The publication for all lighting professionals
Inside (and out) Hadidâ€™s Baku Cultural Centre Opposite sides of the road: lighting Regent Street Glaring errors: obtrusive lighting guidance Safety and performance: LED Standards
Lighting Journal January 2013 03 EDITORIAL
28 REGULATION ISSUE
08 LIGHT MINDED/
34 LYONS SHARE
Winners of the latest City People Lights awards
10 FUSION AND
36 STREETS AHEAD
Rob Honeywill on the technical ins and outs of Zaha Hadid’s Baku cultural centre
14 THE COST OF FAILURE
Paul Reid on the importance of sorting the wheat from the chaff when specifying LEDs
17 LONG AND
Iain Macrae assesses safety and performance standards for LEDs
Jill Entwistle looks at the tension that has arisen between highway and architectural lighting for the ambitious upgrade of London’s Regent Street
24 OBTRUSIVE LIGHT
Carl Gardner raises what he views as unresolved problems with the ILP’s 2011 Guidance Notes
Smart Highway: the future of road lighting is here
38 VISIBLE DIFFERENCE
The ILP’s pilot forum for professionals and manufacturers centred on S/P ratios. Jill Entwistle reports
42 PRODUCTS 44 LIGHT ON THE PAST
Simon Cornwell traces the beginnings of Standards for street lighting
45 CONSULTANTS 46 LIGHTING DIRECTORY 48 DIARY
The Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre in Baku, Azerbaijan, by Zaha Hadid Architects, lighting by Maurice Brill Lighting Design. See p10.
Lighting Journal January 2013
Volume 78 No 1 January 2013 President Peter Lummis I.Eng MILP Chief Executive Richard G Frost BA (Cantab) DPA FIAM Editor Jill Entwistle Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Editorial Board Tom Baynham Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Graham Festenstein PLDA John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Eddie Henry MILP MCMI MBA Alan Jaques IEng MILP Keith Lewis, Nigel Parry IEng FILP Andrew Stoddart BEng (Hons) IEng MILP Advertising Manager Julie Bland Tel: 01536 527295 Email: email@example.com
new year, a new editor and a new look to the Lighting Journal. I have always been alert to the dangers of throwing out babies with bath water so while I hope we have made some aesthetic improvements you
will approve of, there is no intention of radically altering the content. Carl Gardner, who I would like to thank for being so supportive in handing over, laid some solid editorial foundations and I am not about to dig them up. In other words, the intention is not a triumph of form over substance, and the magazine will continue to be an academic, technical as well as generally informative publication. Prior to taking over as editor I had a long and useful discussion with ILP vice-president Mark Ridler – among others – as to what the essential role of the journal should be. We arrived at a perhaps deceptively straightforward mission statement: it should tell you what you need to know to do your job. As all politicians and magazine editors know, there is no pleasing all of the people all of the time. However, I genuinely welcome any feedback you have, both positive and negative – bouquets are always less painful than brickbats, but both are helpful – and especially suggestions for the type of features or regular columns you would like to see. The journal will certainly reflect the relatively new remit of the ILP as it evolves into a body representative of a broader lighting church, a process which Carl had already embarked on. As we report on the news pages (see p5), the ILP
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has just demonstrated how effective it can be in creating bridges between different lighting groups. Through the institution KSLD principal Kevan Shaw has become the first independent lighting designer without an engineering background to gain a chartered engineering qualification. This has enormous implications both for the ILP and the lighting profession in general, given the vacuum that still exists for independent lighting design where professional qualification is concerned. This is an invigorating time to be taking over as editor of the journal. Jill Entwistle
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© ILP 2013 The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.
Lighting Journal January 2013
Warwickshire accident blamed on switch-off Police are investigating the death of an 18-year-old Warwick University student who was killed in early December after being hit by a taxi. Archie Wellbelove was walking out of Leamington Spa on the Kenilworth Road at around 3.45am. The street lights were switched off following Warwickshire County Council’s adoption of a part night lighting policy which first came into effect in Warwick on 1 December. The decision affects 80 per cent of street lights – around 39,000 – in an area which also encompasses Nuneaton and Bedworth, Rugby, and Stratford.The staged switch-off introduction, operating between
midnight and 5.30am, will culminate in the North Warwickshire and Stratford areas on 1 April. The council currently spends around £2.2m on electricity for street lighting and estimates it will save in the region of £500,000 through the switch-off and reduce carbon emissions by 3000 tonnes. Local taxi drivers are demanding that street lights are switched back on at night, according to the local newspaper, the Leamington Observer. The owner of a local taxi firm said the switch-off was ‘completely irresponsible’. ‘The council have made a
National Space Centre
ILP to organise lighting presence at Ecobuild
Institution pays tribute to Sir Patrick Moore The ILP has paid tribute to amateur astrologer, TV presenter and author Sir Patrick Moore, who died, aged 89, at the end of last year. Sir Patrick contributed to two institution events having given the Charles Marques Memorial Lecture in the 1980s and been the speaker at the ILP (then ILE) dinner at The Savoy in 2001. ‘Sir Patrick was an extraordinary personality and
Lighting Journal January 2013
howling error,’ Dil Ramzan of Leamington-based My Taxis told the paper. ‘They are implementing cost-cutting measures that put the public at risk. As taxi drivers we simply cannot see anything on the roads any more and this is extremely worrying for both drivers and passengers. Someone with a bright future has died within the first week of the council turning the lights off. Surely that says something?’ A spokesperson from Warwickshire County Council said they were unable to comment during the police investigation.
communicator, and inspired more than one generation to become interested in astronomy and science,’ said ILP president Pete Lummis. ‘He was also a great spokesperson for the reduction of light pollution.’ Sir Patrick presented the BBC programme The Sky At Night for more than 50 years, making him the longestrunning host of the same television show ever.
