LJ May 17

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Professional best practice from the Institution of Lighting Professionals


Why it is time to rediscover the art of good daylight design LIGHTING OUR LIVES

How connectivity is changing what we expect lighting to do CYCLING PROFICIENCY

The fractious relationship between drivers, cyclists and lighting on our roads

The publication for all lighting professionals

May 2017

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May 2017 Lighting Journal





The rise of smartphones and tablets has opened up opportunities for connected lighting systems in homes, offices and retail outlets. So, how is the lighting industry responding to meet the expectations of today’s connected lifestyles? Andrew Brister reports


In our ever-more connected world, lighting systems have a pivotal role to play, one that, increasingly, goes far beyond illumination, argues John Gorse



A pilot project between Philips and the Globus supermarket chain in Germany has found that using coloured LED lighting can increase sales by 6% and traffic in promotional areas by 15%. Lighting Journal took a look


Connected lighting has the potential to transform the modern home and how we live. But if the slow take-up of LED lamps by consumers is anything to go by, this could be a long, slow process, suggests Fred Bass


Passengers arriving at Reykjavík’s Keflavik Airport in Iceland are now greeted with a mesmerising, colourful ceiling lighting scheme


In a two-part series, Professor Steve Fotios and academic colleagues argue that, first, lighting professionals should resist the knee-jerk response to install lighting after a road accident. But second, on page 28, there is also a debate to be had around the visibility of cyclists on our roads



Alongside the switch-off debate, there is an important discussion to be had around forcing drivers to take more care around cyclists, but also for cyclists to recognise they have a responsibility to be more visible, suggest Professor Steve Fotios and Dr Alexandra Bohm


What is the most efficient light source? It’s one that’s off. Yet the art of good daylight design in buildings has been largely lost. Dominic Meyrick makes the

case that it is high time lighting designers fought back


Cloud-based modelling and simulation tools have the potential to transform lighting design, allowing physically accurate imagery of complex scenes to be generated in seconds, using only a basic laptop or notebook computer, as Chris Blewitt outlines


With Article 50 now triggered, Britain is on its way out of the European Union. While there is still a lot we don’t know, the process is likely to throw up

legal challenges aplenty for the lighting industry, but also some opportunities. Howard Crossman and Ollie Clymow guide you through


Next month’s Professional Lighting Summit is going to be jam-packed with top-notch CPD. Lighting Journal looks at what’s in store

Professional best practice from the Institution of Lighting Professionals

MAY 2017


Why it is time to rediscover the art of good daylight design LIGHTING OUR LIVES

How connectivity is changing what we expect light to do CYCLING PROFICIENCY

The fractious relationship between drivers, cyclists and lighting on our roads

46 ILP NEWS 47 CONSULTANTS The publication for all lighting professionals



The Blavatnik School of Government at Oxford University. The lighting design, by Dominic Meyrick’s Hoare Lea Lighting, exploits the use of concrete finishes in both daylight and artificial light


think high quality means high costs? THE NEW KIRIUM PRO Our most comprehensive range of LED street lights yet. Ultimate flexibility. Minimal whole-life cost and precise lighting control.

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May 2017 Lighting Journal

Editor’s Letter

Volume 82 No 5 May 2017 President Kevin Grigg, Eng Tech AMILP Chief Executive Richard G Frost BA(Cantab) DPA HonFIAM Editor Nic Paton Email: nic@cormorantmedia.co.uk Editorial Board Tom Baynham MEng MA (Cantab) Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL IALD John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Alan Jaques IEng MILP Gill Packham BA (Hons) Nigel Parry IEng FILP Richard Webster Art Director Adriano Cattini Email: adriano@matrixprint.com Advertising Manager Andy Etherton Email: andy@matrixprint.com Published by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 E-mail: info@theilp.org.uk Website: www.theilp.org.uk Produced by

Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Unit C, Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 Email: gary@matrixprint.com Website: www.matrixprint.com © ILP 2017 The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.


here I live, right on the south coast in Gosport in Hampshire, it seems to be an unwritten rule that, if you’re cycling, you use the pavement rather than the road. Don’t get me wrong, our rules are no different to anywhere else, and Gosport Borough Council emphasises that cycling is illegal on pavements, unless signs say otherwise. But the rules are nevertheless widely ignored. And, to be honest, despite the dangers I appreciate this poses to pedestrians, my take is ‘just as well’. This is because, when cyclists do venture on to the roads, Gosport’s drivers invariably cut them up. In return, many cyclists seem to have little, if any, appreciation of the rules of the road. Most of all, as a driver myself, I am constantly astonished how many blithely weave and pedal about year-round with no lights or even reflective clothing. Perhaps Gosport is an anomaly, but I suspect it is worryingly reflective of the often dangerous dynamic between cyclists and motorists on our roads. And, as Professor Steve Fotios highlights in two articles in this edition with, respectively, Tony Price and Dr Alexandra Bohm, this is a dysfunctional relationship where lighting professionals too often get sucked in. On the one hand, lighting professionals are under intense pressure to reduce the cost and energy-use of road lighting. But, on the other, as soon as there’s an accident, whether involving vehicles, cyclists or pedestrians, the call goes out to ‘put in better lighting’, even if there is no evidence that a lack of lighting was to blame. Would changing the law to ‘presumed liability’ be helpful, or where the driver is automatically deemed at fault in a collision with non-motorised traffic unless proven otherwise? How important is access to a segregated cycle lane infrastructure? In Gosport (and again I suspect this is not unusual) what cycle lanes there are tend to be narrow strips at the side of the road that peter out at important moments, another reason why pavements are so often preferred. And to what extent is it simply a case of cyclists needing to step up and take greater responsibility for their own visibility, both in terms of what they wear and how they ride – as Gosport’s cyclists clearly seem to be failing at? The interaction of lighting, pedestrians, motorists and cyclists is a complex one, and the ILP’s TR23, TR12 and PLG02 guidance are probably as good a place to start as any. But, given the significant changes we’ve seen in lighting, signage and motoring technology in recent years, as well as the increasing numbers of cyclists on our roads year-on-year, perhaps there is an argument for a wider debate to be had, one that addresses much more fundamentally how the tensions inherent in this relationship can be better resolved in the future. And lighting professionals will very much need to be at the heart of that. Nic Paton Editor


ILP members receive Lighting Journal every month as part of their membership. You can join the ILP instantly online, through www.theilp.org.uk. Alternatively, to subscribe or order copies please email Diane Sterne at diane@theilp.org.uk. The ILP also provides a Lighting Journal subscription service to many libraries, universities, research establishments, non-governmental organisations, and local and national governments.



May 2017 Lighting Journal

‘Lifestyle’ lighting for a connected world



rom fridges that can order you more beers when stocks are running perilously low through to toilet roll holders that can tell FM teams when paper levels are, equally, running perilously low, everyday devices are getting smarter. There was little fanfare when, back in 1999, British technologist Kevin Ashton came up with the term ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT) to define a network that not only connects people, but also the objects around them. Now, the number of connected devices is forecast to reach 50 billion units worldwide by 2020. Whatever you think about the whys and wherefores of a connected toilet roll holder, there is no doubt there is great potential in integrating lighting into today’s lifestyles. With smartphones and tablets now ubiquitous, manufacturers are looking to connect equipment so that you can switch on your lighting remotely as you approach the house or change the mood by adjusting the lighting from the comfort of your sofa. ‘Home lighting is increasingly being seen as a lifestyle element that can be programed to fit a household’s requirements,’ agrees Marie Parry, marketing director of Scolmore Group. ‘They see it not just as a means of controlling energy usage inside and outside the home, but also providing the ability to

CONNECTED LIVING www.theilp.org.uk

May 2017 Lighting Journal

create zones and scenes throughout the home. Scene controls or scene settings allow the illumination of an area based on the lighting needs and activities undertaken there. This means different options can be set up for different times of day, for example a good strong light for reading and small table lamps for watching TV,’ she adds. How much the public actually wants to embrace such technology remains a moot point, yet with Ikea set to join the smart home lighting market, it could finally gain traction in households. However, it is the commercial world that is really exciting the major lighting suppliers. As data becomes an essential commodity for estates teams to monitor space usage, the lighting equipment sector is seizing an opportunity. ‘As luminaires and lighting are found almost everywhere, building and street lighting will play an important role in the development of the IoT as an infrastructure carrier in the form of sensors,’ explains Markus Messmer, senior director data-based services at Zumtobel Group Services (ZGS), a new division which the group has established precisely to capitalise on this growing market.

The rise of smartphones and tablets has opened up opportunities for connected lighting systems in homes, offices and retail outlets. So, how is the lighting industry responding to meet the expectations of today’s connected lifestyles? By Andrew Brister



May 2017 Lighting Journal

‘Lifestyle’ lighting for a connected world



‘Lighting is an infrastructure that can make a significant contribution to supporting the IoT,’ says Markus. ‘Digital sensor and communication elements such as presence sensors, beacons for indoor navigation, thermostats, etc. can be integrated without any problems.’ Zumtobel is by no means alone in seeing the potential. Philips Lighting’s connected system at The Edge building for Deloitte in Holland is a recent example of how lighting has entered the world of Big Data, and John Gorse from Philips provides his own take on this evolution from page 12. Others venturing into this market include Feilo Sylvania, which has been working on a number of commercial pilot schemes across the world in which its customers are now paying for the data gathered through the luminaires. ‘Smart lighting goes beyond the world of lighting and can add real value to commercial properties through the data that can be collected,’ claims Bastiaan de Groot, global director strategy and new business development senior at Feilo Sylvania. ‘The biggest opportunity is to utilise the data coming from the luminaires and use this to optimise the operation of the building, beyond just operating the lighting itself more efficiently. The value created by utilising this data is ten times bigger than the value created by installing the most energy-efficient luminaires.’ Data is being harvested to help the building manager to determine to what extent meeting rooms, offices or communal spaces are actually being used, so allowing their use to be optimised and, in turn, leading to considerable cost savings. ZGS has teamed up with property developer Land Securities Group to turn three of its conference rooms in London into ‘living laboratories’ to prove the value of connected lighting and data-based software services for customers. ‘Users of state-of-the-art office buildings will not only receive information about the lighting system, but will be able to use the available data about presence for new services which go beyond lighting,’ says ZGS’ Markus Messmer. ‘For example, presence information can give an indication of how frequently rooms or spaces are used. This opens up a number of services such as optimising the deployment of cleaning staff. Rooms which are frequently used will also be cleaned more often,’ he adds. www.theilp.org.uk



German supermarket EDEKA Paschmann is testing an indoor positioning system through Philips

If meeting rooms are only rarely used, they can be converted to offices if there’s a lack of workspaces. Employees who rarely use their workspace can share flexible desk space. ‘The interesting thing about these new services is no new lighting system or sensors are required; instead, existing information from the lighting control system is simply used differently,’ says Markus. So far, Deloitte and Land Securities remain rare examples and the market is very much in its infancy. ‘This is still far from a mature market, and is full of promises and hype,’ says Dominic Meyrick, partner at lighting design consultancy Hoare Lea. ‘As DALI is only just getting on to projects in meaningful ways, the connected lighting market, for example Power over Ethernet (PoE) and Bluetooth, has a long way to go. It needs to find large, early adopters, who can testify to the benefits – it seems none are forthcoming at present.’ ‘The key challenge is engaging stakeholders at the customer organisation to embrace this new technology,’ admits Feilo Sylvania’s Bastiaan de Groot. ‘They need to understand the benefits and what value the data collection can bring to the busi-

ness as a whole. The upfront cost of upgrading the lighting scheme is also often a prohibitive factor.’ ZGS believes the challenges in a fast-moving market consist of choosing the right system and evaluating its sustainability. ‘The main focus here is on the flexibility and the possibility to keep the system up to date,’ says Markus Messmer. Dominic Meyrick thinks there is some way to go before the market is convinced. ‘Suppliers will have to show more positive benefits, in particular reduced costs of installation and power consumption, than current providers to the office sector are showing,’ he says. Tridonic is another manufacturer looking to meet these challenges. ‘Individual isolated components will no longer be developed, but rather integrated solutions – from IP-connected drivers in the luminaire, to the service in the Cloud,’ forecasts Mathias Burger, director product management controls at Tridonic. ‘Up to now, Tridonic’s target market mainly comprised luminaire manufacturers. Since these new technologies influence end-customers’ solutions, we are now also approaching these new stakeholders to communicate the new opportunities of IP-connected lighting,’ he adds.

