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JOURNAL The publication for all lighting professionals

A shade more popular: why blue light? The power shift: IDNOs and the implications Interest-free finance for energy saving


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Lighting Journal November/December 2013 03 EDITORIAL





POPULAR Colin Ball and Laura Kaleva on


their initial research into the extensive use of blue light


Two recent, very different projects that feature blue light. Why? we asked the designers



Craig Mellis explains how Salix not-for-profit finance works to fund energy efficiency projects in the public sector



Alan Jaques looks at the rising popularity of IDNOs and the implications for local authorities


Lighting a rigorous coastal stretch of the A55, known as the North Wales Expressway

Future concept: a design studio’s latest exploration of renewable energy and how it could shape the urban environment


Research: why do we need it and where should it be directed? Carl Gardner reports on the latest ILP PIP discussion forum


In the latest of an occasional series looking at how the ILP operates, Richard Frost outlines how the council works


YLP column: Tom Baynham discusses whether education or experience matters most




Sharon Stammers, organiser of the Light School initiative at the Surface Design Show, on the first-ever lighting category in the show’s annual awards


More products and the pick of the conference programme at this year’s show

COVER PICTURE Visual for Tawaramappu River


installation in Hokkaido. See p14

Lighting Journal November/December 2013


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Editorial Volume 78 No 10 November/December 2013 President Mark Johnson EngTech AMILP Chief Executive Richard G Frost BA (Cantab) DPA FIAM Editor Jill Entwistle Email: Editorial Board Tom Baynham Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL IALD John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Eddie Henry MILP MCMI MBA Alan Jaques IEng MILP Keith Lewis Nigel Parry IEng FILP Advertising Manager Julie Bland Tel: 01536 527295 Email:



he use of colour, especially for exterior lighting schemes is, if not controversial, at least constantly debated. And sometimes controversial. I remember the howls of anguish that greeted

the scheme for the Art Deco Hoover Building on the A40 out of London some years ago. Bathed in an acid green, inspired by a prevalent colour in the period in which it was built, to say the least it divided opinion. That was, of course, in the days before LEDs kicked off a chromatic revolution. Their scale, controllability and ubiquity has inevitably spawned an indiscriminate and often ill-judged use of colour. Coloured light pollution and the possibility of controlling its use have been discussed in this magazine before and will certainly be again. But what Colin Ball and Laura Kadeva of BDP have lighted on is the extensive use of the colour blue. They have set out to research why, and revealed their initial findings at the recent PLDC conference (see p10). But perhaps we should leave the last words on coloured lighting to to Derek Phillips, the man who blazed the

Published by Matrix Print Consultants on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 Fax: 01788 540145 E-mail: Website: Produced by

trail for independent lighting design in the UK and who sadly died as we were going to press (see p6). ‘In the wrong hands the emotive variety of the colour now available can be disturbing – or, as Mies van der Rohe said in another context, “I find your variety very monotonous”.’

Jill Entwistle

Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Unit C, Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 Email: Website: © ILP 2013 The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.

Lighting Journal November/December 2013



Government bill lays path for EMR

The government’s Energy Bill is expected to receive Royal Assent in December. The framework bill lays the path for Electricity Market Reforms (EMR) which the government hopes will attract £100bn of investment in new infrastructure. Consultation will continue to determine the best way to apply the mechanisms it has devised for EMR, leading to secondary legislation in 2014. Reforms set out in the bill are Feed-in Tariffs with Contracts for Difference (CfD) and a Capacity Market to be created through a series of auctions starting next year. CfD will pay a minimum price for low-carbon generation and run alongside the existing Renewables Obligation from April 2017. These will be supported by the existing Carbon Price Floor tax; the Emissions Performance Standard, a regulatory measure that limits emissions from new

fossil fuel power stations, and incentives to consumers to reduce energy use. A draft EMR delivery plan was released in July for consultation. A consultation on exempting certain businesses from the cost of CfD closed at the end of August. EMR will drive energy costs up in order to fund the transition to low-carbon generation. Energy provider nPower says CfD will add £5-10 per megawatt hour by 2020. The Capacity Market is expected to add as much as £15 extra per megawatt hour by 2018 but should help secure supply. However, Electricity Demand Reduction (EDR) will provide incentives for businesses to reduce energy consumption.

LoLEG addresses changes in unmetered supply market The London Lighting Engineers Group (LoLEG) has initiated a framework contract with a common specification and education programme, following its analysis of how the recent changes in the unmetered supply market may effect local authorities in the London and South Eastern area. In October last year LoLEG set up a project team to investigate the recent changes that allow private companies to carry out works on the host DNO’s network under

the banner of Competition in Connections. The team, made up of representatives from London boroughs, Transport for London and Highway Authorities from outside London, carried out a detailed market analysis and compiled a business case with a number of options to move the project forward. ‘This first step addresses the issues that were highlighted from the market analyses,’ said Daniel Robinson, senior lighting engineer of the Asset Management Business Unit at

On the light track A type of glowing path is being trialled at a park in Cambridge. The particles that comprise Starpath, developed by British company Pro-Teq Surfacing, absorb ultraviolet radiation during the day and release a gentle blue light at night. The particles are spread on hard surfaces

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

such as concrete, tarmac or timber and then given a protective covering. Hamish Scott, Starpath’s inventor, said that he has been developing the product for three to four years. ‘It is not intended as a complete replacement for street lighting but it would be useful in developing countries where they

Southwark Council, who heads the team. To date the project team has set up a working partnership with the Eastern Shires Purchasing Organisation whIch will provide all procurement-related support for the project. The aim is to have the contract up and running by 1 April 2014. For more details go to LoLEG ICPYoutube page: RbHhyk6yOhJctu6xstA don’t have power,’ he said. ‘It glows gently so there is no light pollution and because it uses UV it does not need sunshine to work.’ The product adjusts to natural light, according to Scott. ‘If the sky is lighter, it won’t release as much luminosity – it adjusts accordingly. It’s almost like it has a mind of its own.’ The path is being tested on a historic pathway that was due for repair in Christ’s Pieces, a park in Cambridge. ‘The understanding is that if it shocks the public too much it will come up again,’ said Scott. The trial is testing a mix of product samples, mix ratios and application techniques. It does not require the existing surface to be removed. The surface is nonreflective, making it suitable for cyclepaths, and has anti-slip properties. At Christ’s Pieces the path is used by pedestrians and cyclists during the day and night. The test pathway measures 150sqm and took half an hour to spray. The surface was ready for use in under four hours, the company says.



LENI finally confirmed for Part L LENI (lighting energy numerical indicator) will be included in the next Part L of the Building Regulations to be introduced in April 2014. Final confirmation came at a BRE event in October to outline the key changes. It was widely believed that this would be the case following intense industry pressure to introduce LENI as a more meaningful measure of energy usage based on a systems approach. Measuring lighting performance in kWh/ sqm/year, LENI takes account of lighting power; use of daylight and the use of occupancy and illuminance controls.

However, as was also suspected, the existing measure of luminaire efficiency was retained, with an increase in minimum luminaire initial efficacy (without controls) from 55 to 60 luminaire lumens per circuit watt, and additional control factors introduced to reflect the greater range of available control systems. This had led to a number of criticisms of loss of clarity and possibly counterproductive effects. ‘It was hoped that simplification and clarity would accompany the inclusion of LENI,’ said John Gorse, technical marketing manager of Philips Lighting. ‘However, in retaining the technology performance

metrics in the documents, there is a risk that a lot of time will need to be spent interpreting and defining exactly how to apply lighting correctly within the Part L framework.’ The BRE says the overall impact of the changes will be to require new non-domestic buildings to reduce CO2 emissions by a further nine per cent across the build mix compared with 2010 and to strengthen standards for specific nondomestic building services. A full analysis of the changes and their implications will appear in the January issue of Lighting Journal

New Messe Frankfurt exhibition underlines Indian lighting growth

Wolverhampton experiments with light festival Wolverhampton took its first steps towards running a regular light festival over a weekend in October with an inaugural event called To The Light – Enchanted City. The event included fireworks and Diwalithemed street performances but in addition, large-format projection and video artist Ross Ashton of The Projection Studio created two large animations on the front of local landmarks. The 15m-tall images were beamed on to the 1920s Barclays Bank building in St Peter’s Square (pictured) and an entrance to the University of Wolverhampton. The event, a cross-city collaboration, attracted around 8000 people to the city centre on each night. ‘The projection images and tone completely changed the perception and atmosphere of the city,’ said Ian Bustin of Wolverhampton City Council. ‘Children, families and young people reclaimed the city centre as a place to socialise and the festival reawakened a real sense of local pride and ambition.’ There are potentially plans to make the event more permanent. ‘We are analysing it, and if we do it again we will have a longer lead time and it could be even more spectacular,’ said a spokesperson for Wolverhampton Partnership, the Local Strategic Partnership.

Elcoma, India’s Electric Lamp and Component Manufacturers Association, has joined forces with Messe Frankfurt to organise Light India 2014 in the Indian capital of New Delhi in September next year. The move reflects double-digit growth in the country’s lighting industry over the past five years, with similar prospects for 2014/2015. ‘Modernisation of airports, impressive increase in power generation capacity and distribution, massive road building and urban development has boosted growth of the lighting industry,’ according to Elcoma. The Indian lighting market is estimated at INR 96bn (£0.97bn) and has been growing at a compound rate of 12-15 per cent for the past two years. The fastest growing sectors are hospitality, retail, public and residential. ‘The lighting sector is more vibrant than ever before, especially with the government’s ongoing city projects and massive rural electrification programmes,’ said Raj Manek, managing director of Messe Frankfurt Trade Fairs India. ‘The Indian lighting market is also on a clear transition from traditional lighting technologies to LEDs,’ added Elcoma secretary general Shyam Sujansays. ‘Aggressively eroding prices and government incentives are indicative of the prolific growth in domestic demand for LEDs.’

Making an entrance visible Improved lighting in doorways would help people with impaired vision who find leaving and entering their homes difficult, according to a report by Kingston University for sight loss charity the Thomas Pocklington Trust. The report, Making an Entrance, suggests 15 ways to make doorways to homes less of a struggle for people with visual impairment, using colour, contrast and lighting. When 91 people with sight loss were questioned, 74 per cent said that they had difficulty adjusting to lighting changes between the exterior and interior of the entrance and 41 per cent found handles and locks hard to see.

More than four in five (84 per cent) said that greater contrast might help them find the keyhole in the door. One third wanted a stronger colour on their front door and 43 per cent thought contrasting the door against the door frame would be helpful. The report says, however, that while the importance of contrast is recognised in recommendations on accessibility, guidance showing how to use it is not easily available and many professionals are not aware of its vital role.Similarly, information on new forms of lighting is not always accessed and applied.

Lighting Journal November/December 2013



Road lighting drives LED take up, says report Road and street lighting are driving LED adoption, according to a report by US analyst Research and Markets. Worldwide LED luminaire revenue in this sector will reach $435m (£272m) in 2013 and peak at $516M by 2016, fuelled by the increased need for energy efficiency, according to the company’s LED in Road and Street Lighting Report 2013. ‘Growth will be driven firstly by tunnel lighting, and then relayed into highway, road, residential and amenity lighting starting in 2014. By 2017, market size should decline because of a decreasing replacement market,’ the report says. Meanwhile, the UK lighting market is set to return to pre-recession levels by 2015, according to another report by MTW Research called Lighting Market Research and Analysis UK 2013-2017. LED lighting will generate sales in excess of £700m in the next four years, it says. Developments in optoelectronics and diode technology continue to result in LED lighting gaining share from other lighting product sectors. MTW cautions, though, that counterfeit products entering the UK market could dampen value growth in 2014 and beyond, particularly LED modules.