The ILP will be organising a special lighting section at this year’s Ecobuild in March. Lightscene, an exhibition for all lighting professionals, will also feature a comprehensive CPD seminar programme. Attendance will be free to all visitors. ‘It is clear that the organiser of the Ecobuild exhibition recognises the importance of good lighting and the institution’s role in spreading this message to a wide audience,’ commented ILP operations manager Jess Gallacher. Ecobuild takes place at ExCel, in east London, from 5-7 March 2013. Anyone wishing to exhibit should contact Ross Matthews on 020 7560 4087
Independent designer leads the way with ILP lighting qualification Kevan Shaw (pictured right), principal of independent lighting design consultancy KSLD, has gained a chartered engineering qualification in lighting (CEng MILP) through the Institution of Lighting Professionals. He is now urging other lighting designers to follow his example. ‘It is vitally important that we get properly recognised as a profession,’ said Shaw. ‘The fact that the ILP has decided to move on and encompass a larger band of the lighting community than just the engineers provides an opportunity to get recognition for professional lighting design in a proper way.’ Shaw is the first independent lighting designer to gain the CEng MILP qualification without an engineering degree. The process involved using the Individual Route and the Technical Report Option in lieu of formal engineering qualifications. ‘This is the option that allows people who have come through an experiential rather than degree-based route to get a chartered status,’ said Shaw. ‘It’s a matter of getting other members of the lighting design community to understand that although they’re not engineer trained they could apply for this.The point is this is a qualification given for lighting design, not a qualification for engineering. ‘It would be good if we could be recognised
as chartered lighting designers but such a qualification does not exist and I’m not entirely clear how that could come about just yet,’ added Shaw. ‘Right now this is the only game in town.’ ‘Kevan Shaw’s newly achieved membership and chartered status proves that lighting designers both with and without a formal engineering qualification can achieve a credential of international prestige that recognises their competence and expertise,’ said ILP vice president Mark Ridler, who was the first independent lighting designer to gain a CEng MILP with an existing engineering qualification. ‘It’s a significant milestone in the ongoing professionalism of architectural lighting design,’ added Ridler. ‘The more designers that follow Kevan Shaw’s example, the better able we are to establish lighting design in its proper position within the wider building design community and in the eyes of our clients.’ ILP president Pete Lummis added his endorsement. ‘Kevan Shaw’s achievement in gaining a CEng MILP qualification is a very significant step forward for the institution,’ said Lummis. ‘It is just one indication of what we are able to offer the broader lighting community.’ Dezeen.com
Atmospheric lighting One of the more extraordinary lighting concepts to emerge towards the end of last year was a ceiling fitting that predicts the weather outside by actually replicating it inside. The Nebula 12 luminaire was developed by the Zurich-based Micasa LAB. Using meteorological data from MetOff, the Nebula floods the room with yellow light on a sunny day, or forms an actual cloud on a miserable morning, cleverly whipped up from a combination
of liquid hydrogen, hot water, WiFi and high-power vacuum suction. In standard mode, the fitting predicts the weather for the next 48 hours. A threatening low-pressure area is announced by a red cloud, while sunshine is shown in yellow. The user can also adjust the colour and brightness settings to create different moods. The one thing the Nebula 12 doesn’t do is actually rain, which is probably just as well.
Lighting designers interested in applying for a CEng MILP qualification should contact membership manager Chantal O’Sullivan (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Modest growth forecast for lighting market The UK lighting equipment market will increase to £2.43bn by 2016, says the latest report by Market and Customer Insight (MCi). It was valued at £2.12bn in 2012. Both figures include the automotive sector. The report, which covers the period 2008-2012, says the market dipped by 20 per cent in 2009, reflecting the combined effects of the recession on consumer spending, the construction industry and the difficulties of the automotive OEM sector. There was strong growth in 2010 and then a decline in 2011. Sales of fittings are expected to increase to £1.04bn, predicts MCi, as demand improves between 2013 and 2016, with growth driven by stronger prospects for the construction industry. Some growth is expected in the fluorescent sector, driven by energy legislation, and it will account for just over £100m by 2016, says the report. The UK Lighting Equipment Market Development Report is available from MCi, price £600. Go to www.mbdltd.co.uk for details
Lighting Journal January 2013
Brunel shortlisted for lighting degree initiative Brunel University has been shortlisted for The Guardian University Awards in the Employability Initiative category, following the launch of its BSc degree course that includes lighting last year. The Lighting Education Trust was instrumental in establishing the degree course which bolts on as an option to the existing product design course, leading to the current BSc Product Design with Lighting Design Pathway. The first students from the Lighting Design Pathway will graduate in 2014. ‘We are thrilled that the collaboration between the LET and the product design department at Brunel has led to this recognition,’ said LET chairman Hugh Ogus. The winners will be announced at an awards ceremony to be held in central London on 27 February 2013. The LET has cemented its relationship with Brunel by taking over the briefing and reviewing of the
second year luminaire product design project. Philips Lighting supplied around 160 LED modules and drivers, while the LET team of Mike Simpson and Bob Venning produced a product brief. Florence Lam of Arup Lighting also addressed students on how the designer approaches lighting. The best 10 concepts will be displayed at the Arc show at ExCel in May. Last summer a lighting workshop was organised by the LET for around 20 second-year students, many of whom have found placements in the lighting industry for 12 months. The aim is for this workshop to be repeated in 2013 by Brunel themselves with support from the LET. The next step will be to add the Lighting Design Pathway permanently to the existing degree to provide a further, fifth option for the product design courses and leading to a BSc in lighting design within a few years.
Word on the street... Photography: Gustavo Sanabria
Literature vs Traffic lighting installation by Spanish art collective Luzinterruptus for Melbourne’s 2012 The Light in Winter festival
Lighting Journal January 2013
News in brief Following the merger of the LIF and the LA to form the Lighting Industry Association, the LA Laboratories have been rebranded the LIA Laboratories. Krish Govinden is the new technical manager. The independently run testing service has been operating for more than 20 years in the LIA’s own purpose-built laboratories in Telford. It delivers the largest range of UKAS and ILAC accreditation services in the UK for lighting and support products. LED Roadway Lighting (LRL), a Canadian manufacturer of LED based street and area lighting products, is to supply Nova Scotia Power with up to 85,000 Satellite series fixtures for deployment across the province. The new LED fixtures will replace existing 70W-400W high pressure sodium fittings, providing estimated energy savings of around 58 per cent, or 32.5m kwH a year. LRL recently also signed a contract with Salford for 24,000 fixtures. Etap has won iF design awards for three new products: the revamped K9 emergency lighting range, and two LED luminaires for general lighting: U7 (recessed) and R7 (surface-mounted and suspended). The last two feature the LED+LENS technology developed by Etap which combines high-power LEDs and individual lenses. (Pictured: R7 series 3).
