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June 2017 Lighting Journal

Professional best practice from the Institution of Lighting Professionals

June 2017

WINNING WAYS This year’s Lighting Design Awards winners AT THE EDGE Understanding and overcoming extreme temperatures HEAVENS ABOVE Lighting’s responsibility to protect the night sky

The publication for all professionals

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June 2017 Lighting Journal





With countries around the world beginning to embrace and switch to LED, how this new technology copes with, and is affected by, extreme hot and cold temperatures is something lighting professionals are increasingly needing to understand, argues Lawrence Baynham


The sea is one of the most demanding environments there is. Whether you’re lighting for naval vessels or oil rigs, this creates its own set of very specific challenges, from ‘ruggedisation’ through to power consumption, light quality and longevity, maintenance and more, writes John D’Ambrogio



With ambitious plans to expand its tourism, hospitality and built infrastructure, the United Arab Emirates offers significant commercial potential to lighting designers. But you need to be aware of its different cultural and operational approaches to lighting design, cautions Emilio Hernandez


The 2017 Lighting Design Awards were held in May, with star names including Suzan Tillotson and Daniel Libeskind being honoured, along with projects and teams from around the world. Lighting Journal was there


Street and urban lighting, has to be fit for purpose as well as (ideally) aesthetically pleasing. But lighting professionals are also in a unique position through their work to protect the night sky and reduce light pollution. Colin Campbell, a keen astronomer and lighting engineer, makes a passionate case for promoting the importance of dark skies



Current daylight metrics are limited because they are primarily focused on measuring horizontal illuminance on the working plane. Rohit Manudhane and Pavlina Akritas argue that what is needed today is a more nuanced lighting design approach, one combining an understanding of subjective aspects of daylighting such as contrast levels, uniformity and variation


As more and more organisations appreciate the positive impact that good lighting design can have, being able to define and evaluate ‘competence’ is more important than ever. But it is not as straightforward as you might think, as Alan Jaques emphasises



With attention turning towards this month’s Professional Lighting Summit, there is no better time to answer the question, ‘why should I make the time to attend industry events?’. In fact, Scott Pengelly outlines five reasons why



In a fast-moving environment such as lighting, CPD is becoming an ever-more important way to demonstrate that you have the knowledge and skills you need to progress. David Hollingsworth shows how a new ILP-backed online tool, mycareerpath, can help


This year’s Professional Lighting Summit is just days away. Here ILP members, including outgoing President Kevin Grigg, explain why a trip to Glasgow will be just the CPD ticket that you need

June 2017 Lighting Journal

Professional best practice from the Institution of Lighting Professionals

June 2017


The 1930s was a decade of revolutionary change in street and public lighting, all of it recorded by the Association of Public Lighting Engineers’ new publication, Public Lighting, the forerunner of what was to become Lighting Journal. Simon Cornwell looks back



The need for a more nuanced approach to daylighting design HEAVENS ABOVE

Lighting’s responsibility to protect the night sky AT THE EDGE

Understanding and overcoming extreme temperatures

The publication for all lighting professionals


York Minster. Its new lighting strategy, by Sutton Vane Associates, was winner of the Heritage Project of the Year at this year’s Lighting Design Awards. Mark Sutton Vane is also due to be the keynote speaker at this month’s ILP Professional Lighting Summit in Glasgow

think high quality means high costs? THE NEW KIRIUM PRO Our most comprehensive range of LED street lights yet. Ultimate flexibility. Minimal whole-life cost and precise lighting control.

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June 2017 Lighting Journal

Editor’s letter

Volume 82 No 6 June 2017 President Kevin Grigg Eng Tech AMILP Chief Executive Richard G Frost BA (Cantab) DPA HonFIAM Editor Nic Paton BA (Hons), MA Email: Editorial Board Tom Baynham MEng MA (Cantab) Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL IALD John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Alan Jaques IEng FILP Gill Packham BA (Hons) Nigel Parry IEng FILP Richard Webster Art Director Adriano Cattini BA (Hons) Email: Advertising Manager Andy Etherton Email: Published by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 E-mail: Website: Produced by

Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Unit C, Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 Email: Website: © ILP 2017 The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.


can barely believe that this month’s Professional Lighting Summit in Glasgow will be the third Summit I have attended since taking over the editorship of Lighting Journal in 2015. The time has certainly flown by. Whether it’s been in Chester, Brighton or now Glasgow, I’ve always heartily enjoyed getting together with ILP members to hear your views, gauge what you think about Lighting Journal and chew the fat around latest industry trends, changes or innovations. I’m sure this year will be no different. This year’s programme of CPD presentations, once again, looks to be top-notch, and I am certainly very much looking forward to listening in. Do check it out on the ILP website. For me, however, the informal conversations and networking that always go on around the edges and in the background are almost as valuable and enlightening as the more formal CPD. And, if it’s valuable for me, as someone looking in at the industry from the outside, I’d wager it’s going to be even more valuable for you as lighting professionals. And this is very much the point ILP Vice President Events Scott Pengelly makes in this edition. We all know making the time for CPD can be difficult. Budgets are tight, deadlines are heavy; we’re all busy, and long may that continue. But it is really worth making the effort, both for the formal and the informal learning. As Alan Jaques, ILP Senior Vice President (and of course stepping up to President in Glasgow) argues in this edition, understanding and demonstrating ‘competence’ is becoming more complex within lighting and lighting design, yet ever more important. Equally, tools such as the new ILP-backed mycareerpath are now available to make it much easier to record and demonstrate that you have, and have achieved, the knowledge and skills you need to progress, fulfil your potential or win that contract, as David Hollingsworth outlines. Clearly, there has to be a balance. Over the years, I’ve been at conferences where I’ve met people who, it seems, are almost professional conference attendees, and you do wonder when their colleagues ever see them or how their ‘day job’ ever gets done. But, for an industry as fast-changing as lighting, one under such public and professional scrutiny and (rightly so) so standards-led, regular CPD has to be much more than an afterthought, or something squeezed in (or increasingly squeezed out). Access to both formal and informal CPD is precisely one of the competitive edges that ILP membership offers (along with many other benefits, of course). So, use and maximise that advantage. I very much look forward to seeing you all in Glasgow.

Nic Paton Editor


ILP members receive Lighting Journal every month as part of their membership. You can join the ILP instantly online, through Alternatively, to subscribe or order copies please email Diane Sterne at The ILP also provides a Lighting Journal subscription service to many libraries, universities, research establishments, non-governmental organisations, and local and national governments.


June 2017 Lighting Journal

Lighting for extreme conditions


June 2017 Lighting Journal


With countries around the world beginning to embrace and switch to LED, how this new technology copes with, and is affected by, extreme hot and cold temperatures is something lighting professionals are increasingly needing to understand By Lawrence Baynham

e are using more artificial light today than ever before. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the amount of artificial lighting used per person per year in the UK has increased from 5 kilo-lumen hours to 60 mega-lumen hours over the last 200 years (an increase by a factor of 12,000). That’s to say that now, on average, each of us is responsible for approximately 164 kilo-lumen hours per day of artificial lighting – the equivalent of around a 7klm light operating per person for 24 hours per day (even when we are asleep, or the sun is providing light!). As lighting experts, we can appreciate this is a significant amount of light. This arguably excessive use of light comes at a significant energy cost but, as energy-efficient lighting products are installed, the total energy cost of lighting is indeed falling, despite the increased use of light highlighted above. For street lighting applications, we can see typical savings of over 50% from changing to LED lighting from existing technologies. And it is this that is driving a global push to replace older technologies with the latest LED products. Products are being upgraded across the board; from office lighting, domestic lighting, street lighting and other applications. This global roll-out of a new technology, while an opportunity, also prompts the question: ‘are the requirements the same in all geographical locations, and is the new technology ready for the differing challenges that are presented?’. In relation to street lighting, one obvious difference between regions around the globe is operating temperature. The lowest ever natural recorded temperature at ground level is -89.2c which was measured in 1983 at the Soviet Vostok Station in Antarctica. The highest recorded natural temperature at ground level, shielded from direct sunlight, is 56.7c, measured in 1913 at Greenland Ranch, Death Valley, California, USA. This range of almost 150c highlights that there are some serious extreme temperature-conditions on Earth that products must endure should they be suitable for truly global applications. While the above conditions are the record temperatures, in areas that are arguably unlikely to need street lighting and indeed are daytime temperatures (whereas street lights should only operate during the night), there are inhabited areas where we also see some chilling temperatures. For example (as shown overleaf ):


June 2017 Lighting Journal

Lighting for extreme conditions



Oymyakon, Russia


Snag, Yukon, Canada


Malgovik, Västerbotten County, Sweden


Karasjok, Finnmark, Norway


Funtensee, Germany


Altnaharra, Sutherland, UK


Equally, night-time temperatures (highest low) can also reach staggering levels. For example:




Khassab Airport, Oman


Yelimane, Mali


Palermo, Italy


Wittenoom, Australia


Villa Dolores, Argentina


Brighton, UK


With climate change potentially set to disrupt weather patterns, we could see extreme temperatures becoming the norm in some areas, and a widening of what is considered to be a ‘normal’ temperature.


To understand the potential effect of extreme temperature conditions, we have first to look at the typical structure of an LED luminaire. In general, most luminaires on the market make use of a power supply (or LED driver) and the LEDs themselves. Extreme temperatures can affect these parts in different ways, and it is important to understand these in order to select luminaires for such extreme operation. Generally speaking, increased operating temperatures will result in reduced reliability, in other words increased random

failures during the operational life of the product. For example, the failure rate per million hours of operation of our INDO AIR1 increases from 0.58 at 25c ambient to 0.78 when the ambient operating temperature is increased to 35c. These figures are still extremely low and, as such, are far less significant than the effect that this increase in temperature would have on lifetime. With respect to lifetime, the increased operating temperature will result in accelerated degradation of electronic components which suffer wear-out failure modes. The LEDs themselves suffer a wear-out failure mode, which is lumen depreciation. The rate of this depreciation is linked to the LM80 test data and TM-21 projection for lumen depreciation. It is commonly known that operating LEDs at higher temperatures will accelerate the lumen depreciation; in other words, resulting in poorer lumen maintenance figures. By way of an example, information available from CREE’s website shows that higher junction temperatures relate to poorer lumen maintenance. Under test conditions of 1500mA, testing on the XP-G3 chip at a case temperature of 105 gave an L90(9k) figure of 23,600 hours, yet when the case temperature was increased to 120 degrees, the L90(9k) figure dropped to 7,830 hours. While these test temperatures and drive currents are higher than would be typically seen for long-life street lighting products, it gives a flavour of the impact that increased operating temperature can have on the life of the LED product. Another commonly used component whose lifetime is affected by operating temperature is the wet electrolytic capacitor. Aluminium electrolytic capacitors are typically used in the LED driver circuit and, over time, the component will degrade as the liquid electrolyte gradually permeates through the capacitor seal. This causes the

electrolyte to dry up, at which point the capacitor will fail as an open circuit (in other words, the component will lose its capacitance). This process is accelerated at elevated operating temperatures; since the LED driver is often the part of the LED luminaire to fail first, this can give rise to a reduced luminaire life. A standard LED driver has a power factor-corrected (PFC) boost stage which converts the mains input voltage to a 400V DC output, followed by a buck stage, which converts the 400V DC output of the boost stage, to the Vout of the LED driver. A block diagram of this is shown below (Fig 1). Capacitors are needed between these stages so that the buck stage (in other words the DC to DC converter) has a steady voltage at its input. Should this capacitor fail, the LED driver will cease to operate, therefore rendering the luminaire failed.