The report is based on financial data from more than 350 lighting manufacturers and retailers, according to MTW. LED in Road and Street Lighting Report 2013 costs £4963 and is available from: Lighting Market Research and Analysis UK 2013-2017 (MTW) costs £565 and is available from:

Zhaga adopts dimming standard The Zhaga Consortium, the industry group developing specifications for interchangeable LED light sources, has adopted the US-based National Electrical Manufacturers Association’s LED dimming standard SSL 7A-2013. Published earlier this year, SSL 7A sets requirements for compatibility between a forward phase-cut or leading edge dimmer with one or more dimmable LED light engines. It is the only available specification covering a two-wire, mains-powered, phase-control dimming interface. NEMA says that although simple phase-cut SSL dimmers are covered by an earlier standard, products that include digital features required a new specification for compatibility. SSL 7A received input from companies that are members of Zhaga and NEMA’s Lighting Systems Division, as well as from other standards bodies, European manufacturers and IC suppliers.

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

Derek Phillips, lighting design pioneer, dies As the Journal was going to press, the sad news was announced that pioneer British lighting designer Derek Phillips had died at the age of 90. Phillips, a member of the ILP and fellow of CIBSE, established the first independent lighting practice in the UK. Originally an architect, he

qualified in Liverpool, and then got a Commonwealth fund fellowship to study daylighting and architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He established his practice, Derek Phillips Associates in 1958. Early commissions included Westminster Abbey, the Foreign Office and the Mandarin Hotel in Hong Kong. Lighting gradually took over from architecture and the practice became DPA Lighting Consultants. Officially retiring in 1993 at the age of 70, Phillips continued to be active in the lighting design community, authoring four publications on lighting design published by the Architectural Press. In 2009 he received the IALD’s greatest honour, its Lifetime Achievement Award, which recognises true pioneers and visionaries in the lighting design field. ‘As a professional architect and lighting designer he set a high standard of what it is to be a professional,’ pioneer US lighting consultant, one-time collaborator, and friend Howard Brandston said of him. ‘A more brilliant career is hard to imagine.’ A fuller tribute will appear in the January issue

News in brief The ILP has formed a partnership with a key Chinese event.
 LED CHINA 2014 will take place from 23-26 February 2014 at the China Import and Export Fair Pazhou Complex, Area B, in Guangzhou. Nearly 1200 exhibitors are expected to take part in five specialised sections occupying 80,000sqm. 
As an important part of the fair, the LED lighting sector is projected to draw more than 800 lighting companies presenting the latest LED indoor and outdoor lighting products. The electricity industry has accepted a review of charge codes following recommendations by the Unmetered Supplies Users Group (UMSUG). The recommendation was based on load trials on street lighting in the field conducted on behalf of Elexon on five types of sox and son lamps and its review of the circuit wattages. The Charge Codes should be updated from 1 April 2014 to the new circuit watt ratings.

Particular development

Although we are being bombarded billions of times a second by atoms and molecules in the air, they can’t be seen or felt. Until recently. Sort of. Dr David Glowacki from the School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, has created a computer system that displays people as projections of light and sound, allowing the invisible energy in and around people to become visible. He uses quantum equations of motion to simulate the movement of atoms and molecules using a supercomputer. These simulations are then projected on to large screens. A set of 3D imaging cameras maps the position and movement of people interacting with the exhibit – interpreting them as an energy field that the particles are attracted or repelled by. Known as danceroom Spectroscopy (dS), since its inception a couple of years ago, it has been experienced by more than 60,000 people at venues ranging from the Shambala arts festival to the Big Bang science and engineering fair. It was also selected to be part of the London 2012 Cultural Olympiad. ‘I do not know that I have ever seen a project which appears to have such universal appeal, both on account of its scientific rigour and its remarkably elegant beauty,’ said Professor Nick Norman, head of the School of Chemistry.

Adjusting hospital lighting can ease patients’ pain, according to a small US study published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing. Esther Bernhofer and researchers of the Cleveland Clinic studied 40 patients in moderate to severe pain whose sleep patterns were being disrupted by being in low light around the clock. Their moods were assessed over a 72-hour period using questionnaires and their pain levels were judged by their medical notes. The team said further research would be needed to find out whether ‘doses’ of light could be used to reduce sleep disturbance and distress, including pain. The SLL has published a new Factfile on the effect of mechanical cooling on lamp colour and efficiency in office lighting. Factfile 11 can be downloaded free from the SLL website ( under Publications. Software company Yotta DCL has acquired local authority service management systems firm Mayrise Systems to create a new enterprise called Yotta. ‘Outwardly very little will change,’ said chief executive Nick Smee. ‘We will continue to operate out of our headquarters here in Leamington Spa as well as our offices in Stonehouse, Gloucestershire.’

Smart street lighting company Telensa achieved sales of £8m and pre-tax profits of £1.2m for the year ending 31 March 2013, showing 20 per cent growth over 12 months.

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

LIGHT Minded... Lighting is in a state of flux and now is not the time to pull in

opposite directions, argues Jon Hall, chairman ILP Midland Region It’s all part of life’s rich tapestry, as my mother used to say. ‘Everything will work out in the end’ or ‘Things happen for a reason’. When returning home at two in the morning after losing a crucial and intense five-hour Badminton match, it wasn’t the kind of helpful comment I was looking for all those years ago. I knew what she was trying to do but, in all honesty, I never believed in those sayings because I always felt, and still do, that you have to make things happen for those things to work out in the end. History is replete with events where it worked out in the end, but only because of the continued efforts and sacrifices of men and women working hard for a common goal. In respect to our industry, we have witnessed many changes over the years, some good, some bad, and no doubt numerous opinions abound as to whether we should have gone this way or that. But the most striking aspect in my opinion is the ability of all the various professional organisations and trade associations to give the distinct appearance of pulling in opposite directions – albeit if they don’t mean to. Considering we’re all trying to do the right thing by our respective members, it’s really quite bizarre. With this in mind, is it time to rethink all the long-term strategies and look at what the goals really are? It wasn’t so long ago that concerted efforts were made to bring our professional organisations closer together, but sadly this faltered. Whatever the reasons and disappointments may have been, the fact is that government will no doubt want to relook at new PFI models at some point, perhaps smaller more manageable ones, who knows, but look at it again they will and when the current crop of columns begins to fail, who are they going to call? Government seeks opinion and needs a cohesive lighting industry advising appropriately, in a balanced and measured way, so the correct guidance can be provided. If we want to have any measure

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

of influence over the future of our industry, the professional organisations and trade associations alike will need to reassess their strengths and weaknesses, their values and drivers, and begin working together better. Despite the complexities of making such statements a reality, naive even, you’d think we’d have half a chance when you consider the cross pollination of people who are members of the various institutions and commercial bodies at the same time. Our industry is in a period of flux and the recession has hit everyone, with relentless effects on our local authorities, which ultimately filter down to all of us. We’re many years away from seeing any real end to it despite the rhetoric and spin around the 0.7 per cent increase in our economy. The lighting industry is surprisingly small in the grand scheme of things, and yet we cover the entire nation. You only have to fly in at night to see the 8 million-odd beautiful glittering luminaires lighting up our streets to realise how big it really is. The infrastructure needed to manage such vastness is mindboggling, along with equally vast amounts of energy required to power our networks, and in the middle of all this vastness is the need for standards and regulations. When I joined the ILE/ILP I wanted to make a difference, to prove things could be done if we made the effort, that if we chose to work together despite reasoned differences, there might just be no limit to what we could achieve. There are, however, some success stories where strong links have been forged from cooperation between professional organisations and trade associations, so we should not get too depressed. If, indeed, these successes are the foundations of a more synchronised approach, then we should champion this and take it to the next level. Whatever your thoughts are on this, change is inevitable and it will either be controlled or uncontrolled. The clock is ticking. What do you choose?



LIGHT Hearted Elizabeth Thomas, VP highways and infrastructure, still hasn’t solved light’s mystery Whenever I failed to understand something when I was younger, I was referred to as a tube light. The joke was that I was slow to understand and even slower to react, just like the old-fashioned tube light. But that was in the days of switch starting. Now it is all instantaneous. Light is at once obvious and mysterious. It was this mysterious aspect of light that caught my attention when I was reading engineering. I was told that you can’t see electricity but the effects can always be felt. My scientific mind loved to play with the prisms, lenses and mirrors. But I also loved natural lighting phenomena: a rainbow always looks beautiful. I can never get enough of the beauty of natural lighting which is at its best at dusk and dawn. On a full moon night when the sky is clear the quality of light is extraordinary. Lighting is an art which transforms and enhances and creates a positive psychological effect. That is also true of artificial lighting. Whether it is creating a hypnotising effect as it changes colour with the rhythm of fountains or enhancing a building, delineating its character. As with a paintbrush, at night we can paint a different mood with light. It plays a part in reducing fear and gives a feeling of security. Of course there are challenges in lighting these days – lack of funding, electricity prices and environmental issues, whether bats, light pollution or sky glow. But this makes lighting even more interesting as I enjoy challenges. So why do I like lighting? That is still a mystery.


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Coloured light

A shade more popular ‘The wave movements or solar emanations that meet my eye are translated by my perception into light. It is my mind, with its store of images, that gives the world colour and sound; and that supremely real and rational certainty which I call “experience” is, in its most simple form, an exceedingly complicated structure of mental images’ – Carl Jung1

London Eye

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

Coloured light


Colin Ball and Lora Kaleva reveal the initial findings of

their research to discover why the colour blue is used so extensively – especially in exterior lighting schemes

Colin Ball

Lora Kaleva


e began with two basic questions: have we submerged our night-time environment in saturated blue and, if so, why? I was initially asked this question by Larry Ng of Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects, who had delivered the Canary Wharf tower in the late 1980s, and has watched London gradually turn blue at night over the past 20 years. My joking response was that here in Britain we have a desperate need of blue light as we so rarely see the sky. But is there a certain truth underlying this joke? The subject of whether to use colour at all in certain projects is regularly debated within the lighting community. The vast majority of lighting designers agree that coloured light in any form is not appropriate for

historic architecture. This agreement, however, conflicts with archaeological evidence that shows that Greek temples and Gothic cathedrals were once covered in saturated colours. Many lighting designers talk about emotional response to light and colours. Perhaps they use so much blue because of the positive emotions it elicits. Blue is found to be pleasant, calming and restful. Blue is also the top colour in studies about colour preference.2 We asked a number of lighting professionals the question of why they prefer to use blue and here are a few of their responses: ‘Blue is the least controversial colour in my experience.’ ‘Blue is the colour of the sky.’ ‘Blue works well with water features.’ Lora asked this question of a room of 50 lighting designers from across Europe, the US and Australia at the last PLDC conference in Madrid in 2011. It became very apparent that there was no consensus at all between them. The common responses can be summarised as falling under the following two categories: Political/corporate: ‘Whenever a client or public body was asked to select a colour, blue was usually the only shade that would gain universal consent. Colours used at night-time often signify the occupier of the building. Most corporate logos are either blue or red.’ This answer describes the process of how the colour was determined, yet it does not answer the ‘why’. Why did the clients agree on blue, why do magazine editors select the blue image and not the others, why is the corporate colour of the client blue? Emotional: ‘The sky appears blue and hence any lighting that uses this colour for an

external environment is interacting with the changing of the sky.’ Since Madrid we have continued to look at this and would now add a number of other factors that could influence this apparent change. We are looking to discuss these with the design community as a whole to see if they fit with everyone’s experiences: Cultural/ historic: For centuries the value we have given to blue is second only to gold. But it is primarily a significant colour in Western culture. There is a surprising wealth of information and depth of history over our relationship with blue. Some of the oldest artefacts in the British Museum are Sumerian and date from around 4000BC. They are covered in both lapis (see below) and gold. The Egyptians painted their tomb and temple interiors cobalt blue and covered them in stars. Gothic cathedrals continued the habit 2000 years later and with no previous knowledge of the tombs in Egypt. Economic: History shows us that the blue pigment ultramarine (the name literally means ‘from far over the sea’) was the most difficult to produce until the 18th century invention of Prussian blue and therefore highly valued. So much so, it was usually contracted separately within medieval paintings. Ultramarine was made from the rare stone lapis lazuli, which could only be found in Afghanistan. In the past 20 years this economic connection remained the case with the lighting industry. Before the invention of the blue LED, blue light was the most expensive to achieve, through a doubling of cost and power consumption. To produce blue light previously required 12mm thick blue glass filters with only four per cent