Lumicom has been responsible for 100 per cent of Category 5 luminaire WEEE collections for two consecutive quarters of 2012, according to the Environment Agency. It was calculated that within the second quarter of last year, Lumicom recycled 80.599 tonnes of identified Cat 5 WEEE fittings and by the close of the third quarter the figure had increased to 99.764 tonnes. DW Windsor has won two Highway Electrical Association Industry Awards 2012: the HEA-HEMSA Member of the Year, Luminaire Manufacturer award and HEA-HEMSA Employee of the Year award which went to London regional manager Paul Murphy. The company has just released its latest exterior lighting catalogue. Go to http://bit.ly/ DWW-Cat or email email@example.com for a printed copy.
Joe Holland and Elaine Gumbley have joined highways industry supplier Signature as production director and national sales manager respectively.
LIGHT Hearted Nigel Parry bemoans the lighting switch-off frenzy and our apparent inability to learn from past mistakes
Former Lighting Journal editor Carl Gardner on his passion for the unique effects of tungsten in great luminaire designs
believe that history repeats itself on
keeping the lights on effectively, and are thus
a regular basis and I’m constantly
forced to switch off the lights, much to the
(and one thing that attracted me to
amazed that we seldom learn from our
lighting design in the first place) are the
past and are therefore often condemned to
What we seem to have is our lighting
What I have always loved in lighting
incomparable lighting effects achieved
make the same mistakes. A classic example
network ‘managed’ by consultants and
by a handful of great luminaire designs,
is the current lighting switch-off frenzy that
contractors, who are doing the best they can
using the much-maligned tungsten
we are witnessing on our streets, where
for their clients but also have their strings
lamp, both mains and low voltage.
frequently the accountants tell the poor
pulled by those accountants bent on keeping
Most of them will soon be consigned to
old lighting manager (as they have usually
the shareholders happy.
museums, or lost to us forever.
disposed of the engineers) that they must
Our councils are so often politically
make savings, and the simple solution is to
correct and safety conscious that the
switch off a few lights.
consultants spend many hours completing
They seem to forget that the energy tariff
reports on the justification for the design that
For example, Artemide’s Area fitting (already discontinued), created by the great Italian post-war designer Mario Bellini, which pushes the back light from a front-silvered reflector lamp through a
they are now facing is what we had back in
never get read or understood. Meanwhile
the 1990s, when the tariff dropped sharply,
the contractors have seen a whole training
thanks to privatisation, and the budget
regime develop – which costs a small
savings were taken elsewhere – apparently
fortune – to have their operatives trained
wire system, which has glowing glass
never to be seen again.
even to safely remove a door on a column.
‘moons’ housing 20W capsules and
I recall the same type of switch-off
I do hear the contractors complaining about
beautiful mini-spots, where the rear
happening due to a real energy crisis in the
the cost, but who would be brave enough to
glow (‘waste light’ some might call it)
1970s where, for example, in Birmingham
question the safety argument?
from low voltage MR16s casts beguiling,
every other lamp was switched off to save
So it seems that money can be found to
energy. It then took quite a few years to put
oil the ever-hungry machines of consultants
them all back on again but at least they were
and contractors while those at the coalface
often upgraded to the new (at the time) high
in the local authorities are forced to manage
pressure sodium lamps as the deterioration
on the most meagre of budgets – and are in
they suffered in the short time they were
danger of losing even those few pennies in
switched off made them inoperable.
the next year or so.
My real concern is that 30-plus years
So I’m waiting for those strong leaders to
soft, wavy diffuser, to fabulous effect. Or Ya-Ya-Ho by Ingo Maurer, the world’s first (and best) low voltage
coloured striations on the translucent, cone-like shades. None of this can be mimicked by functional LED retrofits. Or there’s the subtly soft, finely graded diffusion achieved by the world’s classiest standard and table lamp, Costanza by Luceplan, complete with its seductive, stick-like switch. Yes, it can take a CFL
ago every local authority had a lighting
return, to stand up for what is really required
engineer who was held in some esteem
and to lead from the front, working in the
and who had the clout to get all the lights
councils and the profession in general to
150W E27. The truth is that tungsten
switched back on as soon as possible. Now
establish a voice for the lighting profession.
is a mundane, inefficient light source,
I find that far too many authorities don’t even
We might even go so far as to finally get
but in the hands of great designers and
employ a lighting engineer. In fact we find
the lighting bodies together under one
manufacturers, it can (or rather could?)
ourselves with very few strong leaders in the
professional banner. Well, I’m more the glass
be used to create magic…and we lose
profession who able to articulate the case for
is half-full type...
that magic at our peril.