Figure 1. A power factor-corrected LED driver. Capacitors are needed so that the buck stage (in other words the DC to DC converter) has a steady voltage at its input

June 2017 Lighting Journal

t Death Valley in California. The highest recorded natural temperature at ground level (56.7c) was recorded here. Earth’s extreme temperature differentials pose significant challenges for new lighting technologies

ic substrate, with electrical connections made via bond-wires, with a phosphor coating and polymer based covering applied. The bond wires are small current-carrying wires, which are carefully fixed to the diode and the anode/cathode of the LED package. Because of the small size of the bond wires, these can be susceptible to thermal shock when the temperature rapidly increases at switch on. This is analogous to pouring boiling water onto freezing glass – the differing thermal expansion at different parts of the glass induces stresses which can cause the glass to fracture. For the LED bond wire, this fracture will result in an open circuit failure, which will prevent the LED from being illuminated. Furthermore, for LED components this will result in all LEDs within the series string becoming out of light, as highlighted in Figure 2 below. q

Figure 2. A cracked wire bond. The small size of the bond wires within an LED mean they can be susceptible to thermal shock


The lifetime of these important capacitors within the LED driver depends on the operating temperature of the capacitor, and the ripple current of the device. Consider a luminaire operating at an ambient of 25 degrees, with an LED driver case temperature of 65 degrees. The internal temperature of the capacitor would typically be in the region of 80 degrees, which for a high-end capacitor would correspond to a lifetime in the region of 30,000 hours when operating at rated ripple current. The Arrhenius law, which applies to components such as capacitors, states that for every ten degree rise in temperature, the lifetime of the component is halved. Therefore, increasing the operating temperature of the above luminaire to 35 degrees, rather than 25 degrees, would result in a lifetime in the region of 15,000 hours. Increasing the temperature further to 45 degrees (bringing the temperature approximately in line with the maximum night-time temperatures recorded in USA and Iran) would then bring the life to 7,500 hours. While high temperature operation is often seen as the killer for electronic circuits, low temperatures can also bring about problems which can impact reliability and longevity of the product. Coming back to the LEDs themselves, the construction of a standard LED can lead to susceptibilities from thermal shock as the LEDs are switched on during low temperature operation. A standard LED package contains the diode placed onto a ceram-

Another factor to consider at extremely low temperatures is the change in equivalent series resistance (ESR) and capacitance of the wet electrolytic capacitors used in the LED driver. According to The Electronics Handbook by Jerry C Whitaker, the capacitance of an aluminium electrolytic capacitor can reduce to 30% of its rated value at temperatures in the region of -55 degrees. With a reduced capacitor value on the output of the PFC stage, the output of this first stage is likely to result in an overvoltage as the inductor discharges, which can cause failure of the buck stage, or send the PFC controller into overvoltage lock-out, preventing operation. Additionally, the reduced capacitance will mean that, between mains peaks, the voltage will drop below the under-voltage lock-out threshold, adding another reason why the driver cannot operate. Furthermore, at low temperatures the electrolyte can freeze, causing permanent damage to

the component if the case is cracked during expansion.


We can see therefore that it is not just high temperature operation that is of concern with LED light fixtures, and that in fact low temperature operation can also present reliability and life-limiting difficulties. But what can be done to help ensure fixtures are suitable for these extreme environments? For high temperature issues, a lot of the focus surrounds the design of the fixture and how heat is effectively removed from the heat-generating parts; this relates to the heatsink design, and how this can perform in high ambient temperature environments. However, in addition to this, components should be selected to minimise the effect of increased operating temperature on lifetime. For example, solid state ‘driverless’ technology can be employed to remove the life-limiting factor of the capacitors discussed. An LED fixture can, again, be made more resistant to low temperature operation by removing the wet electrolytic capacitor in the LED driver. Thermal shock can be remedied by soft start features to gradually increase the current and therefore temperature of the fixture (by as much as several minutes at extremely low ambient temperatures). This will have the effect of slowly increasing the temperature of the components within the fixture, therefore reducing the chance of differential thermal expansion and therefore thermal shock failure.


The global replacement of old lighting technologies with LED will provide huge energy savings. Its success will rely on the correct selection of lighting fixtures for different environments around the world. As highlighted above, there are several factors affecting reliability and lifetime when considering extreme temperatures. But solutions are available to ensure that the selected and installed product is suitable for the application. ¢

Lawrence Baynham, MEng, is technical director at INDO Lighting


Lawrence will be expanding on this article in a presentation at this month’s Professional Lighting Summit in Glasgow. Check out all the details and how to book at


June 2017 Lighting Journal

Lighting for extreme conditions: naval and maritime environments The sea is one of the most demanding environments there is. Whether you’re lighting for naval vessels or oil rigs, this creates its own set of very specific challenges, from ‘ruggedisation’ through to power consumption, light quality, longevity, maintenance and more

and opportunities; in our case to develop an entirely new range of ruggedised lighting that meets every aspect of modern-day criteria. So, first, what are the main challenges when it comes to designing lighting for naval vessels? These typically include:

By John D’Ambrogio

Naval environments are harsh, with very wide temperature ranges for external lighting, high levels of solar loading and ultra violet radiation and mandatory resistance to salt spray, salt air and a high IP rating. Military vessels are subject to severe vibration and shock requirements as well as supply electromagnetic transients and conditions that would blow up most commercial drivers. Material requirements for seals, wiring and plastics require full traceability, declaration and longevity of supply and must avoid halogens and have proven fire resistance. This all has to be supported by an extensive external testing programme, single piece seals, calculations and measurements. As such, 100% electrical testing, full verification and visual inspection is mandatory. Meeting all these requirements results in a light-fitting with excellent prospects for survival in the field for many years and, in fact, able to cope with whatever the planet can throw at it! Naturally, we adopt these techniques, materials and construction for all our products, for military or commercial alike. To show an example of this type of product, within our commercial ‘Ex’ lighting

T 10

he design and manufacture of lighting for naval and merchant vessels presents major challenges – and much greater ones than required for a typical lighting project. It’s not just a question of considering issues such as quality of light or power consumption, the fact the lighting will need to operate in the harsh environment of the world’s seas and oceans and have a long, maintenance-free service life are also vitally important factors. At McGeoch Technology, we have successfully specialised in manufacturing such ‘ruggedised’ lighting for more than 180 years; our lighting has graced many of the world’s naval, merchant and passenger fleets. This article intends to explain how designing lighting for naval vessels presents serious challenges above and beyond what is required on a typical lighting project and how we, as a specialist in this area, have met and overcome these challenges, including developing bespoke products. Alongside this, and much as elsewhere within the lighting industry, the advent of LED has created its own set of challenges,

¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢

range, the Endurance fitting can be submerged 30m under the sea, making it ideal to be mounted on oil platforms that need to be lowered into the sea to protect from typhoons.

Ruggedisation Power consumption The quality of light Operational matters Extreme longevity Low maintenance



The McGeoch Endurance Ex. A good example of a ‘ruggidised’ light designed to cope with extreme conditions


The main driver for the Royal Navy in adopting LED fittings has been to reduce energy consumption, which in turn links to operational benefits. However, the benefit of switching to LED in this way is even more so than for land-based projects. Most boats are powered by a diesel electric generator. Every extra watt used per light can become extra kilowatts of continuous load for the whole vessel and, so, over a voyage, tonnes of diesel are needed to power lighting. This in turn requires yet more diesel to be burnt transporting the fuel used to power the lights. Energy savings from lighting and other areas compound savings and increase operational duration and significantly lower deployment costs, even for short journeys. To help achieve this, efficient LEDs to-

June 2017 Lighting Journal


June 2017 Lighting Journal

Lighting for extreme conditions: naval and maritime environments gether with efficient drivers are required. Some naval lights are also powered by batteries with challenging duration targets for very small battery packs. Again, efficiency is required for these products in terms of using the lumens produced optimally, as well as driving LEDs efficiently. To, again, highlight an example of how this works within a product, our Automatic Emergency Lantern (AEL) provides light when all supplies on the boat have been lost. This light needs to provide illumination in a narrow field of view in emergency situations and to be visible through smoke. A carefully designed reflector is therefore used, and has resulted in only 5mm LEDs being needed at very modest power demand to achieve the operational performance. This, in turn, has allowed smaller batteries to be used in the lantern, which keeps the unit compact so preventing it being bumped into in narrow walkways. The low power also allows an easy implementation of a solution suitable for explosive atmospheres.

and a move to more mid-power LEDs as opposed to less high-power LEDs to prevent spotting. Eye safety is also important under servicing and operational use, as battery powered fittings may be serviced when lit.




The McGeoch AEL 1 and 2. The lantern provides light when all supplies on the boat have been lost, and therefore needs to provide illumination in a narrow field of view in emergency situations and to be visible through smoke


Quality of light has become increasingly important on board ships, particularly submarines where there is no other lightsource below the sea surface. It is essential that a good Colour Rendering Index (CRI) is given out so that labels, manuals and information displays can be seen correctly with no misinterpretation that can be fatal under pressured military situations. A Correlated Colour Temperature is required from 2,700-5,000degK; the personnel may be subject to the same artificial lighting for months on end and the ambience must be relaxing in a stressful job far

away from home and family. Morale is always sensitive to many pressures; lighting should not be one, in what is necessarily austere surroundings of battleship grey. Although high colour temperatures are good for piercing smoke, lower colour temperatures are tolerated much better by the sailors on long durations. It is also essential to minimise glare and reflection, as this can be distracting and reduce readability of display systems. Compartments are cramped and so light fittings tend to be very low profile on low ceilings, compared to commercial installations. As a result, they tend to be slimmer, which requires very efficient diffusing,


Lights on board a vessel have to do a lot more than would be expected in a commercial requirement. This includes: ¢ Multiple illumination modes. Multiple illumination modes means being able to operate at full brightness, at reduced brightness, with light suitable for night vision goggles to prevent dazzling, and in red light mode (for preserving night vision). All these are encountered on board a naval vessel, which complicates wiring and needs a modular design about a common framework for each version to reduce development costs and simplify spares management. ¢ Explosion protection. Explosion protection is required for some lighting used in spaces where explosive atmosphere is present, which can be from everything from hydraulic fluid to hydrogen gas. Our Endurance range of Zone 1 products, for example, incorporates military-specified solutions using a range of protection techniques. Such fittings are also ideal for use in offshore oil and gas platforms, as many of the environmental problems faced by these installations are also addressed by military-specified products. ¢ Collision avoidance. It goes without saying that lights are used for maritime collision avoidance and identification on the outside of the vessel. The specifications for these are covered by demanding

June 2017 Lighting Journal

regulations. This includes mandating certain colours lights at specific locations with narrow viewing angles with sharp cut-offs (so people can identify which way round the ship is travelling). These are now slowly being implemented as LED solutions, which has resulted in much smaller control cabinets (and a reduction of transformer size) as well as eliminating the need to change lamps halfway up a mast. We have implemented a number of such systems for vessels, from the cabinet to the lamps, that are submersible for submarine-mounted versions with a high-pressure rating. Each operational requirement can be a challenge in itself, with unusual specifications. This means it is always important to take a whole-system view. We, for example, also make the power distribution cabinets, control panels and battery banks that are powering the lights, and so have great responsibility in terms of design.


Traditionally, when supplying to the Navy, many items fitted on board a boat are expected to be there for the whole operational life of the vessel, which in some instances is 30 years. This has held lighting technology back, as the customer wants what they know will last, in other words a ‘traditional’ solution. With the move to LED, the customer expects the same life, or at least that a midlife update will be possible. To this end, it is essential to under-drive the LEDs significantly (more so than in commercial situations) and to have good thermal management. It is also important to apply the same approaches to the driver, which possesses temperature-related life issues, for example with the electrolytic capacitors. A ‘commercial’ L70 point at 50,000 hours is insufficient. This standard practice of under-driving and over-specifying is used in our commercial products, so giv-


Gangway lighting. The transition to LED has had the benefit of offering greater efficiency, simpler wiring and higher durability

ing customers confidence the light will be operating for many years, wherever it is around the world. LEDs are a rapidly evolving component within this, with new brightness grades appearing yearly and lower brightness grades disappearing. LED PCB footprints and other parameters change typically every few years. We, for example, are currently revising our product ranges for products launched in the last decade to support them into the 2020s and beyond. A good example of this is our gangway lighting, where a string of 3W downlights fitted on a cable using 3 x 1W LEDs and individual driver chips has now been replaced with 12 mid-power LEDs offering superior efficiency. This has also led to simpler wiring and higher durability, whilst preserving the same fit form and function required by the customer. With larger fittings, LED PCBs need to be directly integrated with driver electronics so that, for spares or midlife updates in the future, brighter LEDs that will replace the current installed ones are driven at reduced power. This is to ensure they present the same brightness as the fitted lights, so the replacement will not stand out. For example, we are still supporting

naval electronics built from 1960s blueprints, and will be supporting lighting well into the 2050s. Our Endurance Ex series, again, has excellent longevity, with the LEDs significantly under-driven, the heat directly bonded out of LED boards into a cast heatsink, and with the power supply cooled through conductive cooling via being buried in sand. The enclosure temperature rise is minimal.


