Bridge, water screen projection performances by Sydney’s 32 Hundred Lighting, and light and water shows in Darling Harbour created by France’s Aquatique. Key tourist areas such as Customs House, Circular Quay, and Major prepared a lighting strategy for Durham known as the Light and Darkness Strategy, which included upgrading street lighting, illuminating the city’s bridges, cutting light pollution and creating an infrastructure that would enable Durham to use its state-of-the-art lighting to host events. Durham has the infrastructure and the in-house expertise but the problem for some UK authorities is that practical knowledge has been drained away from them under the Private Finance Initiative arrangements of recent years, says Graham Festenstein. ‘Having more and more PFI-style contracts and fewer local authority engineers is going to make it increasingly difficult to achieve temporary events in the public realm. If you want to turn off or modify street lights it’s much more problematic.’ Peter Harrison, formerly of Birmingham City Council and now senior consultant with Jacobs Engineering UK, agrees. ‘Those authorities that have gone down the route of PFI-type projects have, in many cases, lost the intelligent client function so they are going to the service provider with a “can we?” instead of a “how can we?” attitude. They don’t have the expertise to know what they can and can’t do, but if

The Rocks and Walsh Bay become a canvas for light projections and installations. A third of the light installations were by overseas designers and artists. ‘Vivid reached audiences in more than 200 countries and territories worldwide through extensive media coverage,’ says New South Wales minister for trade and investment Andrew Stoner. ‘I am confident Vivid Sydney will have delivered this year well in excess of the estimated A$10m [£6m] in economic impact.’

authorities want it to happen they can make it happen. They can buy in expertise but obviously it adds to the cost of the operation.’ Not for the first time, they do things differently on the other side of the Channel. Lyons’ Nicolle says that the Fête des lumières and the city’s first and second 10-year lighting plans have intertwined. ‘The public lighting department works on the objectives of the urban lighting plan plus the festival project but we are completely independent, and free to commission artists and installations,’ she says. ‘Paris is “the city of light” but in terms of contemporaneous creation, Lyons attracts famous names to make interesting shows, and every year we also try to introduce some new artists from abroad or France,’ she adds. ‘We really try to make Lyons a place of experimentation, a place of creation and a place of discovering new talent.’ But at the same time, she explains, this overlapping of event and lighting design led to the development of ‘clusters’ of academic, private and public sector expertise demonstrated by the Lumiville international lighting exhibition and the MA in lighting engineering run by INSA Lyons, one of the country’s leading science universities. The city’s lighting festival

and urban lighting expertise has also been shared with lighting departments as far afield as Ho Chi Minh City, St Petersburg and Havana. In recession-weary Britain, with the Olympics (and the lighting at its spectacular opening and closing ceremonies) behind us, light festival organisers and authorities are likely to face questions about the legacy of events and their sustainability; in particular whether something tangible has been or should be left behind.

LUCI commissions

As well as its Light Festival Evaluation Toolkit, Lighting Urban Community International has set up commissions to look into various aspects of light festivals and urban lighting. LUCI’s cultural commission, headed by Glasgow, released its report on The Economic and Cultural Benefits of Light Festivals in November 2011. Lyons heads a commission whose role includes the launch of a training session for cities on light festivals. Leipzig heads the commission on LUCI’s Charter on Urban Lighting, looking into indicators cities should use to evaluate lighting strategies. Others are investigating sustainable lighting and the relationship between lighting and tourism.

Lighting Journal September 2013


Light festivals

There is no single right answer. As a curator, Helen Marriage says that she and Artichoke are ‘interested in ephemera and exploration – the excitement of the temporary’, and that this is reflected in the public’s anticipation of events such as Lumiere. At the same time, she says, ‘if you left works behind every time you help it you would soon run out of space.’ Besides, she adds, ‘there are maintenance and repair issues with permanent installations.’

In Bournemouth, Grubb says the Garden of Light Festival is intended as an annual event and the emphasis is on reuse and reinvention. ‘A lot of the infrastructure we plan to use will be purchased for use in another year. It’s better to invest in something that is high-end but can be reused in segments and sections in parks and in other events and festivals throughout the year,’ he says. Malmö, Sweden, takes this idea in a different direction. Its :by Light

festival mixes temporary artworks with the piloting and introduction of new, permanent lighting installations and schemes. In 2012, alongside artistic interventions, alternatives to the existing lighting in 10 locations, including streets and parks, were trialled and five locations were permanently relit. Each of these approaches leaves something beneficial in its wake. The question is how tangible does a festival’s legacy need to be to achieve its aims?


An international jury including artistic director Rogier van der Heide of Philips and Kevin Theobald, president of the International Association of Lighting Designers, recently selected 30 works from the 300 submitted for the second edition of Amsterdam Light Festival, which runs from 6 December 2013-19 January 2014. The festival includes artworks along, in, and above the Amstel River, a walking route, light sculptures, LED decorations on bridges, fiery

Other international light festivals • •

• • • • • •

boat parades and huge projections on public buildings. Last year’s main features included an aerial sculpture by Janet Echelman that was suspended over the river at the height of a tsunami wave (pictured), while this year’s include Todd van Hulzen’s Temporary Tower which recreates a demolished ornamental clock tower on the Singel canal using scaffolding and light.

Chartres en Lumières is a five-month event, ending with two days of street animations Eindhoven hosts two light events: Glow, an annual, eight-day event celebrating art and architecture, and Lichtjesroute, in which 22km of streets are decorated for three to four weeks to commemorate the city’s liberation from the Nazis Gothenburg’s Julstaden is an annual event from mid-November to January centring on a Christmas light show Light in Jerusalem has taken place each June from 2009, mixing light and night-time events including theatre and dance Medellin Christmas Lighting is an annual four-week event in December combining urban architecture, design and high technology with lighting Montreal High Lights (Montréal en Lumière) takes place each year over 11 days in February, and includes the Nuit Blanche à Montréal with more than 200 free activities Geneva’s Arbres en Lumières is a six-week event featuring around 12 installations Lux Helsinki is an annual event. The 2013 event, which ended 9 January, featured 13 light installations. They included Reveal, a work by Dan Shorten, a London-based media artist who created an interactive installation using a motion-sensor system Osaka Hikari-Renaissance Light Festival, Japan, lasts for two weeks in December when the waterways encircling the city centre are lit

Lighting Journal September 2013


A new professional lighting guide, PLG06: Seasonal Decorations and Attachments, is scheduled for publication before the end of 2013. It includes advice to lay people as well as lighting professionals, according to committee chair Peter Harrison. Areas covered include crossstreet decorations; catenary wires; attachments into buildings; load limits on lighting columns; electrical supplies for freestanding tableaux; traffic management; obligations under health and safety, and CDM regulations. ‘It’s the whole thing,’ says Harrison. ‘It’s not just electrical, its attachment as well, which could be flags, banners, hanging baskets, telecommunications equipment, whatever you want to attach to a building or street furniture.’


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Road lighting

Measure for m e asu re Nick Smith looks at the most cost-effective way to light one kilometre of road

Lighting Journal September 2013

Road lighting


ome years ago I delivered a paper at conference called Living with the CEN code and, later, Living with the CEN code Part 2. As part of the paper, subsequently published in Lighting Journal, I looked at a specific project, examining the various options, some of the pitfalls and the cost of energy involved. However, there are now new variables that need to be considered with the introduction of BS5489: 2013 and the soon-to-be released EN13201. There are key questions one needs to ask when starting a project. First, does the road need to be lit at all? Sometimes we need to be honest about how appropriate it is to put lighting into an area which is currently not lit. However, this needs to be based around usage and not financial constraints put forward by accountants who are making decisions on engineering matters without having the necessary competency in lighting. As a consultant I would advise my clients of their duties under CDM regulations and the likely implications their decisions are likely to have. Another important question is, does the road need to be calculated using luminance or illuminance? In the example project I have chosen, my first reaction was, does this road need lighting along its full length? The client confirmed the brief which I will come back to. I then turned to the new BS5489. Assuming an M class has been chosen, we first need to assess whether table A2 or A3 is appropriate, based on the speed limit of the road. Where the traffic volume is very low, the values in the bottom row have been deliberately greyed out because when considering whether lighting is necessary, an area with very low traffic would normally be used as a starting point. The traffic volume is based on ADT or percentage of lane capacity and the relative values are shown below the table in the standard. In the case of the example I have chosen, the road is a single carriageway and the usage is likely to be low to moderate once the area is developed. It is possible that initially the traffic volume will be very low and the opportunity to dim the lighting to M5 is likely to become available. It should be noted that had the output specification from the PFI been used, the road would have been lit to ME3 something, but because it was a new road it was not