Lighting Journal January 2013
or an LED, but nothing works as well as the warm, precise flux from the original
Fusionand diffusion Rob Honeywill outlines the exacting technical task of integrating lighting into Bakuâ€™s new cultural centre by Zaha Hadid Architects
The floor trough separates vertical from horizontal
To give an uninterrupted sightline, column and area lighting were avoided
he Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre is one of the first buildings that is literally changing a country. If you watched the Eurovision Song Contest in Baku last year you would have seen the massive promotion of the host city. Baku is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, which for the past six years has been working hard to shed its Soviet past and redefine itself and its culture through architecture. The cultural centre is only one part in a gigantic construction programme that has already seen many new buildings (such as the well-publicised Flame Towers development) completed in the country. However, the cultural centre by Zaha Hadid Architects was the first of these Grands Projets, even though it has taken the longest to complete. It has been pivotal in the role of redeveloping Baku. The building’s fluid form grows from the landscape forming a single continuous surface that houses a museum, national library and a 1200seat theatre and conference centre. What follows is a technical summary of the design. MBLD is due to finalise the site in early 2013, and a full technical
assent and publication will follow. The building is made up of an undulating space frame that is clad in 16,000 white panels so complex that it took two and a half years of testing and mock-ups before solutions were realised. The interior ceiling, which is the size of seven football fields, is lined with 90,000 plasterboard sheets using a newly developed flexible multiboard material. The building surfaces were referred to quite appropriately as external and internal skins to the body of the architecture. Our initial brief was to fuse the lighting within the fabric of the architecture. MBLD and ZHA were determined to find a lighting solution that would enhance the flowing nature of the single surface that encompassed the building – conventional lighting ideas fell short of creating a space that would complement the architecture. Because of the complex threedimensional geometry of the building, all the lighting studies had to be made within 3D models to convince us and the architect that all parameters and options had been explored while arriving at a solution. It was through these studies that we came to the
conclusion that using the ceiling surface as a secondary reflector would not only model the shape of the ceiling but could also be used effectively to achieve the ambient lighting. To achieve the ceiling wash we came up with the concept of a lighting shelf which could be discreetly mounted along the facade glazing transom. Each of the shelves houses double rows of HO T5 3000K asymmetric reflector lamps, along with an internal row of T5 lamps to make the shelf glow. Each row of lamps is on a dimmable 0-10V lighting circuit which is further broken into five to six circuits to achieve a smoother lighting fade when coming close to the internal skin. At the base of the building, where the internal skin meets the floor, we proposed the use of a large floor-trough detail both to create a separation of the skin from the floor and to achieve a wash of light to the interior surface. The challenge here was to create a continuous lighting detail with overlapping T5 lamps (IP54 internal and IP68 external) which followed the organic footprint of the building. It is important to point out that
Lighting Journal January 2013
12 Project analysis
Top: lobby with 3D detail. Bottom: auditorium. Insets, left to right: lighting shelf, auditorium detail, staircase
Lighting Journal January 2013
Project analysis during the time we were designing, the use of LEDs for ambient lighting was not yet available, or else available at a very high cost and therefore limited only to certain areas of the building. For the adjoining spaces, the idea of indirect lighting was continued with the use of ceiling troughs and continuous linear uplighting along the balustrades. The accumulated effect of all the uplighting and indirect lighting was to create a lantern effect when the building was viewed from outside. We also had to explore ways of continuing the same concept for the ambient lighting in tighter areas where the geometry did not allow the use of lighting shelves and floor washers weren’t adequate. We also quickly realised that the need for emergency lighting was just going to prove too much for this principle. The notion of a curvilinear ceiling slot that could be used within the internal skin was explored by ZHA and found to be an acceptable way of expressing the sculptural nature of the ceiling while still allowing the lighting to be integrated. This internal skin detail meant fabricating a ceiling slot that could be mounted and adjusted to fit curving planes in all three axes because there is a direct relationship between the exterior curve of the roof and the interior ceiling. The solution was a three-dimensional flexible T5 linear slot detail (also 3000K) which could fit all the locations proposed. We worked closely with ZHA to optimise the placement and quantity needed to achieve approximately 100-150 lux at floor level. Lighting all the public access area staircases was also subject to careful consideration, and the concept of the clean and concealed detailing was continued using Barrisol and T5 lighting at the perimeter, combined with a handrail niche LED lighting detail. The facade of the main building is lit to define the infinite lines and dramatic sculptural shape, and to further express the lantern effect – light oozing from inside out. The idea was to illuminate the faces of the building closest to the building glazing to create an effect of lighting fading off as it moves away from the openings. We deliberately kept parts of the building facade dark to express the lit elements better. It was an incredible challenge to arrive at a solution that achieved a
smooth fade-off of light as the building shape converges or merges into the landscape giving very little room to place luminaires. The arrangement of the luminaires was also closely coordinated with ZHA to create a pattern of uplighting on the floor that echoes the building geometry. Too many buildings today are lit as fully programmable LED media facades, and we needed to approach the facade as a pure form and allow a greater expression of light and dark to emerge from the architecture. We used a range of Lumascape inground uplights with a limited selection of beam distributions to uplight selected curved surfaces from below, together with Bega 70W HIT asymmetric inground luminaires to wash the side wall panels as they curve between building and landscape. On the west side, where the building rises up to 70m with overlapping fins, asymmetric projectors were fixed inside the mechanical slots to hide them from view and yet achieve a smooth fade of light. Externally, the expression of the landscape was defined only by using linear details to wash vertical surfaces and develop the bounded/ surrounded feeling of light rather than a more measured appearance. The landscape’s grand approach to the main entrance is lit using a combination of continuous uplights in a floor trough, and a series of custommade LED wall slots and handrail details creating direct washes to the staircase and ramped areas. We wanted to avoid using any column or area lighting, so that the landscape could lead the eye to the building uninterrupted by any foreground pollution or clutter. The heart of the cultural centre is the auditorium, a completely timberclad, complex-shaped interior. This is lit using a combination of DMA DMX-controlled continuously mounted 10W Nichia LED modules within each of the timber rings, together with MR16 adjustable downlights linked to Multiload Voltmaster supply units. We provided critical feedback to ZHA to revise the timber detail housing the LEDs to achieve the desirable light distribution while hiding the light source. Most of this review had to be made within the 3D model itself, which meant checking every single section of the ring lighting detail to ensure and
demonstrate both the consistency of the ZHA detail and the light output. It has taken more than five years to realise this project and considerable attention to every detail, line and facet has been necessary to ensure the seamless integration of lighting within the architecture. This feature is based on the presentation given by Rob Honeywill, director of Maurice Brill Lighting Design, at the ILP’s 2012 Professional Lighting Summit
Project: The Haydar Aliyev Cultural Centre, Baku, Azerbaijan Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects Lighting design: Maurice Brill Lighting Design Project designers: Aniket Gore, Rob Honeywill
Lighting Journal January 2013
The cost of failure
Quality comes at a price, says Paul Reid, but it’s the only way to make LEDs pay
t last year’s euroLED conference in Birmingham, a manager from Philips gave a presentation delivered with a passion clearly borne out of frustration. It certainly resonated with those of us who are trying to provide clients with better quality LED lighting products. According to him, anyone attempting to sell premium LED products was in for a very tough 18 months to two years because there is currently no standardised way for buyers to assess the LEDs put before them and it takes around 18 months for the ‘rubbish’ to show its true colours. The majority of purchasing decisions are still based on cost, he said, despite the accepted caveat ‘you pay peanuts...’ The inevitable problems that follow range from colour shifting and incompatibility to complete failure. The causes can be poorly binned LEDs, ineffective thermal management, driver design, cheap component selection, quality control in assembly, or any combination of the above. Those of us who meet prospective buyers face to face hear these horror stories every week so we know how seriously this warning should be
Lighting Journal January 2013
‘There is currently no standardised way for buyers to assess the LEDs put before them and it takes around 18 months for the “rubbish” to show its true colours’ taken. In an attempt to bring some transparency to the market, the Lighting Industry Association is initiating a market surveillance programme with the goal of naming and shaming those products that simply do not meet the performances claimed in company brochures. This is good news and definitely a step in the right direction, but given the rapid growth in the number of
companies now selling LEDs in the UK, its impact, at least initially, could be marginal. For a more wide-reaching strategy we have to move to minimum benchmarks such as UKAS-accredited independent test data. Without universally accepted standards, how can the buyer justify to his or her superiors paying the premium for the better quality LED, especially at a time when budgets are under more pressure than ever before? And yet this is exactly why it is so crucial that investment in LEDs is an informed decision and not one based on marketing collateral and heavy discounting. Good LEDs are not a commodity product. They are a design-led, highly engineered solution that, in the right applications, will repay their initial cost many times over. In many ways they are the most important tool we have for tackling the issue of energy efficiency in buildings. As a retrofit source they are the most visible, least disruptive solution to install while providing the biggest ‘bang for your buck’ in terms of energy and carbon abatement – and that’s before you start factoring in the savings on maintenance and relamping.