Lighting Journal November/December 2013


Coloured light

Ishtar Gate at Berlin Museum

The vast majority of lighting designers agree that coloured light in any form is not appropriate for historic architecture. This agreement, however, conflicts with archaeological evidence that shows that Greek temples and Gothic cathedrals were once covered in saturated colours Sainte Chapelle, Paris

transmission. Today, however, a blue LED is cost and power equivalent to all the other colours. Physiological: Light is energy that affects our bodies. Papers published at Jefferson

University are currently leading a body of evidence to show a relation to melatonin suppression directly associated with blue wavelengths of light. Results of these studies are already being used by NASA to assist astronauts in regulating sleep. Alongside the emotional effects of

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

coloured light on the body, researchers have observed the following: the colour red can raise blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration and perspiration, and excite brain waves. There is more muscular tension and greater frequency of eye blinks. Blue effects are somewhat opposite: lower blood pressure and pulse rate, less skin response and a slowing down of brain waves. Reactions to orange and yellow are similar to those to red, but not as strong, and reactions to purple and violet resemble those to blue. Green is found to be most neutral3. Ehrenwald found an innate tonus reflex in humans exposed to coloured light: yellow-green light provoked a neutral state â&#x20AC;&#x201C; there was no reaction from the muscles. Orange and red light acted as an attraction to stimulus, but green and blue light a withdrawal from stimulus.4 Similarly, Frieling found that subjects exposed to red light experienced blood pressure becoming inconstant, their pulse increasing and a feeling of tightness gripping the throat. It was noticed that the subjects standing in front of the projected red light had a tendency to step backward and to move their arms, stretched in front of them, outward. Yellow light produced a nervous twitch, and subjects standing with their arms outstretched seemed to be pushing forward. Violet blue light was experienced as pleasant with calming effects. No arousing components were detected. Green light produced a similar calming effect. The eye: In photopic vision, the eye is most sensitive to greenish-yellow (ca 550nm) light. Ferree and Rand suggest that yellow illumination is most comfortable for the eye, followed by orange-yellow, yellow-green and green. Deep red and violet were more uncomfortable, and blue is very difficult for the eye to focus on and will cause objects to appear blurred and as if surrounded by a halo5. The reason that the eye has

Coloured light


since the 1990s regarding circadian rhythms and the direct stimulation of ganglion cells by blue light. The issue was certainly the most hotly debated that we witnessed throughout the whole PLDC in 2011. From this we have tried to assess which of these issues is the most influential. Is the answer to this really down to just corporate colours being projected at night, or is it a biomechanical response that we’ve recently found to be achievable at a new, more economic price. We have issued a questionnaire through the ILP, SLL, IALD and PLDA that asks quite bland questions regarding light and the use of colour. None of our definitions are hinted at within the questionnaire. We have so far received a continually wide response that we are now looking to qualitatively assess into the categories outlined above. We will continue to collate the results of the survey (see box below if you would still like to take part) and look forward to publishing the final results early next year. 1

From Vision and Art: The Biology of Seeing by Margaret S Livingstone. Publisher Harry N Abrams

trouble concentrating on blue is that there are no blue-sensitive cones in the fovea centralis – the source of our most acute vision. The close-packed green and red-sensitive cones in the fovea produce the best resolution, as the eye focuses most of the light entering it into the fovea. Bluesensitive cones also consist of about two per cent of the total number of cones and are thus a minority. Finally, the refractive index of blue light is different from red and green – short wavelengths tend to scatter in the eye and not always hit the cone-packed central region of the retina. It is this clouding that

produces a humming, dynamic effect that is so palpable. Linguistic: It is becoming apparent in recent studies that how a language defines colour could be directly affecting how colour is actually seen. Personally I’ve been quite surprised to hear that the main arguments were corporate. I have worked with a lot of blue light in many varied projects and was aware of various issues related to the mechanics of the eye (as mentioned earlier, our eye doesn’t focus on blue light), as well as papers published



5 4

Jung CG, The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche. Princeton University Press; 969, p623 Birren F Color and Human Response. John Wiley and Sons; 1984. Birren F op cit Birren F op cit Birren F op cit

This feature is based on a paper presented by Colin Ball and Lora Kaleva at the Professional Lighting Design Conference in October in Copenhagen. Colin Ball is lighting associate at BDP and Lora Kaleva, (winner of the Lightmongers’ best exterior project award in 2010), a lighting designer at BDP. Anyone wanting to take part in the simple survey should go to: www.

Lighting Journal November/December 2013



Blue blazes Two recent schemes have used blue light in very different contexts. Why blue? we asked the designers

Projects 15 Tawaramappu River: the urban installation


pened in August this year in the small town of Nakashibetsu in Hokkaido, Japan, a special lighting installation has been designed to take place every summer. The aim is to create an entertaining experience for the residents around the area, and also to attract visitors from further afield during the summer festival. The venue is a park with a small river and a sunken plaza surrounded by seating areas and slopes. The installation comprises two lighting features which exploit the topographical characteristics: Aurora Waterfall involves dynamic lighting reflected in the running water of the river, while Luminous Field

Project name: Tawaramappu River Location: Nakashibetsu, Hokkaido, Japan Lighting design: Shigeki Fujii, Natsuko Ueda of Nipek Size: 800sqm

Why blue? ‘Blue is the colour of the sky at dusk. Especially in Hokkaido, the northern island of Japan, they have a long “blue hour” which is a beautiful deep blue. We wanted to capture that iconic colour of the region in the lighting concept which was derived from nature. The colour-changing illumination on the wall by the water, the Aurora Waterfall, is also inspired by nature – we tried to recreate the beautiful gradation, colour and movement of the northern lights’ – Shigeki Fujii, Nipek

surrounds visitors in a mixture of blue and white light points. An additional ingredient of the scheme is home-made lanterns.‘This was significant because engaging the local community in the creation of the illumination as a whole and sharing the experience of it with the people was one of the most important aspects of the project,’ says Shigeki Fujii of Singapore lighting consultancy Nipek. ‘For the local community to be actively involved in the project makes the final product far more interesting than what can be achieved by only the professionals designing for them.’ Funded and fully run by the local community, the installation will also potentially grow in terms of the area covered and lighting equipment added each time it is held.

Initial sketches

Lighting Journal November/December 2013



Visual of overall scheme

‘All the parties involved, including the installer, electricians, lighting manufacturers and the organiser, shared a common goal from the beginning which was to create something special for the small town and its people to remember for the summer. This made what could have been a challenging project an easy one’ – Shigeki Fujii, Nipek Lighting Journal November/December 2013

How the effect was achieved: Aurora waterfall: 13 36W RGB LED linear floodlights with DMX control (Philips Color Kinetics iPlayer3). The floodlights are used to shine towards the river surface and illuminate the wall with reflected lighting from the water. String white LED lights, 5W/m, total 400m. Pre-set fading effect, timer on/off control. The strings are hung from the top of the wall by the river to create a sparkling reflection in conjunction with the waterfall effect. Luminous Field: Blue and white Net LED lighting at 3.5W/sqm (timer on/off control). The Net LEDs cover a total of 186sqm of grass and terraced benches around the sunken plaza Trees Six compact metal halide fixtures (4200K 150W) are used to uplight two feature trees

Aurora waterfall


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The feature lighting to the atrium roof provides both a powerful interior and exterior (above) effect

Projects 19 One Angel Square, Manchester: BREEAM Outstanding commercial office building


ne Angel Square is a £110m, 30,194sqm multiaward winning commercial office building that serves as the head office for the Co-operative Group. It is also one of the most sustainable buildings in Europe and achieved a world record BREEAM Outstanding score of 95.32 per cent in the UK. An ‘energy plus’ building, it produces surplus energy and zero carbon emissions. With a wide range of different spaces – open plan offices, central atrium, lounge areas, restaurants/ cafes, gym and food-tasting rooms – each area was treated individually in terms of the lighting approaches used, with different, though always efficient, lamp types. ‘Each light source was chosen to meet the specific requirements for each area,’ explains Rob Myers of Buro Happold. ‘Energy efficiency was high on the list in every area but putting forward a cost-effective solution was also key.’ The T5 Eco lamps used in the open-office working areas ‘offered the best of both worlds’, says Myers, compromising between the high cost of LED luminaires and traditional T5 solutions. However, LED downlights were used in areas where applicable, such as informal break-out working areas, the restaurant area, exterior terrace areas and other smaller meeting rooms. ‘The feature lighting to the atrium roof and winter garden areas were the perfect places to use LED sources,’ adds Myers. ‘They offered much lower maintenance, efficiency and colourchanging opportunities that other sources couldn’t offer.’ A hierarchy of lux levels helps with energy saving. Generally office areas/meeting rooms are 350 lux, the maximum, with 300 lux in the café, 200 lux in the atrium and 100 lux on circulation routes.

Lighting control, based on a Siteco system, was critical to the project. In the general open-office areas (occupying 15 floors), all outer and inner perimeter (atrium side) luminaires are daylight-linked. Motion/ absence PIR sensors are also located in these areas. A biodynamic element was introduced with subtle changes in light colour temperature applied for different times of the day to enhance the lower levels of the15-storey atrium. Lighting here works in conjunction with the available daylight levels within the central space, only activating when needed. When combined, the lighting levels can be increased to provide additional illumination for dedicated events and company presentations. All external lighting is photocell-activated with astronomical time-clock override/turn off. The atrium roof structure is feature-illuminated using Philips Color Kinetics LED colour-changing fixtures, angled/directed to light the section of roof directly above. ‘This adds another visual dimension to the building,’ says Myers. ‘Its dynamic and iconic lighting effect has added real value to the final building scheme.’

Each area was treated individually in terms of lighting approaches, with a hierarchy of lux levels

Why blue?