Table A.3 from BS5489: 2013: Lighting classes for traffic routes (v ≤ 40mph)


classified as part of the documents and the energy savings were welcomed by the authority. The main changes to the proposed EN13201-2 are that M3 classes replace ME3A, 3B and 3C, while M4 replaces ME4a and ME4b. There is also a new criterion to replace ‘surround ratio’ with the term ‘edge illuminance ratio’, with revised values. I understand that this is far from sorted out as the French would like a UL of 0.7 to fit their local requirement, a lower value for refurbishment of existing installations and an edge illuminance ratio of 0.40. There is also some talk of an M7 class and a C6. The brief for the project in question was to use 10m columns. This was dictated by the client, who wanted a single-sided arrangement with the columns set back behind the 3m footway/ cycleway. The client also wanted to use LEDs, although the PFI provider had different ideas about this. Two electrical circuits fed alternate columns. I have never been a big fan of brackets unless they are necessary to achieve the required lighting levels and so the Project example 1: a single carriageway lantern was chosen to be post-mounted, which also improved the daytime appearance of the columns. There were no special ecological issues identified which might be affected by the lighting or vice versa. For the purposes of this article I have extended the original piece of design work done for the project. I have looked at the options using Lighting Reality with one specific lantern manufacturer, and a number of different lamp options available in the same fitting. With the LED fittings investigated, I have just numbered each lantern and included the wattage in order not to muddy the waters by endorsing specific manufacturers. In days gone by we would have probably looked at sox, son and more recently CosmoPolis. For M class roads I still believe that son is an option. Highpressure sodium provides the necessary information to the driver in terms of luminance and uniformity. I also think that under wet conditions son gives a better option than white light. LEDs do tend to give better uniformity though and more options for variable lighting. Looking at the road to be constructed, you can see why I asked the question about the need for the road to be lit as it passes through fields, although there is rather more to it than that. In an ideal world you set out your column at

Lighting Journal September 2013


Road lighting

the prescribed spacing of 37m and off you go. However, again that does not tell the whole story – there are two roundabouts, two signalised crossings and two bridges. The area between the north bridge and the new junction also passes under 450kV overhead lines. So additional design was carried out based on raise and lower columns at 6m to ensure that during the installation the risk to operatives was reduced, and the same for the operatives who have to maintain the equipment. There are proposals for the installation to be dimmed using a CMS system which are being finalised by the council concerned. With the lantern I looked at, the high-pressure sodium Column Lamp










































LED 1 (98W)






LED 2 (112W)






LED 3 (109W)






LED 4 (123W)






LED 5 (149W)






LED 6 (243W)






LED 7 (163W)








Table 2: Comparision of lamp performance

solution in the 150W or 250W version produces the best spacing. But while the 150W high-pressure sodium option appears to give the best result when considering the only spacings possible, it is marginally beaten by the bottom two LED options at 51m spacing. However, looking at the number of columns per kilometre, the 150W son is beaten by the CosmoPolis fitting once energy consumption per kilometre – 3.45 kW/km – is considered. At this point, LED 7 is no longer looking the best option, even though it uses the least number of columns. Despite the fact that LED 1 uses more columns, the energy per kilometre is substantially lower. However, I took this a step further and looked at the draft version of EN13201 part 5, due out later this year (or next year more likely, given the wrangling going on). In this there is a proposal for a Street Lighting Energy Consumption indicator focusing on energy consumption per kilometre, based on the target luminance or illuminance. So overlighting or using a higher wattage fitting than is necessary will show as a poor power density calculation. In theory the 98W LED 1 solution is the most energy efficient scheme. This obviously does not consider the initial cost of the equipment and also does not consider variable lighting which is likely to be associated with the project too. All of the figures are based on the energy consumption from the lantern photometric file. Some of the manufacturers’

Lighting Journal September 2013

data had a ‘1’ in this field which messed up the calculations and is likely to affect any future calculations plugged into lighting design software such as Lighting Reality. It is also likely that there will be some differences when specified drivers and dimming are considered.

Project example 2: housing development

The design was based around a neutral white LED. Personally I feel that a colour temperature above 4500K is too blue. The higher colour temperatures can also be as a result of driving the LEDs harder which in turn is likely to have higher current, more heat and therefore lower life for both LEDs and driver. The maintenance factor I used was the same for all fittings as this was the only way to compare apples with apples. However, when specifying LEDs it is advisable to ask the supplier what maintenance factor is associated with the fitting. Issues such as chip type, colour temperature and drive current may have a bearing on this. In addition to the case history exercise, I also resurrected the paper Living with the CEN code I did in 2006, took some of the calculations I did then and reevaluated them based on the 2013 options to see how they stacked up and how they stack up now. The site I used for the analysis was a development involving around 600 houses and apartments. It is very typical of modern developments with lots of bends and not many straight bits. Lamp



Single Sided

Max (m)

Min (m)

Max (m)

Min (m)









37 (28)

29 (19)

36 (28)

29 (19)



39 (34)

35( 23)

38 (34)

35 (23)

42W PLT (2700k)


38 (35)

32 (24)

36 (34)

32 (24)

42W PLT (3000k)


38 (35)

33 (24)

37( 34)

33 (24)

42W PLT(4000K)


38 (35)

33 (24)

37 (34)

33 (24)



44 (39)

41 (28)

43 (39)

41 (28)



34 (31)

31 (25)

38 (35)








LED 1 48W






LED 2 30W






Table 3 Lamp performance 2006 (2013) for housing development

Road lighting The layout for the roundabout was not changed at all. The design was reevaluated with LEDs rather than CDO or CPO lamps which were used in the original design. I suspect that had the conflict area been reevaluated using PLG02 a reduction in energy could equally be shown. I selected Table 5 from BS5489 as the speed limit is 30mph, and chose P4 and P5 (S4 and S5) for the analysis based on it being in a low or moderate ambient luminance area as we do not all have authorities in E3 areas. The value shown in brackets is the 2013 solution. In theory the CosmoPolis scheme or CDM should produce the best design because the column spacing is greatest, and the 36W PLL design the worst design because the column spacing is the shortest. The 60W CPO scheme on 6m or 7m columns did not produce a solution because the average was too high. The 50W and 70W son was unchanged as there is no variation in lighting class with a son lamp as the Ra is less than 60. The 35W CDM did not produce a solution to S5 as again the average was too high. For the 36W and 40W PLLs Lamp

VA (kW)


Cost per year 10p/KWh







































LED 1 48W






LED 2 30W






Table 4 Comparision of energy performance for housing development

I used an S/P ratio for a 4000K lamp which gave much better spacings. For the 42W PLT I looked at the 2700K, 3000K and 4000K options to show what difference colour temperature makes to the spacings. The Cosmo lamp shows an improvement too. The values shown are based on the more commonly used 2800K colour temperature lamp with an S/P ratio of 1.15. However, a higher colour temperature Cosmo lamp with an S/P ratio of 1.65 will give a greater spacing. I also worked up two new projects, one with a 48W LED and one with a 30W LED to S4 and S5 respectively. The 48W unit had an output of 4900lm and the 30W unit had a 2950lm output. The lighter grey options at the top are the original calculations used in the 2006 outcome. With some more time I could go back and look at how the old project could be modified based on the new spacing.