Discussion In addition, sustainability and environmental responsibility have risen up the boardroom agenda in recent years and here again good LED products provide an answer. And yet there are still estimated to be as many as 100m linear fluorescent tubes sold in the UK every year. This technology is now more than 80 years old and still dominates commercial buildings. Fluorescents are fragile glass tubes filled with hazardous waste and – despite five years of WEEE – many still end up in landfill. The justification for this is based on a common misconception that fluorescents are ‘cheap’, which of course they are if you don’t factor in the cost of ownership. If you ignore the electricity usage, forget the carbon, accept the maintenance and relamping costs and have no interest in sustainability and environmental responsibility, then yes, compared to LEDs, fluorescents are cheap. None of this is news, so why does the status quo persist? Conversations with buyers would suggest that as an industry we only have ourselves to blame. Many have tried LEDs, typically on a small project, and have been badly let down by inferior products and abysmal service. Networking, forums and social media allow for near instantaneous sharing of these painful experiences. The result is a sceptical audience that considers LEDs a standardised technology in the same way that fluorescents have now become. Nobody cares that your T8s or
T5s are Osram, Philips or GE other than Osram, Philips or GE. Fluorescents have reached their zenith and differences in performance are indiscernible. If the same were true for LEDs then price is indeed the appropriate measure. LEDs are only really getting started and the development potential is truly staggering but you don’t need to wait to take advantage. The opportunity to eliminate fluorescents exists today but only if you can sort the wheat from the chaff. When a sales person proclaims a 100,000-hour lamp life but only a two-year warranty, the alarm bells should be ringing. The best LEDs come with a warranty that covers the entire expected lamp life regardless of burning hours, so that means 24/7/365 if that’s what the site demands are. This means you have effectively guaranteed the return on investment which you simply cannot do with poorly made LEDs. We are facing a perfect storm of rising energy costs, mandatory carbon reporting, growing energy demands, reduced generating capacity and new European directives, all at a time when we are attempting to migrate to renewables on a creaking, outdated network infrastructure. Since Nichia developed the white LED in 1996 the potential for halving the electricity drawn by commercial lighting was born. Surely now is the time for UK organisations to futureproof their building assets and invest in high-quality LED technology.
‘Good LEDs are not a commodity product. They are a design-led, highly engineered solution that, in the right applications, will repay their initial cost many times over’ This article first appeared in Energy in Buildings and Industry magazine, October 2012, and is reprinted with kind permission of the editor and the writer
Fluorescents are fragile glass tubes filled with hazardous waste
Lighting Journal January 2013
WindingRoad Regent Street is one of central Londonâ€™s key thoroughfares. Jill Entwistle looks at how a major upgrading scheme has brought the highway and architectural lighting into contention
The new architectural scheme with high-mounted highway fitting and replica Chicagos
Lighting Journal January 2013
he creation of a coherent architectural lighting scheme for the whole of Regent Street has taken nearly 20 years. And counting, as it is now being continued into peripheral areas that include Regent Street to St James’s, Waterloo Place and the Mall elevation of Carlton House Terrace. With the mission being to create a cohesive appearance for the entire stretch, which involved ensuring a reduced light level along the street, a key question that inevitably arises is how the scheme related to the highway lighting. The answer, also inevitably, is not that straightforward. There has been an undoubted clash of priorities and the case is an interesting example of the need for some joined-up thinking. The primary highway lighting comes from high level, facade-mounted fittings, originally high pressure sodium but in recent years upgraded to white light. There are also some replica Chicago fittings in the centre of the street. Westminster City Council wants to replace the existing highway lighting for a variety of reasons. For one thing, light levels were not high enough at Oxford Circus and along Regent Street, especially as Oxford Circus now has the UK’s first diagonal pedestrian crossing and it was considerably underlit at the centre. There is also a maintenance issue along Regent Street and Oxford Circus. The fittings are currently at a height of around 14m-15m which makes access difficult, says Allan Howard of WSP, responsible for the highway lighting design element of West One, a joint venture involved in the upgrading that also includes FM Conway and Murphy’s. ‘You can’t park a 15m tower wagon safely to access the lighting units because the footpaths are not strong enough to take the load of the wagon and because of the cellars and fire vents under the footpath,’ says Howard. ‘In order to do the maintenance you had to get a special wagon or get abseilers in. So that was causing lots of problems, and a lot of the lights were out and weren’t being repaired.’ Another important factor, ironically, was that it was felt the existing arrangement was adversely affecting the architectural scheme. ‘The other main issue was that where the fittings do work, they put quite a lot of light directly over the building facade,’ says Howard. ‘This was a concern for The Crown Estate and a core requirement of the brief.’ ‘The fittings are not very well placed, they’re 14m-15m up, they’re 400W high pressure sodiums and not really doing the job. They were messing up the architectural lighting,’ is the succinct summary of Dave Franks, service development manager, public lighting, for Westminster. However, The Crown Estate, and lighting designer Tony Rimmer of Studio 29, who is working with Atkins on behalf of TCE, are concerned that the new highway lighting will compromise the architectural lighting in a different, more serious way. The upgraded scheme involves bringing the mounting height down to 8m-9m, and locating the new fittings – Sill 453/454 asymmetric plane projectors with Cosmopolis lamps – just above the shop fronts. ‘The low level scheme originally envisaged will have an impact because of the quantity of light, the type of light and the positions of the fittings,’ says Rimmer. By reducing the height, obviously more fittings will be needed. ‘For example, on the Quadrant, leading from
Piccadilly to Glasshouse Street, currently there are around six to eight high level lights, and the initial proposals replaced those with 51 highway lights,’ says Rimmer. Theoretically this will create a bright line of light that will draw the eye away from the architectural scheme above. ‘The concern is that we end up with a sharp cut line which might distract from the architectural lighting at the height where the highway lighting is,’ says Peter Bourne, development manager of The Crown Estate.