Maintaining a naval vessel has the additional problem that the boat may be a long way away from the spares store whilst at sea. Spares can obviously be put on board, but most boats have minimal space for such spares. Traditional fluorescent lighting needs spare tubes but also somewhere to store the old ones. Modern LED lighting is much more reliable, but spares must still be considered. The big problem with LED lighting is ensuring that a single LED failure will not knock the whole light out. We use zener diodes that operate if an LED goes open circuit, ensuring those in the chain of LEDs remain on, and we frequently break down the LED groupings into multiple drivers for redundancy. This gives confidence that the light fitting can ‘limp’ on to be repaired at home base after a tour of duty. Such design features are essential when lights are up 30m in the air, for example on an oil rig, and where the costs of maintenance tend to run into thousands of pounds an hour. Again, to cite an example from our own range, the Endurance ATEX Ex fitting has no replacement parts and is specified for an exceptionally long life in hot or cold climates. In essence, it can be treated as a truly ‘fit and forget’ product, something that naturally makes it very attractive for extreme environments. ¢

John D’Ambrogio, BEng, MBA, is managing director of McGeoch Technology


June 2017 Lighting Journal

Lighting design


With ambitious plans to expand its tourism, hospitality and built infrastructure, the United Arab Emirates offers significant commercial potential to lighting designers. But you need to be aware of its different cultural and operational approaches to lighting design By Emilio Hernandez

June 2017 Lighting Journal


e’ve recently opened a new, and second, lighting design consultancy in Dubai to service the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and wider Middle East. From a lighting perspective, the Middle East is a dynamic, evolving and emerging region, one undeniably brimming with commercial potential. But, beyond the practical logistical complexities that always accompany opening a new studio, expanding into a region like the Middle East means having to understand and reconcile significant differences in the design process between projects within the UAE and the UK/Europe, plus also differences in terms of style, interaction with the wider design team and client expectations. This has presented a number of challenges. This article looks at some of the differences we have come across and how we’ve gone about addressing them.

the majority of its GDP, and in fact only 5% of its GDP came from this sector in 2016. Most of its revenue comes from construction, aluminium production and tourism. The Dubai Department of Tourism & Commerce Marketing is aiming to double the number of tourist visits to 20 million per


When you’re expanding into a new region, doing your homework is always critical, as it allows you to focus your efforts and ensure resources are targeted and used efficiently. For us, the decision to locate our studio in Dubai was relatively straightforward. The UAE is the second largest Emirate state; it is a ‘melting pot’ of different cultures and, whilst relatively young on the scene, it is highly ambitious in terms of its aspirations for design, business, architecture and culture. Dubai is also the only UAE state that does not currently rely on oil exports for

The Burj Khalifa in Dubai. It is due to be the world’s tallest skyscraper and is a symbol of the United Arab Emirates’ commitment to transforming its built infrastructure

annum by 2020, with the forthcoming 2020 Expo Dubai being a key attraction. The 2022 World Cup in Qatar will also put the region firmly in the international spotlight. All this means there is strong demand for provision of hospitality infrastructure within the state. Whilst Dubai’s hotels are

not yet at capacity, it is currently lacking in three- to four-star hotels to target a widened demographic for tourism, creating an obvious commercial opportunity.


From route to market to design team structure and through to concept delivery, there are big variances between how the UK and UAE operate, all of which makes the feasibility of running an independent consultancy slightly trickier, and certainly different, from what we are used to in Europe. For example, compared to the UK, consultants are invited to bid much earlier in the project process, and often when lead consultant teams have not been appointed. This results in a lower ‘hit’ rate – approximately one in ten fee proposals convert to ‘live’ projects, as opposed to one in four in the UK. Moreover, as lighting design is less established in the region than the UK, generally the fees will be lower; the value of lighting design is not always fully understood or appreciated. Yet, at the same time, staff salaries are higher, which inevitably impacts on profitability. Furthermore, developers and clients within the region have a strong trading mentality. This means it is commonplace for large discounts to be negotiated, to provide a sense of a ‘good deal’. Whilst some of this can be allowed for in the initial fee bid, it is important to recognise this is quite a different process to the UK, where time is very clearly scheduled out within tender proposals.


June 2017 Lighting Journal

Lighting design


As with the UK, most projects in the UAE follow the design stages as set out in the RIBA’s scope of works. However, on most European projects as a lighting consultant we are appointed by (and collaborate with) architects, interior designers, project managers or the end client. We will usually make regular presentations to the client team in order to coordinate and obtain design approval and feedback. Within the UAE on the other hand, lighting consultants are typically appointed via the lead consultant only. This means direct client presentations occur less frequently, with the client generally relying on the lead consultant to convey design ideas and to liaise with the wider team. Part of the reason for this is that the chain of command is more formal. The end client could often be a member of the royal family which, as second tier consultants, the lighting design practice would not usually have access to. As a result, design schemes are usually submitted as stand-alone ‘work books’ and feedback is usually only received in written form. This formal process also means that a greater level of documentation, detail and photorealistic renders is required to mitigate erroneous interpretation of design intent. This level of visualisation is less frequently required within the UK market, and the combination of additional documentation and tighter fees makes the margin for error or repetition slim. In the UK market, a lighting consultant is often involved on a project from concept through to practical completion on traditional contracts or, if it is a design-andbuild contract, novated to sit client or contractor side.

By comparison, in the UAE the majority of projects use fixed-price design and build contractors, with lighting distributors rather than lighting designers offering free design in return for supplying lighting fixtures. This has the effect of devaluing lighting design and the value of retaining the lighting consultant is not yet seen as common-

The Frank Gehry-designed Guggenheim. Dubai is investing heavily in construction to develop its cultural base

place. This also means it can be difficult to secure appointment past RIBA stage four.


The UAE is a young region (Dubai is only 47-years-old) and both Dubai and Abu Dhabi are a fusion of different nationalities. This means there is not necessarily a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach to reflecting local culture within the design process, al-

though an international architectural style is prevalent and colour palettes are often monochromatic with increasing use of natural finishes. Strong Russian, Korean and Indian tourist markets also mean a mixture of food and beverage offerings and interior styles are often required within the same hospitality venue. From a lighting perspective, this presents challenges in the transition of light levels and colour temperature, which may typically vary between these interior styles. Whilst there is a large international and expat contingent being catered for, there are also certain ideological customs that should be acknowledged (or at least considered) within mood images and concept documents. For example, the UAE is a slightly more moderate/respectful culture. Therefore, explicit mood images (especially images showing exposed skin) should be carefully considered. When designing food and beverage areas for markets such as Kuwait or Saudi Arabia, any imagery of alcohol must be avoided. Religion is also highly considered within the region and therefore varying cultures/beliefs need to be carefully considered. To increase tourism, the UAE is investing heavily in establishing a cultural base that reflects not only its own heritage but the sense that its location and trade meets the crossroads between east and west. Construction of a Jean Nouvelle-inspired Louvre and Frank Gehry-designed Guggenheim are well under way in Abu Dhabi. The design for the Louvre demonstrates excellent control over daylight and shade in a sophisticated and distinct style, one that is both practical to the climate and

June 2017 Lighting Journal

recognisable to the region, while demonstrating its own architectural styles. Nevertheless, as a lighting designer working in this region, it is important to recognise that façade lighting in the UAE has not yet evolved in the same way, and it differs from the subtle accent lighting that might be seen in countries with more stringent heritage and planning constraints. Façade lighting is still dominated by a ‘brighter is better’ mentality and the use of saturated or changing colour. This, combined with the Dubai Municipality’s relaxed planning laws on the aesthetic of lighting schemes, results in some very impactful designs, as can be seen in the proposed ‘Dubai Wheel’, or the Ain Dubai Ferris Wheel as it is now known, and the Burj Khalifa.

prolonged submersion of light fixtures when it does rain. ¢ The supply chain. Design and supply is the most common route to market for manufacturers, and therefore maintaining a specification is difficult, especially if a lighting consultant is not appointed beyond the tender stage. Contractors tend to have strong links to


Since opening our Dubai studio, we’ve come across a number of challenges that are more specific to the UAE market. From managing cashflow with back-to-back contracts to the realisation of a lighting concept, there are important differences that need to be navigated. Some other challenges include: ¢ Temperature. As with all countries with extreme temperatures, the climate affects external design consideration massively. In the UAE you can get temperatures north of 45 degrees Centigrade (in the shade), salinity in coastal areas and the sand-blasting of lights from sandstorms. All these require careful consideration when designing and installing lighting details. For example, in-ground luminaires can be completely ‘lost’ overnight and drainage can be blocked with sand, leading to

The ‘Dubai Wheel’, or Ain Dubai Ferris Wheel, under construction. Another landmark UAE construction project

Asian and Indian supply markets, which are competitive on price but can vary in comparable quality. The average LED downlight budget for a residential scheme is around £15, in turn creating challenges for European manufacturers to be competitive. ¢ Labour and skills. Because of the vast amount of construction work being undertaken within the UAE and often the

ambitious build times that can accompany it, it is not unusual to find that there is not always sufficient experienced/skilled labour on site. Design details therefore often need to be rethought to be robust, and not necessarily rely on tight tolerances and plaster in finishing.


Regardless of the differences in culture and current mindset towards architectural lighting design between the UAE and Europe, it is our responsibility as lighting consultants to provide the client with the information needed to make key design decisions. As such, continued education of the design teams and client team is key, but currently time and fee dictate our involvement. This requires adaption of the lighting design process and model, and it is important not to operate in a London-centric ‘bubble’. Through our new studio, for example, we are already seeing success in terms of filtering conceptual input through into schemes. However, we very much recognise that lighting design needs to continue to find ways to add value and quality to the overall design process, and to educate clients as to the benefit of considered lighting design. In that respect, the UAE is no different to any other market. We very much hope Dubai will become an excellent business hub for us in the UAE, as well as give us opportunities to grow and influence what is still a comparatively young lighting design market. ¢

Emilio Hernandez, BA (Hons), is associate lighting designer at Nulty


June 2017 Lighting Journal

The 2017 Lighting Design Awards


The 2017 Lighting Design Awards were held in May, with star industry names including Suzan Tillotson and Daniel Libeskind being honoured, along with projects and teams from around the world. Lighting Journal was there By Nic Paton


he is a lighting designer whose ‘exemplary’ body of work – from The Broad in Los Angeles, to Lincoln Square Synagogue in New York, and Seattle Central Public Library (to name but a few) – has consistently broken new ground. Her work is of ‘outstanding creativity and quality’; and she is someone who has contributed ‘hugely’ to advancing the stature of the lighting design profession. The plaudits for Suzan Tilllotson, founder of Tillotson Design Associates, certainly came thick and fast as she picked up the star attraction of the 2017 Lighting Design Awards, the Lighting Designer of the Year Award. Suzan described the award as ‘amazing’ and said she continued to feel ‘passionate’

about lighting design, adding that influencing through light how people used and felt about space was ‘a huge responsibility’ that she took incredibly seriously. The awards, now in their 41st year, were once again supported by the ILP and held at a glittering ceremony at London’s Hilton Park Lane in May, attended by more than 700 designers, architects and suppliers.