Lighting equipment Siteco control system Philips Eco T5 32W 4000K fluorescent lamps; Color Kinetics LED RGB linear graze fixture (atrium) Luxonic bespoke ceiling raft luminaires; 18W 4000K downlights; 9W 3200K LED downlights Projection Lighting bepoke linear profile Sill 021 projectors Flos pendants 18W CFL lamps

‘The LEDs within the atrium roof are able to achieve any colour required, although a selection of six colours was primarily chosen and preprogrammed to reflect the different individual business streams of The Co-operative (each stream having a unique colour corporate identity). If one of their business streams decides to push an event, the colour lighting can therefore be changed to suit that particular branding. However, blue is the company’s primary brand colour, so the building will generally reside in that colour. Blue is an interesting choice and has been used for feature lighting for a long time, probably because blue best complements the warmer tones of white light. As a whole it works best visually’ – Rob Myers, Buro Happold

Lighting Journal November/December 2013


Energy-saving finance

Free kick start to saving energy

Craig Mellis, technical services manager of Salix, explains how the not-for-profit funding body works


ll public sector bodies recognise that investing in energy-efficient technology helps reduce carbon emissions and lower energy bills. However, the upfront capital required is a common barrier for organisations when seeking solutions that cut their energy consumption. Salix Finance removes this barrier by making interest-free capital funding available to the public sector. Salix Finance is a not-for-profit organisation which is funded by the Department of Energy and Climate Change, the Department for Education, the Welsh Government, the Scottish Government and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. Established in 2004, Salix Finance helps public sector organisations across the UK take a lead in tackling climate change by improving their energy efficiency. It provides 100 per cent interest-free loans for the public sector to reduce its energy costs by enabling the installation of modern, energyefficient technologies to replace dated, inefficient ones. In the past decade, Salix has funded more than 11,000 projects across more than 800 public sector bodies, valued at over £268m. This has saved the public sector £75m annually and more than £1bn over the lifetime of the projects. This means that for every £1m invested in energy

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

efficiency projects, £4m of energy spend is being saved. The estimated emission savings from these projects exceed 433,000 tonnes of CO2 annually. There are two types of funding programmes available. The first is the Salix Energy Efficient Loans Scheme. For example, a school can borrow £10,000 to put in new lighting and insulation that is estimated to save £2000 a year from reduced gas and electricity usage. For the first five years these savings would be used to pay back the interest-free loan. Once the loan is repaid, the continued savings enable the school to use the capital for other budgets, such as the purchase of new equipment. The second programme available is the Recycling Fund. This is a ring-fenced revolving fund managed by the public sector organisation concerned, with money provided by the organisation and match funded by Salix. The project loan is repaid into the fund from the financial savings delivered by the projects – this allows the fund to be continually used for energy efficiency projects, hence the term ‘Recycling Fund’. At the same time the organisation goes on to benefit from the savings that will accumulate once the project has been fully repaid. More than 120 technology types are currently supported by the funding programmes, some of which include building energy management systems, building fabric insulation, combined heat and power systems, evaporative cooling, heat recovery systems, pipework insulation, server virtualisation, as well as LED lighting, lighting controls, T5 lighting and variable speed drives. Lighting upgrades are one of the most common projects

Energy-saving finance funded by Salix. With more than 4000 projects funded at a value of almost £100m, significant investment has been made by public sector clients in equipping their estates with more energy-efficient lighting technologies. There is no doubt that the focus of the lighting industry has shifted towards LED lighting, and so too have the public sector organisations using Salix funding. In 2012/13, more than 50 per cent of the funding for internal lighting upgrades was used for the installation of LED lighting – a significant growth from 2009/10 when organisations initially started using Salix funding for this technology. In addition, we are seeing interest from many local authorities who want to tackle the huge energy bills from their street lighting, but are struggling to find the capital to enable these programmes of work to begin. Salix funding enables local authorities to undertake these projects,


whether they are replacing lamps with LEDs or ceramic metal halide, or installing centralised management systems to allow savings from dimming and part-night operation. Salix strongly believes in the importance of knowledge sharing, and it recognises that public sector organisations are always keen to better understand how to drive down energy costs and lower their carbon footprint. It helps knowledge sharing through quarterly regional meetings, technical workshops and project case studies. Salix energy-efficiency loans are available now for public sector bodies in England, Scotland and Wales.

This feature is based on a presentation at the ILP’s 2013 Professional Lighting Summit in September. For more details go to

University of Manchester Salix has helped the University of Manchester deliver more than 80 LED projects across its campus buildings, saving over £250,000 on its energy costs. One example is a lighting upgrade project at the John Rylands Library. The old lighting consisted of 40W incandescent lamps, and was not only inefficient but also required endless maintenance work. In addition, the heat from the lamps was creating concern in areas where manuscripts were required to be kept within strict humidity levels.The university used £25,000 from its Salix Recycling Fund to upgrade to 8W LED lamps. The new lighting system not only enabled annual savings of around £10,000, but also reduced annual maintenance costs and helped alleviate concerns regarding the strict environmental requirements.

Bristol City Council As the only UK city to have been shortlisted for the European Green Capital Competition, Bristol has a strong environmental ethos. Bristol City Council is renowned for implementing cutting edge energy efficiency and renewable energy installations. Upgrading all of Bristol’s street lights to a white light solution forms a core part of the council’s savings strategy, but without low-cost finance the intended solution bordered on non-viability. BCC’s Energy Management Unit used £1.1m of Salix interest-free funding to replace more than 10,000 street lights on main roads with ceramic metal halide lamps. This has resulted in annual energy savings of £503,000 and emissions savings of 2380 tonnes of CO2 annually.

Lighting Journal November/December 2013


shift I

f the workshop on Independent Distribution Network Operators (IDNOs) that was held at the Professional Lighting Summit in Glasgow is anything to go by, this is an exceptionally topical subject. Many local authorities have concerns over how the use of IDNOs will affect their ability to deliver a quality service, how they will impact on emergency response times and the higher costs associated with the increase in Meter Point Administrator Numbers (MPAN). It’s perhaps useful, therefore, to look at the background to the rise in the use of IDNOs and the implications for the lighting team at the local council. Competition in the gas connections market has seen the number of connections carried out by independent providers rising from a two per cent market share in 2000 to around 82 per cent in 2013. Competition in this sector of the electrical markets started in 2006 and IDNOs are now responsible for approximately 25 per cent of the new market. It is likely that with continued competition the proportion undertaken by IDNOs will increase significantly over the coming years. There are two major differences between DNOs and IDNOs: •

DNOs have distribution service areas and are restrained geographically where they can operate. IDNOs do not have distribution service areas and they can operate across the whole of Great Britain.

There are 14 licensed DNOs in Great Britain and each one of these is responsible for a specific services

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

Alan Jaques looks at the background to the rising popularity of IDNOs and at the implications for local authorities

From the workshop it appears that there may be a significant difference between how IDNOs are supposed to work in theory and how they are currently operating in practice

area. These DNOs are owned by just six different groups, as shown below: Electricity North West Northern Powergrid • Northern Powergrid (Northeast) • Northern Powergrid (Yorkshire) Scottish and Southern Energy • Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution • Southern Electric Power Distribution Scottish Power Energy Networks • SP Distribution • SP Manweb UK Power Networks • London Power Networks • South Eastern Power Networks • Eastern Power Networks Western Power Distribution • Western Power Distribution (East Midlands) • Western Power Distribution (West Midlands) • Western Power Distribution (South West) • Western Power Distribution (South Wales)

Ofgem is the organisation responsible for granting IDNOs their licence to operate. IDNOs own and operate electricity distribution networks, and these are predominantly extensions connected to a DNO network. One area where IDNOs have been successful in building their businesses has been in serving new housing developments. Currently this is likely to be where the local authority lighting professional comes into contact with an IDNO for the first time. To date, Ofgem has issued six distribution licences for IDNOs: • Energetics Electricity • ESP Electricity • Independent Power Networks • The Electricity Network Company • UK Power Networks • United Assets All of these changes are being driven through competition, as a way of pushing down prices by allowing services to be procured on the open market. There are four specific areas in the electricity industry that are now open to competition: • Electricity supply • Connections and disconnections • Distribution • Metering It is the competition in distribution that has allowed IDNOs to come into existence. Under their licence they are able to construct, own, operate and maintain their own distribution networks as an alternative to the DNO. At this stage it is important to realise that these IDNO networks are not private as they are subject to the

IDNOs same regulations that govern the more traditional DNO networks. By their very nature, IDNO networks tend to be much smaller than the large interconnected networks of the DNOs. In order to be able to distribute electricity through the network, both must hold a licence. This contains conditions which, among other things, limit the amount of revenue that these companies can recover from their customers. The theory is that, from an end user point of view, DNOs and IDNOs should be seen as one and the same. For developers there are many advantages to using IDNOs for the electrical network within new Section 38 private developments. The developer can appoint a single Independent Connections Provider (ICP) for its site, and this ICP will then install both the gas and electrical networks, reducing the number of bodies that the developer needs to liaise with. In addition to simplifying the project management aspect it is also likely that financial savings will be made through procuring the work on the open market. From the workshop that took place at the summit it appears that there may be a significant difference between how IDNOs are supposed to work in theory and how they are currently operating in practice. There were three main concerns raised by the local authorities represented at the workshop: 1 IDNO response times to faults/ emergencies are very slow. In extreme cases they are refusing to attend. One specific example raised was where an emergency call-out took eight hours to attend. 2 The local authorities that have IDNOs operating within their area are having to duplicate some work. This has involved additional costs because extra supplier information needs to be held in the management information system, leading to an increase in MPAN numbers, invoices requiring payment and so on. 3 It tends to be the local authority lighting engineer who is the last person to discover that a developer has used the services of an IDNO on a new private development. The panel of experts tried to address these concerns by giving the following responses:

1 As part of their licence agreement IDNOs are required to respond to emergency call-outs. If IDNOs don’t attend then they are putting their licence at risk. It was stated that no matter whether the DNO or IDNO were called out then they should attend to make safe. If it’s discovered that the cable belongs to the other party then a recharge should take place. 2 The Distribution Use of System (DUoS) charge for an IDNO has to match (or be less than) the DUoS charge made by the specific DNO that the IDNO is operating in. However, it was noted that the DUoS charges vary around the country due to the fact that it is generally more expensive to distribute electricity in rural areas than in urban ones. Also, at the moment it is theoretically possible for a local authority to have up to 36 MPAN numbers and, since end users are charged additionally for each number, this could add a significant cost to a council. In order to move this situation forward a consultation document entitled ‘DCUSA Consultation DCP 168 –The Administration of Use of System Charges Relating to Connections from Embedded Distribution Network Operator Systems to Unmetered Supplies for LA Customers’ has been published and feedback sought. 3 It was suggested that in some councils the communication link between development control and street lighting sections may need to be improved. The development control section will be well aware of whether a Section 38 development is having a conventional DNO network or an IDNO network, and therefore there is no reason why the street lighting team shouldn’t know this at an early stage. The DCUSA (Distribution Connection and Use of System Agreement) consultation document closed for consultation on 20 September 2013. An element of this consultation was to seek feedback on which approach, shown as options one to three below, was preferred, and presumably many councils will have responded to this. All three options relate to billing, the local authority inventory and MPANs relating to DNOs and IDNOs:


Option 1 DNO Combines: Customer submits inventories to respective DNOs and IDNOs. DNO/IDNO validates these. IDNO passes to the DNO which combines validated inventories into a single data set for MPAN. Option 2 MA Combines: Customer submits inventories to respective DNO and IDNOs. DNO/IDNO validates these. IDNO and DNO pass to meter administrator (MA) who combines summary inventories (and control files) and treats as single MPAN. Option 3 Customer Combines: Customer submits single detailed inventory to DNO covering all DNO and IDNO connections within the DNO geographic area. DNO validates and provides single set of data for MPAN. When these options were discussed at the workshop the general consensus was that option three would be the most convenient for local authorities. However, we will now have to wait for the formal feedback to be reviewed and published. As indicated above, the use of IDNOs is likely to increase and no doubt until the market matures and their use becomes common practice there will be teething problems. Councils have real concerns regarding IDNOs and these new organisations must work hard to ensure that they match or better the levels of service offered by the local DNO. Having said that, the local authorities need to be proactive and manage the situation to their best ability. It may not be an ideal situation for them, but there’s no going back. Alan Jaques is the sector leader for lighting at Atkins and ILP VP events Relevant websites

The workshop, How to Professionally Manage an IDNO on your Patch, was run by Elizabeth Thomas, ILP VP highways and infrastructure, and Derek G Westney, unmetered supplies engineer