By Valmont

Valmont Stainton is part of the world’s largest global supplier of street lighting infrastructure and has over 35 years of manufacturing experience here in the UK. In this day and age we are all very safety conscious and maintaining lighting at a height with a ladder is a distant memory. The new addition to our comprehensive range of hinged products, the Rota, our base hinged stepped tubular column (4m to 6m) brings together our tried and tested experience, with state of the art design and development that has resulted in our greatest success yet!

ONE MAN OPERATION The Rota raising and lowering system comprises a spring load dampening device, which enables the raising and lowering of the column in a controlled manner, resulting in access to the light at ground level, within seconds. The device also houses the key to access the door and to remove the Rei-lux anti vandal screw which allows the lowering of the pole.

MULTI FUNCTIONAL ROTA The Rota is designed to be a multi functional product, and is currently used in combination with public lighting, CCTV and even with weather analysis equipment.

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May 2017 Lighting Journal

‘Lifestyle’ lighting for a connected world


Deloitte’s The Edge building in Holland: its Philips Lighting connected lighting system is a great example of how lighting has entered the world of Big Data


French hypermarket chain E.Leclerc Langon is working with Zumtobel to test a range of light-led technologies



The retail sector is one that is exciting the industry as to its potential, as visitors to the recent EuroShop 2017 show will attest. Philips, for example, announced that the EDEKA Paschmann supermarket in Düsseldorf is the first in Germany to benefit from its indoor positioning system. A smartphone app connects with sensors in the luminaires to give shoppers access to location-based services, such as finding items at the store’s 2,400sq m shop area, with an accuracy of 30cm. ‘Retailers can also learn how customers spend time in store and understand what paths they take on their journey through the space,’ agrees Bastiaan de Groot. ‘This can then inform retailers as to the best layout to navigate customers and high-traffic areas can also be targeted with key products or displays.’ Zumtobel has recently joined forces with E.Leclerc Langon, a French hypermarket chain, on a pilot project for retail stores. The two companies will work with partners to validate technology including indoor location, smart parking, mobile push marketing and virtual customer assistance.


Betting on the future is a risky business, of course. The recent fall into administration of smart lighting controls specialist Organic Response is a warning to all. What’s for certain is the industry needs more open systems to turn the smart vision into reality. ‘We use the lighting controls system LITECOM as the platform where we turn data into relevant information,’ says Markus Messmer. ‘At the moment, LITECOM works with existing DALI installations. Due to its open software architecture, it will in future also support new technologies like PoE without having to undergo a system change,’ he adds. ‘This is only the beginning of our journey in smart lighting,’ agrees Bastiaan de Groot. ‘Over time we will be able to integrate even more sensor functionality into the luminaire. This will enable the sensor and the lighting to be the digital infrastructure of the building. These are exciting times and it’s only going to continue.’ ¢

Andrew Brister is a freelance journalist who specialises in light and lighting www.theilp.org.uk

May 2017 Lighting Journal

‘Lifestyle’ lighting for a connected world


In our ever-more connected world, lighting systems have a pivotal role to play, one that, increasingly, goes far beyond illumination By John Gorse


May 2017 Lighting Journal


he shift from analogue to digital has completely changed our world over the last 30 years. We now walk around with smartphones in our pockets containing more computing power than that which helped Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon in 1969. Supported by powerful connectivity, the IoT is driving new ways to collaborate, innovate and socialise. From a relatively slow start a couple of decades ago, LED lighting has come to dominate almost every aspect of how we illuminate interior and exterior spaces. Whether it’s interactive lighting in our homes, general lighting in an office or factory, or streetlights across a city, LEDs are now the number one choice. The energy efficiency and maintenance


benefits of LED lighting are now widely accepted. But, as the technology matures, wider uses for LED lighting systems are becoming more apparent. The lighting industry is evolving once more, building on the digital nature of LED technology to bring illumination and IT together, embracing the IoT. In the world of the IoT, it’s all about the data. Connected devices are connected expressly for the purpose of gathering and sharing information about themselves, about the environment in which they’re used and about the people who use them. In a connected lighting system, luminaires and other lighting system devices merge with IT networks to allow for the collection, distribution, and storage of large amounts of data. As a result, connected lighting systems are delivering new value beyond illumination. www.theilp.org.uk

May 2017 Lighting Journal

‘Lifestyle’ lighting for a connected world



Connected lighting systems are uniquely positioned to serve as platforms for sensor networks. Lighting is everywhere in streets, public spaces, offices and homes. In 2006, there were approximately 43.8 billion light points globally – estimates predict that by 2030 there will be 59.2 billion, a 35% increase. By integrating sensors into the lighting system, you have a ready-made, distributed grid – no need for a separate physical infrastructure, separate power runs, or separate data cabling. Sensors can collect data about human activity – the flow of foot traffic, usage patterns, preferences; the environment – daylight levels, temperature, humidity, the presence of chemicals or other dangers; and ‘things’ – the locations of items in a warehouse, traffic patterns, and so on. The workplace of the future will certainly rely on such data to make all big decisions and lighting will be a digital ceiling infrastructure, acting as a pathway for information and data. Waterpark Place, the Canadian headquarters of Cisco in Toronto is a great example of the kind of office environments that will one day be commonplace around the world. Demonstrating how dynamic office spaces can become smarter and more energy efficient than ever before, the connected lighting system used in Toronto integrates seamlessly with the IT systems in the building. Cisco’s ambition was for a lighting solution for its four-storey office that would match its modern and intelligent workspace, optimising building performance and creating an inviting environment. Some 1,400 luminaires in the building are connected using Power over Ethernet, which enables them to gather data that can change the user experience and the energy usage in ways that were not previously possible. This means that lighting and the HVAC system can respond to the presence and movement of people in the building, both saving energy and making it a more pleasant place for people to work. The connected luminaires are uniquely identified by an IP address, allowing them to be individually monitored, managed, and controlled. Each light point sends and receives data, allowing managers to track things like occupancy patterns and changes in temperature, while employees can personalise their lighting. Typically, lighting is responsible for www.theilp.org.uk


Left and opposite, Cisco’s Waterpark Place in Toronto: its 1,400 luminaires are connected using Power over Ethernet and can gather data to change the user experience and the energy usage. This includes creating a more personalised workspace lighting

40% of a building’s electricity use, but energy use can be reduced dramatically by bringing the IoT to office buildings. Cisco estimates that the 1,400 LED luminaires in Waterpark Place alone will result in a 50% energy saving over traditional fluorescent lighting. With the connected lighting operations in place, it expects to save 80%. The additional energy saving will result from analysing the data and optimising space usage. In addition, because fixtures receive both data and power over a single Ethernet connection, this eliminates the need for costly electrical wiring during construction or renovation.


Although the technology’s fairly new, it’s already hard to imagine life without GPS. Almost everywhere on the planet, people depend on navigation and mobile apps for location-specific information and services. By integrating wireless communications into the lighting system, you can deliver location-based services and in-context information via mobile apps to people in illuminated spaces. Retailers can enhance the shopping experience with wayfinding and in-store promotions, giving shoppers new reasons to buy. Hospitals can use wayfinding to

May 2017 Lighting Journal


help patients arrive on time for appointments and reduce stress. Businesses can help warehouse staff work more efficiently with easier product finding and location-based stocking instructions. Employers can give employees lighting and temperature controls for their workspaces, or could suggest nearby empty meeting rooms based on current location, making them more comfortable and productive. Imagine a large food store with indoor positioning. A shopper can use a specially designed mobile app to register with the system, which precisely locates him in the store. The app maps out the best route through the store based on a customer’s shopping list, making suggestions for related products not on the list, and even offering special coupons on selected items. For security purposes, shoppers can register with the system anonymously. But they may be able to receive special discounts and other incentives by agreeing to allow retailers to track their movements and shopping history in store. This would work exactly like creating a

personal profile on a retailer’s website online. This allows the retailer to track visits, clickstream data, and purchasing history in exchange for special deals. Retailers can benefit enormously from such customer data, using it to improve traffic flows, floor plans, displays, and other aspects of the store’s operations to enhance customer experience and loyalty. One effective wireless technology for indoor positioning is visible light communications (VLC), where data is transmitted over the beam of LED light itself. This datastream can be received by the camera on a customer’s smartphone. VLC is especially valuable in retail settings because of its high accuracy, to less than half a metre.


With lighting management software running in the IT network or the Cloud, connected lighting systems offer a much richer environment for system administrators to oversee and optimise operations. Lighting management software systems

that integrate tightly with connected luminaires – such as our CityTouch for street lighting or ActiveSite for dynamic architectural lighting – give system managers the ability to see the current state of each lightpoint, and to act on lightpoints individually or in groups. Map-based interfaces make it easy to change configurations, update dimming schedules, and swap out light shows just by pointing and clicking. Systems can be set up to send alerts when operations are disrupted or unusual events occur. Because luminaires can share data about themselves, these alerts can include all relevant information about the luminaire’s location, type, settings, and so on – information that technicians can use to rapidly respond to and resolve any issues that might arise. This is especially powerful where luminaires are distributed over a wide area, such as street lighting in a city. Tickets and repair orders can be remotely managed and distributed, eliminating the need for work crews to drive around the streets at night to identify outages. When combined with a database, lighting management software can let organisations store historical data on operations, along with any data streams aggregated from sensor networks and indoor positioning systems. It’s hard to underestimate the value of the data-driven insights that can result from analysing and reporting on this data, especially when combined with valuable data from additional sources.


While we have just begun to scratch the surface of how lighting can improve lives and create a better world, early applications are already proving connected digital lighting can add real value to our public spaces and buildings. Technological developments, design possibilities and the ability to connect billions of things are allowing light to be integrated into our lives in totally new ways. However, to unlock the true potential of the Internet of Things, strategic partnerships between technology companies are crucial. These partnerships will deliver previously unthinkable value by using lighting as the backbone of smart cities, offices and homes; reimagining our relationship with light.