Projects from 15 countries, including Iran, Israel, Kenya, Finland, Canada, the US, Italy, France, Germany, the UAE, Australia, Switzerland, Spain and Chile, were recognised and rewarded. For the second year, the awards recognized ‘40 under 40’ – 40 up-andcoming lighting designers aged under 40.

Daniel Libeskind, founder and principal architect at Studio Libeskind, received the prestigious Publishers’ Lifetime Achievement Award, in association with Lighting magazine. Lighting Design Practice of the Year was illuminationworks, described by the judges as an ‘unsung hero’ of the profession, a practice that ‘consistently produces lighting projects of the highest standard without fanfare or hype’. Architect of the Year was Carpenter Lowings, a practice that, the judges said, ‘puts daylight at the very centre of its mission’, including working on the Fulton Street Center in New York, as in fact highlighted on pages 26-31 (along with The Broad) of this very edition of Lighting Journal.

June 2017 Lighting Journal

q Folded Light, by Carpenter Lowings, winner of the Daylight Project of the Year. The 40m-high installation runs the full height of a lightwell in a 10-storey office building in London, with the stainless steel surface exploiting the almost vertical angle of the light, so allowing occupants to perceive the changing conditions of the sky above. Carpenter Lowings also won Architect of the Year Photo by Timothy Soar


June 2017 Lighting Journal

The 2017 Lighting Design Awards

THE FULL LIST OF THIS YEAR’S WINNERS WERE: ¢  Lighting Designer of the Year Suzan Tillotson, Tillotson Design Associates

Project of the Year Gasholder Park, King’s Cross, London, UK – Speirs + Major

¢ Lighting Design Practice of the Year illuminationworks

¢ Workplace Project of the Year R/GA, New York, USA – Tillotson Design Associates

¢ Architect of the Year Carpenter Lowings ¢ Light Art Project of the Year Scent Constellation, Le Grand Musée du Parfum, Paris – Jason Bruges Studio ¢ Integration Project of the Year Bahá’í Temple, Santiago, Chile – Limarí Lighting Design ¢ Daylight Project of the Year Folded Light, London, UK – Carpenter Lowings ¢ Community and Public Realm


¢ Heritage Project of the Year York Minster, UK – Sutton Vane Associates

¢ Product Designer of the Year Marc Sadler ¢ Disruptor of the Year Bloom Unit – migenius ¢ Architectural Luminaire – Exterior Vivid Pixel – Green LED Lighting Solutions

¢ Retail Project of the Year Fondaco dei Tedeschi, Venice, Italy – PJC Light Studio

¢ Architectural Luminaire – Interior The Blade – iGuzzini

¢ Leisure Project of the Year Kulm Country Club and Eispavillon, St. Moritz, Switzerland – Foster + Partner ¢ Hotel and Restaurant Project of the Year

21c Museum Hotel, Oklahoma City, USA – illuminationworks

¢ Publishers’ Lifetime Achievement – Daniel Libeskind Descriptions of all the winners can be found at winners-2017/ The Blade, by iGuzzini, winner of the Architectural Luminaire – Interior

Gasholder Park, King’s Cross, London, by Speirs + Major, winner of the Community and Public Realm Project of the Year. Photo by James Newton

R/GA, New York, by Tillotson Design Associates, winner of the Workplace Project of the Year. Photo by John Muggenborg

THE 40 UNDER 40 Originally introduced to mark last year’s 40th anniversary, the ‘40 under 40’ returned to this year’s awards, again as a vehicle to recognise and celebrate the lighting industry’s emerging talent. This year’s 40 under 40 were: 1 Nitika Agrawal, AECOM 2 Panos Andrikopoulos, UCL Institute of Sustainable Heritage / ACT Lighting Design 3 Luca Salas Bassani Antivari, LSBA Studio 4 Romano Baratta, Romano Baratta Lighting Studio 5 Laura Bayliss, Light Artist 6 Ali Berkman, ONOFF Lighting

Design Studio 7 Dr Daria Casciani, Politecnico di Milano 8 Darcie Chinnis, Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design 9 Alvin Cousins, SEAM Design 10 Dr Amardeep M Dugar, Lighting Research & Design 11 Paul Ehlert, Lichtkompetenz 12 David Ghatan, CM Kling +

Associates 13 Arianna Ghezzi, Ideaworks 14 Rachel Gibney, Available Light 15 Magdalena Gomez, Elektra Lighting 16 Gu Bing, Beijing GALA Lighting Design Studio 17 Emad Hasan, The Lighting Practice 18 Golsana Heshmati, Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design 19 Faraz Izhar, KEO International Consultants 20 Faith Jewell, Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design 21 Stephen Kaye, Mulvey &

Banani Lighting 22 Sophia Klees, jack be nimble 23 Tulin Kori, GIA Equation 24 Juan Felipe Rivera, Licht 01 Lighting Design 25 Landon K Roberts, eSquared Lighting 26 Anna Rodionova, NDYLIGHT 27 Graham Rollins, Lighting Design International 28 Darío Gustavo Núñez Salazar, Verkís Consulting Engineers 29 Anna Sandgren, Nulty+ 30 James Sherman, Foster + Partners 31 Shu Jiang, Auerbach Glasow

Lighting Design 32 Korhan Sisman, Planlux 33 Alkestie Skarlatou, GIA Equation 34 Erin Slaviero, Elektra lighting 35 Gary Thornton, Neolight Global 36 Carlijn Timmermans, C.Light. Wise 37 Anna Tomschik, Light Bureau 38 Gabriel Vinagre, Luminarama Lighting Design 39 Tina Wikström, School of Engineering, Jönköping University 40 Brienne Willcock, Illuminart

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June 2017 Lighting Journal

The environmental impact of artificial lighting on the night sky


Street and urban lighting has to be fit for purpose as well as (ideally) aesthetically pleasing. But lighting professionals are also in a unique position through their work to protect the night sky and reduce light pollution. A keen astronomer and lighting engineer makes a passionate case for promoting the importance of dark skies By Colin Campbell

June 2017 Lighting Journal


s both an amateur astronomer and a lighting engineer, I have a keen interest in the effect that artificial lighting is having on our view of the night sky. Light pollution, particularly in the form of skyglow, inhibits our ability to make astronomical observations. With the first oil street lighting introduced in around 1750, then gas in 1807, followed by electric lighting in 1878, the adoption

One of my nearest observatories is the Godlee Observatory. Nestled on top of a Grade II listed, University of Manchester building on Sackville Street, this has been under the stewardship of the Manchester Astronomical Society for more than 100 years. Unfortunately, its location, deep within Manchester city centre, no longer permits good views of distant, deep-sky objects. Only observation of brighter

ed the night scene, allowing me to capture some stunning views of deep-sky objects from my own back garden, such as this below. Last year, I moved across the county border into West Yorkshire, to a small village in a rural area, surrounded by designated green belt, farmland and only a stone’s throw from the South Pennines Special Area of Conservation. Screened by rolling hills on either side,


of artificial lighting and the growing urbanisation around observatories has forced the science of astronomy to retreat. It is estimated light pollution currently affects approximately 80% of the world’s population. As far back as the 19th century, it was clear that the Royal Observatory in Greenwich was going to require relocation because of increasing air and light pollution. In 1950s, it relocated to Herstmaceaux Castle in Sussex, where it remained until 1988, far from the light dome engulfing London.

celestial objects, such as the moon and larger planets, can still be enjoyed by the society’s members – Manchester’s weather permitting. I was blessed with growing up in the foothills of the Pennines, several miles from and at a considerable elevation above Manchester. This location offered me a significant reduction in skyglow. A considerable investment by Oldham Council in full cut-off lighting technology, whereby street lighting units do not emit light above 90 degrees and therefore no direct upward light, also benefit-

the reduction in skyglow has been significant when compared to a suburban area. The Milky Way starts to become visible to the naked eye and the vast number of stars now apparent in the night sky make identifying the constellations that little bit trickier – a welcome challenge. This location, with its low district brightness and improved quality of dark night skies, has opened up the opportunity for a wealth of astronomical phenomena to present themselves. The Aurora Borealis, the natural light

June 2017 Lighting Journal

The environmental impact of artificial lighting on the night sky


The nearest star to our solar system, Proxima Centauri, is approximately 39,900,000,000,000 km away. Its photons, travelling at the speed of light, take about 4.22 years to reach us. Our nearest galactic neighbour, the Andromeda Galaxy, is visible to the naked eye from a dark sky site; it takes 2.5 million years for us to receive its photons across the emptiness of space. An unobstructed, unpolluted view of the night sky allows us to see its inspirational nature: the millions upon millions of stars within our own galaxy alone; the intricate clouds of interstellar dust and gas forming stunning nebulae, many of which give rise to new stars and subsequently planets; and beyond our own galaxy, the countless galaxies stretching across the universe. Sadly, our views are often polluted –


The stunning deep-sky view one night, from the author’s back garden

but this is a situation we can address. Should we not consider the night sky as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty or a Site of Special Scientific Interest? Its sheer scale, intrinsic beauty and intrigue, and the vast distances photons of light cross to reach us, should surely afford the sky the same environmental considerations and protection as its ground-based counterparts? It is too easy to stereotype astronomers as being against any form of light and hypersensitive to any nuisance caused by artificial lighting. The British Astronomical Association recently rebranded its Dark Sky effort as the ‘Commission for Dark Skies’. It felt its original name, the ‘Campaign for Dark Skies’ could be misinterpreted as militant, suggesting complete opposition towards illumination. This could not be further from the truth – the commission’s aim is to raise awareness and promote best practice regarding lighting design, which reflects the current guidance for minimising light pollution.


We should, of course, be following guidance that outlines best practice when designing a lighting scheme. Current guidance includes: ¢ Guidance Notes for the Reduction of Obtrusive Light (GN01: 2011). Produced by The Institution of Lighting Professionals, GN01:2011 is the guidance most commonly referred to in government

policies, scoping opinions and condition clauses. It provides a list of lighting ‘dos and don’ts’, as well as design guidance limits to ascertain the acceptability of obtrusive light levels at night ¢ Guide on the Limitation of the Effects of Obtrusive Light from Outdoor Lighting Installations (CIE 150) and Guidelines for Minimising Sky Glow (CIE 126). These documents, produced by the International Commission on Illumination, provide guidelines for assessing the impacts of outdoor lighting As lighting designers and engineers, we know good lighting has minimal effects when we follow design guidelines, use a best practice approach, and use the embedded mitigation measures available to us at a design stage to minimise the effect of obtrusive light, particularly skyglow. These may include: ¢ Flat-glass light distribution. This eliminates direct upwards light, the primary contributor to skyglow

Photos by Sarah Hall and Colin Campbell


display predominantly seen in the high latitude Arctic and Antarctic regions, can occasionally be seen at lower latitudes following large coronal mass ejections and the solar winds interacting with the upper atmosphere. The resulting ionization and excitation of atmospheric particles emits light of varying colour and complexity. The main image on the previous page was captured less than 20 miles from Leeds and Manchester, at an altitude of approximately 410m. Yet this spectacular light show would not have been visible just a few miles away in the city or surrounding towns and suburbs because of stray photons from artificial lighting being scattered in the atmosphere and creating that diffuse orange glow we know only too well.