Lighting Journal November/December 2013


Road lighting

Sea change

Jill Entwistle looks at the first major deployment of CU Phosco’s P850 LED road lantern along the A55, a strategic road skirting the North Wales coastline


long the route of the A55, lighting and other road infrastructure has to cope with a challenging environment. The road skirts the North Wales coastline for significant amounts of its total length, so severe weather during winter months and corrosive marine conditions are common. Some sections of the existing lighting solution have been in operation for well over two decades and in places are in an extremely poor state of repair. As well as having a harsh environment, the A55 also carries significant holiday traffic during the summer months and is a major trade route year-round, making the introduction of traffic management schemes for maintenance difficult. Although luminaires were in theory subject to a three-year change-out

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

The need to be able to remotely adjust luminaire settings to accommodate freight traffic travelling at night was a key requirement of the CMS

period, some of them had been allowed to burn to extinction without being replaced. In January 2013, following a contractor framework tender, a design team from CU Phosco was appointed to carry out a carbon reduction assessment of more than 30km of illuminated carriageway, including 10 junctions, from J13 to J23. This stretch is grade-separated with the exception of two roundabouts, J15 at Llanfairfechan and J16 at Penmaenmawr, and the project’s key objectives were to make energy, carbon and cost savings. Any lighting solution, based on an investto-save model, had to demonstrate robustness as well as a very low maintenance burden. CU Phosco proposed three options: a like-for-like replacement with Son-T 250W discharge lighting;

replacement of existing discharge lighting technology with reduced, 150W discharge lighting; and an LED-based solution using the company’s new P850 main road luminaire. A total cost of ownership and payback period calculation in each case showed the initial capital investment versus relative energy and maintenance costs and savings. Analysis showed that the likefor-like replacement solution would have offered no material gain over the original scheme, while the 150W solution proved unable to meet the stipulated lighting classes – ME2 at peak times, and ME3a during periods of low traffic flow. In contrast the LED-based solution using the P850 was able to meet the required lighting classes while offering significant improvements in a number of areas. In April 2013, taking advantage

Road lighting of the introduction of traffic management measures as a part of the Penmaenmawr to Dwygyfylchi Major Maintenance Scheme, the North and Mid Wales Trunk Road Agent (NMWTRA â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a partnership of eight local authorities with responsibility for managing on behalf of the Welsh Government a series of trunk roads, road infrastructure and road services) gave the go-ahead to an upgrade of the lighting on both carriageways between junctions 16 and 16A. Shortly after, it was decided to take further advantage of the in-place traffic management measures and extend this to junction 17. The roadway maintenance contract went to Dawnus Construction, which in turn let the lighting upgrade work to Conwy County Borough Council. NMWTRA elected to keep the existing lighting columns and brackets, so the specification was for a lightweight, low wind area luminaire providing lighting to class ME2/ME3a at the existing column spacings. In addition to its lighting performance, the P850â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s IP66 rating, wind area (SCx) of 0.052sqm and low unit weight (15kg or less, depending on configuration) meant it met the criteria in these respects too. A Telensa central management system (CMS) was used for dimming to ME3a between midnight and 6am. Aside from the usual functions, it was also chosen to address a specific need linked to ferry and road freight operations out of Holyhead. Although the lighting is dimmed during quiet periods at night, there are regular


Installing the fitting with a 0 degree tilt achieves a G6 rating and has appreciably decreased light pollution

peaks of lorry traffic between 3-3.30am. The CMS allows officebased staff at NMWTRA to break in remotely and increase luminance as necessary. It communicates wirelessly with the newly installed P850s via nodes installed in the tops of the luminaires themselves and can, dependent upon range, communicate with literally thousands of units. To meet the local luminosity requirements, the previous 250W lamps had been working at 302W in circuit. However, using LED technology it was possible to provide the necessary light uniformity and meet the ME2/ME3a standard using a combination of 166W, 190W and 211W luminaires.

The A55 North Wales Expressway has a challenging operational environment. Key selection criteria included energy efficiency, robustness and a very low maintenance requirement

On the J16-17 deployment this has resulted in a 38 per cent saving when operating at ME2, and a 60 per cent saving when operating at ME3a. The result is a calculated payback period of 4.2 years on an investment that included 348 lanterns, associated CMS dimming and remote monitoring. CU Phosco anticipates that the LED solution can be expected to operate without maintenance for around 24 years. The new lighting solution for the J16-17 section of the A55 went into operation on 26 April this year, following a two-week installation period. All work was completed on time. Further upgrades to the lighting on other sections of the road will take place over the next two years as and when funding becomes available, again using the P850 luminaire. The A55 is a grade-separated dual carriageway, also known as the North Wales Expressway. Some 140km long, it originally ran from Chester to Bangor but was extended across the Isle of Anglesey into Holyhead Docks in 2001 under a project part-funded by the European Union. In a European context, the A55 is also a part of the TransEuropean Road Network, forming a section of Euroroute 22. Holyhead is the westernmost point of a strategic trading route which passes from Wales through England and the Netherlands into Germany and Scandinavia, eventually terminating in Ishim, Russia.

Lighting Journal November/December 2013


Learn from the

world’s experts

International Street Lighting Certificate A five day course run by experts from the ILP, training groups of up to 20 people anywhere in the world. The ILP is the leading body for lighting education. We are a registered charity, a limited company and a licensed body of the Engineering Council. ILP representatives provide input and structure to regulations and standards which are used across the world.

The course can be customised to meet the needs of the local lighting professional. It covers a range of issues including: • Nature & Production of Light • Eye & Vision • Units of Lighting • Lighting Laws and Intensity Distribution • Light Control • Light Sources – HID and LEDs • Control Gear – Power Supplies • Managing a Vital Asset TR28 • Seeing & Driving

• Road Lighting Theory • BS EN Traffic Routes Lighting • BS EN Subsidiary Lighting • Mesopic Vision PLG03 • Amenity /Area Lighting • Developing a Lighting Policy/ Strategy • Maintenance by Design • Luminaire Design / Construction • BS Motorway Lighting

• BS Tunnel Lighting • Conflict Areas • CMS – Remote Monitoring • Variable Lighting Levels • Energy Management • Lighting Measurements TR28 • Design Software • CAD & Area Designs • Take Away Project: Traffic, Residential and Amenity

For more details please contact Jess Gallacher, ILP Operations Manager at Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby, Warwickshire, CV21 2PN, UK Telephone: +441788 576492

Did you know, that if you take a place in the Consultants’ Directory (see page 45) the listing is included on the main ILP website with your company logo NOW TAKING BOOKINGS FOR 2014

The Lighting Directory for £50 per entry per month you can advertise your products and services

call Julie on 01536 527295

call Julie on 01536 527295



see pages 46-47


Features for January 2014 Lighting Journal









The new Part L: Have they got it right? Li-Fi: The technology explained and a recent application



Reflected glories

Sharon Stammers of Light Collective on the new lighting category at the Surface Design Awards

Luminescent surfaces, London, by Alessandro Tosetti

Jim Tetro Photography


he inclusion of the Light School event at the Surface Design Show is a major step forward in promoting lighting to different key professionals (see Lighting Journal October, p31). It is also really gratifying that this year the influence has spread to the Surface Design Awards, a key event at the show. For the first time, they incorporate a lighting category. While it seems obvious that they should have had this all along – what is surface without light after all? – it’s a great opportunity to create more visibility for what we do and how we do it. So this time, in addition to the retail, commercial, housing, public building and temporary structure categories, lighting makes its debut with both an interior and exterior award, dedicated to the innovative use of light and the way it is inextricably linked to surfaces. There were a substantial amount of entries for a first-time outing, which was encouraging, and they encompassed a variety of spheres including lighting design, products and architectural. Judging took place in October in London and the shortlist was robustly debated by a selection of heavyweight architects and interior designers. Will Alsop from All Design chaired the exterior surfaces section, and was joined by Andy MacFee of Scott Brownrigg and Maria Smith from Studio Weave. Vanessa Brady from the Society of British and International Design (SBID) chaired the interiors section. Her fellow judges were Renee Mascari of Kitchen Bedroom Bathroom National Training Group and Lucy Spencer of Interior ID. The judges were particularly impressed by the new lighting section and the way that many of the stand-out projects had introduced light and colour in a cohesive way. Small things that lighting designers assume are common knowledge suddenly made an impact on the group – that with the right lighting you don’t have to paint the walls to change the colour, for example. Light Collective was called on to give some expert guidance. It was satisfying to find that when it comes to defining good lighting, we all agreed and the chosen winners in both categories represent beautiful and good quality design. ‘We need to inspire to educate, and the finalists are without doubt inspiring,’ said Renee Mascari. These awards underline the fact that light is increasingly considered to be an important component in interior and exterior architecture. Pictured are some of the finalists. The overall winners will be announced on 6 February at the Surface Design Show.

Backlit wood walls at National Cancer Institute, USA, by HOK/MCLA

Glass Lens, London, by Luke Lowings and James Carpenter

Light School at Surface Design Show Business Design Centre, London N1 4-6 February 2014

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

Dana Petroleum Flos Soft Architecture USO Cove, USP 07 Profile and Modular Lotis LED Visit to view some of our recent projects

Atrium Ltd.

EXCELLENCE IN LIGHTING SOLUTIONS • 020 7681 9933 Flos • Ilti Luce • LTS • Modular



LuxLivepreview With LuxLive just days aways, a further preview of some of the products on show and events highlights This year’s programme has been divided into the key sectors that are feeling the impact of LEDs, including outdoor and street lighting which will have a special focus on Thursday 21 November (see Lighting Journal October for a brief summary of the programme). In each sector there will be an in-depth look at some exemplar projects, an examination of some of the key technologies and a dedicated panel discussion debating the issues affecting that sector.

Pick of the events: KEYNOTE PRESENTATION Shuji Nakamura: LEDs – the roadmap The inventor of the blue LED and the man who singlehandedly created the LED revolution, Shuji Nakamura of Soraa, the LED company of which he is a founder, gives his view of the future roadmap of the transition to LEDs, including the possibilities created by gallium-on-gallium technology. Followed by a one-on-one interview by Ray Molony, editor of Lux Review, and a market overview presented by Nick Farraway of Soraa. 12pm Thursday 21 November Lux Arena Lux Cool Wall Leading product and lighting designers and manufacturers pass judgement on the stand-out luminaires made possible by LED and OLED designs, and discuss how to maximise the design possibilities of solid state technology to give specifiers new solutions to old problems. 10.50am Wednesday 20 November Lux Arena Lighting Spy The Lighting Spy team exposes the worst excesses of lighting energy waste in the UK – by visiting new and existing projects and checking – and proposes alternatives that will save energy and improve the quality of the lighting. 11.20am Wednesday 20 November Lux Arena SLL Masterclasses Mini versions of the 2013-14 programme, Quality Up Energy Down 12-3pm Wednesday 20 November Tech Theatre