‘You will have a sliver of light cutting through your viewpoint which you won’t see beyond to the architectural lights. It’s just the sheer volume of downlighting at this level. At that height it will also be at eye level with top-deck bus passengers’ ‘You will have a sliver of light cutting through your viewpoint looking up the street which you won’t see beyond to the architectural lights. It’s just the sheer volume of downlighting at this level,’ contends Rimmer. ‘At that height it will also be at eye level with top-deck bus passengers.’ ‘The fittings have a good forward asymmetric throw with good cut-off,’ says Howard. ‘You can stand on the other side of the street and will not see the light source.’ And both Howard and Franks maintain that the brightest element will be the shops. ‘The dominant light source along these types of street are the shop fronts with their internal lighting and the additional signage lighting.The highway lighting is unlikely to be the problem,’ says Franks. An additional concern is that the fittings will be using the same location so that some of the architectural luminaires will have to be moved to make space, ‘leaving the scheme pepper-potted with holes,’ says Rimmer. The answer to this one seems a little less clear cut. ‘The proposal is such that the locations and heights of the highway lighting and architectural lighting will not conflict,’ says Howard. ‘However, there may be occasions where this happens and each location must be considered on its merits and what the main lighting task is. Our aim is not to compromise either the architectural or highway lighting design.’ ‘Any and all locations for lighting apparatus will be agreed with The Crown Estate and a coherent approach has already been discussed,’ adds Franks. Qualms about CE levels have also been expressed though initial alarm that Oxford Circus and Regent Street
Lighting Journal January 2013
Various views of Regent Street, and with existing highway lighting (above left and right)
would be permanently at CEO has proved unfounded. All the lighting is on a Harvard Leafnut system and there will be a CEO capability at periods when the area is very crowded, otherwise the level will be CE1, going down to CE2. So what is Rimmer proposing? First of all, following the upgrade of the existing fittings to white light he took them into account when creating the scheme, he says. ‘We’ve designed the scheme around these high-level lights so that the highway scheme doesn’t impact on the architecture as much. We now wash the buildings in a warm light and have blended in the colour temperatures which makes the highway lighting blend more into the architecture.’ Second, he suggests that the existing post-top fittings are replaced with more efficient optics to give an even illumination over the highway. ‘That would involve making them higher to ensure you got the correct distribution and then you would supplement it with some high-level lights. That would be the easiest way forward,’ says Rimmer. Health and safety has been cited as one reason for not adopting that approach. It’s also a maintenance issue, says Howard, as road closures would be needed for work on the centre island of Regent Street. The third proposal is that the highway lighting is dimmed down to CE2 most of the time the architectural scheme is on (it switches off at around 11.30pm). That seems unlikely to happen, according to Howard. ‘These are high streetcrime areas and Westminster wouldn’t be happy with the
Lighting Journal January 2013
highway lighting being dimmed down below the required lighting level. The architectural lighting should have been designed to light only the facades and should not provide any contribution to the highway lighting levels.’ Although he is in complete agreement that Oxford Circus itself is underlit, Rimmer counters that the scheme generally provides 40 lux on the highway and would therefore be more than adequate elsewhere. Bourne points out that having carried out lighting checks all down the street, ‘we’ve discovered that the lighting levels at the southern end of Regent Street are higher than they would be during the day because they’ve got the enormous advertising signs in Piccadilly Circus. The argument is that we can’t rely on that. I don’t quite know why because I don’t think there’s very much chance of them being turned off.’ Discussions continue and it would be wrong to imply that all parties are completely at loggerheads. Bourne acknowledges that the highway lighting needs to be improved. ‘It needs to be done, just from a maintenance point of view really,’ he says. ‘It’s not up to scratch and it’s not a modern lighting system.’ But with the massive investment that the architectural lighting represents, both Rimmer and Bourne are deeply concerned about preserving its integrity. ‘What is encouraging is that both parties are constructively engaging,’ says Bourne. ‘There is agreement on the objectives and a solution will undoubtedly be found.’