June 2017 Lighting Journal

¢ Switching off or dimming unnecessary lighting during unoccupied hours. This should be subject to risk assessment for health and safety approval Based upon the design guidance and the classification of Environmental Zones, we have stringent requirements that preserve and protect the likes of Dark Sky Parks (E0), and National Park and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (E1). But do we go far enough to protect other Environmental Zones? The pre-existing condition in some locations means we should be proactive in mitigating and/or retroactively reducing light pollution. In city centre environments, for example, current guidance limits for upwards light are set at 15%. In these high brightness areas, views of celestial objects are almost washed out, with only the brightest objects, such as Jupiter, Venus and Saturn, potentially visible. If 15% of light is cast into the sky, this is both compounding the issue of light pollution and wasting energy and money, especially taking into account the UK’s targets on climate change and carbon reduction. Even 5% Upward Light Ratio (ULR) equates to a considerable financial loss for those responsible for providing artificial lighting at night. For any new development, should we be permitting any waste of any light above the horizontal? Regarding rural environments (E2), the guidance currently specifies a threshold of 2.5% ULR for ‘Village or relatively

dark outer suburban locations’. Perhaps we should scale back our threshold limits further, in order to preserve the view of the stars? With modern lighting schemes, variable lighting levels and dimming protocols are implemented throughout the night based on frequency of use (for example: 100% between dusk and 22.00, 75% between 22:00 and 23:00, 50% between 23:00 and 06:00, 75% between 06:00 and 07:00, and 100% between 07:00 and dawn). Is there potential to introduce variable Environmental Zone classifications on a sliding scale? This could mean that, at set times, perhaps in line with the pre-existing recommended curfew time of 11:00pm, E4 (city centre locations) would become E3 (town centre locations); E2 (rural locations) becomes E1 (intrinsically dark locations), and so on. Switching off or dimming unnecessary lighting during unoccupied hours would offer financial savings and environmental benefits related to the reduced energy used for illumination, while significantly reducing light pollution. Of course, I am not advocating switching off all existing lighting, particularly


The Milky Way, as viewed from Rishworth, West Yorkshire

street lighting, where a decision has been made that lighting is required upon a roadway or specific area for safety and security. Without a comprehensive risk assessment by a qualified person, complete switch-offs could have an adverse effect and should only be undertaken with rigorous checks and balances.


We are in an age in which the technology is available to reduce the amount of light through dimming, while monitoring traffic flow and adjusting lighting levels to suit user needs. As we creep towards the ‘smart city’, such technology is becoming cheaper, accessible, and more integrated. Protecting our night sky could offer various savings, not only in energy costs, but environmentally, with a reduction in CO2 emissions, reduced impact upon nocturnal species and reduced skyglow. The UK currently has a small number of internationally recognised Dark Sky Parks and Reserves. We should add to these before it is too late, to ensure the security of stunning night-time views. By making a commitment to do everything possible to protect the night sky, while advocating the importance of good lighting design and environmental protection, we can ensure light pollution is reduced and views of the night sky are preserved for generations to come. Astro-tourism is becoming increasingly popular. People want to visit Dark Sky sites in the hope that the UK weather will give them the opportunity to peer into the night sky and see the wonders of the Milky Way and beyond. Considering that we are essentially looking back in time when we gaze out to the stars, isn’t it time we protected this view for future generations? As lighting professionals, we have an obligation to promote the importance of dark skies, as well as managing the impact of light on the environment and on the delicate eco-systems upon this planet that we share – within a solar system in which we are merely taking a ride, in an ever-expanding universe. ¢

Colin Campbell, EngTech AMILP, is environmental lighting engineer at Hoare Lea Lighting


June 2017 Lighting Journal

Lighting design: daylight of place


June 2017 Lighting Journal

Current daylight metrics are limited because they are primarily focused on measuring horizontal illuminance on the working plane. What is needed today is a more nuanced lighting design approach, one combining an understanding of subjective aspects of daylighting such as contrast levels, uniformity and variation By Rohit Manudhane and Pavlina Akritas


aylight is fundamental to life. It is unparalleled qualitatively as a source of light, physiologically as it triggers our biological needs and in sustainability, as it is freely delivered every day. With changing seasons, hours and weather, it changes radically. Intensity, colour and distribution are a function of time and place that make natural light dynamic and unique for every place. Given man’s innate desire for variety and change, the use of daylight in buildings improves people’s mood and sense of wellbeing. There are qualities particular to daylight design that are embedded in our visual memory of place – which we find appealing. Consciously and unconsciously, we are always relating the memories of a certain light quality to a place on the earth. For us spatial designers, in addition to the quality of the sky, it’s perception within the built form also holds significant relevance. How, for example, a really bright sunny sky filtering through small openings into shaded spaces reminds us of somewhere in the Middle East, or how the diffused light filtering through rice paper screens creates a unique ambient quality that is a cue to Japan. Daylighting remained the primary means of lighting to all types of buildings until the advent and widespread use of electricity in the early twentieth century. Ever since, daylighting has been in retreat. The requirement for higher levels of illumination, especially during hours of darkness, and the pressure to economise on floor-to-floor ceiling height, coupled with efficiency improvements in electric light sources, have all had a substantial and negative impact on the use of daylighting in buildings. The turning point was reached in the 1960s, when electric


June 2017 Lighting Journal

Lighting design: daylight of place


lighting substituted daylight as the primary source of light. As a result, fluorescent lighting became the norm, especially in workspaces. The dominance of artificial lighting rendered almost irrelevant other aspects of building design, such as orientation and the exterior envelope. It felt as if building designs had lost a part of their identity and perhaps so had their occupants too. When the 1970s energy crises struck, and the cost of power generation went through the roof, there was, perhaps unsurprisingly, a renewed interest in daylighting. This has been complemented by growing recognition, and evidence, of the positive effects of daylight on human wellbeing. Daylight design today has long been driven by three prevailing objectives: energy savings, health and wellbeing, and aesthetic appeal. The aesthetic appeal or the beauty of a building plays a very important part within our daylighting language. The emotional benefit of maintaining a connection to the outside, and the pleasantness one feels from a beautiful daylit space are some of the intangible benefits of daylighting. These benefits can often be lost in the quest for energy savings. Historically, achieving energy savings from daylight was not just a goal but a necessity, as electricity was either non-existent or cost prohibitive. This allowed for people to take advantage of some of the intangible benefits of daylight. Recently, however, the development and adoption of LED lighting has improved efficiency so significantly that the energy case for daylighting has become even more challenging. This could be viewed as an unfortunate side-effect of an otherwise positive industry trend, or an opportunity as lighting professionals to refocus our daylighting priorities. Today, daylighting design primarily focuses on providing time-appropriate lighting for stimulating healthy circadian rhythms. The beauty of daylight seems to have been forgotten. Nevertheless, for the most successful building design it is vital to give equal consideration to all these three objectives: energy, health and beauty. While there is a lot of research that helps us to quantify the energy and health benefits of daylight, current daylight metrics are very limited and primarily focus on measuring horizontal illuminance on the working plane, as shown in Figure 1. However, this is not representative of how we experience or perceive a space, as Figure 2 opposite highlights.


Figure 1. Current daylight metrics are very limited and primarily focus on measuring horizontal illuminance on the working plane


Figure 2. However, how we experience or perceive a space is quite different


Figure 3. The horizontal axis of the matrix shows a linear gradient from high spatial and temporal variability on the left, to low spatial and temporal variability on the right

We know daylighting is more nuanced and complex than measuring horizontal illuminance. We have a highly developed and complex visual and non-visual system that is influenced by emotions, adaptation, and colour spectrum over a wide and ever changing field of view.


The problem with the current standards for daylighting is that they rely on average luminance, luminance range, and standard deviation; they cannot asses the spatial or compositional diversity of luminance values within an occupants’ field-of-view. An interesting survey of architecture from around the world was carried out by

Siobhan Rockcastle and Marilyne Andersen by categorising spaces in terms of contrast and temporal variability. This typological approach serves two purposes: on the one hand, it helps us to understand the broad range of daylight strategies within architectural design. On the other, it allows us to develop a precise language about the strength and composition of perceptual luminosity within each space. The objective is to generate a quantitative method for analysing spatial and temporal diversity through the medium of digital images. The horizontal axis of the matrix shows a linear gradient from high spatial and temporal variability on the left to low spatial and temporal variability on the right, as shown in Figure 3.

June 2017 Lighting Journal

Using this matrix as reference and simple representative spatial models, this paper presents a broad range of architectural examples to show how daylight impacts our perception of interior space through the composition of luminous effects. While this study was established in 2013, research has since then been done on developing a new metric for measuring perceptive qualities of daylight. For example, one of the newer papers by the same Rockcastle and Andersen team includes an online survey designed to test the effects of architectural composition and sky conditions on subjective responses. It raises questions about an architectural space, such as its perceived contrast levels, uniformity, variation, calmness and excitement. It then goes on to correlate these responses to already existing metrics and confirms a link between quantitative contrast measures and human perceptions of daylit spaces. Of course, this is based upon just one experiment with one set of spaces and needs more such experiments to create and validate a more robust prediction model To illustrate the issue of ‘daylight of place’ in more practical terms, let’s look at some recently-completed Arup projects, all of which have taken quite different approaches.


The Broad (pictured on page 26) is a new contemporary art museum founded by philanthropists Eli and Edythe Broad in downtown Los Angeles. The building was



The Broad, Los Angeles (and also shown on page 26). Black-out blinds have been introduced on the exterior of the skylights, and can move between full deployment during closed hours to a pre-set position during open hours, so giving maximum flexibility to exhibit any medium of art

designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro in collaboration with Gensler. Arup provided a range of multi-disciplinary building services, including lighting design. The gallery space on the third floor of the Broad was to be generally used for displaying selected works from the Broad Collection of modern and contemporary painting and sculpture from the 20th and 21st centuries. Natural light was to be used as an important source of illumination for art in this space – it was envisaged that daylight would be the primary illuminant of the space for many of the museum’s opening hours. Very high levels of natural light should not, however, be allowed in the galleries because of art conservation concerns. Direct sun was to be excluded at all times as it would be too bright for the art and cause distracting glare. The solution was to use skylights tailor-made for the specific location of the building. These exclude sunlight from penetrating the interior and a series of sun animations were created to inform the design. Another major consideration was to achieve a uniform light distribution across the gallery walls. Given its north orientation, it would typically be expected that the south walls would be brighter than the north walls. A process was undertaken to optimise the skylight shape and ensure light levels were not only within acceptable levels for conservation but also that daylight was uniformly distributed across the space. By analysing daylight availability in Los Angeles, it was quickly realised that an appreciable amount of daylight occurred outside museum opening hours. Daylight in the gallery at these times, and during any museum closure days, could be considered unnecessary exposure of the art to light. Some exhibitions may also require reduced light levels, either for conservation reasons (for example, works on paper) or for display reasons (for example, video works). Working closely with the design team we introduced black-out blinds on the exterior of the skylights. These can move between full deployment during closed hours to a pre-set position during open hours, giving the museum maximum flexibility to exhibit any medium of art.


The ever-higher degree of urbanisation in our world has meant that the natural lighting experience is becoming something of a luxury. So, designers have needed to become smarter as to how they introduce daylight


June 2017 Lighting Journal

Lighting design: daylight of place


Figure 6. One of the most prominent challenges in terms of daylighting design was how to maximise the sky into a non-daylit space such as a subway station p

Figure 5. The Fulton Center in New York. Its redevelopment was designed to be a catalyst for the regeneration of the whole downtown area


within buildings. This can clearly be illustrated in the following two project examples. High demand for space within cities has led to lower ceiling heights. Higher concentrations of people within existing built space has meant proportionally fewer of them occupy the daylit areas of that space. And higher concentrations of buildings within existing city limits has meant that buildings are increasingly less exposed to daylight. All of the above collectively reduce effective daylight illumination. So, designers have needed to become smarter as to how they introduce daylight within buildings, as our work on the Fulton Center in New York has illustrated. Situated in the heart of Lower Manhattan, the Fulton Center [Figure 5] was designed to be a catalyst for the redevelopment of the downtown area. It is a dynamic transport environment, a vital link to this commercial centre, streamlining connectivity between nine New York City subway lines. And anyone who has travelled in the New York subway, or even New York city in general, knows one thing for sure: sky is a rare commodity in New York. Therefore, one of the most prominent challenge in terms of daylighting design was how to maximise the sky into a subway station, which is essentially perceived as a predominantly non-daylit space [Figure 6]. This involved a truly collaborative effort between ourselves as engineers and daylighting experts, Grimshaw as the architect and James Carpenter as the artist. A key element of the building was the atrium [Figure 7 ]. It is both an atrium and a piece of art that strives to bring maximum sky into the spatial experience of the subterranean transit centre. The character of the atrium is softened by the gentle curves. At the same time it is

continuously animated by the diffused facetted surface of the artwork, extending the sky image well beyond the skylight and providing a more generous and uplifting window to the sky above. Along with the refinement and detailing of the form, there were a lot of trials and mock-ups with the materiality of the ‘Sky Reflector Net’. There is a balance between reflectivity, diffusion and transparency that allows the sculpture to simultaneously express its form and extend a powerful sense of the sky across its entire surface. The daylighting within this integrated artwork powerfully connects travellers to a deeply felt sense of the sky’s presence and creates a special connection to the natural world within an extremely intense urban experience.