John Gorse is technical solutions manager for Philips UK & Ireland ¢ www.theilp.org.uk


May 2017 Lighting Journal

‘Lifestyle’ lighting for a connected world

COLOUR CONSCIOUS A pilot project between Philips and the Globus supermarket chain in Germany has found that using coloured LED lighting can increase sales by 6% and traffic in promotional areas by 15%. Lighting Journal took a look By Nic Paton



etailers have traditionally lit stores using uniform, white, overhead lighting. But a research project between Philips and German supermarket chain Globus is turning this conventional wisdom on its head. The project, in collaboration with the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) and the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT), conducted a series of experiments at the Globus supermarket in Saarbrücken to study the impact of different combinations of coloured lighting on sales and customer behaviour. Researchers spent two months testing different lighting conditions at the supermarket’s 180sq m promotional display area. www.theilp.org.uk


Three settings were tested: the store’s uniform overhead lighting, regular spotlights and a combination of spotlights with pastel coloured uplights. The most effective setting was spotlights with pastel coloured uplights, which led to a 6% increase in sales of goods in its particular promotional display area. This same combination of coloured lights created an ambience where shoppers were more likely to stop and browse, and increased customer visits by 15%, compared to the standard store lighting. When the conventional lighting was replaced by spotlights alone there was still an increase in customer visits – 7% – but not as pronounced as with the spotlights combined with pastel coloured uplights.

The 58 spotlights used in the experiment did strengthen the appearance of products by increasing contrast. But adding coloured uplighting (aimed at the ceiling) as well helped to differentiate the promotional zone and make it more visible from far away. ‘Adding soft pastel colours to highlight products is a potential game-changer for the retail industry. For the first time, research has shown that different lighting conditions can affect shopper behaviour and drive increased store revenues,’ says Gonneke Gros, segment lead food and large retail at Philips Lighting. Philips has also argued this latest study has reaffirmed its earlier research suggesting that using soft pastel colours can make customers feel happier and more comfortable when shopping, while saturated colours can increase stress levels. ¢

May 2017 Lighting Journal

‘Lifestyle’ lighting for a connected world

HOME COMFORTS Connected lighting has the potential to transform the modern home and how we live. But it won’t happen by itself; the public will need to be convinced of its merits. And if take-up of LED lamps is anything to go by, despite their obvious benefits, this could be a long, slow process By Fred Bass

W 18

hen Stanley Kubrick was making his seminal film 2001: A Space Odyssey, the idea of a voice-activated computer like HAL 9000, seemed pure science-fiction. Today, voice-activated smartphones or computers are, of course, commonplace. Now technology means our lighting, heating and home entertainment systems can be switched on or off either remotely from our smartphone and computer or by verbal commands made while in the home. Yet if we want the public fully to embrace home automation in this fast-paced, modern world, we need to consider how we interact, and want to interact, with our home environment and, crucially, how lighting plays its part. The first challenge is for consumers to make the shift from old-fashioned lamps to smart lighting. LEDs are, of course, one of the key enabling technologies that allows advanced home automation systems to work. However, at the moment, there is still a relatively low penetration in the domestic market for LED technology. Many home-owners question why they should spend several pounds on an LED lamp when buying an incandescent one costs less than a pound.


This is gradually changing. Last year, for example, there was close to 20% penetration in Western Europe for domestic specification of LEDs. The final phase of the ban on halogen lamps, which comes into effect from September 2018, is likely to accelerate this transition. Yet, when we compare this figure with the more than 60% of LEDs specified for new street lighting installations during the www.theilp.org.uk

same period, it is clear the domestic market still has a lot of catching up to do. Education on the many benefits of LED needs to start with lighting companies like ours. For example, lighting companies need to be working with installers or contractors who can, in turn, communicate the benefits of LED to consumers. Once the end user fully embraces LED lighting, the next step is home automation. But this poses another challenge. Yes, the argument that ‘smart’ lighting that can be switched on and off remotely will save you energy and be convenient around the home is easy to make. But it is also important that controllers are intuitive, reliable, simple to use and easy to understand, otherwise consumers will quickly become frustrated and switch off, quite literally. The majority of new technologies go through many refinements before they reach wide acceptance. At Megaman, our first generation of controllers, for example, appealed to the technically savvy but were, in truth, quite complex to use. Our wall-mounted controller is now much simpler and mimics the simplicity of a conventional wall dimmer switch.


Another issue that will need to be addressed is compatibility. When two different protocols or technologies are installed the system too often becomes inoperable which is, again, frustrating for the consumer. Some manufacturers of the electronics for home automation systems are now producing systems compatible with several different protocols, but this needs to become much more the norm. But for lifestyles to really change and for connected lighting really to take off, we

May 2017 Lighting Journal



need an integration or convergence of all the different systems. Electronics manufacturers need to ensure their systems are compatible with all the major protocols available – only then will home automation begin to be genuinely connected and integrated. We’re working to provide a common lighting element that will be compatible with every home automation kit. Given that we manufacture everything connected with low-energy lighting, including switches, dimmers, sensors and the lights themselves, we recognise we are in a good position to integrate with others. To give a good example of how we’re already seeing this integration work in practice, Amazon recently launched its own innovative smart home technology in the shape of the Amazon Echo. As many of you will undoubtedly be aware, this is a cylindrical, hands-free Bluetooth speaker with built-in microphone that connects the user to its Alexa voice service. Alexa, in turn, is a voice control platform capable of controlling many aspects of the home, including light switches, power outlets and heating thermostats. Where Alexa is particularly meaningful for smart-home users is the fact it enables the user to control connected devices without having to use a smartphone or launch an app. By using voice-activation, the technology allows the user to search the web, create to-do and shopping lists, get instant weather reports and control popular smart-home products. And the important point is the Echo has brought together several things that Amazon is already doing. Suddenly there is this convergence that allows consumers to use different brands from one app or platform.

The Megaman Smart Home Range: as home automation evolves, intelligent lighting components will need to be compatible and simple to use


Left: the Amazon Echo. As a device, it is not without its limitations, but this sort of connected home technology is an indication of what is coming next


It still has its limitations. The Echo won’t, for example, replace a well-programmed smart-home hub; it is more of an interface for a smart home that provides functionality an app on a phone cannot. But it is certainly an indication of what is coming next.

At Megaman, we’re in much the same place. Our Ingenium BLU Generation 2, for example, applies Bluetooth 4.1 technology to control light fixtures in a home. It employs a mesh network topology that allows for the control of substantially more lamps than its first-generation variant, while using less of a smart device’s battery power. It will switch lighting on or off, dim lights, set lighting scenes, and control the timing. But it is again limited because it operates on a local level and cannot be controlled from a distance over Wi Fi. However, our Ingenium ZB range, which uses ZigBee protocol, can be linked to Wi Fi. This enables the user to control more than 200 devices simultaneously and remotely from anywhere via a mobile app. We are currently developing the next generation of the ZB range and firmly believe that, as home automation systems develop and become more desirable and useful, intelligent lighting components that are compatible and simple to use will be the way forward. A further area that will undoubtedly be hugely important to get right is security. For example, the Amazon Echo/Alexa Hub is an exciting and helpful solution, but its ability to be connected to many devices over the web and always to be listening for commands is cause for concern, as there is potential there for electronic hacking. To be sure, manufacturers of these smart systems are well aware of this issue, but there will be an ongoing need to ensure – and to be able to demonstrate – that devices are secure. I am sure the evolution to home automation will come. Our increasingly hectic lifestyles and general enthusiasm for time-saving gadgets, the penetration and increasing reliability of high-speed broadband and Wi Fi in the home, the fact wireless lighting systems don’t need to be physically cut into walls and plasterwork will, I am sure, see to that in time. There’s a lot to play for, and a real opportunity here for lighting. But for smart, connected lighting to become accepted and mainstream in the home, we need LED to be adopted more widely, we need compatibility to be addressed and overcome as an issue, and consumers need to be reassured these systems are going to be intuitive, safe, reliable and secure. Let’s be in no doubt how much of a job there still is to do.

Fred Bass is director of Neonlite, owner of Megaman ¢ www.theilp.org.uk


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May 2017 Lighting Journal

Airport lighting: projects

FLIGHT ATTENDANT Passengers arriving at Reykjavík’s Keflavik Airport in Iceland are now greeted with a mesmerising, colourful ceiling lighting scheme, as Lighting Journal discovers By Nic Paton



eflavik Airport in Reykjavík in Iceland is currently undergoing an extensive refurbishment and expansion programme that its owner Isavia (the Icelandic Civil Aviation Authority) is hoping will more than double visitor numbers from its current 6.25 million a year to 14 million by 2040. Part of this expansion programme has extended to a general overhaul of the lighting across the terminal, an opportunity that lighting design firm Nulty has used to channel its creativity, in collaboration with architect Soffía Valtýsdóttir and engineers Jon Kolbeinn, Ester Rós Jónsdóttir and Páll Svavar Pálsson. Taking as inspiration the aurora borealis or ‘Northern Lights’, it has created a

colourful, light-led ‘floating sky’ of chromatic colours above the heads of passengers as they make their way through the terminal. Indeed, the design can be tuned to mirror the actual aurora borealis via a live link feeding meteorological data. The light show flows at differing speeds and intensity according to passenger footfall through the terminal, with deeper, saturated colours and intense movements at peak flow times, while subtler tones and more tranquil movements are used when the terminal is less busy. The system also has the flexibility to showcase, for example, the Gay Pride colours or other light designs associated with Iceland’s cultural identity.


The design spans the entire length of the airport building and relies on three key elements to recreate the colour-rich horizon. These are: discreet RGBW luminaries fitted to the perforated metal Mero-ceiling structure, small white circular lights fitted to the intersection nodes that mimic the effect of stars, and dynamic white linear elements on the bulkheads, intended to recreate the horizon. Nulty creative director Daniel Blaker argues that one of the keys to the design has been the discreetly concealed lighting in the structural framework, which aims to reinforce the architectural accents. ‘In the food and beverage zones, indirect warm white linear light creates a soft wash on to adjacent architectural details. In the retail spaces, crisp white uniform lines of illumination enhance the entrances,’ he points out. ‘The lighting is deliberately dramatic but also required to be functional, using shielded high-level LED sources to provide general lighting to the public space beneath. Zones of light are created to help break-up the space identified by purpose.’ It also stands to reason that security areas require highly levels of illumination during hours of operation. ‘The height of the space is used as a strap-line employing the drama of feature to draw the eye upwards, tying the whole airport together, irrespective of what area is beneath,’ says Daniel. ¢ www.theilp.org.uk


May 2017 Lighting Journal

Road lighting and accidents: why lighting is not the only answer


In a two-part series, Professor Steve Fotios and academic colleagues argue that, first, lighting professionals should resist the knee-jerk response to install lighting after a road accident. But second, on page 28, there is also a debate to be had around the visibility of cyclists on our roads


By Professor Steve Fotios and Tony Price


May 2017 Lighting Journal


n the UK in 2015 there were 186,189 reported road accident casualties of all severities, of which 23,874 were killed or seriously injured (KSI) [1]. One reason for installing lighting along main roads is to reduce the frequency and severity of road traffic accidents after dark. Road lighting is expected to do this because it improves a driver’s ability to see potential hazards not otherwise revealed by a vehicle’s headlights. There is evidence that, in general, this approach is successful. First, consider the impact of installing road lighting: the Cochrane review of road traffic studies concluded that road lighting may prevent road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities [2]. On Dutch roads, road lighting reduces injury accidents during the hours of darkness by approximately 50% [3]. The next consideration is whether the amount of light matters. A study from New Zealand found a 19% reduction in after-dark crashes (across all types of reported accident) for each 0.5 cd/m2 increase in average luminance [4]. The reduction varied with context, ranging from 15% for crashes on wet roads to 56% for midblock collisions with pedestrians. Note that these figures are for an increase in luminance and therefore are likely to underestimate the benefit of lighting a previously unlit road. Note also that these data were collected on roads with average luminances of approximately 0.5 to 1.75 cd/m2 and that further increase of luminance above this will at some point bring negligible return. Neither the presence of road lighting, nor an increase of luminance, is a universal solution for all accidents. If enough light were all that mattered there would be no accidents in daylight, and that is self-evidently not the case. Some accidents may arise because the driver (or pedestrian or cyclist) was distracted. We know drivers are less responsive to hazards when distracted by actions such as operating the audio system or using a mobile phone [5]. Mobile phone use can cause a greater distraction, and significantly slower reaction times, than that associated with the legal limit for blood alcohol level [6]. One type of accident known to benefit from road lighting is collisions involving pedestrians. A novel approach to isolating the effect of light on accidents is to compare accident rates for the same hour in periods that are either in daylight or after dark, according to the annual variation in daylight hours. Using this method, it was found that for pedestrians there is a 100% www.theilp.org.uk


May 2017 Lighting Journal

Road lighting and accidents: why lighting is not the only answer


increase in the risk of being involved in a road accident after dark, but there was no change in risk for car occupants [7]. A study using Dutch accident data found that, after dark, the risk of pedestrian collision on unlit roads increases by 360% compared with daytime, but that this reduces to 140% on lit roads [3]. Drivers are not solely responsible for collisions involving pedestrians. A study of 6,434 pedestrian crashes in Florida, in the three-year period 2008-2010, concluded pedestrians were at fault in 53% of the cases and drivers for 28.2 % [8]. Using lighting to improve the vision of drivers is less likely to reduce those accidents where pedestrians are at fault.