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

Live and dangerous: extreme dimming LED control guru Jeremy Turner of Fab Controls hosts a live workshop using good, bad and ugly kit from diverse manufacturers. In this hands-on session, Jeremy Turner and Lux technical editor Alan Tulla demonstrate how to ensure smooth LED control in the real world. 1pm Wednesday 20 November Lux Arena Dragons’ Den Based on the format of the successful BBC television programme, entrepreneurs pitch their innovative lighting ideas to a panel of seasoned industry professionals. Who’ll get the thumbs up, and who’ll be told to think again? 3.25pm Wednesday 20 November and 2.50pm Thursday 21 November, both Lux Arena Named and shamed Complementing the monthly feature in Lux magazine, the team looks at some of the UK’s worst lighting installations that have been featured over the year and asks: what on earth were they thinking? 5.10pm Wednesday 20 November LightFight Teams of lighting designers do battle to see which practice has the greatest knowledge and technical skills. 6.30pm Wednesday 20 November Lux Arena Lighting Talk Live panel discussions Can LEDs stop the big street lighting switch off? LEDs in retail – hit or miss? How can we tackle the NHS’s legacy lighting? If LEDs are so great, why won’t manufacturers give decent warranties? Just some of the questions a panel of grumpy, opinionated experts will tackle. Various times. Street lighting: 11.20am Thursday 21 November Lux Arena Young Lighter of the Year The four finalists will make a presentation on a lighting subject before an invited panel of judges. Organised by the SLL and supported by the ILP. 12.30-2pm Thursday 21 November Ecolight Theatre

Exhibition Arrow Electronics Crystal Arrow has created the Crystal luminaire in partnership with French street lighting company Ragni. Designed to replace globe street lamps, it is available in both HID or LED versions. It can be specified with a circular or asymmetrical lighting distribution. Stand G10 Venture Rio system The Rio retrofit integrated optic system combines a ceramic metal halide lamp, an optimised glass optic and Ventronic control gear, allowing existing fixtures to be reused. According to Venture, the system can give 50 per cent energy savings while maintaining the same minimum lux levels. Rio kits come in 45W, 60W, 90W, 140W, while the Area Rio offers 210W with a larger optic. Programmable part-night options are also available. Stand C30

Elstead Lighting Arendal The Arendal bollard is made by Norwegian company Norlys. It has a tempered glass top and is available in black, graphite or galvanised steel finish. It takes an E27 (60W maximum) lamp and is available in three sizes: 85cm, 49cm and 26cm. The products are designed to withstand harsh climates and come with a 15-year anti-corrosion warranty. Stand B38


Ark Lighting Ark i-LED Designed as a robust (IP67) yet discreet wall-mounted LED luminaire, the Ark i-LED optical system enables the light distribution to be tailored for maximum spacing between lighting points. Standard colour temperatures are 4000K and 5000K (other options are available), and output is 2743lm. Suitable for mounting between 3m and 8m, it also has an anti-glare hood. Stand H19

Earls Court 2, London

Wednesday 20 November (9am-9pm) Thursday 21 November (9am-5pm)

Lighting Journal November/December 2013


Future concept

Solar flair T

he SOL Dome, installed last month as part of the Fall In...Art and Sol Festival in Michigan, is the latest work from Loop.pH, a London-based art and design studio whose work centres on reimagining life in the city. A lightweight dome structure – weighing only 40kg – it is 8m in diameter and 4m high, and was fabricated onsite over three days. It is made from thousands of individually woven circles of a composite fibre called Archilace, developed by Loop pH, which combines fibreglass and carbon. The structure is part of a responsive dynamic lighting system. Solar cells at the base of the dome store energy during the day which power the circular matrix of solarpowered LED floodlights. The rotational breathing rhythm of the light is driven by an onsite CO2 sensor. The underlying geometry and construction of the dome is based on the chemical, molecular bonds between carbon atoms. ‘When each fibre is bent into a circle it is like charging a battery, creating a taut energetic structure,’ says Rachel Wingfield, creative director of Loop.pH. ‘It is an entirely new way of creating architectural spaces based on textiles.

A design studio’s latest exploration of renewable energy and how it could shape the urban environment

‘Large-scale solar energy supply will only be possible if we can find an inexpensive storage mechanism,’ continues Wingfield. ‘Transferring solar energy into chemical energy – chemical bonds – is one of the most promising approaches. The dome structure is an example of this type of stored energy.’ Loop.pH was founded in 2003 by Mathias Gmachl and Rachel Wingfield to create a new design practice that reached beyond specialist boundaries, including bringing together digital and biological media. ‘Our work speculates on what the future of renewable energy could be and how it may alter both the urban and rural landscapes,’ says Wingfield. ‘We create environments that question what new behaviours, work forces and activity might emerge in an abundant, renewableenergy future.’

Future concept


â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;We have a vision for an entirely new type of architecture that responds and adapts to its environment, similarly to a plant and its surrounding ecosystem. We dream of a living architecture that photosynthesises, moves and orientates in accordance to the sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Rachel Wingfield, Loop.pH


Worthy of study

Research: why do we need it and where should it be directed? Carl Gardner reports on the wide-ranging discussion at the latest PIP forum Peter Raynham, one of the two academic lighting researchers present, kicked off the afternoon’s debate by suggesting, somewhat heretically, that ‘our current lighting design practice can meet 90 per cent of current requirements, so why do we need any more lighting research?’ One answer, of course, as he himself pointed out, lies in the growing constraints on lighting, particularly the need for energy savings. ‘We can light the world well today, but will we be able to do so in 2050 using only 20 per cent of current energy?’ In fact the Bartlett’s current research (in conjunction with Sheffield) centres on residential street lighting, to determine the optimum lighting conditions for pedestrians at night, in terms of both visual tasks and feelings of safety. Steve Fotios pointed out the way that his recent research, such as the work on S/P ratios, has already fed through into current standards and enabled us to rationalise road lighting design. He lamented the shrinking of the public and private lighting research base in the UK, and called on the lighting industry to provide more research funding. It is commercial companies that generally benefit from good research, in terms of more sales, he argued. In addition to energy pressures, Nigel Parry pointed to the crucial role of new technologies, such as dimming systems and LEDs, and the way that they have accelerated the development of road lighting standards. ‘But are we going in the right direction?’ he asked. The LIA’s Bernard Pratley could see some real problems: ‘With light sources such as LEDs, as you increase efficiency and lighting output, luminance and glare increases, particularly for pedestrians. How to control that glare is an area of research I would like to see.’ Graham Festenstein agreed: ‘I would like to see more research

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

into the development of new optical materials that will control the light from LEDs better – new films and diffusers, for example.’ Mark Cooper felt that the street lighting industry had rather jumped into LEDs without enough consideration. ‘LEDs are okay for energy savings, but how do they affect the end-user?’ he asked. ‘R&D should be much more focused on what end-users want.’ This was a view echoed by Despina Tselegkaridou, who felt that too much current research was done in laboratories and didn’t involve endusers sufficiently. Raynham explained the origins of today’s road lighting standards in Belgium in the 1960s, when traffic levels were quite light. ‘Undoubtedly the kind of research which determined our current approach was done in 1960s conditions that no longer apply – our roads are much busier today. At the moment horizontal illuminance is still the main criterion in the standard, but is that good lighting? Should we be thinking of lighting the edges of the road, not the road itself?’ he asked. ‘We could increase the vertical lighting and reduce horizontal

Nigel Parry

surface light levels on today’s roads,’ Mark Cooper argued. ‘With modern headlights on cars, drivers don’t

Bernard Pratley

need extra lighting on the road, so we should light the verticals along the road edges for pedestrians – at the moment most pedestrian lighting is simply accidental spill from road lighting. That was all right with traditional lanterns, but with high cutoff LEDs, they don’t get that any more, so new problems have been created,’ Cooper concluded. It was a view underlined by Rebecca Hatch, who described driving on unlit roads in Essex, which recently adopted widespread switch-off policies: ‘I could see fine on the road with my headlights but I couldn’t see anything on the wide footpaths either side or people’s front doors. In situations like this, residents always worry about wrongdoers lurking in unlit gardens.’ An interesting analogy was made by Mark Cooper and others to recent developments in office lighting. The outdated prescriptions of LG3, using louvred downlights, which had created strongly lit horizontal surfaces and a ‘dark cave effect’ had now been superseded by direct/indirect

ILP Forum schemes, which offered better-lit vertical surfaces and more balanced lighting all round. ‘I think we need to be going in that direction in street lighting,’ Cooper argued. Of course we already have a surround ratio (SR) requirement in British codes, which is supposed to provide some degree of broader area lighting alongside the road but, as Alistair Scott pointed out, it is often forgotten and not seen as important. Moreover, with strong cut-off LED lanterns, SR is simply unachievable. To wrap up the first part of the discussion, Peter Raynham suggested that a useful empirical starting point for future research might be to examine a range of recent UK road lighting schemes and trials, good and bad, and see which have achieved effective results against all the relevant criteria. Raynham stressed that such assessments should be done both by lighting experts and users. It was agreed that the ILP might be a good body to coordinate and implement this initial programme. The findings could then be published in Lighting Journal, to help raise funding for future work in this area.

Rebecca Hatch


Mark Cooper

Peter Raynham

Other areas of concern Members of the panel also raised a number of other possible research subjects, which are summarised below: • Environmental issues, such as the deleterious effects of lighting on bats, insects and other wildlife – and the need to draw up guidelines for lighting to minimise these effects. • The urban form at night. Towns and cities are designed for daytime use, yet different things happen at night compared to day, with diverse users and different focii of activity. How should urban design deal with that, using lighting? • The LED spectrum – should we be adapting to the different spectra emitted by LEDs or trying to imitate tungsten? ‘Cool’ LEDs may be acceptable in the exterior environment but are they acceptable indoors? • The possible use of coloured lighting in crowd dispersal strategies. Could intense colour be programmed into street lighting to play this role? • The broad area of therapeutic uses of dynamic lighting, with changes in colour and colour temperature across the day, in homes, schools, hospitals and old people’s facilities. How much do we really understand about the beneficial effects – and the possible dangers?

Guy Harding

The fourth Professional Industry Partnership forum took place on 15 October at the Academy of Experts, London

Graham Festenstein

PARTICIPANTS Chairman: Alistair Scott (Designs for Lighting) Mark Cooper (iGuzzini and ILP senior VP) Guy Harding (Woodhouse and ILP VP membership) Nigel Parry (Orangetek/Array Lighting) Graham Festenstein (Graham Festenstein Lighting Design) Rebecca Hatch (WSP UK)

Steve Fotios

Despina Tselegkaridou

Despina Tselegkaridou (Maurice Brill Lighting Design) Peter Raynham, (Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, UCL) Steve Fotios (University of Sheffield) Bernard Pratley (Lighting Industry Association) Carl Gardner (CSG Lighting Consultancy)

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

Tuesday 4 – Thursday 6 March 2014 ExCeL, London



visitors come to Ecobuild to see the lighting section as their main interest

of exhibitors say Ecobuild is important/very important to their business



of exhibitors say they met visitors they wouldn’t see elsewhere

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Lighting at Ecobuild 2014 Be part of the future for sustainable design. 88% of our attendees rate Ecobuild as the UK’s best trade show in the marketplace. And our visitors should know - they are responsible for some of the most valuable projects around the world.

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Inside the ILP

Governing principles Richard Frost explains how the council works and how the ILP is now more inclusive and reactive to members’ needs


ast time we looked at the role of senior vice president within the institution, a post now held by Mark Cooper of iGuzzini. He took up the post at the AGM held in Glasgow in September, and one of his duties during his 12-month term will be to chair meetings of the ILP Council. So what is the council and what does it do? In many associations, both trade and professional, like the ILP, the council is the overall governing body for the organisation, responsible for policy, strategy, and managerial and

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

financial control. This is not the case within the ILP today, however. When the institution reformed itself in 2010 the decision was taken to split the policy-making function from the executive function, the latter role now being the responsibility of the executive board. The logic behind this was that, in a rapidly changing sector, and faced with increasing challenges, the old council structure was too large and too cumbersome for a modern institution. The council comprises some 20 members and that is by no means the largest governing body in the engineering institution sector; councils of 50-plus are not unknown. In addition to the practical difficulties of governing an organisation with such a large body, there were other factors behind the decision to take the more modern approach of separating the two functions. Previously interminable meetings had wrestled with the intricacies of budgets, checks and balances, liaison with other bodies so that members had to be on top of all the myriad issues with which the institution might be dealing at the time. All in all, far too much was being discussed for too long in too big a forum. Splitting the executive and policy functions has proved a major benefit to the professional management of the institution over the past two years. The council is now solely responsible for policy and strategy formation, and establishes the direction and priorities of the organisation. Most important, it provides a crucial direct link between the ILP’s membership and that essential process. The key to this is the role of the regional councillors of which there are seven, representing all the constituent areas of the institution. Each regional councillor is elected at regional level through the regional committee and their primary role is to provide liaison and information flow between regional members and the council. In this way, grass roots members can have more direct input, and influence the direction and policy of the institution. Councillors are responsible for bringing forward to council ideas and suggestions from their region and ensuring that members’ requests, needs and suggestions are both considered and discussed.