Figure 7. A key element of the building was the atrium, which strives to bring maximum sky into the spatial experience of the subterranean transit centre


It is not always possible to allow daylight within the interior. We now have the tools and technology that allows us, to some extent, to mimic daylight and some if its properties. A good example of such a system has been developed for the Gagosian Gallery at Grosvenor Hill in London. The initial intention was for the galleries to be daylit through a series of skylights. Due to site constraints, however, it was not possible to integrate skylights into the galleries. The client commissioned ourselves and architect Caruso St John to come up with a solution whereby daylight is replicated using electric lighting. The desire was for the lighting in the galleries to reproduce the exact exterior conditions, simulating a naturally daylit space. To develop the system, we undertook extensive research to comprehend how daylight changes both in colour and inten-


The Gagosian Gallery, London. The lighting in the galleries is designed to simulate a naturally daylit space

sity through the day and with the different weather and seasons. We used LED strips of different colour temperatures to backlight a series of glazed laylights within each gallery. A photocell and colour temperature meter collects real-time data on the amount and colour of daylight falling on the roof of the building. The interior lighting adapts dynamically according to the measurements of the meters. ¢

Rohit Manudhane, BArch, MSc, is a senior designer, lighting, and Pavlina Akritas, BSc (Hons), MSc, is an associate, lighting, at Arup


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June 2017 Lighting Journal

Professional development and competence



As more and more organisations appreciate the positive impact that good lighting design can have, being able to define and evaluate ‘competence’ is more important than ever. But it is not as straightforward as you might think By Alan Jaques

eing able to demonstrate competence is important in many aspects of life, from driving a car to installing gas appliances. Historically within the lighting sector there has been an ad hoc approach, where some organisations see it as vitally important and others take a more relaxed view. The Institution of Lighting Professionals has always advocated the importance of good practice and the positive benefit that having competent designers can have on the design solution. More organisations are beginning to appreciate the positive impact that good lighting design can have on the suitability and sustainability of lighting solutions. This is demonstrated by specific competency requirements being specified by client organisations and other bodies. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) describes competence as the combination of training, skills and knowledge that a person has and their ability to apply them to perform a task safely. However, it caveats this by stating that there are other factors such as attitude and physical abilities that can also affect someone’s competence.


It is the employers’ responsibility to ensure that the person working on a lighting design is competent, and just because a person has designed lighting schemes doesn’t mean they are competent to design any type of scheme. As an example, a street lighting scheme for a Section 38 private housing development where all of the lighting units have their electricity provided by a DNO or iDNO network requires a different set of skills to designing a street lighting scheme for a complex motorway junction where all of the lighting units are on a private cable network. Part 3 of the recently introduced Construction (Design and Management) Reg-


June 2017 Lighting Journal

Professional development and competence


ulations 2015 (CDM 2015) covers health and safety duties and roles; this includes the appointment of designers on schemes that are within scope of the legislation. Regulation 8 of CDM 2015 also places a responsibility on the client to ensure that designers have the appropriate skills, knowledge and experience to carry out the task. It can therefore be seen that there is a responsibility on both the client organisation and the design organisation to ensure competent designers are deployed on schemes. BS5489 states that lighting design is a complex task and there are many parameters which need to be considered during the design process. This is followed by a recommendation that anyone undertaking lighting design is adequately trained in the profession and competent to do so. There are many routes to becoming competent in particular areas. Some will have a more academic background and have obtained qualifications such as a PhD or the MSc in Light and Lighting from The Bartlett, whereas others may have a more practical background. Membership of a professional body such as the ILP, Society of Light and Lighting or International Association of Lighting Designers at the appropriate grade is an indication of a person’s competence, but it doesn’t demonstrate they are competent in all aspects of lighting. Registration with the Engineering Council is another valuable guide to competence, however on some public realm schemes an architect or landscape designer may be more competent to visualise the way in which human experience might be created in the public realm after dark.


Competent lighting designers will consider all appropriate aspects when developing a lighting design, including all health and safety implications during its installation, maintenance and ultimately its removal, energy consumption and lifecycle costs. Sustainability is an important design criteria and BS5489 cross references the EU Green Public Procurement (GPP) initiative. The informative Annex D in BS5489 covers sustainability, the commentary of which states that the EU Green Public Procurement (GPP) publication gives general principles for street lighting which includes


good design and the use of energy-efficient equipment. The EU GPP publication provides criteria for the design of lighting and states that the design will be undertaken by personnel with at least three years’ experience in lighting design and/or having a suitable professional qualification in lighting engineering or membership of a professional body in the field of lighting design. If site surveys are required to be undertaken, another set of skills are required to ensure the person has sufficient competence to ensure their safety, in addition to having the appropriate skills and experience to collect the correct site data. In addition to the design activity associated with lighting schemes, there are many other aspects of lighting that would require significantly different skills. These other activities include policy and strategy development, asset management and the deployment of a Central Management System, which all require a different set of skills to design. Being competent in electrical matters is an intrinsic part of designing a safe lighting solution and drafting the documents that will allow the lighting solution to be procured and installed. Because of the wide variety of tasks undertaken in the lighting sector, defining who is competent to carry them out is complex. Employers need a robust process for assessing their employee’s levels of competence and areas for development. Additionally, clients also need to consider what skills their designers require for them to work on their projects. For some clients this could be a challenge, as they may not have the in-house expertise to understand the required competencies for a particular project, in this instance they should seek external advice. Defining a qualification requirement in a contractual document in an effort to ensure quality deliverables may or may not be the most appropriate methodology for doing this. Indeed, from an HSE perspective it may not be sufficient. However, any effort made that endeavours to improve the quality of lighting solutions should be applauded as the first step of a complex journey. ¢ Alan Jaques, IEng FILP, is Senior Vice President of the ILP

June 2017 Lighting Journal

Professional development and competence

TIME MANAGEMENT With attention turning towards this month’s Professional Lighting Summit, there is no better time to answer the question, ‘why should I make the time to attend industry events?’. In fact, here are five reasons why


By Scott Pengelly


ometimes making time is the hardest thing to do. In a world full of distractions – including professional, vocational and personal interruptions – why should we make time to attend industry events? It’s a great question and yet often a hard one to answer; there are so many difference facets to an event and it’s the sum of all these parts that, in my personal opinion, makes them so important to any professional in any industry. As Vice President Events with the ILP, you can already tell I am a little biased about the value of attending CPD events. But I do know one thing, without the ILP’s events, I wouldn’t be where I am today. I have personally used ILP events to increase my knowledge and experience within my chosen field as well as meet a wide range of experts and industry leaders. So, the big question... is it worth attending ILP events? Of course, I’m going to say ‘yes’. But, as ILP members gather this month for the Professional Lighting Summit in Glasgow, here are five reasons I think all members would benefit from attending at least one event a year.


We all need to do it and we all know it! It is imperative that, in an industry like ours, we spend the time making sure we are up to speed with changes coming through the system. Whether this is changes to standards or guidance documents, new technical challenges and how they are being addressed or simply newly-launched products, those who take the time to understand will prosper in the long run. Attending ILP events helps towards this. The ILP provides many hours of free-to-attend CPD events up and down the country at multiple times throughout the year . ILP events tend to be really accessible, no matter what level or experience stage you are at in your career, and I definitely recommend trying to attend at least one local regional event each year.


We all know that ‘networking’ is a very easy codeword for going down the pub, but it is nevertheless very important in all industries – and need not al-

ways mean the consumption of alcohol! Spending time with others who are working within the same field gives everyone the chance to discuss issues, develop new ideas and challenge your own beliefs. At every event there is always a formal element, whether that is papers being presented or viewing new products being exhibited. As these sessions provide in-depth technical information, it can sometimes feel a little overwhelming. The networking elements provide a great opportunity for talking about the issues with colleagues and peers in a far less formal setting. Next time you attend an event, write down all the new information you have received that day and work out how much of it was through formal sessions versus informal networking opportunities. I would put my money on it being quite an even split between the two.


We all know the old saying ‘a problem shared is a problem halved’. Well, I think it is probably more like ‘a problem shared is a problem solved – us-

June 2017 Lighting Journal


ing others’ experiences’. It’s not as snappy, I’ll give you that, but in my experience this is true at industry events, whether ILP or otherwise. Many people in the industry are trying to solve the same issues and a shared experience of these can often help everyone out. Take a look at this year’s Summit programme, at professional-lighting-summit-2017/, and you’ll see a number of papers that are doing exactly that.


When you get involved in industry events, you will automatically start to be seen as more knowledgeable within your area of expertise. You will be labelled as someone who knows what they are talking about and someone who can be trusted. Having this respect within your own field can be hugely rewarding both personally and professionally and will push you on to bigger and better things. Take a look at the current industry experts, and you can probably guess that all of them regularly attend various events,

present at quite a few and are active in discussion and debating issues. Follow this lead and your own professional career will start to develop in the same way.


Industry events can be a great deal of fun and there is no shame in this at all. As a professional, the more you have fun and enjoy what you are doing the more you will continue to grow and excel within your field. The ILP has been built, year upon year, by like-minded individuals getting together as an industry with the combined focus of developing and growing. Coming together and celebrating this is when all the hard work feels like it has paid off.


The ILP strives to pull together varied and interesting events, no matter what level you are at or the specific discipline you are interested in. Whether you can attend more local regional events or allow some time out of the office to get to a national event I am sure you will learn and grow professionally with every event.

If you are an employer or in a senior role within your organisation, ask yourself if someone else you know may benefit from attending events. As Harvey S Firestone once said: ‘It is only as we develop others that we permanently succeed.’ Are you doing your best to ensure the knowledge and experience you have gained is being passed on to those around you? It is only by doing this that our industry will continue to flourish in years to come. Finally, want know more about ILP events in your area? Check out the ILP website ( or follow us on one of the many social media platforms where all upcoming events are advertised. Or keep an eye on the Events page within Lighting Journal. And if you want to become more involved in any ILP event, feel free to contact me directly at I’d be more than happy to hear from you. ¢

Scott Pengelly, EngTech AMILP, is ILP Vice President, Events, as well as account manager for INDO Lighting

June 2017 Lighting Journal

Professional development and competence


In a fast-moving, competitive environment such as lighting, CPD is becoming an ever-more important way to demonstrate that you have the knowledge and skill needed to progress, and that you are serious about fulfilling your potential as a lighting professional. A new ILP-backed online tool, mycareerpath, is here to help By David Hollingsworth


ince last year, ILP members have been able to gain free access through their ‘My ILP’ page to an online tool, mycareerpath designed to, as its name suggests, plan, record and report any activity that contributes to their continuing professional development (CPD). The tool has been developed by the Engineering Council, and additionally serves as an aid to help professionals in engineering fields plan and record evidence to demonstrate their competences. This is especially useful as an ‘aide memoir’ prior to writing a competency

statement or technical report. As well as the ILP, the tool has been adopted by 27 professional engineering institutions, including the Chartered Institution of Highways & Transportation, the Institution of Civil Engineers, and the Institution of Engineering Designers. A new, updated version (v2.2) of the tool was released in January this year and this article is designed to show lighting professionals how mycareerpath works and why it might be important in terms of their CPD and career progression. CPD is, of course, an integral part of being a good lighting professional. The

June 2017 Lighting Journal

fast-changing nature of knowledge within our industry; the competitive pressures (both social and economic) that we are all under as lighting professionals – both of these make it essential that we constantly review, refresh, improve and keep our knowledge up to date. Alongside this, there is increasing emphasis within our industry on competence. Many ILP members are required to exercise professional judgement, often on matters linked to health and safety and management. Recording and being able to demonstrate CPD is evidence both of continuing competence and that you are serious about realising your full potential. ILP members have to ensure they have evidence demonstrating that they have engaged in activities related to CPD amounting to at least 30 hours per year. The ILP carries out random sampling checks, so any member may be required at any time to submit their CPD records. These are all good reasons why mycareerpath is potentially a very valuable tool. But how does it work and what might it be able to do for you?