‘Switching off our street lighting should still not be an option, but dimming it is much easier now. Above all, don’t just stick up something because it looks like it might save you a bit’ I suspect that there is an opportunity to remove eight or so fittings but not lots of scope. At the bottom of the tables I have added the results from the 48W and 30W LED designs which result in a reduction in the number of fittings used on the main site. Table 4 also shows all the previous results from 2006 in terms of energy cost based on 7p per KW hour which is the value I used at the time. I have added a second column on the far right with the cost based on 10p per KW hour. The bottom two rows again show the 30W and 48W LED fittings. The percentage difference is based on a comparison with the wirewound 70W son solution used as the base line before. The 70W and 50W son solutions shown are based on electronic and not wirewound gear. This shows a 10 per cent and 18 per cent reduction in energy consumption just by using electronic ballasts. It can clearly be seen that significant savings are possible without resorting to switch off or even dimming. It is of course possible to allow further savings using a one or two-stage dimming scheme. One final matter which I have already partly touched on. We all seem to be increasingly concerned by the S/P ratio, colour rendering index of the lamp and so on. However, the colour temperature of the lamp is equally as important as the CRI. Some of the compact fluorescent lamps and LEDs have different outputs based on the colour temperature which will have different S/P ratios and hence different spacings. If you plan to use LEDs for road lighting it is important to trial different colour temperatures before committing. If you have installed an LED scheme, then it is also crucial that you go back and look at it at night. So what is the best way to light a kilometre of road? Do the design, do the analysis and use the British Standards. Switching off our street lighting should still not be an option, but dimming it is much easier now. Above all, don’t just stick up something because it looks like it might save you a bit. Nick Smith is managing director of lighting design and training consultancy Nick Smith Associates, technical director of Lighting Reality and a past chairman of the ILP Midland region. This feature is based on a paper he presented at the Surveyor/ILP Conference earlier this year

Lighting Journal September 2013


Office lighting

Working model

Iain Trent, chair of the BCO’s first dedicated

guide to office lighting, outlines its scope and explains why its message is essential

The guide stresses the importance of natural light: daylight study for Plantation Place. Courtesy of Arup (BCO Guide to Lighting)


his month the British Council for Offices (BCO) launches its latest good practice guide, the BCO Guide to Lighting, its first guide dedicated to lighting. The guide has been a long time arriving, but the publication comes at a rare time when there is a surprisingly high level of alignment between the various industry guides and publications. The new BCO guide attempts to pull together the existing guidance and make it relevant to lighting in the modern UK office environment. There are three main drivers of change that form the backbone

Lighting Journal September 2013

of the guide: energy efficiency, the publication of recent lighting standards and advancements in technology. The guide also ties together the practical interface between lighting and other elements of office design such as ceilings and HVAC systems. All of this needs to be viewed in the context of the shell and core, Category A and Category B approach to development within the UK, which poses its own challenges to the lighting designer. The guide has three sections: the first focuses on daylight and energy, the second on visual comfort and performance, and the third on the

application of office lighting to the modern-day workplace. To underline their importance, the guide begins by examining daylight and energy use, targeting developers, architects, engineers and daylight specialists involved in the early planning stages of projects. The provision of good daylight within an office is not, and should not be, an accident; it is the result of good quality design. The guide emphasises that it is essential that this design is undertaken at the very outset of the project, forming part of the early planning studies. The

Office lighting

Above: task, immediate surround and background illumination. Below: Park House, London, lighting by GIA Equation. Courtesy of Land Securities/ Robin Partington Architects (BCO Guide to Office Lighting)

message for developers is to employ a daylight expert as part of the early planning team, and for architects to consider the orientation, massing and facade treatment in terms of balancing daylight with solar gain. Daylight not only provides the best quality light, with health and wellbeing benefits, but it also provides opportunities for significant savings in the energy used by artificial lighting as long as useful natural light is balanced with solar heat gains. This can only be achieved by daylighting experts using dynamic modelling to inform the design –

as opposed to the more traditional approach of allowing the architect to do the design and then telling them how well, or badly, it performs. By this time the proverbial horse has long bolted, complete with the cost plan and the signed-off designs. The guide incorporates more recent thinking on daylight metrics, which acknowledges that quality can no longer simply be measured by average daylight factors alone. With today’s modern dynamic simulation modelling software, more sophisticated measures are needed to assess the amount of


useful daylight that a space will receive. The guide advocates that climatebased modelling should be used for all new office developments to determine performance criteria such as useful daylight index (UDI). These criteria will provide designers with the necessary tools to assess the performance and effectiveness of internal and external shading features. Part L of the Building Regulations is the UK government’s main tool to drive down carbon emissions within buildings so that they can achieve the targets set by the Climate Change Act 2008. The guide describes the three main criteria where lighting and daylighting will affect the building’s performance under Part L. It was felt that while Criterion 2, the limiting lumen per luminaire circuit watt, was well understood, the other two criteria were often overlooked. Criterion 1 sets the maximum power density for the lighting and Criterion 3 covers the balance of good daylight design but with the proviso that the building does not overheat, thus increasing cooling requirements. The 2014 version of Part L will limit the luminaire efficacy to 60lm per luminaire circuit watt, with correction factors for various control arrangements. The addition of Leni (lighting energy numeric indicator) to Part L provides an alternative means of satisfying Criterion 2 by taking into account the anticipated usage of the lighting system rather than just the static efficiency of the light fittings. This enhances the importance of lighting controls and should begin to allow designers some flexibility in meeting this criterion. Section 2 of the guide focuses on the criteria for visual comfort and performance from office lighting installations. The emphasis of recent lighting standards such as BS EN 12464-1 has changed to give more prominence to good general lighting rather than the traditional unhealthy obsession with horizontal task illumination. The key message of this section is that general office lighting

Lighting Journal September 2013


Office lighting

Visual: Luxonic

should provide comfortable lighting for the people within the space to communicate with each other. The majority of today’s modern office tasks can be comfortably and accurately undertaken with good general lighting. If the tasks require additional lighting then this should be provided specifically and locally with desk or task lighting. In energy terms, we do not have the luxury of being able to overlight the office as a contingency for any task anywhere. Mean cylindrical illuminance and modelling ratios are two criteria that have been introduced to the lighting standards to enhance the general lighting, reflecting a greater emphasis on communication both face-to-face and through video-linked conferences. These concepts are explained within the guide and their importance reiterated. Recent standards introduced the concept of task, immediate surround and background illumination levels, which the guide also explains. Such an approach can be successfully achieved when the office layout is known, opening up opportunities for innovative schemes that make use of furniture-mounted lighting, for instance, or that use a combination of overhead lighting with flexible floor or desk-mounted task lights. A great deal of office space within

the UK is delivered to the Category A standard of fit-out where a developer will provide floors, heating, cooling, ventilation, ceilings and general lighting to allow a tenant to add their Category B fit-out prior to moving in. Lighting standards are aimed at the occupied office (Category B) and as such it is often not possible for the Category A designer to comply with these standards as, for instance, the task area is undefined. The BCO guide provides guidance to Category A designers to ensure that they provide good quality background lighting for the Category B designer to enhance where necessary to meet the standards. Processes are introduced to allow the Category A lighting installation to be verified and signed off. The maintenance factor is another area addressed by the guide, which draws the attention of designers and building operators to the concept of the variable-interval cleaning regime, as described in the latest (2005) CIE guide to maintenance factors. The concept is simple: rather than just overlighting the office in case it is not cleaned, a maintenance regime is put in place to ensure that when the general office light level drops below the threshold limit, the space is then cleaned. Taking a approach that joins up the cleaning regime with the lighting can result in less light fittings or lower-powered lamps (with embodied energy advantages) and less energy used due to overlighting. The other key recommendation is to include automatic constant illumination control to limit the amount of wasted energy. Guidance is given on the use of LEDs in terms of the approach to maintenance factors, colour rendering and what to specify when designing with solidOutcome of direct/indirect scheme (BCO Guide to Office Lighting) state lighting. While the

Lighting Journal September 2013

means of producing light from LEDs is different to the more conventional fluorescent lamps, the basic criteria for comfort and performance remain the same. However, the opportunities for innovative office lighting designs in the future are limited only by the imagination of the designers as they are no longer inhibited by standard fluorescent tube lengths. The third section of the guide covers the practical lighting design aspects of a shell and core, Category A and Category B development. It looks at what constitutes good lighting provision in each case, breaking the office environment into specific areas – desk areas, reception, break-out spaces and so on – and addressing their individual lighting requirements according to task and purpose. The challenge to the lighting world now is to take the messages from this guide, along with the latest standards, and educate the developers, agents and engineers. These are the very developers, agents and engineers who have cherry picked the lighting standards of the past 25 years, resulting in what is described by lighting consultant Barrie Wilde in one of the introductions to the guide, as ‘… an unmitigated office lighting disaster leaving a legacy that will take at least another 10 years to get rid of’. The guide has the backing of the BCO and as such is a powerful tool in spreading the word: use daylight effectively; use artificial lighting only where and when it is needed through careful design and automatic controls; light the workspace predominantly for people to communicate with each other, and finally light the task as and where required. It is no longer acceptable to light a large expanse of office carpet to 500 lux. Iain Trent is senior projects engineer at Land Securities. The BCO Guide to Office Lighting is launched in late September and costs £65 for memebrs and £95 for non-members. For more details go to


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A source of a different stripe?