This type of information is useful knowledge for road lighting professionals who are under pressure to install road lighting, or improve road lighting, in response to an accident. There are many such reports in the media but here we focus on one, an online article from a tabloid newspaper report into an inquest [9]. The accident involved a young driver who was struck by a lorry whilst walking on a motorway. The accident happened at 03:30am, the driver having just finished a late shift (18:00 to 03:00) at work. Initially, the driver’s vehicle had struck the central reservation of the motorway. The driver was then struck whilst subsequently walking outside the vehicle. www.theilp.org.uk

According to the report: ‘Witnesses reported seeing [the] car swerve from the inside lane across three lanes of traffic before crashing into the central reservation before coming to a stop in the inside lane. [The driver] got out of the vehicle and fled to the hard shoulder and told a witness that [he/she] had ‘nodded off’ at the wheel. But [he/she] returned to the car to inspect the damage and to put on the car’s hazard warning lights and was struck by a passing HGV.’ (For the purposes of this article we have changed the text to mask the driver’s identity). An important point from the perspective of lighting professionals is that this section of road was apparently unlit. The paper reported the attending police officer as telling the inquest, ‘the fact that street lights were not on in that stretch of road had played a major part in the incident’. The coroner is also reported to have concluded: ‘I accept what [the police officer] said that if there had been lights in this area that the collision would not have occurred.’ However, in reality, there was no basis for the coroner’s statement that the accident would not have happened had there been road lighting. As shown in the accident studies reported above, road lighting reduces the frequency of accidents after dark but does not prevent all accidents. To analyse this more closely, the first element of this incident was that the driver hit the central reservation. An analysis of

accidents using the daylight savings transition (in other words comparing accidents for a specific time of day which is dark or daylit at different times of year) suggests there is little effect of ambient light for crashes involving a single vehicle running off the road [10]. In particular, road lighting may have more effect at junctions than locations between junctions. The New Zealand study found that a luminance increase did not have significant influence on midblock collisions involving overtaking, head-on collisions or where there was a loss of control on straight sections. In the inquest report, the coroner referred to other contributory factors. For example: ‘From the evidence, it is likely that [the driver] was drowsy or had a short period where [he/she] may have gone to sleep.’ Crash risk is far greater amongst drivers who are drowsy (a 14-fold increase in risk according to one study [11]) and drowsiness is specifically noted to affect people driving home after a night shift [12]. The driver was young (aged 23) and it is known that greater experience improves the ability to acquire and assess information in inherently risky situations [13]. It was also apparent the driver perceived the absence of road lighting to be dangerous, and should therefore have been able to consider in advance the need for caution. Despite these contributory factors, the coroner still claimed the accident would have been avoided had the road been lit. This accident may be considered as two separate events. First, the driver hit the central reservation, and second, the driver was hit by a lorry when walking outside of the vehicle. Motorway drivers do not expect to see pedestrians and they are therefore less likely to attract attention and be easily recognised as pedestrians in time to take appropriate action. There is a tendency for pedestrians and cyclists to overestimate their own visibility to motorists [14] or similarly to overestimate drivers’ visual capabilities [15]. Retroreflective material on the arms, wrists and ankles or other areas is known to increase conspicuity; with retroreflective trim on their clothing a pedestrian can be detected at a distance of over 300m, but at distances of less than 100m if wearing only dark clothing [16]. However, retroreflectance is of little benefit if it is not illuminated by the driver’s headlights. What may be better is an active approach to raising the conspicuity of roadside pedestrians, such as an LED


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May 2017 Lighting Journal

Road lighting and accidents: why lighting is not the only answer band or electroluminescent material [17]. If it were required that vehicles carry such active devices for pedestrian conspicuity alongside a warning triangle and high-visibility vest, then this might have increased the chance of the driver being seen by the lorry driver much more so than if the road were lit.


A key priority of the 2015 British Road Safety Statement [18] was the protection of vulnerable road users such as pedestrians. While accident statistics suggest road lighting reduces accident frequency, this refers to a large number of cases and not to a specific event. For any specific accident, there are likely to be multiple contributory factors. Lighting professionals should resist pressure to install lighting in response to an accident unless it is clear that the underlying cause was lack of lighting. This will prevent attention and resources being diverted from where they will be most effective.

Professor Steve Fotios is professor of lighting and visual perception at Sheffield University’s School of Architecture and Tony Price is a lighting consultant with Vanguardia Consulting ¢



Study. IATSS Research, 2013; 36; 139-145.

[1] Department for Transport (DfT). Reported road casualties in Great Britain: Main results 2015. First published 29/09/2016 and retrieved from https://www.gov. uk/government/statistics/reportedroad-casualties-great-britain-annualreport-2015

[5] Horberry T, Anderson J, Regan MA, Triggs TJ, Brown J. Driver distraction: The effects of concurrent in-vehicle tasks, road environment complexity and age on driving performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2006; 38; 185-191.

[2] Beyer & Ker. Street lighting for preventing road traffic injuries (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration. 2009. [3] Wanvik PO. Effects of road lighting: An analysis based on Dutch accident statistics 1987-2006. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2009; 41; 123-128. [4] Jacket M, Frith W. Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety — A New Zealand


[6] Burns, P.C., Parkes, A., Burton, S., Smith, R.K., Burch, D., 2002. How dangerous is driving with a mobile phone? Benchmarking the impairment to alcohol. TRL Report 547, Crowthorne, UK. [7] Johansson Ö, Wanvik PO, Elvik R. A new method for assessing the risk of accident associated with darkness. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2009; 41; 809-815. [8] Alluri P, Haleem K, Gan A,

Lavasani M, Saha D. Comprehensive Study to Reduce Pedestrian Crashes in Florida. Tallahassee: Florida Department of Transportation. 2015. [9] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/ news/article-4002666/SamanthaDerbyshire-survived-road-better-LIT. html [10] Sullivan JM, Flannagan MJ. The role of ambient light level in fatal crashes: inferences from daylight saving time transitions. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2002; 34; 487-498. [11] Cummings P, Koepsell TD, Moffat JM, Rivara FP. Drowsiness, counter-measures to drowsiness, and the risk of a motor vehicle crash. Injury Prevention, 2001; 7; 194-199. Department for Transport (DfT). 2015a. Reported road casualties in Great Britain: main results 2015.

[12] Steele MT, Ma OJ, Watson WA, Thomas Jr. HA, Muelleman RL. The Occupational Risk of Motor Vehicle Collisions for Emergency Medicine Residents. Academic Emergency Medicine 1999; 6; 1050–1053. [13] Pradhan AK, Hammel KR, DeRamus R, Pollatsek A, Noyce DA, Fisher DL. Using eye movements to evaluate effects of driver age on risk perception in a driving simulator. Human Factors, 2005; 47(4); 840–852. [14] Wood JM et al. Bicyclists overestimate their own night-time conspicuity and underestimate the benefits of retroreflective markers on the moveable joints. Accident Analysis and Prevention 2013; 55;48-53. [15] Balk SA, O’Brooks JO, Klein

N, Grygier J. Pedestrians’ estimates of their own visibility: A simple and effective computer-based technique. Journal of Safety Research, 2012; 43; 101-106. [16] Sayer JR, Mefford ML. High visibility safety apparel and nighttime conspicuity of pedestrians in work zones. Journal of Safety Research, 2004; 35; 537-546. [17] Fekety DK, Edewaard DE, Stafford Sewall AA, Tyrrell RA. Electroluminescent materials can further enhance the nighttime conspicuity of pedestrians wearing retroreflective materials. Human Factors, 2016; 58(7);976–985. [18] Department for Transport (DfT). 2015.Working Together to Build a Safer Road System.

May 2017 Lighting Journal

Road lighting and accidents: cyclists, lighting, accidents and responsibility



Alongside the switch-off debate, there is an important discussion to be had around forcing drivers to take more care around cyclists, but also for cyclists to recognise they have a responsibility to make themselves more visible. A better and more segregated cycling infrastructure would be good, too By Professor Steve Fotios and Dr Alexandra Bohm


May 2017 Lighting Journal


ocal authority lighting engineers have a responsibility to optimise the energy used by road lighting, to meet budgets and to meet environmental targets. Reducing the provision of road lighting can, however, lead to public criticism, as articles in Lighting Journal have shown. For example, part-night switchoffs being blamed for a fall while walking home from work (Lighting Journal, Nov/ Dec 2015, vol 80, no 10), for death from a road accident (January 2014, vol 79, no 1) and for a series of crimes (June 2014, vol 79, no 6). This article considers road accidents associated with cyclists, the benefit of lighting, and debates the possible effect of a change in legal responsibility for accident compensation.



While cycling is promoted by the UK government as an alternative to driving, the frequency of cycling in the UK lags a long way behind other European countries, such as the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark [1]. One possible reason for this is a widespread belief (48% of existing cyclists and 65% of non-cyclists as captured by the 2012 British Social Attitudes Survey [2]) that it is too dangerous to cycle on UK roads. This perception is supported by evidence of cycling fatalities. Figure 1 overleaf shows the number of fatalities and injuries per 100 million kilometres cycled for the UK compared with the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark, and reveals there is a greater risk of being killed or injured on a bicycle on UK roads. We’ll


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May 2017 Lighting Journal

Road lighting and accidents: cyclists, lighting, accidents and responsibility examine this in more detail later. In 2013, Department for Transport data revealed that over 19,000 cyclists were involved in injury accidents on roads in the UK, of which over 3,000 were killed or seriously injured [3]. Relative to distance travelled, cyclists have a much greater risk of death or serious injury than do car drivers or pedestrians (Figure 2).