Registering an account Firstly, to register an account, all that is required is an email address and ILP membership number. Once logged on to the ‘My ILP’ page, follow the link to mycareerpath. Complete the registration form and select ‘register’. Adding profiles Once logged in, you will need to select at least one profile against which you will record your development, then click ‘add’. The profiles available are ‘Continuing Professional Development’ and then, for competence profiles, you can select ‘Engineering Technician’, ‘Incorporated Engineer’ and ‘Chartered Engineer’. Here is a screengrab, using my profile, to show this.



If you have got out of the habit of regularly planning and recording your CPD, then making a start can feel daunting. The CPD page under ‘membership’ on the ILP website has a useful example spreadsheet that can be downloaded, showing a typical forward CPD action plan and CPD evidence. Using mycareerpath can build on this resource. It allows you to record evidence from anywhere (providing there is mobile or Wi Fi coverage) and at any time. Other benefits include:


Select ‘Plans’ and then select ‘Add Action Plan’. You can now add your objectives with start and completion dates, for example like this:

¢ Evidences are stored on the Cloud, so they are easy to access and manage ¢ Evidences can be sorted into chronological order as a report, and from there sent to a reviewer or mentor for comment ¢ Certificates, documentation or websites can be uploaded, with each item of evidence recorded ¢ Historic CPD from previous records or spreadsheets can also be uploaded as evidence in one go, so avoiding having to duplicate your entire CPD history ¢ Competency evidence can be mapped to the specific UK-SPEC competences required for upgrading membership (and there will be more on this later in the article)

June 2017 Lighting Journal

Professional development and competence


This is a function aimed towards those accessing mycareerpath from a portable device such as a mobile or tablet. From the home screen, click ‘Quick CPD Record’ then input the CPD title, details and date. It might look something like this:

By clicking ‘Quick CPD Report’ from the reports screen, you can instantly generate a report for your CPD profile, for all plans and evidence from the past 12 months. This will also show the total CPD hours during the period shown.


Historic CPD can be added as evidence in one go. For example, if you have a spreadsheet for CPD gained during 2015, this can be made into a pdf then uploaded as a CPD file, under ‘supporting documents’ as shown below:

40 Additional details such as the benefits, lessons learnt and hours can be added at a later date, along with the uploaded article document as recorded evidence, as this screengrab below shows.


The ILP membership upgrade process offers a standard or individual route to upgrade to Associate (AMILP) or full Member (MILP), allowing registration with the Engineering Council UK as an engineering technician (EngTech), incorporated engineer (IEng) or chartered engineer (CEng). The application process for upgrading your ILP membership requires the following:

June 2017 Lighting Journal

¢ Submit a CPD record for the last two years and a forward CPD action plan for the next twelve months ¢ All candidates for IEng/CEng MILP are required to complete a competency statement detailing day-to-day responsibilities (and there are examples of these on the ILP website) ¢ The competences must be mapped to competences as outlined in the Engineering Council’s UK-SPEC ¢ The application must be approved before commencing on a technical report (individual route) or going direct to interview (standard route) When it comes to upgrading membership, mycareerpath is an ideal tool to use as it provides a ‘one-stop-shop’ solution for creating a CPD action plan, CPD record for the past two years, and competence evidences aligned to the UK-SPEC. The competences recorded can be used as an aide memoir towards compiling a competency statement or technical report as part of the membership upgrade process. As a tool, mycareerpath also enables you to self-assess your progress against the individual UK-SPEC competences within a chosen profile. From the Home screen, select a profile name. With this you can use a star system to self-rate your progress. The starting point is zero, and you can change this as you develop within each competence. Don’t forget to ‘Save changes’ at the bottom of the competences page. The example below shows how the codes ‘A1, A2’ and ‘B1’, ‘B2’ and ‘B3’ differ depending on the profile required.




June 2017 Lighting Journal

Professional development and competence


Choose the profile you want to record the evidence against and then select any linked competences or skills you have demonstrated through this activity. For example, like this:


When it comes to the development and evolution of mycareerpath as a tool, the main focus up to now has been on security, in other words to ensure that all member interactions with the system are encrypted end-to-end. Version 2.2 has ironed out any bugs from the previous version, and added new features such as ‘Quick CPD Record’ as demonstrated earlier. The system is continually being developed and any new features will be included in future versions. One change that may be coming your way in time is for mycareerpath to automatically add a record of individual attendance of a CPD event as evidence.



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A core part of the ILP’s vision is to ensure that its members attain and develop the professional knowledge, education and skills to meet necessary competencies and to enhance their careers, so members can achieve their full potential. Mycareerpath is a useful tool towards attaining this vision. Planning and recording CPD is becoming increasingly important, not only as part of the upgrade process, but also to demonstrate that one is growing in knowledge, skills and experience. This is particularly relevant at the moment within a lighting industry where technology is evolving at a phenomenal rate and standards, recommendations and publications are continually being released, reviewed and updated. Therefore, I would fully recommend mycareerpath for any ILP member to help demonstrate CPD and progress their lighting careers. But don’t just take my word for it. Here is what Stewart Thomson, YLP member and account manager in Scotland with INDO Lighting, has said: ‘The tool is very easy to use and I really like the way that it automatically pdfs your evidence for you. I think this will be very handy for the year ahead. ‘My main bugbear with the last few years of maintaining the CPD was the formatting of the spreadsheet. It seemed at times I spent more time doing that than logging my evidence! Therefore, I would say it gets the thumbs-up from me. Hopefully it will make it easier for me to achieve my IEng registration by the end of the year,’ he adds. If any members want advice or help on using mycareerpath they can contact me on Dave.Hollingsworth@ ¢

David Hollingsworth, IEng MILP, is senior lighting engineer at Ramboll UK as well as part of the ILP’s CPD working group and regional ILP secretary for the London and South Eastern region

Knowledge is POWERONE

June 2017 Lighting Journal

Professional Lighting Summit 2017

q The Crowne Plaza, Glasgow. ILP members have been promised a warm Scottish welcome at this year’s Professional Lighting Summit

LAST CALL FOR GLASGOW This year’s Professional Lighting Summit is just days away. Here ILP members, including outgoing President Kevin Grigg, explain why a trip to Glasgow will be just the CPD ticket that you need By Nic Paton



ith 35 CPD presentations, 20 exhibitors and three sponsors, not to mention the usual great networking and relationship-building opportunities and Black Tie dinner, if you haven’t yet registered your place for this month’s Professional Lighting Summit, time is running out. So, why should you come, why should you make the effort to get out of the office and up, down or across to Glasgow, depending on where you are in the country? Well, did I mention anything yet about there being 35 CPD presentations, 20 exhibitors and three sponsors, not to mention the usual great networking and relationship-building opportunities and Black Tie dinner? As our articles in this edition by David Hollingsworth, Alan Jaques and Scott Pengelly have all highlighted, high-quality CPD is becoming an ever-more important ‘must have’ part of the lighting professional’s portfolio. But don’t just take our word for it. Here is what ILP President Kevin Grigg has to say: ‘The ILP Professional Lighting Summit has always been one of the highlights of my year as an ILP member – it’s an invaluable forum to learn and share knowledge – but this year, of course, will be special because I

will be handing over the baton of President to Alan Jaques. I wish him well in this tenure; the ILP will be safe in his capable hands.’


‘My colleagues and I from the Scottish Region committee will be on hand should you need assistance or a friendly face to talk to, so please come and say hello!’ continues Scottish Region chair Lisa Chiles. ‘We look forward to seeing you in Glasgow and, whilst we cannot guarantee sunshine, we can certainly promise you a warm Scottish welcome.’ ‘If you or any members of your team haven’t attended an Institution of Lighting Professionals Summit previously, or you have but not for a while, then I would recommend and encourage you all to challenge your managers to realise the benefits and allow you to attend this year’s Summit in Glasgow, as I have,’ agrees Ian Jones, ILP VP Highways. ‘Being the VP Highways representative for the ILP, which covers every aspect of lighting related to a local authority lighting officer, from car park, architectural and main road street lighting to the installation of Christmas illuminations, it is my role to ensure that local authorities across

the country are represented. This year’s programme is an excellent opportunity to enhance your lighting knowledge, provide you with a fantastic lighting experience and it includes the provision of valuable hours towards your continuing professional development. ‘This year’s Summit promises to be bigger and better than ever before. From papers on a number of wide-ranging subjects, interactive workshops and practical advice, through to meeting new suppliers or old colleagues, the Summit is a great way to boost your knowledge and keep upto-date with advancements in technologies, and I would urge everyone to attend,’ Ian adds. ¢


WHAT: The ILP Professional Lighting Summit, 2017 WHEN: June 14-15 WHERE: The Crowne Plaza, Glasgow HOW TO BOOK: go to uk/events/professional-lighting-summit-2017/. If you’re having trouble call the ILP on 01788 576492

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June 2017 Lighting Journal

Light on the past

PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE The 1930s was a decade of revolutionary change, all of it recorded by the Association of Public Lighting Engineers’ new publication, Public Lighting, the forerunner of what was to become Lighting Journal By Simon Cornwell



he 1930s witnessed a revolution in public lighting. Two completing electrical discharge technologies were introduced; concrete columns and brackets were first installed; new theories outlining the ‘mechanism’ of street lighting were proposed; and a multi-disciplinary committee – the Ministry of Transport Departmental Committee on Street Lighting – delivered its influential Final Report. The Association of Public Lighting Engineers (APLE), when first founded in 1923 as a specialist discipline, couldn’t have imagined the progress that would be made during the next decade. What was abundantly clear was there was more and more to write about. The profession of public lighting engineer, now founded on more scientific and optical principles than the old tinsmiths and lamp-lighters of before, required a more thorough and comprehensive publication. Since its foundation, the APLE had kept its ties with the Illuminating Engineering Society by printing articles and discussions in its periodical The Illuminating Engineer. But by 1935, it became clear it required its own publication. Public Lighting and Public Lighting Engineer (the Official Organ of the Association of Public Lighting Engineers) was therefore first published in March 1936.

The black-and-white quarterly publication was edited by H O Davies, who also doubled up as secretary of the organisation. He hit the ground running with a selection of articles concerning the APLE, the forthcoming conference, various papers and noteworthy new installations. Fundamental to the publication, and to the spirit of the APLE, was that gas and electricity were to be considered equals and a spirit of unity and comradeship was to be promoted between the two disciplines. Comparisons between the two systems, and any bust-ups, were always conspicuously absent.