Face value: the architectural scheme
The elegant facades demanded an understated approach
he architectural lighting scheme for Regent Street is were coming in especially from larger stores to use lighting to the lynchpin element in a £25m investment in public put their own stamp on the street. ‘It was decided that instead realm improvements that included cleaning buildings, an overall scheme should be implemented which would widening pavements, introducing two pedestrianised food emphasise the quality of the architecture of the whole street quarters for workers and shoppers, and upgrades to Oxford rather than particular individual stores,’ says Bourne. Circus and Piccadilly Circus, the gateways to the street. Ensuring consistency along the route has involved The aim was to lift it from the retail doldrums of tourist tartan incorporating an overall lighting strategy into the guidelines shops and restore it to former glories. Originally designed by for Regent Street. ‘Any retailer signing the lease has to follow architect John the guidelines,’ says lighting designer Tony Rimmer of Studio Nash in the early 19th century, it has a 2km street frontage 29, who has been involved on the project from the beginning, and now boasts 140,000sqm of originally starting when he flagship retail space, with Apple, worked at multi-disciplinary Burberry, Banana Republic and practice Imagination. ‘That Jaeger among the stakeholders, means no illuminated signs, plus key business tenants such no colour change, no as Lloyds TSB. moving lights.’ ‘Regent Street is one of the The elegant facades few complete architectural set demanded an understated pieces in central London,’ says approach from the lighting. Peter Bourne, development A warm white colour wash manager of The Crown Estate, (2800K-3000K) forms the which owns the whole stretch. backcloth, against which ‘The programme to improve architectural features, such it involved creating a quality as columns, sculptures and shopping centre, a successful mansard roofs, are picked out Proposed Sill fitting at 6.5m above first-floor plinth business location and a place in a cool white (4000K). This for people.’ gives the facades depth and Along with all its other issues, it lacked the lighting the features definition. ‘We picked up on the common cornice coherence that the architectural uniformity of the street cried height at fifth-floor level, for instance, and the chamfered ends out for. The Austin Reed facade had orange windows, while of each block are defined for views up and down the street,’ the old Garrards building was blue. And further applications says Rimmer. ‘Certain buildings have different facades, such
Lighting Journal January 2013
as the old Liberty building, which has a concave frontage with colonnades and steps back. But we could still apply the same principle.’ The primary fitting used has been Meyer’s Superlight range with ceramic metal halide lamps (Commercial Lighting and Meyer have been ‘absolutely faultless’ as supplier and manufacturer, says Rimmer). Around 2500 of the luminaires have been installed – in fact so far the lighting has involved an estimated 3000 light fittings in all, and 2km of cold cathode. Visual clutter on the building facades has been kept to a minimum by using customised and cut-down standard light fittings with remote gear and drivers hidden from view. Detailing of sculptural features such as the frieze on the old Liberty’s building has been achieved with fibre optics, also used where access was an issue. Framing projector units were mounted in strategic locations on opposite sides of the street to highlight major statues and details where it was impossible to locate luminaires in close proximity. The Crown Estate was keen to look at LEDs some years ago but Rimmer wanted to hold off until the technology was both proven and improved, especially in terms of colour temperature and output for floodlighting. ‘The efficiency of the metal halide was far better than the LEDs because of the amount of lumens per watt you were getting out of them to light a facade of three or four floors,’ says Rimmer. ‘When we did start trialling them, some of the warm white LED fittings looked very different in the office compared to when we saw them against the actual
buildings. Some were acid yellow and looked terrible.’ The transition to LEDs is now being made. ‘The quality of LEDs has improved so much over the past three or four years,’ says Rimmer. ‘A warm white is now quite close to a metal halide warm white.’ A key aim for Rimmer was to control light levels. ‘Because we could control the effect of the whole street we could also dictate wattages. One of the buildings had 150W and 250W metal halide fittings on the facade, for instance. We took that down to 70W and 35W, and even 20W in places.’ Another crucial issue was obviously maintenance. Having invested a considerable amount in creating a coherent scheme, The Crown Estate has taken a rigorous approach to ensuring it stays that way. It has a 20-year strategy in place and has undertaken to cover the maintenance costs. ‘There’s a full programme,’ says Rimmer. ‘It’s not just a matter of maintenance when lights fail, it’s done regularly so that everything is kept looking 100 per cent.’ Aside from lamp and luminaire failure, the level of pollution makes regular maintenance essential. In just a few weeks the millimetres of grime that accumulate on fittings will reduce output by 30-40 per cent. For easier maintenance, every light fitting has been put on a plug-and-play system so that contractors can just unplug and replace it. ‘You don’t need access to the building or to turn off the whole circuit while the guys work on it. It’s more costly but in the long term it’s cheaper for maintenance,’ says Rimmer.
Proposed luminaire locations at Oxford Circus
Lighting Journal January 2013
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24 Frankfurt Discussion Review: Light Sources
Obtrusive light guidance: issues and problems
Carl Gardner spells out some unresolved concerns with the ILP’s 2011 Guidance Notes
An area of fairly uninhabited countryside which is neither a recognised park, nor a village. Does it need a zone of its own?