United Kingdom Germany Denmark Netherlands 0


Road lighting is often promoted as a relatively low-cost intervention which has the potential to reduce the frequency of traffic accidents after dark. As highlighted in the previous article, the Cochrane review of road traffic accident studies investigated the extent to which lighting reduces accidents [4]. Cochrane reviews are, of course, internationally recognised as a high standard in evidence-based research because of the rigorous approach to selecting and filtering the data. The review concluded that road lighting may prevent road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities, but with the caveat that the methodological quality of the trials reviewed was generally poor. Regarding cyclists in particular, it is estimated that the presence of road lighting reduces cycle crashes by 58% [5]. While there are fewer collisions involving cyclists after dark (because of less cycling taking place) there is an increase in the severity of collision and probability of a fatal injury in roads without streetlights compared with those with [6]. So, we can safely assume that road lighting reduces the risk of serious cycling accidents after dark, but we cannot give a precise estimate of by how much that risk is reduced. Furthermore, there is little evidence, if any, about the effect of a change in light levels.


Lighting alone cannot be expected to prevent accidents. As was argued in the previous article, if it did there would be no, or very few, accidents in daytime. To put this in the context of cycling, failing to give a cyclist sufficient room, for example, or failing to look properly will not be alleviated by lighting. There is therefore a need to consider strategies other than lighting to target a reduction in the frequency of road accidents. One such option is to consider the legal responsibility for road accidents. The current UK position is that cyclists injured in collisions with cars must seek compensa-


1 killed


2 10 0


3 kilometers

4 cycled

p Figure 1. Fatalities per 100 million kilometres cycled in four European countries (2007)

From Pucher J, Buehler R, Making cycling irresistible: lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany, Transport Reviews, 2008; 28(4): 495-528



Killed or seriously injured

Car driver












p Figure 2. Casualty rate per billion vehicle miles in the United Kingdom in 2013

Department for Transport. Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2013 Annual Report - Focus on pedal cyclists. London: Department for Transport, 2014

tion for their injuries by proving the car driver was at fault (in other words negligent), and so causing harm by failing to uphold a reasonable standard of driving. It is difficult for cyclists to prove that car drivers have been negligent, particularly when there are no witnesses to an incident and the nature of the victim’s injuries may make recollection of events difficult. Changing the legal regime governing motor vehicle collisions with cyclists and pedestrians could go some way to changing driver behaviour for the better. Some European states, including Germany [7], Denmark [8] and the Netherlands [9], have laws that are based on the ‘presumed liability’ of the car driver in collisions with non-motorised traffic. While these schemes all differ slightly, they are all based on the same broad principles. Instead of the cyclist having to prove that the driver was behaving carelessly, it is presumed the car driver is responsible for any collisions or incidents. The driver must pay 100% of the compensation for the victim’s injuries unless the driver can prove the victim was significantly at fault, behaving in a manner impossible for the driver to foresee (for exam-

ple, not just that the cyclist ‘ran’ a red light). This is a reversal of the burden of proving who is to blame in such incidents. This may seem just as unfair as the UK system in terms of individual moral responsibility for wrongdoing, but it does place responsibility on the party using the method of transport that is safest for themselves yet most dangerous for other road users. So, would this approach work? If we look again at Figure 1 it is clear in those countries that have adopted the ‘presumed liability’ law (Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands) there tend to be fewer cycling fatalities. But, of course, what also has to be factored in is these countries in many areas have better infrastructure, such as cycle lanes with physical segregation from motorised traffic. Despite campaigns, the UK government is not considering changing the law from fault-based liability to one of presumed liability of drivers. The reasons for this are not, however, clear or entirely correct. The then transport minister, Mike Penning, explained in a House of Commons debate in 2011 [10] that, because the UK tends to use a negligence approach in all other situations, it www.theilp.org.uk


May 2017 Lighting Journal

Road lighting and accidents: cyclists, lighting, accidents and responsibility The ILP’s guidance TR23: Lighting of Cycle Tracks (1998) can help lighting designers considering issues relating to the lighting of cycle tracks, including how the relevant lighting standards should be applied, lighting levels, lighting arrangements, and selection of equipment, among other topics. TR12: Lighting of Pedestrian Crossings (2007) and PLG02: The Application of Conflict Areas on the Highway (2013) may also be useful in this context. All ILP guides are available through the website, www.theilp.org.uk



would be inconsistent to change the regime to presumed liability for cyclists. This is not a fair statement because there are circumstances where a strict liability regime (even stronger than presumed liability) is already in place. For example, under the Consumer Protection Act 1987 if you, as a consumer, buy a faulty product that causes harm, you are eligible for compensation without needing to prove the manufacturer was negligent. The same minister later stated to the Transport Committee in April 2012 that: ‘We have always steered away from presumed guilt in this country. It is something we are looking at, and we have looked at, but it is not something at the moment we are looking to proceed with.’ [11] In others words, it’s not what we do, so we won’t consider a change. This is unfortunate. Given the difficulties in transforming Britain’s roads to give cyclists segregated cycle lanes and other safety features common in countries with high cycling rates, changing the law to presumed liability of car drivers may be one of the only, and least expensive, options to try to change driver behaviour. Although a change in the law does not guarantee compliance, enforcement of traffic laws has been shown to influence driver behaviour [12].


Finally, cyclists also need to take responsibility for safety by enhancing their visibility through the use of cycle-mounted lamps and reflective items of clothing. www.theilp.org.uk

For bicycles to be ridden legally after dark, the Road Vehicles Lighting Regulations Act 1989 (amended 2009) requires the use of clean, working and visible lights and reflectors. Unfortunately, cyclists tend to underuse visibility aids to improve safety. A survey in Oxford, on a central street without any cycle lane at dusk in the rush hour, found that only 42% of cyclists were using both front and rear lamps [13]. Similarly, a survey in Lund, Sweden, found that only 28% of cyclists used both front and rear lights and 39% had no lights at all [14].


Road lighting engineers have mixed responsibilities. One is to reduce, where possible, the energy consumed by road lighting. Where changes in lighting are made to meet this, it may be unfair to place the blame for a subsequent accident on that change – the accident may have occurred anyway. Road lighting engineers have mixed responsibilities. One such responsibility is to reduce, where possible, the energy consumed by road lighting. Where changes in lighting are made to meet this, it may be unfair to place the blame for a subsequent accident on that change – the accident may have occurred anyway

Professor Steve Fotios is professor of lighting and visual perception at Sheffield University’s School of Architecture and Dr Alexandra Bohm is a senior law lecturer at Lincoln Law School, University of Lincoln ¢

[1] Pucher J, Buehler R, Making cycling irresistible: Lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany, Transport Reviews, 2008; 28(4): 495-528 [2] Department for Transport. British Social Attitudes Survey 2012: Attitudes to Transport, London: Department for Transport, 2013 [3] Department for Transport. Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2013 Annual Report - Focus on pedal cyclists. London: Department for Transport, 2014. [4] Beyer FR, Ker K, Street lighting for preventing road traffic injuries – review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2009 [5] Wanvik PO. 2009. Effects of road lighting: An analysis based on Dutch accident statistics 1987–2006. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41, 123-128 [6] Knowles J, Adams S, Cuerden R, Savill T, Reid S, Tight M. Collisions involving pedal cyclists on Britain’s roads: establishing the

causes. TRL Published Project Report PPR445. 2009 [7] Part II, Section 7, Strassenverkehrsgesetz (German Road Traffic Law) [8] s101 Danish Road Traffic Act [9] Article 185 Wegenverkeerswet (Road Law) [10] House of Commons Debates, 24 March 2011, c1222W 81 [11] Uncorrected oral evidence, Transport Committee, 24 April 2012, HC 1738-v, Q441 [12] Elliott, M. and Broughton, J. How methods and levels of policing affect road casualty rates. TRL Report PR SE/924/04. Transport Research Laboratory, TRL: Wokingham, UK. 2004. [13] McGuire L, Smith N. Cycling safety: injury prevention in Oxford cyclists. Injury Prevention, 2000; 6: 285-287 [14] Setiawan P. The use of lights on the bicycles: cyclists’ perception on safety. A case study in Lund. PhD Thesis. Lund University. Lund, Sweden, 2009

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May 2017 Lighting Journal

Daylight in lighting design

34 u

The Blavatnik School of Government at Oxford University. The high levels of daylight entering the building are seen as cool or blue in colour temperature, contrasting with warmer artificial light, which then softens the coldness of the concrete


May 2017 Lighting Journal

What is the most efficient light source? It’s one that’s off. Yet the art of good daylight design in buildings has been largely lost. It is high time lighting designers fought back By Dominic Meyrick


ood daylight has been an aspiration for architects through the centuries. And it is only in the past 137 years, with the advent of electric light and the falling cost of artificial light, that the art of good daylight design in buildings has been largely lost. However, we must take heart, the fightback is sustained and progressing, if slightly skewed. The skew comes from the fixation we have had, over the past 30 years or so, on energy saving and daylight harvesting. These are often cited as the drivers for considering good interior daylight, rather than the blindingly obvious one – us! Human beings have evolved, or were created, to respond to natural light. People like daylight, with all its intensities and seasonality, and would choose to sit in a daylit space over an artificially lit one any day of the year. But daylight has, in recent decades, been compartmentalised to become an energy-saving measure. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the BREEAM system used to guide, and eventually accredit, a building’s green credentials. In this, daylight falls under ‘Health and Wellbeing: Visual Comfort’ – so far so good. The fact daylight is assigned to this area bodes well, as the title recognises the importance of natural lighting to

the topic of the moment, that of subjective wellbeing. However, I have a couple of issues with BREEAM, especially the latest 2014 issue. First, the uniformity requirement from previous versions has been reduced from 0.4 to 0.3, and I assume this is because, for some buildings, it was ‘too hard’ to achieve and so the solution is that, well, you lower the benchmark? This brings me to my second and biggest issue – when architects and designers do get the Average Daylight Factor (ADF) target value and uniformity for daylight entering a space right, it is only given one credit. One credit! So, what is going on here? I asked one of my sustainability colleagues about this and he pointed out the following: did I know that there are three credits available if you show that you have compared one lift system with another and then picked the one that is most efficient? His point was: why would you just not do that in the first place? And why should you be awarded three credits for doing the comparison and selecting appropriately? When easier items (such as specifying the



May 2017 Lighting Journal

Daylight in lighting design

most efficient lift system) can achieve three credits, I cannot see why achieving an ADF value and uniformity for daylight, which is difficult and encompasses many things – for example the visual environment and energy efficiency – only gets one credit? The answer is simple: daylight is not held in the esteem it once was and which it warrants. BREEAM needs to hold up its hands and change this oversight by giving more credits for good daylight design; after all, daylight is a human essential.



My comments may imply that I am happy with absolute numbers for daylight. Borrowing from Oscar Wilde’s quotation about taste, my view can be summed up as: ‘Good daylight is better than bad daylight, but bad daylight is better than no daylight at all.’ Take light pipes – they do virtually nothing, daylight numbers-wise, but they bring some daylight into areas which would normally receive none – and this is certainly better than no daylight at all. Their popularity in the corridors of schools up and down the country is testament to the desire for daylit impression, rather than absolute numbers. The issue with numbers is that they produce a binary response, pass or fail. In contrast daylight, by its very nature, follows ‘fuzzy logic’ as it is dependent on eye adaptation, finishes, sky conditions, time of year and day and a whole host of other factors, which all interact to create what, effectively, is an infinite number of visual impressions. This is its joy, and perhaps is also the reason why artificial lighting design has


become dominant – artificial lighting is known and is predictable. And this, in turn, is why I am concerned about the move away from the ADF metric, which has a certain inherent fuzzy logic within it, to the most basic of all artificial lighting design units – illuminance (lux).