Kevan Shaw believes that LED spectra are being tweaked to achieve high lumen per watt values. We are being sold a zebra when we want to buy a horse, he argues


ver the past century we have seen a succession of new lighting technologies enter the market. Each has offered various potential advantages over what has passed before, mostly in terms of reduced energy consumption and increased perceived convenience over the tungsten incandescent lamp. With each new development efforts have been made to compare the new light source with an expectation of light colour and quality. Much groundbreaking work took place as long ago as the 1920s when the CIE set the framework for assessing colour and providing a method of measurement and quantification. One of the cornerstones is the Colour Rendering Index (CRI) that theoretically predicts how well a particular light source represents the colours of objects. This was somewhat tailored to the-then newly emerging fluorescent lamps and allowed them to achieve healthy scores, permitting

Lighting Journal September 2013

them to be seen as a good (enough) general-purpose light source for commerce and industry. Since we have entered the LED era it has been found that the good old CRI actually scores LEDs much lower than is expected or desirable so there has been some fiddling by introducing new factors and different colours into the scale, and even consideration of a

whole new metric such as the Colour Quality Scale (CQS) that may more accurately portray the apparent colour performance of LEDs among other light sources. The other measure is Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT), again an effort to describe, in a somewhat crude fashion, where a particular light source sits relative to the Planckian curve of a

Discussion black body radiator, something like the sun or the aforementioned tungsten incandescent lamp. Theoretically this should allow one to make a reasonable comparison between light sources, and again LEDs, with their typical and inevitable high blue content, seem to make this measure much less useful for direct comparison. With LEDs the main marketing pitch has been efficiency and the resulting war of claims between different LED manufacturers as to who can offer the most efficient devices. Of course claims are often for lab results that are neither offered complete nor substantiated, and claims are even made for some product that will be available some time in the future. However, claims inflation eventually reaches a point that stretches credibility. I think we might have stepped over that boundary this year with one claim for 276lm/W in the lab for a 4000K LED and another claim that a 200lm/W tube lamp at 3000K will be available to the market in two years’ time. As claims are promising efficiency we need to understand a couple of important points. First a lumen, our typical measure of light, is based on the performance of the human visual system. As we know, there is a response curve, the V lambda curve, that relates electromagnetic energy to what we can see. Secondly, a watt is not just a measure of electrical power but is used for all other forms of power as well. So if we take these two factors into account there is a lumen per watt relationship for light energy even before we start looking at electrical efficiency. If we take a theoretically perfect light emitter producing light on the Planckian black body curve, but only within the range of human visual sensitivity, something like the sun with no UV or infrared emission, we find that the maximum efficiency is around 250lm/W. Due to the UV and IR emission of the sun the efficiency is only around 93lm/W. Remember

that these are light efficiencies not electrical efficiencies. If one applies typical values for electrical losses, thermal losses and optical losses one finds that the realistic ‘perfect’ light source could only really achieve something in the range of 150 to 160lm/W. What then is the justification for the extraordinary high efficiency values we are now being expected to believe? Quite simply, the devices are not producing a real full spectrum white light. We are caught up in measurements such as CRI and CCT that are being used to obfuscate the reality that what is on offer is no longer a natural white light but something that is increasingly noticeably different. Our experience of LEDs is usually one of an excess blue and sometimes an excess pink. We find that products


rated as 3000K CCT have a visual appearance closer to 3500K or even 4000K. Spectra are being tweaked to hit desirable high lm/W values. Basically we are being sold a zebra when we want to buy a horse. They may appear similar in silhouette but when you get close the differences are marked and the functionality is not the same – just try saddling up a zebra. To risk another equine analogy, the big players in the food industry have been found out selling horse as beef. Are we really going to let the lighting industry continue to pedal zebras? Kevan Shaw is lighting design director of KSLD and the first independent lighting designer to gain the CEng MILP qualification without an engineering degree

Lighting Journal September 2013

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Did you know, that if you take a place in the Consultants’ Directory (see page 48) the listing is included on the main ILP website with your company logo NOW TAKING BOOKINGS FOR 2014

The Lighting Directory for £50 per entry per month you can advertise your products and services

call Julie on 01536 527295

call Julie on 01536 527295



see pages 46-47




Reflected glory

Reflected glory

Federation Square, Melbourne (opposite page)


opography does have a bearing, so not for everyone, but a small Norwegian valley town has found a way of increasing its sunlight in the centre – things get a bit gloomy in winter – and creating an attraction at the same time. Giant sun mirrors have been erected on the mountains that currently surround, and block the sun from, the town of Rjukan. Deep in the narrow Vestfjord valley in Telemark and forming the gateway to the Hardangervidda mountain plateau in central southern Norway, the industrial town is home to 3000 inhabitants. For roughly half the year, from September through to March, it

Lighting Journal September 2013

doesn’t receive any direct sunlight. The sun mirrors, or Solspeil, have been installed by helicopter on the mountain wall at 742m above sea level, around 450m above the Rjukan market square. Each mirror is 17sqm, and together they form three heliostats with a total area of 51sqm. The computer-driven mirrors with solar sensors will capture the sunlight and direct it into the market square, where it will form an elliptical beam of around 200sqm. The efficiency of the system is quite high with between 80 and 100 per cent of the captured light being reflected. Like so many of these ideas, the concept is not new. The founder of a

nearby hydroelectric plant, a famous Norwegian engineer named Sam Eyde, suggested the idea exactly 100 years ago back in 1913. Sadly it never got off the ground, and instead, in a Mohammed-to-themountain exercise, his successors built a gondola in 1928 to transport the town’s inhabitants to the winter sunshine. The gondola, called the Krossobanen, is still going strong and remains an important connection between the town and the mountains, transporting thousands of people up there every year. Modern technology made the heliostat idea possible and the concept was resurrected in 2005 by artist and


A small Norwegian town has brought some sunshine into its inhabitants’ lives – and it’s all done with mirrors


Photography: Martin Jakobsen

local resident Martin Andersen. The enterprise has cost the town council 5m Norwegian kroner (£544,000) and involved five years of debate before everyone agreed on the move. A delegation from Rjukan visited the northern Italian town of Viganella, which erected a similar heliostat system in 2006 after suffering a similar sunlight problem. Heliostats will also soon come into use in Sydney, directing sunlight on to the landscaped terraces of a huge apartment complex designed by French architect Jean Nouvel. At night they will be used to create a giant piece of light art by French artist Yann Kersalé. For more details go to www. &kat=LegendsandHistory&lang=e n&tellusid=234284&rk=

) – ‘one of the most compelling and unorthodox schemes in the country’; Sydney Opera House (above)

The heliostats will form an elliptical beam of 200sqm directed to the market square (visualisation)