What happens next depends largely on the subject but it can lead to ideas for training, new professional lighting guides or representation to other bodies being discussed and agreed as an issue that the ILP should address. That done, it is likely that the issue will be passed to the appropriate vice president who will be tasked with producing a viable business case for discussion by the executive board. In this way the institution’s membership can directly affect the direction and output of the ILP – one of the essential guiding principles at the heart of the reformation of the institution in 2010. The aim was to make it more inclusive and more reactive to the needs of the membership. Councillors are, in this sense, the most important people within the ILP structure. Their role in providing this link between members and the delivery mechanisms is of paramount importance. In addition to the regional councillors, the ILP officers and all vice presidents attend and contribute to the council meeting, again ensuring that direct link between delivery and the aspirations of the members. The YLP is also represented and there is an events coordinator who seeks to ensure that regional and national programmes do not clash and effectively mesh together as much as possible. The old council used to meet quarterly, an expensive and ecologically unfriendly process which has been streamlined during the past two years. Nowadays the council meets only twice a year to provide that essential face-to-face contact and uses all the modern media to make contact and operate between meetings. Of course it’s not perfect, nothing ever is. It must be borne in mind that regional councillors and the other members of the council all have a day job. Input from members at regional level is not as great as it might be. Things go wrong – that’s life. Nevertheless, the institution is fortunate to have a modern, inclusive and representative council whose underlying principle is to represent the views of the membership. I take this opportunity to urge all members to engage with your councillor, put forward your suggestions and ideas. They will not be ignored. You have a voice – don’t be afraid to use it.

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What’s new Etap

K4 emergency lighting

If there’s one application that OLEDs lend themselves well to, with their minimal slimness and homogeneous illumination, it’s emergency lighting. Belgian company Etap has taken the plunge with its K4 range, featuring a 4mm-thick signage plate. For anyone concerned at adopting a lighting technology still in its infancy, each luminaire is fitted with patented light source monitoring. A sensor constantly measures the effective clarity of the signage and issues a warning once it no longer satisfies the EN1838 standard. The signage plate with the OLEDs can, if necessary, be replaced.Housing and electronics are hidden from view in the wall or ceiling, so that only the pictogram plate shows. The K4 series works in combination with the EBS Compact central battery system, keeping electronics and housing as small as possible, says Etap, and also simplifying maintenance.

Sharp Europe

LED luminaire range


Lureon Rep OLEDs

Lureon Rep Rectangular is Tridonic’s latest addition to its OLED series for professional lighting applications. The module measures 200mm x 50mm, and is designed for use in desk luminaires, decorative lighting strips and pendants. The lighting component is less than 3mm thick and is equipped with either plug or lead contacts. Colour temperature is 4000K and system efficiency is more than 50lm/W. Typical luminous flux is 70lm. The 1.35W module also has good typical colour rendering – CRI> 90 – and small colour tolerances (MacAdam 4). Matching converters are available in dimmable and non-dimmable versions.

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

Following the trend for electronics giants to move from simply making LED sources to also manufacturing the luminaires, Sharp Europe has launched five product families and more than 46 lighting products for retail and industrial/outdoor spaces. All fittings use Sharp’s multi-chip Zenigate (Cob) LED. Yuji and Hayu are retail fittings, Tada and Kato for industrial and outdoor environments, and Yuna for use in any of the above spaces. Hayu combines spotlight and downlight, and comes in lumen packages ranging from 1300lm to 4300lm (up to 89lm/W), beam angles from 24 to 40 degrees, and 3000K and 4000K colour temperatures. Tada is a robust, moistureproof (IP66) luminaire with a diecast aluminium body and PC or PMMA diffuser with internal prisms. It is designed to tolerate impact, vibration and extreme temperatures (-25 degrees C to 35 degrees C). With lumen packages of 4300lm to 6200lm, it has a luminous efficiency of up to 103lm/W, with CRI>80.




Snap System

The founder of Californian company Soraa is Professor Shuji Nakamura, who developed the blue LED, making white light LEDs possible. The company has gone for the GaN on GaN approach to LEDs rather than the usual method of growing GaN crystals on to a dissimilar substrate such as sapphire or silicon carbide, arguing that this produces a much brighter output. It has also taken a new approach to controlling light distribution and colour with a specially developed magnetic system that allows filters and lens attachments to be fixed to the lamp itself rather than the luminaire. The system uses Soraa’s 10-degree beam LED MR16 equivalent which can accept a magnet in the centre of the lens without light output being overly affected. A simple mechanism then allows a wide range of accessories to be attached.The relatively low operating temperature of the LED source compared to halogen means that new materials such as advanced polymers can be used for accessories. The current range includes beam spreads of 25, 36 and 60 degrees, honeycomb louvres and snoots to reduce glare, an accessory to create linear light patterns, and filters for colour temperature shifting and colour tints. Soraa is also introducing a series of beam distributions that have not been possible until now, including the flat top, which creates a perfectly square or rectangular beam with even illumination.


XSolar GL-S/XSolar L-S

Steinel has launched a solar-powered, sensorcontrolled outdoor light which comes in different height options for pathway lighting, and in a wall-mounted version. All fittings have a rotatable (by 330 degrees) solar panel (monocrystalline with matted mineral glass) and a built-in compass that allows for alignment of the panel to the south. Solar energy is stored in a rechargeable lithium-ion battery (lithium ferrum phosphor). With 2.500 mAh, this provides a light reserve up to 50 days during bad weather. The battery powers white LED lighting, while the built-in PIR sensor ensures illumination only when it is needed. The pole-mounted XSolar GL-S has three different mounting heights – 1178mm, 808mm or 628mm – and measures 194mm x 188mm. The XSolar L-S, which measures 189mm x 298mm x 186.5mm, is a wall fitting, and has a 6m extension cable, allowing the solar panel to be mounted separately. With a 0.5W output, XSolar achieves a lumen output of 90lm. The XSolar GL-S provides light for an area of up to 20sqm, while the XSolar L-S can illuminate up to 30sqm. Both versions come in white or silver.

Aura Light

Aura Vinza

A compact and durable IP65 luminaire for applications such as car parks, warehouses and industrial areas, Aura Vinza comes with either the Aura UltiLED lamp or Aura T5 Eco Saver fluorescent lamp. The luminaire housing is offered in various colours.

Lighting Journal November/December 2013


YLP column

Learning or earning?

The employer’s appetite for training new employees will often affect how they recruit and whether they favour experience over education. A recent employers’ business forum debated the considerations when comparing two candidates in the 20-29 age bracket, one with four years of education and the other with four years of relevant experience. What emerged was that in general employers who are looking for someone to pick up the job quickly will favour experience, and those who are interested in the long-term potential of the employee will generally favour education. An important consideration is a candidate’s ability to learn; while education is often seen as an obvious demonstration of this ability, an experienced person can demonstrate an ability to learn through career progression. When considering continued professional development (CPD), because of the variability of content in presentations and events, employers are more likely to consider CPD as a form of experience and indication of a willingness to develop. There are some good educational courses offered by manufacturers for CPD, which we will be detailing in the next YLP column.

Tom Baynham discusses whether education or experience matters most in the lighting industry


here have been a number of reports published within the past decade analysing the importance of experience and education to employers. Research carried out by the University of Hertfordshire reports poor spelling, bad grammar, obvious exaggerations and a poorly presented job application as the most likely reasons not to interview a candidate. On the other hand, relevant work experience and a good work ethic are often considered to be of higher importance than the degree/ education of the candidate. The relative importance of experience and education is dependent on the particular industry and career. For example, in a highly technical field more emphasis is put on education where the candidate has studied the latest developments. Vocational fields such as construction, on the other hand, will value experience over education. In sales, having a good turnover track record and reputation within the industry will far outweigh any degree. Reputation is a big factor when considering the relevance of a candidate’s education and experience. Candidates who have studied an industry-recognised course will generally be favoured over those with an unrelated degree. When considering experience, favoured candidates are those who show they have made an impact on a company’s bottom line, innovated, received industry recognition, been promoted or have brought in new business. Earning a degree while working full time shows a good work ethic and a willingness to make sacrifices.

Would you like to have your voice heard by the lighting community? The YLP column is dedicated to articles, information and news about YLP members. If you’ve attended an event, or would like to write an article, or share your experiences from within the lighting industry, please contact Tom Baynham:

Job role

Priority: education vs experience

Lighting designer

Equal priority





Installation and maintenance


Product development (design)


Product development (research and development)


Job roles specific to the lighting industry (based on informal data gathered by YLP – see Lighting Journal July/August)

Lighting Journal November/December 2013

Consultants Lorraine Calcott IEng MILP MSLL MIoD It Does Ltd Milton Keynes Business Centre, Foxhunter Drive, Linford Wood, Milton Keynes, MK14 6GD

T: 01908 698869 M: 07990 962692 E: W:

These pages give details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services. Listing is included on main ILP website with logo (

Carl Gardner

Alan Jaques

Alistair Scott

CSG Lighting Consultancy Ltd

Sector Leader – Exterior Lighting

Designs for Lighting Ltd

12, Banner Buildings, 74-84 Banner Street, London EC1Y 8JU

Broadgate House, Broadgate,Beeston, Nottingham, NG9 2HF

BA (Hons) MSc (Arch) FILP

T: 02077 248543 E: W:

Professional award winning international lighting designer Lorraine Calcott creates dynamic original lighting schemes from a sustainable and energy management perspective. Helping you meet your energy targets, reduce bottom line cost and increase your ‘Green’ corporate image whilst still providing the wow factor with your interior, exterior or street lighting project.

Architectural and urban lighting design; specialist in urban lighting plans; expert witness in planning and light nuisance cases; training courses for local authorities on the prevention of light nuisance; marketing and product development consultancy for lighting manufacturers.

Mark Chandler

Stephen Halliday



MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd

Principal Engineer WSP

99 Old Bath Road, Summer Field House Charvil, Reading RG10 9QN


T: 0118 3215636, M: 07838 879 604, F: 0118 3215636 E: W:

T: 0161 886 2532 E: W:

The Victoria,150-182 The Quays, Salford, Manchester M50 3SP

IEng MILP Atkins

T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 F: +44 (0)115 9574901 E: The consultancy offers a professional exterior lighting service covering all aspects of the sector, including design, energy management, environmental impact assessments and the development of lighting strategies and policies. It also has an extensive track record for PFI projects and their indepedent certification.

BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MIMechE 17 City Business Centre, Hyde Street, Winchester SO23 7TA

T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E: W: Professional lighting design consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

Anthony Smith Are you an individual member of the ILP? Do you offer lighting consultancy? Make sure you are listed here

IEng FILP Director

Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd Lighting & Electrical Consultants, Dukes Way, Teesside Industrial Estate, Thornaby Cleveland TS17 9LT

T: 01642 766114 F: 01642 765509 E: Specialist in all forms of exterior lighting including; Motorway, Major & Minor Highway Schemes, Architectural Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Open Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Strategies, EIA’s, Planning Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.