Governmental approval or acknowledgement was an absolute necessity. The APLE was anxious to position itself as the definitive authority for public lighting, which was still struggling to promote itself as a valid profession. Indeed, some councils still did not employ public lighting engineers, preferring to leave lighting to consultants or their own surveyors. Therefore, the APLE approached the government, and the first foreword of the new publication was written by the Rt Hon Leslie Hore-Belisha, the minister of transport, whose tenure would subsequently be immortalised by the introduction of the pedestrian crossing beacon that still bears his name. The first issue of Public Lighting revealed how efficiency and control of the public purse was just as important then as it is today. The depression of the 1930s was never directly mentioned, but economies were always given prominence in the articles and adverts. Interestingly, from a historical perspective, gas was still considered a major competitor for public lighting schemes and was still holding its own against electricity – despite the apparent ‘game over’ introduction of electrical discharge technology. These threads would continue to run through subsequent issues and play out over the forthcoming decades. As the APLE became the ILE and finally the ILP, the journal changed dimensions, slowly introduced colour and evolved into the Lighting Journal that you are reading today. In his Presidential address of 1936, Edward Lennox’s directions to the members and delegates was equally important then as it is now: ‘I would appeal to all Members to make the fullest use of the new Journal by contributing articles or pithy paragraphs of interest to others. Its success depends on the active interest which members take in it, and the amount of material they place in the hands of the Editor.’ ¢

p The front cover of the first issue of Public

Lighting. The blocky masthead remained constant throughout many changes of the publication, surviving through to the mid-1970s. Siemens Electric Lamps and Supplies had the honour of appearing on the first cover, extolling its new range of electric discharge lamps

p Mr H O Davies, secretary of the

Association of Public Lighting Engineers and first editor of Public Lighting


June 2017 Lighting Journal


This directory gives details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services.

Steven Biggs IEng MILP

Skanska Infrastructure Services Peterborough PE1 5XG

T: +44 (0) 1733 453432 E:

Award winning professional multi-disciplinary lighting design consultants. Extensive experience in technical design and delivery across all areas of construction, including highways, public realm and architectural projects. Providing energy efficient design and solutions.

Robert Fuller

Alistair Scott


Designs for Lighting Ltd

BEng(Hons) IEng MILP

Hertford SG13 7NN T: +07990 081 423 E:

Providing design and technical services for all applications of exterior and interior lighting from architectural to sports, rail, area, highways and associated infrastructure. Expert surveys and environmental impact assessments regarding the effect of lighting installations on wildlife and the community.

BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MIMechE Winchester SO23 7TA

T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E: Professional lighting design consultancy offering technical advice, design and management services for exterior/interior applications for highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

Simon Bushell

Stephen Halliday

Anthony Smith

SSE Enterprise Lighting


Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd


Portsmouth PO6 1UJ T: +44 (0)2392276403 M: 07584 313990 E: Professional consultancy from the largest external lighting contractor maintaining 1.5m lights in the UK and Ireland. Exterior lighting/electrical design for Motorways, Highways, Architectural, Car Parks, Public Spaces and Sports lighting. From advice on carbon reduction strategies to delivering the whole installation package.


Manchester M50 3SP

T: 0161 886 2532 E:

Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.


Stockton on Tees TS23 1PX

T: 01642 565533 E:

Specialist in: Motorway, Highway Schemes, Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.

Lorraine Calcott

Philip Hawtrey

Nick Smith

it does Lighting Ltd


Nick Smith Associates Limited

T: 01908 560110 E:

T: 07789 501091 E:


Milton Keynes, MK19 6DS


Sutton Coldfield B72 1PH


Chesterfield, S40 3JR

T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E:

Widely experienced professional technical consultancy services in exterior lighting and electrical installations, providing sustainable and innovative solutions, environmental assessments, ‘Invest to Save’ strategies, lighting policies, energy procurement, inventory management and technical support. PFI Technical Advisor, Designer and Independent Certifier.

Award winning lighting design practice specialising in interior, exterior, flood and architectural lighting with an emphasis on section 278/38, town centre regeneration and mitigation for ecology issues within SSSI’s/SCNI’s.Experts for the European Commission and specialists in circadian lighting

Specialist exterior lighting consultant. Private and adopted lighting and electrical design for highways, car parks, area and sports lighting. Lighting Impact assessments, expert witness and CPD accredited Lighting design AutoCAD and Lighting Reality training courses

Euan Clayton

Allan Howard

Alan Tulla

Clayton Fourie Consultancy Ltd


Alan Tulla Lighting


Edinburgh, EH15 3RT

BEng(Hons) CEng FILP FSLL London WC2A 1AF


Winchester, SO22 4DS

T: 07722 111424 E:

T: 07827 306483 E:

Internationally experienced multi-disciplinary consultants. We provide design and technical advice on all aspects of exterior lighting, hazardous area lighting, traffic signals and other highway electrical works.We also provide Planning Advice, Road Safety Audits and Expert Witness Services

Professional artificial and daylight lighting services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice and analysis to develop and implement energy and carbon reduction strategies. Expert witness regarding obtrusive lighting, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations.

Mark Chandler

Alan Jaques

Michael Walker

MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd




Reading RG10 9QN

T: 0118 3215636 E: Exterior lighting consultant’s who specialise in all aspects of street lighting design, section 38’s, section 278’s, project management and maintenance assistance. We also undertake lighting appraisals and environmental lighting studies


Nottingham, NG9 2HF

T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 E:

Professional consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

John Conquest

Tony Price

4way Consulting Ltd

Vanguardia Consulting

MA BEng(Hons) CEng MIET MILP Stockport, SK4 1AS

T: 0161 480 9847 M: 07526 419248 E:

Providing exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialising in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector

BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Oxted RH8 9EE

T: +44(0) 1883 718690 Chartered engineer with wide experience in exterior and public realm lighting. All types and scales of project, including transport, tunnels, property development (both commercial and residential) and sports facilities. Particular expertise in planning advice, environmental impact assessment and expert witness.

T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E: Site surveys of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Visual Impact Assessments for planning applications. Specialises in problem solving and out-of-the-ordinary projects.


Ferrybridge, WF11 8NA, UK T: 0197 7632 502


Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

Go to: for more information and individual expertise

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.


Directory CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality CPD Accredited Training CPD Accredited Training Standards CPD Accredited Training CPD Accredited Training • AutoluxLighting • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Design Techniques • •AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) •• AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Lighting Reality Light Pollution • Lighting Reality • Lighting Reality • Lighting Reality • AutoluxLighting Standards CPD Accredited Training • Tailored Courses please ring CPD Accredited Training • •AutoluxLighting Standards • AutoluxLighting Standards • AutoluxLighting Lighting Design Techniques Standards Accredited Training • •Lighting Design Techniques •CPD Lighting Design •Venues Lighting Techniques by Design arrangement AutoCAD (basicTechniques or advanced) Light Pollution • •Light Pollution • Light Pollution • Light Pollution Lighting Reality • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Tailored Courses please ring Contact Nick Smith • Tailored Courses please ring please ring • Tailored CoursesStandards please ring • Tailored Courses • Lighting Reality •AutoluxLighting AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Nick Smith Associates Ltd Venues by arrangement • Lighting Design Techniques 36 Foxbrook Drive, Venues by arrangement •Reality AutoluxLighting Standards Venues by arrangement Venues by arrangement Lighting ••Light Pollution Contact NickChesterfield, Smith • Lighting Design Techniques • Tailored Courses please ring Contact Nick Smith S40 3JRNick Smith Contact Nick Smith Contact

CPD Accredited Training • AutoluxLightingNick Standards Smith Associates Ltd

Nick Smith Associates Ltd t: 01246 229 444 Nick Smith Associates Ltd • Light Pollution Nick Smith Associates Ltd 36 Foxbrook Drive, • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) Venues by arrangement • Foxbrook Lighting Design Techniques 36Chesterfield, Foxbrook Drive, f: 01246 270 Drive, 465 36 Drive, 36 Foxbrook • Tailored Courses please ring Chesterfield, e : Chesterfield, Chesterfield, S40 3JR Contact NickPollution Smith • Light • Lighting Reality S40 3JR 229S40 w: S40 3JR 3JR t: 01246 444 Nick Smith Associates Ltd t:by 01246 229 444 t:•01246 229 444Venues t: 01246 229 444 arrangement Tailored Courses please ring f: 01246 270 465 36 Foxbrook Drive, f: e01246 270 465 f: 01246 270 465 f: 01246 270 465 • AutoluxLighting Standards : Chesterfield, HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC : e : Contacte w: Nick Smithe : S40 3JR w: Venues by arrangement w: w: t: 01246 229 444 • Lighting Design Techniques INSTRUMENTS LTD Nick Smith Associates Ltd f: 01246 270 465 36 Foxbrook Drive, eContact : Nick Smith • Light Pollution Suppliers of a wide range of quality Chesterfield, w: Nick measuring Smith Associates Ltd light S40 3JRand photometric • Tailored Courses please ring equipment. 36 Foxbrook Drive,229 444 t: 01246

Chesterfield, f: 01246 270 465

HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD e : S40 PO Box3JR 210, Havant, PO9 9BT w: Tel: 07900 571022 t: 01246 229 444

Venues by arrangement


f: 01246 270 465

Contact Nick Smith e : w: Nick Smith Associates Ltd


36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR t: 01246 229 444 MACLEAN270 ELECTRICAL f: 01246 465LIGHTING DIVISION Business info: Specialist Stockist and Distributors of Road Lighting, Area, Industrial/ Commercial/ Decorative lighting. We also e : Hazardous provide custom-built distribution panels, interior and exterior lighting design using CAD. 7 Drum Mains Park, Orchardton, w: Cumbernauld, G68 9LD Tel: 01236 458000 Fax: 01236 860555 email:

This space available Please call Andy on 01536 527297 or email for more details

This space available Please call Andy on 01536 527297 or email for more details

June 2017 Lighting Journal

Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email:

European distributors of StormSpill®, only system specified by: • London 2012 Olympic Games • Glasgow 2014 Commonwealths

Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories

Contact: Kevin Doherty Commercial Director

If you would like to switch to Tofco Technology contact us NOW!

Meter Administrator Power Data Associates Ltd are Power Associates the leadingData meter administrator in Great Britain. We achieve Ltd are the leading accurate energy calculations meter administrator assuring you of a cost effective quality in service. Great Offering Britain. We independent consultancy advice achieve to ensure correct accurate inventory coding, unmetered energy forecasting and energy calculations impact of market developments.

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01525 601201 a cost effective Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4HR

Patented Raised Lamppost Banner System that significantly reduces loading on columns and prevents banners twisting and tearing. Column testing and guarantee service available.

quality service. Offering independent consultancy advice to ensure correct inventory coding, unmetered energy forecasting and impact of market development

The most approved system by Highways Engineers

01525 601201

0208 343 2525 Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds MK45 5HR

This space available Please call Andy on 01536 527297 or email for more details


June 2017 Lighting Journal


THE DIARY 14-15 June

26 September

28 June

27 September

Professional Lighting Summit Venue: Crowne Plaza, Glasgow Technical meeting – Western Region Venue: Newport Parc Golf Club, Wales

20 July



The Radisson Blu in Bucharest, lit by Maurice Brill Lighting Design. MBLB’s Rob Honeywill will be talking about ‘how to be brilliant at lighting with colour’ on 20 July, at Marshalls Design Space in Clerkenwell, London

How to be brilliant at lighting with colour, with Rob Honeywill of Maurice Brill Lighting Design Venue: Marshalls Design Space, Clerkenwell, London

11-15 September

Exterior lighting diploma, module one (autumn 2017) Venue: The Draycote Hotel, Thurlaston, near Rugby, Warwickshire

TR22 – Managing a Vital Asset Venue: The ILP, Regent House, Rugby Western Region technical meeting Venue: Cullompton Rugby Club

28 September

How to be brilliant, on ‘lighting Bowie’, with Jonathan Howard of DHA Venue: Marshalls Design Space, Clerkenwell, London

28 September

YLP technical session Venue: NAL Ltd, Weir Lane, Worcester

05 October

Lightscene – exhibition and CPD seminars Venue: Franklin Gardens, Northampton Saints Rugby Team

For full details of all events, go to: www.


Ethics in lighting, democratic design, and how lighting can use its skills and know-how to contribute to a better world


The secret to creating a successful food and beverage space through lighting design


What ILP members think of the latest ‘How to be brilliant…’ series of lectures

Good lighting increases security!

Be inspired by timeless design – Made in Sweden Contact us today: Phone: +44 (0) 1952 250800 Email: /

Direct DriveÂŽ Lighting Innovation Improved Reliability | Measurable Value #QueensAward

fresh thinking trusted technology

Lighting Journal June 2017  
Lighting Journal June 2017