Lighting Journal September 2013


Future concept

Touch and

US engineers have created an

interactive electronic skin that lights up when pressed


ngineers at the University of Califonia in Berkeley have developed an interactive electronic skin, a pliable rubberlike interface incorporating sensors and OLEDs, which responds to touch by lighting up. The more intense the pressure, the brighter the light that it emits. Interactive wallpaper that illuminates when touched is one of the potential applications, as well as sensory robotics and dashboard laminates that allow drivers to adjust electronic controls with the wave of a hand. ‘We are not just making devices; we are building systems,’ says Ali Javey, associate professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences who heads the research team. ‘With the interactive e-skin, we have demonstrated an elegant system on plastic that can be wrapped around different objects to enable a new form of human-machine interfacing.’ Embedding sensors into this type of material is not entirely new but making them this interactive is, according to the team. The e-skin can also fit any shape and should be easy to commercialise, says Javey, because it works with technology already used to manufacture semiconductors. The experimental samples measure 16 x 16 pixels, with a transistor, an organic LED and a pressure sensor within each pixel. To make them, the engineers cured a thin layer of polymer on top of a silicon wafer. Once the plastic hardened, they ran the material through fabrication tools already in use in the semiconductor industry to layer on the electronic components. The plastic was then peeled from the silicon base, leaving a freestanding film with a sensor network embedded in it. ‘Unlike the stiff touchscreens on iPhones, computer monitors and ATMs, the e-skin is flexible and can be easily laminated on to any surface,’ says Chuan Wang, who conducted the work as a post-doctoral researcher and who is now assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at Michigan State University. The team’s next goal is to make an e-skin that responds to light and temperature. That could involve some tantalising possibilities for lighting designers, including using surfaces as sources of animated mood lighting that could vary according to how motile or energised the people nearby are. For more details go to http://newscenter.berkeley. edu/2013/07/21/first-interactive-e-skin-built-on-plastic/

Lighting Journal September 2013

Optical photograph of a fully fabricated interactive e-skin

Future concept


Schematic of the interactive e-skin under operation. The pixels under the finger are turned on locally

E-skin visuals:: Ali Javey and Chuan Wang

Schematic of a single pixel, consisting of a nanotube thin-film transistor, organic LED and a pressure sensor integrated vertically on a polyimide substrate

Illustration showing the intensity of the emitted light varying according to the pressure applied

Lighting Journal September 2013



Streets ahead

After: Hicks Gate with 144 LED 4000K SpeedStar fittings

A closer look at the project that won this year’s LGN public lighting award, sponsored by the ILP Bath and North East Somerset Council Before: Keynsham High Street with son street lighting and 250W HQI on crossing was the first council to move to LED street lights on a major traffic route, a strategy that caught the attention of the national The council worked closely with Philips Lighting to supply press back in July 2011. The scheme has and deliver the Iridium2 range of LED luminaires (4000K), now been running for two years and according to Bath ‘has again with Xitanium programmable drivers and integral delivered beyond expectations’ in terms of the savings and DynaDimmer to provide five lighting and power levels. The efficiencies predicted during the design stage. LEDgine boards and drivers can be upgraded at a later date The equipment installed – Philips Speedstar luminaires without changing the luminaires over the next 12 to 18 years. with LEDgine technology and Xitanium driver with five-stage, Elexon’s approval allowed the multi-level lighting levels to be multi-level standalone variable lighting profile – has also traded via the new multi-level static dimming profiles. proved to be reliable. The overall upgrade should save more than £200,000 The success of the project led to the development of an a year in energy charges and a further £50,000 in annual extensive business case in 2011-12 and a capital investment maintenance savings. The electricity load has been cut by of £2m during 2012-2013. This has enabled Bath and North 1.5m kWh, equivalent to 786 tonnes of CO2 or three per East Somerset to become the first authority to convert its cent of the council’s total energy consumption. The reduction entire main road high-energy consuming traffic lighting to in CO2 emissions should also help the council to offset LED sources, a project that was completed in April this year.

Lighting Journal September 2013



significant carbon tax due for payment from April 2014. Other initiatives have included the use of Iridium LED luminaires with asymmetric optics on all of the council’s 108 zebra crossings, resulting in a further reduction of 77,000 kWh and 40 tonnes of CO2. The crossings were previously lit with 250W metal halide lamps with total circuit wattage of 275W. The new lighting uses Philips Eco 121 LED light sources, rated 105W. These luminaires were specified with a cooler colour temperature of 5700K (CRI 68) to provide a strong contrast with the general road lighting. The lanterns are also fitted with multilevel static dimming so that the light levels can be reduced during times of low traffic volumes. ‘This was a close contest and both runners-up, the Toffee Factory scheme by Stainton Lighting Design and Short Blue Place by Barking and Dagenham, were excellent schemes’ said Stuart Bulmer, ILP professional services manager and one of the judges. ‘But I think what clinched it for Bath was both the energy saving gained and the benefit to the local community.’ After: Keynsham High Street with LED fittings

Lighting Journal September 2013

36...Vice presidents’ column 36

The main event Conferences and other ILP national activities must be truly relevant to membership, says Alan Jaques, VP events


ands up how many of you used to go to school dreaming of the day that you would become a lighting professional? Very few people seem to choose lighting as a career while carrying out their studies at school, college or university and it was the same with me. However, through the work of the Primary Engineer programme (through which our very own Steve Anderson has just been awarded IPrimEng, see News), this may change. My lighting career started in the early 1980s as a technician at South Yorkshire County Council. Everyone told me that it was a job for life, only for the council to be abolished three years later. I worked for several other local authorities before becoming street lighting manager at Derby City Council. Along the way I also spent a number of years working for manufacturers in sales and product development. Since 2010 I have been the sector leader for lighting at Atkins where I head up their lighting teams in the UK. My training and development was typical for someone working in a local authority street lighting section in the 1980s. My academic qualifications were to ‘A’ level standard, but as soon as I started work I was enrolled on to a day-release ONC course in electrical engineering at a local college. This was then followed up by an HNC in electrical engineering. I was fortunate to work with the likes of Bob Stevenson and Burt Arundel at South Yorkshire County Council so my on-the-job training came from some of the best. My more formal training was through the forerunner

Lighting Journal September 2013

of the Exterior Lighting Diploma and attendance at technical meetings. As Dave Burton and Mark Cooper argued in the last issue of Lighting Journal, continued professional development is important in virtually all professions and the lighting sector is no different. Much of our membership gains a significant proportion of CPD through events that are organised either by the regions or the institution’s head office. As vice president for events I am responsible for organising and delivering the national events. The first annual lighting conference that I ever attended was in York in 1984 and almost 30 years later I can still remember some of the papers. This is what I am now trying to recreate – a conference that is memorable and inspires some young technician who attends for the very first time. I was fortunate to be appointed as vice president in October 2011, shortly after the annual conference held in Harrogate. One of my first tasks was to undertake a review of the conference, assessing what had worked, what hadn’t and what the feedback was from attendees and exhibitors. In collaboration with the executive board it was agreed that we should try to reinvigorate the institution’s premier event. It was decided that the best way of improving it was to revisit the core reasons for holding the annual conference and, in this time of financial austerity, address members’ concerns about the cost and time away from the office. The three main changes that we implemented for 2012 were:

• •

Reduce the event from three days to two, but keep the same presentation time Substantially reduce the cost of attending the event Set a programme of stimulating papers with quality speakers

We also decided that there should be a change of name to signify that the conference had undergone a significant revamp, and so the Professional Lighting Summit was born. Following the inaugural summit in Brighton last year the feedback was extremely positive, which we hope to build on in the coming years. Although I have concentrated on the summit, the ILP organises several other national events each year, all of which take a substantial amount of time. These events would not be possible without the input from Jess and the rest of the team in Rugby and I would like to thank them all for their continued support. The programmes for all of the national events need to be as relevant to the membership as possible. Considering that these are set by a small group of people I think we have done a good job of tailoring them to be relevant to the wider membership. There is always room for improvement though, which is why I am appealing for help in this area. I can easily be contacted through the ILP and I would welcome suggestions on ideas for presentations or topic areas that you feel would be of interest to the wider lighting community. I am also happy to receive feedback on events that you have attended or even reasons why you haven’t attended them. It’s your institution and the best way for us to improve ILP national events is with your input. All of which brings me to this year’s Professional Lighting Summit at the Thistle Hotel in Glasgow from 11-12 September. Will some of this year’s papers inspire someone attending this conference for the first time? I hope so, but I also hope that everyone else finds it inspirational too.

Tuesday 4 – Thursday 6 March 2014 ExCeL, London

Lighting at Ecobuild 2014 Be part of the future for sustainable design. 88% of our attendees rate Ecobuild as the UK’s best trade show in the marketplace. And our visitors should know - they are responsible for some of the most valuable projects around the world.