This is illustrated by UDI (Useful Daylight Index) and its offshoot CBDM (Climate-Based Daylight Modelling) in which decisions about daylight are taken based on illuminance – on the working plane. In the past, ADF used the light outside as an absolute figure, using the CIE (The International Commission on Illumination) Overcast Sky to determine the desired proportion of light within a building – generally given as 2% or higher. Although ADF is focused on the working plane, it is based on experiments carried out by P J Waldram in 1909, in which he concluded the figure we still use today. He coined a phrase I love: ‘the grumble point’. This is the threshold level of illumination below which people will consistently grumble. So ADF is a function of illuminance. But, as that light enters and hits the working plane, it also hits other internal


The Apollo Victoria Theatre: Hoare Lea’s design cleverly exploited the use of LED in a heritage setting, but the role and effect of daylight was also an important consideration

surfaces, and the total amount varies throughout a day propositionally. Critically, ADF has no maximum, as it assumes the sun is always behind the clouds; sun glare does not form part of its metric and should be dealt with separately and with other tools. What I like about this figure is that illuminance (lux) is hidden behind the percentage figure. This helps to distance daylight from artificial light because, after all, artificial light is just that – artificial. So, my gripe with CBDM is its use of illuminance as a way of determining ‘good’ daylight in a space. It sets a minimum and a maximum limit. Now, while I accept that you can have too much sunlight (heat/glare), I don’t think you can ever have too much daylight. It also implies that the function of daylight is to deliver visual acuity illuminance, lux, to an interior and reduces the daylit space to a functional number. I would argue that daylight is much more than a number. It is, among other things, about colour rendering and the feel of space. If we start to measure it as an absolute illuminance number, or bandwidth of numbers, we may lose the very essence of daylight – its variability. Bringing it back to BREEAM’s health and wellbeing title – and the sub division ‘Visual Comfort’ – we should consider daylight not only as a measure, but also as a subjective feeling.


This feeling is borne out when you look at any of the relocation programmes on TV. On entering a property, the first thing every agent and would-be purchaser will comment on is how light or bright a space is. Conversely, we know the home will not be under the hammer if we hear negative comments such as ‘it feels dark’ or ‘it has a low ceiling’. This also applies to commercial buildings, although its existence, or lack of it, is subtler, with that pesky, difficult to define word ‘wellbeing’ used liberally. However, this concept is not new. On Radio 4’s The Bottom Line back in 2009, John Hitchcox, founder and CEO of the international design and property development company YOO, was asked about the importance of daylight in the workspace. He said: ‘You probably spend as much time, if not more time, in your office than you do at home and your [daylit] environment significantly influences your creativity, your approach, your contentment and all these fundamental values in life…’. In

May 2017 Lighting Journal

that, by law, workers are not permitted to be more than 6m from natural light. In contrast, in the UK, it appears we simply don’t think daylight is something for which it is worth going the extra mile.


other words, it comes back to ‘wellbeing’. So, why does good daylight not get a higher value in BREEAM? Clearly, the construction and regulation industries do not recognise the importance of daylight, and place more importance on controlling solar gain and overheating. If we look again at BREEAM, I believe daylight should be the priority when considering buildings for ‘good’ or ‘outstanding’ ratings. Let’s be clear here, I am not talking about sunlight frying the users inside a building – obviously, we don’t want that. We must recognise daylight is good and we need to keep it. Lovely as it is, it is sunlight that causes the problems, so we need to maximise daylight, while minimising sunlight. Take a south facing façade – this will suffer from glare in the winter months, with low angle sun, and heat in the summer, when the sun is high in the sky. To deal with glare in the winter, internal manually-operated blinds are the norm, while to deal with the heat in the summer, many buildings are fitted with static, brise soleil, systems. Consider now a street café with an awning. The awning will be out when it is hot, in order to give shade. In the winter the awning will be taken down, because we will want to maximise daylight. Such an active system allows elements to change – to be brought in and out depending on the


Heathrow Terminal 2: the design won Daylight Project of the Year in the 2015 Lighting Design Awards, primarily for its north facing roof lighting, which uses natural light whenever possible

conditions and need. The modern version of this ‘active’ system is the mechanical external blind. These blinds have a motor/sensor and can go down and up according to daylight/sunlight. However, my experience is that when these are recommended, the recommendation is greeted with a groan and concern regarding a possible maintenance nightmare, because the perception is they break down. Instead, static systems are installed, which take out the sun in the summer but also take out the daylight sky dome in the winter; and in a country not renowned for its balmy weather, whatever the season. By comparison, in Germany, mechanical external blinds are commonplace and it appears maintenance is not seen as such a problem. This may be because the blinds are high quality and it really isn’t a problem. Or perhaps it could be that in Germany daylight is valued and seen as worth the trouble, the cost and the maintenance. This argument is supported by the fact

Finally, there is a possible virtuous circle – if we can bring good daylight back to electricity and the electric light. What is the most efficient light source? No, not LED – the most efficient source is one that’s off. And during daylight hours we can, and should, aim for lights to be off where possible. The problem is that the evolution of light sources encourages energy comparisons that sound impressive. We can go from tungsten (average 10lm/w) to fluorescent (average 70-80lm/w), then from fluorescent to LED (100-110lm/w) saving energy each time we switch. This might sound good, but if we are designing a good daylit building, at certain times of the day and year, the figure should be zero. Looking at BS 8206 – Code of Practice for Daylighting, 2008, it suggests that, if a building has an ADF of 2%, its electric lighting could be off from 9am to 5pm between 21 March and 21 September because of the high levels of external natural light. That’s a whole six months! There is also the problem of laziness. Imagine walking down an artificially lit corridor with no daylight – the lights will be on. We then walk into a meeting room which has windows. However, because it has been sunny, the blinds are down. But now it’s overcast. You would think people would open the blinds and let in the daylight. But, in my experience, it seems we would rather switch on the lights than walk over to the window and pull up the blinds. In order to change such behaviour, we have to force change. We must challenge complacency through good design, backed up by guidance that truly recognises the importance of daylight, and demonstrate this through our own behaviour. Some building designs, when coupled with end-user complacency, can seem rather like teenagers who have slept in until noon. So, let’s be the parent and have the courage to walk into the mosh pit, turn off the lights they are using to read their comic in bed, open the blinds and let the daylight stream in. Dominic Meyrick is a partner at Hoare Lea Lighting ¢ www.theilp.org.uk


May 2017 Lighting Journal

Cloud technology and lighting design

NEW MODELLING ARMY Cloud-based modelling and simulation tools have the potential to transform lighting design, allowing physically accurate imagery of complex scenes to be generated in seconds, using only a basic laptop or notebook computer By Chris Blewitt



ave you ever wondered why so much lighting design goes on so late on a project, after many of the key decisions have already been taken? This is odd since, without lighting, all the other design effort is rather pointless. Without accurate imagery, it’s a bit like being asked if you are going to like a song based on a copy of the lyrics. Building exterior detail looks very different between day and night, and sky conditions dramatically impact appearance. Energy efficiency is an important factor in interior design where there is a need to explore methods of combining natural and artificial lighting. All this requires accurate methods of evaluating skylight and glazing options, as well as the huge range of sources, mounting locations, photometric distributions and luminaire aiming strategies. From a visual perspective, therefore, the lighting system is the glue that brings together these elements of aesthetics, energy management, surface finishes, space management and occupant comfort. The coherence of all these elements must be carefully assessed before the irreversible step of committing this detail to a building contract, and clearly it should not be the other way around. www.theilp.org.uk


So why, then, is the lighting design and supply community largely left out of these early critical phases? The answer, to my mind, is that the lighting design and simulation tools most of us are using don’t even get close to fulfilling these requirements. Instead, current design tools are largely limited to providing arrays of point-bypoint lighting grid values or isolux diagrams and occasionally low quality, low detail visualisation that excludes any natural lighting contribution. These datasets play a very small role in the wider decision-making process, where their value is largely limited to a small sec-

tion of the project building services team. Therefore, for the lighting community, any other contribution is limited to sharing product data-sheets, images of other installations, feature lists and, of course, more competitive pricing. This, all too often, is assessed via a spreadsheet put together either by the installing contractor, wholesaler or surveyor.


The good news, however, is that a powerful new capability has emerged from the massive investment and technological advances seen in recent years within the 3D visualisation, gaming, machine learning and Cloud processing sectors. Physically accurate imagery of complex scenes can now be generated in seconds or minutes, using only a laptop or notebook computer and wireless internet connection. For the lighting designer, Cloud technology can deliver the ability (missing from current lighting toolsets) rapidly to produce physically accurate, photographic-quality imagery. It is imagery with the visual and photometric accuracy that stakeholders can rely upon. In turn, it can create a vital, common understanding of a proposed lighting solution, so leading to better and more informed design and

May 2017 Lighting Journal

p Figure 1 An example of diffuse transmission, showing sunlight being scattered as it passes through a semitransparent material



Figure 2 Images with and without specular reflection, showing how a mirror surface on the floor in front of a window interacts with direct sunlight streaming in Figure 3 Modelling the effect of daylight has to be an important part of lighting design, but is often missing from lighting software packages


39 space management decisions. Light sources only play a small role in the calculation process; it is as light bounces around a scene that the calculation becomes mind-numbingly complicated. For physically accurate imagery, material definitions comprise complex algorithm sets in which the precise angle, intensity and colour of the incoming light component needs to be calculated from the huge number of source elements. Alongside, you need to factor in the directions, intensities and colours of all the emitted light components. The speed of this massive computation has been what has held back conventional lighting simulation packages and typically causes them either to render images slowly or introduce significant approximations and typically both. However, as you can see from the images above, the computing power now available with Cloud computing opens a new door. Every one of them has been created with a Cloud rendering plug-in for the SketchUp program called Bloom Unit. You can use it via no more than a regular Wi Fi-connected laptop without any post-processing or photo-editing. What these images show is how Cloud

computing technology can enable you to model and illustrate a range of features commonly missing from current lighting software. These include: ¢ Diffuse transmission. Most tools are incapable of simulating the scattering of light as it passes through diffuse materials, and a common workaround is to insert fake area light sources that are not only visually inaccurate, but also significantly compromise the predicted energy management solution. Figure 1 shows the common situation of sunlight being scattered as it passes through a semi-transparent material. This simply cannot be calculated by most other lighting simulation packages. ¢ Specular reflection. In the two images in Figure 2, a mirror surface on the floor in front of a window interacts with direct sunlight streaming onto the floor. The Bloom Unit image on the left shows light properly reflected off the mirror and on to the wall. By comparison, the image on the right is typical of one produced by other light calculation systems using a post process approximation that will simply not contribute to the measured lighting values.

¢ Daylight contribution. A third commonly missing feature is daylight contribution, which is removed from almost all current lighting software packages. A few limited sun/sky calculations are possible, but they are not able to capture the changes in early morning or late afternoon sky distribution and colour, as can be seen in the Figure 3 image.


Back in the January edition of Lighting Journal (Computer Power, vol 82, no 1), Guy Harding applauded the advance of smart, mobile technology that is now allowing for on-site design changes to be tried and tested ‘on the hoof’. Cloud computing technology is another facet of this brave new world of lighting design, one that opens up all sorts of possibilities and opportunities. With this next generation of high speed, Cloud-based lighting visualisation tools, the lighting design goalposts have been radically moved, allowing lighting designers to access massive computing power to communicate lighting concepts and designs simply, accurately and in real-time.