MMA Lighting Consultancy is an independent company specialising in Exterior Lighting and Electrical Design work. We are based in the South of England and operate on a national scale delivering street lighting and lighting design solutions.

Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways. PFI technical advisor and certifier support. HERS registered site personnel.

John Conquest

Philip Hawtrey

Malcolm Mackness

Nick Smith

Technical Director

Lighting Consultancy and Design Services Ltd

Nick Smith Associates Limited



4way Consulting Ltd


Waters Green House, Sunderland Street, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 6LF

Severn House, Lime Kiln Close, Stoke Gifford, Bristol, BS34 8SQ

T: 01625 348349 F: 01625 610923 M: 07526 419248 E: W:

T: 0117 9062300, F: 0117 9062301 M: 07789 501091 E: W:

Unit 9, The Chase, John Tate Road, Foxholes Business Park, Hertford SG13 7NN

T: 07825 843524 E: W: Professional services providing design and technical support for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways and associated infrastructure. Expert surveys and environmental impact assessments regarding the effect of lighting installations and their effect on the community.

T/F: 01452 417392 E: W:

36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR

T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E: W:

Allan Howard

Tony Price

Alan Tulla

Technical Director (Lighting)

Capita Symonds

Alan Tulla Lighting

Colin Fish WSP

43 Old Cheltenham Road, Longlevens, Gloucester GL2 0AN


Road, amenity, floodlighting and cable design. Tunnel and mast lighting. Policy and environmental impact investigations.

Widely experienced professional technical consultancy services in exterior lighting and electrical installations, providing sustainable and innovative solutions, environmental assessments, ‘Invest to Save’ strategies, lighting policies, energy procurement, inventory management and technical support. PFI Technical Advisor, Designer and Independent Certifier.


BA (Hons) IEng FILP

Specialist exterior lighting design Consultant. Private or adoptable lighting and cable network design for highways, car parks, area lighting, lighting impact assessments, expert witness. CPD accredited training in lighting design, Lighting Reality, AutoCAD and other bespoke lighting courses arranged on request.

4way Consulting provides exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialises in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector (including PFI/DBFO).


Call Julie on 01536 527295 for details

BEng(Hons) CEng FILP WSP

WSP House, 70 Chancery Lane, London WC2A 1AF

T: 07827 306483 E: W: Professional exterior lighting and electrical services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice regarding energy and carbon reduction strategies, lighting efficiency legislation, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations. Registered competent designers and HERS registered site personnel.

BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Capita Symonds House, Wood Street, East Grinstead, West Sussex RH19 1UU

T: 01342 327161 F: 01342 315927 E: W: Chartered engineer leading a specialist lighting team within a multi-disciplinary environment. All aspects of exterior and public realm lighting, especially roads, tunnels, amenity and sports. Planning advice, environmental assessment, expert witness, design, technical advice, PFIs, independent certification.


12 Minden Way, Winchester, Hampshire SO22 4DS

T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E: W: Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Specialising in public realm, landscaping and building facades. Site surveys and design verification of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Visual impact assessments and reports for planning applications. Preparation of nightscape strategies for urban and rural environments. CPDs and lighting training.

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.





Kiwa CMT Testing Non-destructive testing at the root, base, swaged joint and full visual inspection of steel lighting columns. Techniques employed include the unique Relative Loss of Section meter and Swaged Joint Analyser in addition to the traditional Magnetic Particle inspection and Ultra Sonics where appropriate. Unit 5 Prime Park Way Prime Enterprise Park Derby DE1 3QB Tel 01332 383333 Fax 01332 602607




Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email: Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories Contact: Kevin Doherty Commercial Director If you would like to switch to Tofco Technology contact us NOW!

7 Drum Mains Park, Orchardton, Cumbernauld, G68 9LD Tel: 01236 458000 Fax: 01236 860555 email: steve.odonnell@maclean. Web site:


LUCY LIGHTING Lucy Zodion manufactures and supplies a complete range of Electrical/ Electronic products for Streetlighting: • Vizion CMS

Specialist in high quality decorative and festive lighting. A full range of equipment is available for direct purchase or hire including unique firework lights, column motifs, cross road displays, festoon lighting and various tree lighting systems. Our services range from supply only of materials, hire, design and or total management of schemes. More information is available from: Head Office City Illuminations Ltd Griffin House, Ledson Road, Roundthorn Ind Est Manchester M23 9GP Tel: 0161 969 5767 Fax: 0161 945 8697 Email:

Business info: Specialist Stockist and Distributors of Road Lighting, Hazardous Area, Industrial/ Commercial/ Decorative lighting. We also provide custom-built distribution panels, interior and exterior lighting design using CAD.


• Feeder Pillars • Pre-Wired Pillars • Photocells • Cutouts/Isolators

Meter Administrator

• Electronic Ballasts

Power Data Associates Ltd are the leading meter administrator in Great Britain. We achieve accurate energy calculations assuring you of a cost effective quality service. Offering independent consultancy advice to ensure correct inventory coding, unmetered energy forecasting and impact of market developments.

• Cutouts/isolators • Lighting Controls Lucy Zodion Ltd, Station Road, Sowerby Bridge, HX6 3AF tel: 01422 317337 Email:

01525 862690 Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4HR

EXTERIOR LIGHTING Designers and manufacturers of street and amenity lighting.


Manufacturers of Lighting Columns, Floodlighting & Luminaires. Specialists in the design of Lighting Schemes for sports, car parks, docks & airports. Standard Lighting Columns and Lanterns available from stock at competitive prices. Charles House, Great Amwell, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 9TA Tel: 01920 860600 Fax: 01920 485915

319 Long Acre Nechells Birmingham UK B7 5JT t: +44(0)121 678 6700 f: +44(0)121 678 6701 e:

candela L I G H T

E-mail: Website:



LUCY LIGHTING Lucy Zodion manufactures and supplies a complete range of Electrical/Electronic products for Streetlighting: • Vizion CMS • Feeder Pillars • Pre-Wired Pillars • Photocells • Cutouts/Isolators • Electronic Ballasts • Cutouts/isolators • Lighting Controls Lucy Zodion Ltd, Station Road, Sowerby Bridge, HX6 3AF tel: 01422 317337 Email:


Holscot Fluoroplastics Ltd Fluorosafe shatter resistant covers – Manufactured from high molecular weight Fluoroplastic material whose lifespan exceeds all maximum quoted lifespans for any fluorescent Lamps. Holscot supply complete covered lamps or sleeves only for self fitting.



CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality • AutoluxLighting Standards • Lighting Design Techniques • Light Pollution • Tailored Courses please ring Venues by arrangement

HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD Suppliers of a wide range of quality light measuring and photometric equipment. HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD PO Box 210 Havant, PO9 9BT Tel: 07900 571022 E-mail: enquiries@


Contact Nick Smith Alma Park Road, Alma Park Industrial Estate, Grantham, Lincs, NG31 9SE Contact: Martin Daff, Sales Director Tel: 01476 574771 Fax: 01476 563542 Email:

Nick Smith Associates Ltd 36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR t: 01246 229 444 f: 01246 270 465 e : w:

Diary 13 -14 11-12


Middle East Smart Lighting and Energy Summit Venue: Jumeirah at Etihad Towers, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Lighting Legislation (including daylight) Mid Career College Venue: CIBSE, London SW12





How to Specify Office Lighting Mid Career College Venue: CIBSE, London SW1




Lighting and Energy Efficiency Mid Career College Venue: CIBSE, London SW1

YLP AGM Venue: Mercure Hotel, London SE1

LED China 2014 (Partnered by the ILP) Venue: China Import and Export Fair Pazhou Complex, Area B, Guangzhou




Fundamental Lighting Course (One-day course on basics of light, lighting design and maintenance) Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby ILP member: £195 + VAT Non-member: £340 + VAT Contact:



Fundamental Lighting Electrical Course (One-day course on basic electrical practices and principles for outdoor lighting schemes and other electrical street furniture Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby Prices as above Contact:



Chase the Dark (IALD global guerilla lighting event) Follow on Twitter at #IALDchasedark



LuxLive Venue: Earls Court 2, London



Young Lighter of the Year Award Final Venue: Earls Court 2 (LuxLive)



Lux Awards Venue: Westminster Park Plaza, London SE1

20-21 November: LuxLive, Earls Court 2




Fundamental LED Course (One-day course on the technology, the benefits and how to apply them) Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby Prices as above Contact:



SLL Masterclass: Quality Up Energy Down Venue: BDP, Manchester





SLL Masterclass: Quality Up Energy Down Venue: Leeds Art Gallery, Leeds



Lighting and Energy Efficiency Mid Career College Venue: CIBSE, London SW1






SLL Event: LG13: Places of Worship Radio-Controlled Lighting Venue: Southwark Cathedral, London


SLL Masterclass: Quality Up Energy Down Venue: At-Bristol, Bristol



Light School at Surface Design Show (Supported by the ILP) Venue: Business Design Centre, Islington, London N1



Trotter Paterson Lecture Speaker: Sir Colin Blakemore Venue: Bishopsgate Institute, London EC2

Lighting Legislation (including daylight) Mid Career College Venue: CIBSE, London SW12


Ready Steady Light Venue: Rose Bruford College, Sidcup, Kent


March (-4 April)

Light and Building 2014 Venue: Messe Frankfurt

7-9 May

Light in the City Location: Tatu, Estonia english/projects/lic/activities/tartu

Full details of all regional events can be found at:



We are now taking bookings for Lighting Journal 2014 Advertising DISPLAY, LIGHTING DIRECTORY AND CONSULTANTS Claim a discount for Early and multi-month booking Contact Julie for information on rates and features 01536 527297



Visit us on stand no.D36 @ LuxLive 2013 to see our new LED Luminaire Range

P851 LED Road Lantern Next Generation LED Luminaire with AeroFlow ® Cooling System

AeroFlow ® Cooling

Scalable Reflector Technology

Unique aerodynamic vents created by the vertical fins and the outer rim are designed to accerlerate natural convection through the heatsink. Each airway is heated and the rising hot air draws cold air in from the bottom, maximising cooling to the LEDs. On leaving the vents, the hot air converges smoothly into a laminar flow, quickly removing heat from the luminaire.

Each luminaire uses a high purity 95% total reflectance aluminium reflector. Select from a variety of distributions to meet a wide range of lighting tasks on both main traffic routes and subsidiary roads.

Exceptional Performance


• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Next generation high flux density and efficacy LED Standard Neutral White LEDs (CCT = 4000K) Aeroflow® Cooling System Luminous Flux from 1000 to 11000 Im Superior luminaire efficacy up to 102 Im / W Multiple LED and reflector designs Suitable for all common CMS systems Minimal glare (G6,G4,G2) IP66 ingress protection Zhaga compliant module option Wind area (SCx) 0.036m² Weight (Total) 9.7kg

CU Phosco Lighting Charles House Great Amwell, Ware Herts, SG12 9TA

Maximised savings on energy and maintenance costs Colour Rendering Index > 70 L90 > 100,000 hrs (1000mA, Ta = 15˚C) Up to ME3 and S1/P1 lighting class applications Minimal total cost of ownership Improved mesopic vision and exceptional uniformity Flexible and intelligent lighting control options Dark sky-friendly (zero upward light) Slim elegant and state-of-the art design Modular upgradeability 100% recyclable, low carbon footprint Lightweight and low windage allows retrofit onto existing columns

Tel: + 44 (0) 1920 860600 Fax: + 44 (0) 1920 485915 Web: Email:

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