For further information please contact: Hamish Glendinning t: +44 020 7560 4469 e:


Inside the ILP


How the institution works 1: The senior vice president In the first of a series of articles examining the workings of the institution, chief executive Richard Frost looks at the role of senior vice president

Lighting Journal September 2013

his month marks three years since Alistair Scott became the first president of the ILP. During this time members have come and gone and quite a few have come back again. Therefore it seems timely to pen a few brief articles to tell new members how the institution works, is governed and how it operates. It’s appropriate to begin with how someone becomes senior vice president as this month also sees the inauguration of Mark Cooper in that role after three years’ service as vice president membership. So how did he get there? It is important to remember that the ILP is governed like any company, by Articles of Association, a legal document that you the members voted to adopt back in 2010. The institution and its governing body, the executive board, have to operate in accordance with this document which is mandated by the membership. The ILP currently has seven vice presidents (although it could be 27 if that was felt necessary). Each year all VPs are invited to submit expressions of interest in being nominated to the post of senior vice president in the following September. More than expressions of interest, they also have to detail what they have done for the ILP and how they see themselves as suitable candidates not only as senior vice president but also as president on automatic election to the highest post in the following year. Shortly after these expressions of interest are received, the executive board meets to consider them with the previous five past presidents of the institution; again the constitution of this meeting is a legal process defined in the Articles. The logic behind this is that the past presidents are all still sufficiently close to the institution, understand and have experience of how it operates and will know each of the vice presidents to a greater or lesser degree. They also act as a check on the executive board as it would not be appropriate for the board to nominate a senior vice president

without discussion in a wider forum. Each submission is discussed in detail and the past presidents are certainly not averse to asking searching questions of the board. While the performance and commitment of the vice presidents is not defined within the governing document, there is a convention of expectation that appropriate candidates will have made significant achievements within their particular vice-presidential remits and demonstrated their dedication to delivering the targets and performance agreed with the executive board. Each of the vice presidents is considered individually and in detail even if they have not put their name forward for the senior vice president post. It should be noted that not all vice presidents are able to do this in any particular year. Some may not feel able to deal with the role due to pressure of work in the day job; some may have personal reasons for not putting themselves forward and some may be new to the role of vice president and wish to develop that and themselves more fully. So what happens if the executive board and past presidents identify more than one candidate suitable for nomination in any one year? There could be two, or even seven. Again the next stage in the process is governed by the Articles of Association and, in this eventuality, there would be a ballot conducted throughout the entire membership. Every paid-up member would have a vote and the winning candidate would be nominated to the senior vice president post at the next AGM. So far this has not happened in the history of the ILP but it must be remembered that this structure is still new. The vice-presidential team has been operating for a relatively short time and, as in any structure, there have been inevitable changes within the complement. The criterion has to be the best available person for the job and, with the pool of talent within the ILP, it cannot be too long before the institution’s membership will play a key role in that influential decision.



Mackwell is a global industry leader in innovative lighting technology solutions. We design and manufacture electronic components and products from our production facility based in the West Midlands. We market our products to Lighting OEM’s both in the UK and internationally.

Technical Product Manager - Marketing Dept

Purchasing Manager

Competitive salary, Pension, Life Insurance, 25 days holiday

Competitive salary, Pension, Life Insurance, 25 days holiday

The role:

The role:

The successful candidate will work closely with our Research & Development department and Business Development Managers to coordinate and implement new product launch campaigns to target new & existing customers. You will produce high-quality technical sales support material for BDMs and will be highly involved in the delivery of international product launches, marketing campaigns, preparing presentations and support the company’s presence at relevant exhibitions and industry seminars.


The Technical Product Manager will report to the Marketing Manager and help to maximise the revenue potential of our key product ranges by evaluating, planning and implementing product specific plans.

Job functions: • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Coordinate product development in line with our NPI procedure Liaise between Technical Department and Commercial teams Evaluate new design proposals Prepare product data sheets and technical literature Create technical product presentations for sales team Conduct competitor analysis Assist with budget and costing preparations Technically support the sales team with product knowledge Preparing monthly sales margin reports Analysing product group sales Assisting with trade exhibitions Represent the company at industry seminars Be available to work on Marketing Manager on projects as required.

Reporting to the Materials Director you will work in a small team purchasing electronic components, setting up contracts with suppliers and working with the production team in order to meet company stock level targets. The successful candidate will have • Experience within an electronics manufacturing environment. • In depth knowledge of the UK and International electronics market • Strong supplier relationship management experience • Experience of implementing cost reduction programmes • Strong communication and negotiation skills. • Excellent IT and system skills • A willingness to travel as required

Job Functions: • • • • • •

Ensure there are always sufficient components in stock to satisfy the demands of production Proactively implement and improve materials and procurement systems Reduce overall component costs Optimise stock levels Develop KPI’s for suppliers Manage consigned material

A full clean driving licence is a prerequisite The ideal candidate will have University or college education. A background within the electronics, engineering or lighting industry is preferable and the candidate must have an appreciation for technical products. Strong computer literacy is required, particularly with MS EXCEL and PowerPoint and these will be tested during evaluation process.

Please forward your CV and covering letter to: Sue Dunmill, Mackwell Electronics, Vigo Place, Aldridge, WS9 8UG or email to

Features for October Lighting Journal How complicated can it be? Hoare Lea on installing its own control system Part-night lighting: one council’s experience

R the egiste r fo UK ligh ’s grea r tin te luxl g even st ive. t



20 - 21 November 2013 | Earls Court, London

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Register now for your FREE entry pass: LuxLive | Earls Court | London | 20 - 21 November 2013 Contact: T +44 (0)1905 724734

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What’s new WE-EF


The RMC320 is a post-top luminaire with the same features as the company’s other LED street and amenity fittings. The lens system provides a choice of beam distributions depending on the lighting task: S60, S65 and S70 for side-throw distribution, as well as A60 and R65 for forward throw. The system features the company’s One LED Concept (OLC) with multi-layer technology and has an 18-LED array. It features connected ratings of up to 54W, an output of up to 6236lm and two colour temperatures (3000K and 4000K). With a slim profile and a variety of mounting accessories, the RMC is particularly suitable for residential areas or historic urban settings.

Flos 2620

Ron Gilad’s chandelier design for Flos plays with viewpoint to create its effect. The 2620 – it has 2620 LEDs – looks like a series of random ever-decreasing circles from most angles but from below takes shape as a perfect flower.

CLD Distribution LED range

Lamp specialist CLD Distribution has launched a range of architectural, commercial and industrial LED fittings all featuring Osram components. The range includes LED tubes, panels, high-bays, downlights and flex products, as well as a whole series of retrofit LED sources. Sussex-based CLD has a background in the professional entertainment and leisure industry, but in the past three years has moved into architectural LED lighting. The range is being manufactured exclusively for the company under the supervision of its own engineering and design team. The LED panels fit directly into existing 600mm suspended ceilings and recesses and weigh under 1.5kg. The 100W high bay fittings are a direct replacement for metal halide and sodium high bays, while the downlights come in three sizes and a variety of colour temperatures.

Lighting Journal September 2013




E7 LED range

Etap has added a new linear series to its LED range. The E7 has been created for such as industrial halls, warehouses, sports centres, supermarkets and The fitting, suspended or ceiling mounted, has a light output up

Advanced LED Technology Clarius Duo

The Clarius Duo range of high-power LED illuminators for CCTV have an adjustable angle feature allowing the user to alter the angle of illumination to match the camera’s field of view. IP67rated and with a self-cleaning lens, they can be mounted at a distance of up to 300m. The illuminators each come with a dedicated intelligent switch mode power supply unit.

large spaces public buildings. to 7750lm a metre (100 lm/W). The patented surface structure of the lens is designed to reduce glare with minimum loss. Driver, wiring and optics form one slimline, integrated unit, and the anodised aluminium body contributes to heat dissipation. The E7 is available in several lengths – 1m, 2m or 4m – and fittings can be installed individually or in a line. There is a choice of single or double rows of LEDs, and the number of LEDs a metre is also flexible. Options also include three types of lenses: wide, medium and narrow angle. For asymmetric light distribution, the mediumangle lens is combined with a reflector.