Chris Blewitt is a founding partner and director of bloomunit.com ¢ www.theilp.org.uk

May 2017 Lighting Journal

Legal issues


hether you’re pro or against, excited or fearful, with the triggering of Article 50 on 29 March, the Brexit process is now finally underway. A long and tough negotiation process awaits, for all sides. The delay in triggering Article 50 since last June’s referendum means that the practical and economic consequences of leaving the European Union have, so far, been limited. Perhaps the most significant economic effect we’ve seen has been the falling value of the pound against the dollar. The continuous and unpredictable fluctuation of exchange rates has a clear and immediate impact on businesses operating in the UK lighting industry, particularly on organisations dealing in the supply-side sector. Although we do not yet know what our final post-EU destination will look and feel like; what are likely to be the biggest post-Brexit changes to the lighting landscape, especially in the context of the law?



The removal of EU ‘red tape’ has been consistently cited by the pro-leave camp as a key advantage in the post-Brexit market. What this means in practice is, as yet, unclear. It could mean, for example, the potential repeal of the Construction Design and Management Regulations 2015 and the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive. These pieces of legislation have had a significant impact with far-reaching requirements on all parties to the construction process in the UK. However, it may be that EU regulations will simply be made statutorily binding under UK law and may, or may not, subsequently be repealed piece by piece. Consequently, there may be no immediate change to EU regulations; thus any purported benefit of repeal will not be realised for many years, if ever. Furthermore, in order to conclude a preferential trade arrangement with Brussels it is possible that the UK would have to continue to comply with the same legislation as currently observed. On top of this, following the UK’s withdrawal from the EU political ‘tent’, the UK will have no influence over the EU policy making-process and may therefore still be influenced by what takes place in Brussels.


Access to labour is a vital resource to the lighting industry, and UK lighting organisations have previously been able to take advantage of one of the founding princiwww.theilp.org.uk

With Article 50 now triggered, Britain is on its way out of the European Union. While there is still a lot we don’t know, the process is likely to throw up legal challenges aplenty for the lighting industry, but also some opportunities By Howard Crossman and Ollie Clymow

May 2017 Lighting Journal

ples of the EU, the free movement of people. By applying simple supply and demand economics, it stands to reason any restrictions on the free movement of people following Brexit (for example visa requirements) may reduce supply. This, in turn, could mean labour costs rise as demand for labour outstrips the supply. Consequently, the balance sheets of lighting organisations may have to bear the brunt of the increased costs. However, once again, it is important to emphasise that Brexit negotiations remain in their infancy; the post-Brexit reality without the free movement of people remains unclear. What is clear is that the current EU-wide laissez faire labour market will no longer be open to the UK lighting industry. Thus, lighting organisations will have to tackle the ensuing budgetary and resource allocation issues. A further issue to consider is large lighting projects that have a critical path expanding across the eventual date of the UK’s exit may be faced with a sudden drop in labour resources, which could cause delay. Depending on the wording of the applicable lighting contracts, certain parties may incur costs if they are required to pay losses incurred as a result of those delays.


As well as free movement of people, EU membership carries with it the principle of free movement of goods; this principle has been instrumental in providing the UK lighting industry with access to imports and the opportunity to export products without the burden of cross-border tariffs. The extent of the UK’s ability to utilise the free movement of goods doctrine following Brexit is another point of contention to be negotiated between Brussels and Westminster. The UK’s departure from the EU could result in extensive regulations and substantial duties being imposed on imports into the UK from the EU; this would have a knock-on effect on the costs of, and delays in, lighting projects. As large amounts of raw materials are imported from the EU for use in UK lighting projects, anything that may inhibit that supply could have an effect on the lighting industry, unless alternative supply routes are found and exploited.


In the period of economic and legal uncertainty that the lighting industry is currently facing, investors have become nervy and are reluctant to invest heavily in a climate www.theilp.org.uk


May 2017 Lighting Journal

Legal issues


Prime minister Theresa May. Brexit is expected to create both challenges and opportunities for the lighting industry



where profitable levels of return are far from secure. Ever since Brexit became a ‘live’ issue in the press in late 2015, there has been additional scrutiny in respect of projects requiring initial funding to get them off the ground. This sentiment is unlikely to change in the short term; therefore, funding opportunities for lighting projects may potentially be more difficult for at least another 24 months. Even once the final Brexit deal is concluded and the dust has settled there is no guarantee what the ensuing econmic climate will offer in terms of funding opportunities.


While there are many challenges ahead, there are also several factors at least within the lighting industry that may prove to be beneficial going forward. It is unclear at this stage of the negotiations what the trading protocol with EU states will be following the UK’s exodus and the extent to which a free trade model will be adopted. However, following Brexit it may be that the UK is no longer required to impose the ‘Common Customs Tariff’ (CCT), which is currently applied to all goods imported across the external borders of the EU. Instead cross-border trade with the UK could simply be based on World Trade Organization (WTO) trading rules. If the CCT is no longer in place to increase the price of imports, then organisations operating in the lighting market will www.theilp.org.uk

be able to utilise the benefits of cheaper non-EU imports, thus potentially leading to more profitable supply chain management. If lighting organisations are able to reap the rewards of cheaper imports from nonEU states, then these financial rewards could trickle down into the industry as a whole, thus creating an opportunity to increase margins and maximise profits. The potential utilisation of reduced rate non-EU imports is dependent on the nature of the deal finally struck between Brussels and the UK; if the continuation of the CCT is to be part of that deal, then this will curtail the likelihood of tariff-free global trade. In short, watch this space! Of course, the headline issue for many throughout the Brexit referendum campaign was that of immigration. Whilst the free movement of people is a cornerstone of the EU socio-economic sphere, following Brexit the UK government may have the opportunity to set its own policy with regard to non-EU immigration. As a result, the UK government may reduce restrictions on non-EU immigrants entering the UK; if this is the case then the lighting industry may have access to a sub-

stantial market of both skilled and nonskilled workers. The potential benefits of an expanding labour market are clear; however, the extent to which these benefits will be curtailed in the approaching Brexit negotiations is yet to be seen. As with all Brexit debates there is the issue of uncertainty. At this point in time, lighting professionals and the industry can only prepare for the post-Brexit market by ensuring that they are aware of the potential outcomes and keep up to date with all relevant developments.


With Article 50 now triggered, the deadline for the conclusion of the Brexit negotiations is 29 March 2019. In the grand scheme of things, particularly considering the timeframes of large lighting projects, that deadline is not a distant event. One of the pre-requisites of industrial growth, irrespective of specific industry or sector, is economic, political and legal stability. The fact remains that so much uncertainty as to the detail and final outcomes of the Brexit process means we live in uncertain times, and this is unlikely to change anytime soon. As we’ve seen with the transition to LED and now digitisation, the lighting industry is resilient and capable of adapting to change. Nevertheless, probably the most important result most lighting professionals will want from the Brexit negotiations is for them simply to be commenced quickly, carried through and then concluded with the best deal possible. Only then will the industry be able to properly prepare for the opportunities and challenges of the post-Brexit market. ¢

Howard Crossman (hcrossman@greenwoods. co.uk) is head of construction and Ollie Clymow is a trainee solicitor at Greenwoods Solicitors LLP. With offices in London, Cambridge

and Peterborough, Greenwoods Solicitors LLP is a UK commercial law firm providing legal advice and pragmatic solutions to local, national and international clients.

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May 2017 Lighting Journal

2017 ILP Professional Lighting Summit



How variable lighting levels have helped to reduce traffic flow in the Port Piraeus in Greece will be discussed at the Glasgow Professional Lighting Summit q

Bottom left, Helsinki’s Kruunuvuori Bridge: virtual reality helped in the lighting design, as lighting professionals will be able to hear in Glasgow

Next month’s Professional Lighting Summit is going to be jam-packed with top-notch CPD. Lighting Journal looks at what’s in store By Nic Paton


etween the demands of clients, site visits, your boss and budgetary restraints, we all know that getting out of the office for CPD can sometimes be a challenge. But this year’s Professional Lighting Summit in Glasgow on June 14 and 15 is one definitely to put your foot down about. This year there will be no fewer than 35 different CPD talks, workshops and presentations, not to mention networking and relationship-building opportunities with your lighting professional peers. The Summit, at Glasgow’s Crowne Plaza, will also be an opportunity to check out the latest products and technology, with 20 exhibitors and six sponsors being represented this year.

So, what’s on the CPD agenda for ILP members for the two days? One attraction for regular readers of Lighting Journal will be a range of presentations that build upon articles that have been published here in recent months, so allowing members to get a more in-depth perspective and insight. These include Olli Poutanen and Leena Kaanaa from WSP in Finland, who will be discussing how virtual reality technology can benefit lighting design, including highlighting case studies such as their work on Helsinki’s Kruunuvuori Bridge (Lighting Journal, March 2017, vol 82 no 3). SLL Young Lighter of the Year Sofia Tolia will be presenting her research around variable lighting levels for highways, including in the Port of Piraeus in Greece, as also highlighted in the March edition.

tions looking at topics as diverse as photobiological safety standards, the challenges of restoring gas-powered listed sewer lanterns in Sheffield, the conspicuity of traffic signs in urban areas, and ‘exploding’ new technology myths. But, to emphasise, this is just a flavour of the presentations – the full outline is online at www.theilp.org.uk One not to miss, however, will be this year’s keynote address by Mark Sutton Vane, of Sutton Vane Associates. Mark will be looking at the theme ‘The lighting is for people’ or, in other words, how lighting schemes can be better designed for people, how lighting can do a lot more than simply illumination, how it can add to branding, create an atmosphere or reinforce a story. ¢


Louis Fourie, from Clayton Fourie Consultants, and Bijan Bassiri, of the Scottish Government, will give a talk on the £3.7 million electrical and lighting refurbishment of Erskine Bridge on the River Clyde, as discussed in Lighting Journal in January (vol 82, no 1). Other presentations over the two days will include Steve Anderson, director of SGA Lighting, on the impact LED lighting is having on the environment and Lawrence Baynham, of INDO Lighting, addressing the challenges of lighting in extreme temperatures. There will also be a range of presenta-

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW WHAT: The ILP Professional Lighting Summit, 2017 WHEN: June 14-15 WHERE: The Crowne Plaza, Glasgow HOW TO BOOK: go to www.theilp.org.uk/summit. If you’re having trouble call the ILP on 01788 576492



May 2017 Lighting Journal

News from the ILP


Lighting Journal: highly rated by members, according to latest poll



UNESCO is set to launch its annual International Day of Light a year from now, on 16 May 2018, and to mark the beginning of the countdown the ILP is this month holding a special event, ‘Lighting for good’. The event will tackle how the lighting community should use its skills and technology to contribute to a better world. How can lighting professionals share their knowledge in order to benefit the public? The evening event will include presentations from Michael Grubb, of Michael Grubb Studio, who will be exploring ethics in lighting, and Paul Traynor, from Light Bureau, who will speak about ‘democratic design’. ILP design practice member Nulty+ will be giving a talk specially created for the event and Steve Anderson, director of SGA Lighting, will explain the importance of STEM ambassadors in schools. The event will take place from 6pm-9pm at Marshalls Design Space in Clerkenwell in London and will cost £10 for an ILP member and £20 for a non-member. For full details go the www.theilp.org.uk/events

‘POCKET’ GUIDE TO THE INDUSTRY The ILP is publishing a ‘pocket’ guide to the lighting industry for members. The guide, The ILP Guide to the Lighting Industry, will outline the different lighting and lighting-related organisations working within the industry, including a snapshot summary of what they do and a web address for those who wish to find out more. ‘This guide provides a


roadmap that will allow lighting professionals better to understand what organisations are out there and who can help them in their professional and dayto-day practice,’ said ILP Technical Services Manager Peter Harrison. The guide is being finalised and will be available in the members’ section of the ILP website, www. theilp.org.uk


ccess to guides and technical reports is the national benefit most valued by ILP members, a poll has found. The survey of members carried out in January found that 84% rated access to guides and technical reports as their most valued member benefit, followed by three quarters (75%) who said the same about guidance notes, and 62% who put the most value on the exterior lighting diploma (62%). Half of the members polled rated Lighting Journal as their most highly valued member benefit. The survey also asked members to award ‘excellent’ and ‘good’ ratings to the ILP national services they considered to be of greatest importance. A total of (93%) rated Light-

ing Journal as ‘excellent’ or ‘good’, followed by guides and technical reports (91%), guidance notes (87%) and the exterior lighting diploma (61%). When it came to regional services, the highest importance was given to technical meetings (57%), followed by regional CPD (54%). By comparison, regional social and networking activities were felt to be least important (23%). Members were asked to outline what they felt the ILP’s regions should most be for. The top priority was ‘knowledge’ (such as CPD and technical information). A report on the full findings can be found in the members’ section of the ILP website, at www.theilp.org.uk


May 2017 Lighting Journal


This directory gives details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services.

Steven Biggs

Colin Fish

Alistair Scott

Skanska Infrastructure Services

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

Designs for Lighting Ltd


Peterborough PE1 5XG


Hertford SG13 7NN

BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MIMechE Winchester SO23 7TA

T: +44 (0) 1733 453432 E: steven.biggs@skanska.co.uk

T: 07825 843524 E: colin.fish@wspgroup.com

T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E: alistair@designsforlighting.co.uk

Award winning professional multi-disciplinary lighting design consultants. Extensive experience in technical design and delivery across all areas of construction, including highways, public realm and architectural projects. Providing energy efficient design and solutions.

Providing design and technical services for all applications of exterior and interior lighting from architectural to sports, rail, area, highways and associated infrastructure. Expert surveys and environmental impact assessments regarding the effect of lighting installations on wildlife and the community.

Professional lighting design consultancy offering technical advice, design and management services for exterior/interior applications for highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

Stephen Halliday

Anthony Smith

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd


Simon Bushell MBA DMS IEng MILP

SSE Enterprise Lighting

Portsmouth PO6 1UJ T: +44 (0)2392276403 M: 07584 313990 E: simon.bushell@ssecontracting.com

www.sseenterprise.co.uk Professional consultancy from the largest external lighting contractor maintaining 1.5m lights in the UK and Ireland. Exterior lighting/electrical design for Motorways, Highways, Architectural, Car Parks, Public Spaces and Sports lighting. From advice on carbon reduction strategies to delivering the whole installation package.

Lorraine Calcott IEng MILP IALD MSLL

it does Lighting Ltd Milton Keynes, MK19 6DS



Manchester M50 3SP



Stockton on Tees TS23 1PX

T: 0161 886 2532 E: stephen.halliday@wspgroup.com

T: 01642 565533 E: enquiries@staintonlds.co.uk

Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

Specialist in: Motorway, Highway Schemes, Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.

Philip Hawtrey

Nick Smith


Nick Smith Associates Limited



Sutton Coldfield B72 1PH



Chesterfield, S40 3JR

T: 01908 560110 E: Information@itdoes.co.uk

T: 07789 501091 E: philip.hawtrey@mouchel.com


T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E: mail@nicksmithassociates.com

Award winning lighting design practice specialising in interior, exterior, flood and architectural lighting with an emphasis on section 278/38, town centre regeneration and mitigation for ecology issues within SSSI’s/SCNI’s.Experts for the European Commission and specialists in circadian lighting

Widely experienced professional technical consultancy services in exterior lighting and electrical installations, providing sustainable and innovative solutions, environmental assessments, ‘Invest to Save’ strategies, lighting policies, energy procurement, inventory management and technical support. PFI Technical Advisor, Designer and Independent Certifier.

Specialist exterior lighting consultant. Private and adopted lighting and electrical design for highways, car parks, area and sports lighting. Lighting Impact assessments, expert witness and CPD accredited Lighting design AutoCAD and Lighting Reality training courses



Euan Clayton

Allan Howard

Alan Tulla

Clayton Fourie Consultancy Ltd

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

Alan Tulla Lighting


Edinburgh, EH15 3RT

BEng(Hons) CEng FILP FSLL London WC2A 1AF

T: 07722 111424 E: claytonfourie@aol.com

T: 07827 306483 E: allan.howard@wspgroup.com

Internationally experienced multi-disciplinary consultants. We provide design and technical advice on all aspects of exterior lighting, hazardous area lighting, traffic signals and other highway electrical works.We also provide Planning Advice, Road Safety Audits and Expert Witness Services

Professional artificial and daylight lighting services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice and analysis to develop and implement energy and carbon reduction strategies. Expert witness regarding obtrusive lighting, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations.




Winchester, SO22 4DS

T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E: alan@alantullalighting.com

www.alantullalighting.com Site surveys of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Visual Impact Assessments for planning applications. Specialises in problem solving and out-of-the-ordinary projects.

Mark Chandler

Alan Jaques

Michael Walker

MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd


WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff



Reading RG10 9QN

Nottingham, NG9 2HF

T: 0118 3215636 E: mark@mma-consultancy.co.uk

T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 E: alan.jaques@atkinsglobal.com

Exterior lighting consultant’s who specialise in all aspects of street lighting design, section 38’s, section 278’s, project management and maintenance assistance. We also undertake lighting appraisals and environmental lighting studies

Professional consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

John Conquest

Tony Price

4way Consulting Ltd

Vanguardia Consulting


MA BEng(Hons) CEng MIET MILP Stockport, SK4 1AS

T: 0161 480 9847 M: 07526 419248 E: john.conquest@4wayconsulting.com


Providing exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialising in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector


BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Oxted RH8 9EE

T: +44(0) 1883 718690 E:tony.price@vanguardiaconsulting.co.uk

www.vanguardiaconsulting.co.uk Chartered engineer with wide experience in exterior and public realm lighting. All types and scales of project, including transport, tunnels, property development (both commercial and residential) and sports facilities. Particular expertise in planning advice, environmental impact assessment and expert witness.


Ferrybridge, WF11 8NA, UK T: 0197 7632 502

E: Michael.Walker@pbworld.com


Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

Go to: www.theilp.org.uk for more information and individual expertise

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.


Directory CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality CPD Accredited Training CPD Accredited Training Standards CPD Accredited Training CPD Accredited Training • AutoluxLighting • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Design Techniques • •AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) •• AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Lighting Reality Light Pollution • Lighting Reality • Lighting Reality • Lighting Reality • AutoluxLighting Standards CPD Accredited Training • Tailored Courses please ring CPD Accredited Training • •AutoluxLighting Standards • AutoluxLighting Standards • AutoluxLighting Lighting Design Techniques Standards Accredited Training • •Lighting Design Techniques •CPD Lighting Design •Venues Lighting Techniques by Design arrangement AutoCAD (basicTechniques or advanced) Light Pollution • •Light Pollution • Light Pollution • Light Pollution Lighting Reality • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Tailored Courses please ring Contact Nick Smith • Tailored Courses please ring please ring • Tailored CoursesStandards please ring • Tailored Courses • Lighting Reality •AutoluxLighting AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Nick Smith Associates Ltd Venues by arrangement • Lighting Design Techniques 36 Foxbrook Drive, Venues by arrangement •Reality AutoluxLighting Standards Venues by arrangement Venues by arrangement Lighting ••Light Pollution Contact NickChesterfield, Smith • Lighting Design Techniques • Tailored Courses please ring Contact Nick Smith S40 3JRNick Smith Contact Nick Smith Contact

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Venues by arrangement

E-mail: enquiries@hagnerlightmeters.com

f: 01246 270 465

Contact Nick Smith e : mail@nicksmithassociates.com w: www.nicksmithassociates.com Nick Smith Associates Ltd www.hagnerlightmeters.com


36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR MACLEAN ELECTRICAL LIGHTING DIVISION t: 01246 229 444 Business info: Specialist Stockist and Distributors of Road Lighting, Hazardous Area, Industrial/ Commercial/ Decorative f: 01246 270 465 custom-built distribution panels, lighting. We also provide interior and exterior lighting design using CAD. e : mail@nicksmithassociates.com 7 Drum Mains Park, Orchardton, Cumbernauld, G68 9LD w: www.nicksmithassociates.com Tel: 01236 458000 Fax: 01236 860555

email: steve.odonnell@maclean.co.uk


From one of our three regional offices offices in the Scotland, Manchester and Sussex Power 1 can provide a full turnkey service for: Large scale LED retrofit schemes Maintenance DNO/ICP connections Design verification surveys Asset record construction Fault finding Testing and inspection Smart City integration

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May 2017 Lighting Journal

Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email: info@tofco.co.uk www.tofco.co.uk

European distributors of StormSpill®, only system specified by: • London 2012 Olympic Games • Glasgow 2014 Commonwealths

Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories

Contact: Kevin Doherty Commercial Director kevindoherty@tofco.co.uk

If you would like to switch to Tofco Technology contact us NOW!

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May 2017 Lighting Journal



Electric know-how for architectural lighting designers Venue: BDP, Clerkenwell, London

with Rob Honeywill of Maurice Brill Lighting Design Venue: Marshalls Design Space, Clerkenwell, London

25 May

11-15 September

09-12 June

26 September

How to be brilliant at exterior lighting, with Tony Rimmer of Studio 29 Venue: Marshalls Design Space, Clerkenwell, London

50 14-15 June

Professional Lighting Summit Venue: Crowne Plaza, Glasgow

Guangzhou International Lighting Exhibition Venue: China Import and Export Fair Complex, Guangzhou, China

Lighting for good – how can the lighting community use its skills and technology to contribute to a better world, one year before the UNESCO International Day of Light? Venue: Marshalls Design Space, Clerkenwell, London

TR22 – Managing a Vital Asset Venue: The ILP, Regent House, Rugby

28 September

Professional Lighting Summit Venue: Crowne Plaza, Glasgow

How to be brilliant, on ‘lighting Bowie’, with Jonathan Howard of DHA Venue: Marshalls Design Space, Clerkenwell, London

28 June

28 September

20 July

For full details of all events, go to: www.theilp.org.uk/events

14-15 June 16 May

Exterior lighting diploma, module one (autumn 2017) Venue: The Draycote Hotel, Thurlaston, near Rugby, Warwickshire

Technical meeting – Western Region Venue: Newport Parc Golf Club, Wales How to be brilliant at lighting with colour,

YLP technical session Venue: NAL Ltd, Weir Lane, Worcester


Lighting for extreme conditions, including what can go wrong if luminaires are exposed to extreme temperatures



The challenges, and opportunities, of working in lighting design in the Middle East


The winners of this year’s Lighting Design Awards

Good lighting increases security!

Be inspired by timeless design – Made in Sweden Contact us today: Phone: +44 (0) 1952 250800 Email: info@aura-light.co.uk www.aura-light.co.uk / www.noral.se/en

Direct DriveÂŽ Lighting Innovation Improved Reliability | Measureable Value #TheQueensAward

fresh thinking trusted technology