Doxis Lighting Factory


FlatLED, available in the UK from Vivid Lighting, is an ultra-thin 13W LED downlight with a 1400lm output. Based on a gimbal system, the fitting has two diecast parts: the first houses the LEDs and can tilt 55 degrees, while the second rotates 360 degrees and is designed to hide the heatsink at all times and in any position. The downlight has a choice of 18, 28 and 37-degree beams, and colour temperature is 3000K (Ra80). With a 6mm frontplate, it comes in matt white, grey or black.

Lighting Journal September 2013


Independent lighting design

Two sides of the creative coin Are lighting designers and engineers so very different? asks Graham Festenstein


ne of the things that attracts me to this business is the diversity of what we do. In essence we all have a similar aim and starting point but the journey we take to get there can be different dependent on our training and background. Or so we think. I recently had the privilege of being accepted into the institution as a member and to register as a chartered engineer through the ILP. As someone without a formal engineering education I had to prepare a technical report, an experience I found both interesting and useful. First, it was interesting to see in black and white just how much ‘engineering’ I was applying to my work. I have always considered sound engineering design and best practice to be important, and presenting my design and specification in the format of a technical report confirmed this for me. Secondly, as a ‘designer’ I included within my report context and research into the wider issues surrounding the project I had chosen to write about, which broadened the content beyond a conventional technical report. Surprisingly, to me at least, this proved a little controversial as the membership panel considering my application had mixed feelings about material of this type being included. It is sometimes difficult to demonstrate the social and human issues that affect our work in as objective a way as we would like. Even when applying solid research techniques and sound statistical analysis, many of the things we are dealing with do not allow clear-cut, evidence-based decisions to be made, and some interpretation is required. As a consequence the ideas discussed can be perceived by some as a little woolly. I believe, however, that designing schemes in spaces for people to inhabit means we have to address these issues, and it seems that in the final analysis I was able to convince the panel as such that this was legitimate background that had informed my work. While arguably we are all designers, I am going to use the term ‘designer’ to signify those of us who have come to lighting from non-engineering disciplines. I understand that this may be annoying to some engineers, for which I apologise. However, I could not think of a more appropriate

Lighting Journal September 2013

term to use within the context of this opinion piece. Another surprising, but not exactly unexpected, response to my registration was from one of my design colleagues. He felt that too close an association as an engineer could damage his professional practice as it would imply to his clients a lack of creativity, even though as a practice they deliver high standards of engineering design as a matter of course. He maintained that many of his clients came to him because he was a designer and not an engineer, and that they would think twice if he described himself otherwise. Sadly, this prejudice has been compounded over the years by the negative response designers have sometimes received from engineers they have worked with on projects. Many designers, myself included, who have been in

Independent lighting design the business for a number of years will have at least one story relating to a bad experience where an engineer was dissatisfied with our seemingly unconventional approach. As frustrating as these experiences have been there is always another side to the coin. As anyone can call themselves a lighting designer there is no guarantee that those who do have the skills and experience to deliver schemes that are buildable and maintainable, and sadly some do deliver poor schemes bringing us all into disrepute; clearly exposure to these individuals will try the patience of any designer or engineer who works to higher standards. This is why membership of organisations such as the ILP or the International Association of Lighting Designers is so important to us and why the IALD’s development of a proposed accreditation system is such a good idea (see p36 Lighting Journal July/August). My experience, however, is that the profession has moved on and in recent years my involvement with engineers has mostly been very positive and welcoming. The engineering professions, while necessarily somewhat pedantic, are certainly not closed to new ideas and open discussion. I would argue that the issue in question is more about good and bad design and the application of best practice than any real differential between our approaches.


Engineering does not imply lack of creativity or vice versa, and in fact I would suggest the opposite is true – good engineering is creative in itself and facilitates creative design. Likewise a good engineer knows well who they are designing for and will take into account the broader issues of sustainability, community and social politics, even if this is not expressed in the same way as a designer would. Not all individuals will have both skill sets, and it is not necessary or desirable for us to be completely proficient in both as cross-disciplinary collaboration can and does fill that gap. There will always be individuals who excel in one area or another for which it would make no sense to muddy the waters, and to do so might even stifle debate and hold back change and development. Whether we call ourselves designers or engineers we are not as different as perhaps we once thought. Our motivations are the same and the issue is really about quality, professionalism and being able to demonstrate competence in our chosen fields. Following my registration with the Engineering Council I will not suddenly start to describe myself as an engineer rather than a designer. However, I am delighted to be able to back up my years of experience in lighting design with the credentials that this provides.

Designers of The Journal

01536 527297





Kiwa CMT Testing Non-destructive testing at the root, base, swaged joint and full visual inspection of steel lighting columns. Techniques employed include the unique Relative Loss of Section meter and Swaged Joint Analyser in addition to the traditional Magnetic Particle inspection and Ultra Sonics where appropriate. Unit 5 Prime Park Way Prime Enterprise Park Derby DE1 3QB Tel 01332 383333 Fax 01332 602607




Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email: Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories Contact: Kevin Doherty Commercial Director If you would like to switch to Tofco Technology contact us NOW!

7 Drum Mains Park, Orchardton, Cumbernauld, G68 9LD Tel: 01236 458000 Fax: 01236 860555 email: steve.odonnell@maclean. Web site:


LUCY LIGHTING Lucy Zodion manufactures and supplies a complete range of Electrical/ Electronic products for Streetlighting: • Vizion CMS

Specialist in high quality decorative and festive lighting. A full range of equipment is available for direct purchase or hire including unique firework lights, column motifs, cross road displays, festoon lighting and various tree lighting systems. Our services range from supply only of materials, hire, design and or total management of schemes. More information is available from: Head Office City Illuminations Ltd Griffin House, Ledson Road, Roundthorn Ind Est Manchester M23 9GP Tel: 0161 969 5767 Fax: 0161 945 8697 Email:

Business info: Specialist Stockist and Distributors of Road Lighting, Hazardous Area, Industrial/ Commercial/ Decorative lighting. We also provide custom-built distribution panels, interior and exterior lighting design using CAD.


• Feeder Pillars • Pre-Wired Pillars • Photocells • Cutouts/Isolators

Meter Administrator

• Electronic Ballasts

Power Data Associates Ltd are the leading meter administrator in Great Britain. We achieve accurate energy calculations assuring you of a cost effective quality service. Offering independent consultancy advice to ensure correct inventory coding, unmetered energy forecasting and impact of market developments.

• Cutouts/isolators • Lighting Controls Lucy Zodion Ltd, Station Road, Sowerby Bridge, HX6 3AF tel: 01422 317337 Email:

01525 862690 Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4HR

EXTERIOR LIGHTING Designers and manufacturers of street and amenity lighting.


Manufacturers of Lighting Columns, Floodlighting & Luminaires. Specialists in the design of Lighting Schemes for sports, car parks, docks & airports. Standard Lighting Columns and Lanterns available from stock at competitive prices. Charles House, Great Amwell, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 9TA Tel: 01920 860600 Fax: 01920 485915

319 Long Acre Nechells Birmingham UK B7 5JT t: +44(0)121 678 6700 f: +44(0)121 678 6701 e:

candela L I G H T

E-mail: Website:



LUCY LIGHTING Lucy Zodion manufactures and supplies a complete range of Electrical/Electronic products for Streetlighting: • Vizion CMS • Feeder Pillars • Pre-Wired Pillars • Photocells • Cutouts/Isolators • Electronic Ballasts • Cutouts/isolators • Lighting Controls Lucy Zodion Ltd, Station Road, Sowerby Bridge, HX6 3AF tel: 01422 317337 Email:


Holscot Fluoroplastics Ltd Fluorosafe shatter resistant covers – Manufactured from high molecular weight Fluoroplastic material whose lifespan exceeds all maximum quoted lifespans for any fluorescent Lamps. Holscot supply complete covered lamps or sleeves only for self fitting.



CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality • AutoluxLighting Standards • Lighting Design Techniques • Light Pollution • Tailored Courses please ring Venues by arrangement

HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD Suppliers of a wide range of quality light measuring and photometric equipment. HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD PO Box 210 Havant, PO9 9BT Tel: 07900 571022 E-mail: enquiries@


Contact Nick Smith Alma Park Road, Alma Park Industrial Estate, Grantham, Lincs, NG31 9SE Contact: Martin Daff, Sales Director Tel: 01476 574771 Fax: 01476 563542 Email:

Nick Smith Associates Ltd 36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR t: 01246 229 444 f: 01246 270 465 e : w:

Consultants Lorraine Calcott IEng MILP MSLL MIoD It Does Ltd Milton Keynes Business Centre, Foxhunter Drive, Linford Wood, Milton Keynes, MK14 6GD

T: 01908 698869 M: 07990 962692 E: W:

These pages give details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services. Listing is included on main ILP website with logo (

Carl Gardner

Alan Jaques

Alistair Scott

CSG Lighting Consultancy Ltd

Sector Leader – Exterior Lighting

Designs for Lighting Ltd

12, Banner Buildings, 74-84 Banner Street, London EC1Y 8JU

Broadgate House, Broadgate,Beeston, Nottingham, NG9 2HF

BA (Hons) MSc (Arch) FILP

T: 02077 248543 E: W:

Professional award winning international lighting designer Lorraine Calcott creates dynamic original lighting schemes from a sustainable and energy management perspective. Helping you meet your energy targets, reduce bottom line cost and increase your ‘Green’ corporate image whilst still providing the wow factor with your interior, exterior or street lighting project.

Architectural and urban lighting design; specialist in urban lighting plans; expert witness in planning and light nuisance cases; training courses for local authorities on the prevention of light nuisance; marketing and product development consultancy for lighting manufacturers.

Mark Chandler

Stephen Halliday



MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd

Principal Engineer WSP

43 Vine Crescent, Reading Berkshire, RG30 3LT


T: 0118 3215636, M: 07838 879 604, F: 0118 3215636 E: W:

The Victoria,150-182 The Quays, Salford, Manchester M50 3SP

T: 0161 886 2532 E: W:

IEng MILP Atkins

T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 F: +44 (0)115 9574901 E: The consultancy offers a professional exterior lighting service covering all aspects of the sector, including design, energy management, environmental impact assessments and the development of lighting strategies and policies. It also has an extensive track record for PFI projects and their indepedent certification.

BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MIMechE 17 City Business Centre, Hyde Street, Winchester SO23 7TA

T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E: W: Professional lighting design consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

Anthony Smith Are you an individual member of the ILP? Do you offer lighting consultancy? Make sure you are listed here

IEng FILP Director

Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd Lighting & Electrical Consultants, Dukes Way, Teesside Industrial Estate, Thornaby Cleveland TS17 9LT

T: 01642 766114 F: 01642 765509 E: Specialist in all forms of exterior lighting including; Motorway, Major & Minor Highway Schemes, Architectural Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Open Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Strategies, EIA’s, Planning Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.

MMA Lighting Consultancy is an independent company specialising in Exterior Lighting and Electrical Design work. We are based in the South of England and operate on a national scale delivering street lighting and lighting design solutions.

Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways. PFI technical advisor and certifier support. HERS registered site personnel.

John Conquest

Philip Hawtrey

Malcolm Mackness

Nick Smith

Technical Director

Lighting Consultancy and Design Services Ltd

Nick Smith Associates Limited



4way Consulting Ltd


Waters Green House, Sunderland Street, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 6LF

Severn House, Lime Kiln Close, Stoke Gifford, Bristol, BS34 8SQ

T: 01625 348349 F: 01625 610923 M: 07526 419248 E: W:

T: 0117 9062300, F: 0117 9062301 M: 07789 501091 E: W:

Unit 9, The Chase, John Tate Road, Foxholes Business Park, Hertford SG13 7NN

T: 07825 843524 E: W: Professional services providing design and technical support for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways and associated infrastructure. Expert surveys and environmental impact assessments regarding the effect of lighting installations and their effect on the community.

T/F: 01452 417392 E: W:

36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR

T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E: W:

Allan Howard

Tony Price

Alan Tulla

Technical Director (Lighting)

Capita Symonds

Alan Tulla Lighting

Colin Fish WSP

43 Old Cheltenham Road, Longlevens, Gloucester GL2 0AN


Road, amenity, floodlighting and cable design. Tunnel and mast lighting. Policy and environmental impact investigations.

Widely experienced professional technical consultancy services in exterior lighting and electrical installations, providing sustainable and innovative solutions, environmental assessments, ‘Invest to Save’ strategies, lighting policies, energy procurement, inventory management and technical support. PFI Technical Advisor, Designer and Independent Certifier.


BA (Hons) IEng FILP

Specialist exterior lighting design Consultant. Private or adoptable lighting and cable network design for highways, car parks, area lighting, lighting impact assessments, expert witness. CPD accredited training in lighting design, Lighting Reality, AutoCAD and other bespoke lighting courses arranged on request.

4way Consulting provides exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialises in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector (including PFI/DBFO).


Call Julie on 01536 527295 for details

BEng(Hons) CEng FILP WSP

WSP House, 70 Chancery Lane, London WC2A 1AF

T: 07827 306483 E: W: Professional exterior lighting and electrical services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice regarding energy and carbon reduction strategies, lighting efficiency legislation, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations. Registered competent designers and HERS registered site personnel.

BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Capita Symonds House, Wood Street, East Grinstead, West Sussex RH19 1UU

T: 01342 327161 F: 01342 315927 E: W: Chartered engineer leading a specialist lighting team within a multi-disciplinary environment. All aspects of exterior and public realm lighting, especially roads, tunnels, amenity and sports. Planning advice, environmental assessment, expert witness, design, technical advice, PFIs, independent certification.


12 Minden Way, Winchester, Hampshire SO22 4DS

T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E: W: Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Specialising in public realm, landscaping and building facades. Site surveys and design verification of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Visual impact assessments and reports for planning applications. Preparation of nightscape strategies for urban and rural environments. CPDs and lighting training.

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.

Diary 2013 11-12



ILP Professional Lighting Summit 2013 Venue: Thistle Hotel, Glasgow Contact:

SLL Masterclass: Energy reduction in quality lit environments Location: Hippodrome, Birmingham

Fundamental Lighting Electrical Course (One-day course on basic electrical practices and principles for outdoor lighting schemes and other electrical street furniture Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby Prices as above Contact:




Lux Europa: 12th European Lighting Conference Location: Krakow, Poland Contact:



New British Standard for Lighting BS5489 Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby ILP member: £195 + VAT Contact:



LED Professional Symposium and Expo Location: Bregenz, Austria



IALD Enlighten Americas (On educating lighting designers) Venue: Hyatt Regency, Montreal, Canada




New British Standard for Lighting BS5489 Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby Price as above Contact:



Hong Kong International Lighting Fair Venue: HK Convention and Exhibition Centre


October (-2nd November) PLDC Venue: Bella Center, Copenhagen



SLL Masterclass: Energy reduction in quality lit environments Location: Bristol



Light Middle East Venue: Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre, UAE

HEA Annual Conference and Exhibition Venue: Celtic Manor Hotel, Newport, Wales




Lighting and Energy Efficiency Mid Career College Venue: CIBSE, London SW1





Fundamental Lighting Course (One-day course on basics of light, lighting design and maintenance) Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby ILP member: £195 + VAT Non-member: £340 + VAT Contact:




Chase the Dark (IALD global guerilla lighting event) Follow on Twitter at #IALDchasedark



LuxLive Venue: Earls Court 2, London



Young Lighter of the Year Award Final Venue: Earls Court 2 (LuxLive)



Lux Awards Venue: Westminster Park Plaza, London SE1



Lighting Legislation (including daylight) Mid Career College Venue: CIBSE, London SW12



SLL Masterclass: Energy reduction in quality lit environments Location: BDP, Manchester

How to specify office lighting Mid Career College Venue: CIBSE, London SW1

24-26 September: LED Professional Symposium and Expo, Bregenz, Austria

Bregenz Festival Tosca


Full details of all regional events can be found at:

Lj sept 13  
Lj sept 13