he 2011 revision of the ILP’s guidance on preventing obtrusive light (available as a free download from www.theilp.org.uk) has now been in circulation for more than a year. The latest version is a considerable improvement on the previous document, including as it does illustrations of light spill control devices, tips on the correct installation of floodlights, guidance on floodlight types and a comprehensive list of standards and useful publications. But having recommended and referred to the guidance during several training courses for local authorities around the UK, I’ve found that there are still a number of inadequacies and issues that need to be resolved. I raise them as a way of improving what is, after all, one of the ILP’s ‘flagship’ free resources, whose influence goes well beyond the boundaries of the institution. It is important to stress, however, that the ILP Guidance is largely a distillation of CIE 150 Guide to the Limitation of the Effects of Obtrusive Light from Outdoor Installations, plus CIE 126 Guidelines for Minimising Sky Glow. CIE 150 and 126 provide all the descriptive elements as well as the upper limit lighting levels, depending on the environmental area – so, ultimately, any problems in these areas need to be corrected at source. The first question to ask is, who is the document for? While the Notes as presently constituted may work satisfactorily for lighting consultants, engineers and designers, well-versed in the terminology and measurement techniques of the lighting industry, I come at the document from a different direction. As someone who trains non-lighting professionals in local government who have to grapple with the actual and potential issues
of light nuisance and light pollution on a day-to-day basis, I have to ask how well it serves them. After all, lighting professionals are brought in to deal with only a small percentage of light nuisance and light pollution cases – it is hard-pressed EHOs who have to interpret the 2005 Act on light as a statutory nuisance, and nonexpert planners who have to assess the polluting and nuisance potential of planning applications involving lighting. The first anomalies in the guidance can be found in Table 1 which spells out the environmental zones (E0-E4) and the categories and descriptions applied. My first reservation is the E1 zone which is described as ‘natural’ and ‘intrinsically dark’ but then limits examples to areas officially designated as national parks and areas of outstanding natural beauty (notwithstanding the ‘etc’ added at the end). These examples are far too limited in scope and only represent a small percentage of countryside areas that could be described as ‘natural’ and where we might want to preserve an ‘intrinsically dark’ night-time ambience. I contributed to the latter stages of redrafting the 2011 version and wanted to include under examples of E1 something like ‘areas of remote countryside that are largely uninhabited or sparsely inhabited’ – but my formulation was not included in the final draft. I still feel that with the current examples, E1 is likely to be too infrequently used by EHOs, even when their rural areas might require some tight lighting control. Or perhaps we simply need more types of zone – there are certainly a lot of rural areas that fall into the gaps between ‘national parks etc’ and ‘villages and outer suburban
Some of the light spill control devices illustrated in the Guidance Notes
Discussion locations’. And given that, at present, the first two zones apply only to officially designated reserves and parks, it does mean that most EHOs and planners, located away from such areas, only have three zones to choose from – E2, E3 and E4. Surely the diverse environment of this island is more varied and complex than that? Secondly, for non-professionals, we need to offer more guidance on the criteria for assessing the type of zone they are in. Should they be looking at the type of lighting installed? Should they be assessing the presence or absence of major lit traffic routes? Do illuminated developments of various types immediately imply a higher zone may be designated? And one question I get asked again and again – how large or how small
can these zones be? I try to reassure them that in 80 per cent of cases, the type of zone ought to be self-evident, but that there may be doubts and ambiguities in 20 per cent of cases. All the current document says is, ‘where an area to be lit lies on the boundary of two zones, the obtrusive light limitation values used should be those applicable to the most rigorous zone’. However, the main problems arise with Table 2 in the Guidance Notes which spells out the recommended limits for exterior lighting installations in the various zones (I have omitted the numerous footnotes here). To a non-lighting professional the table does look daunting, and as part of my training course I try and take them through the various types of lighting issue and the way they are measured. Sky glow ULR, of course, is almost impossible to assess numerically, to the kind of accuracy spelt out in the table, even for a professional. For an EHO, in any case, it is irrelevant, as light nuisance legislation doesn’t encompass light pollution and sky glow, while a planner is going to be hard pressed to make
Classic example of light pollution and sky glow over the suburbs, but outside the remit of EHOs – and any UK legislation
any kind of assessment of such fine percentages on the basis of a planning proposal. All they can do is request information on the ULR rating on the chosen fittings, in the case of, say, area or sports floodlighting.
For EHOs working on light nuisance, the columns on light intrusion into windows (vertical illuminance measured in lux) are potentially the most useful recommendations in the document. Site measurements can be made relatively easily using a light meter – although you would be amazed how many environmental health departments don’t possess one. To support this, too, the ILP has set up a short training course on the use of light meters. There are two tables of figures, based on pre-curfew and postcurfew periods. While a curfew on non-essential lighting may, in a very few cases, have been laid down as a planning condition, in most cases
any recommendation will be purely informal and based on convention – in the footnotes it states ‘23.00 is suggested’. Unfortunately, this is not something that inexperienced EHOs are going to be able to persuade lighting owners to adhere to – and in the case of (essential?) security lighting, what are owners expected to do? Turn it off or dim it down? I don’t want to take issue with the actual recommended lux figures in the table, although some lighting experts have expressed reservations about figures being too low in certain zones and too high in others. However, the recommended figures do refer to the total vertical illuminance at the window from all sources, which does require investigators of complaints to isolate the lux contribution of specific sources from the general background. I offer advice to EHOs on how this might be done – measurements with the offending light on and off, or the use of more or less complex shielding devices and so on. However, the problem for EHOs is that the current guidance does not offer any criteria for the maximum lux contribution of a single light source, so that it might be judged a nuisance. If it adds three lux in an E3 zone, precurfew, is that a nuisance, even if the total is still below 10 lux? If it adds six lux in an E4 zone, pre-curfew, but the total lux is still below 25 lux, is that an indicator of possible nuisance? And for planners, the situation is even more difficult – if the existing lighting
Lighting Journal January 2013
part of the planning process, would require ongoing measurement and remeasurement by consultants, and has, as far as I know, only rarely been adopted in lighting plans in the years since. So, apart from general guidance Light meters, the most basic instrument for assessing light nuisance and information about lighting types, where does this leave the usefulness levels on an E4 site are already close know this method has not been of the ILP Guidance for non-lighting to or above 25 lux, are planners systematically standardised, in terms professionals, such as EHOs and entitled to say, in relationship to a of tube diameter or length, and other planners, looking for some real hard new development, ‘sorry, no more specialists say that it is simply not figures? lighting here, we have reached the ILP reliable, so although I run through the Vertical illuminance can be recommended limit’? technique in my courses, I do have to measured and assessed as a The bigger problem with vertical describe it as an ‘informal method’, criterion of light nuisance – if the illuminance arises as a result of which is hardly encouraging. Surely individual offending light source can the inverse square law, by which there is a real necessity to develop be isolated – but we don’t have any illuminance decreases as a function a reliable method for the quantitative formal guidance on how much lux is of the square of the distance in verification of glare that can be too much from that single fitting. In metres. This means that for distant easily undertaken on site? I think that any case, illuminance starts to break light sources – and my (untested) perhaps this is the biggest weakness down as a useful measurement with rule of thumb is around 40-50m – the of the current guidance. distance, due to the inverse square usefulness of lux measurements is The final column in the ILP law, but we don’t have precise largely negated. table concerns building luminance guidance as to what that distance At that distance, the lux contribution measured in candelas per square might be. Luminous intensity can of a small, bright light source on metre (cd/sqm). This is impossible only be measured ‘informally’ and a vertical surface might be very to measure without an expensive, some experts think the method is low – but as we know luminance specialist luminance meter and, in any unreliable. And sky glow and building (the closest correlate to perceived case, it is not clear what the relation luminance criteria are either irrelevant brightness) does not obey the inverse between (indirect) building luminance or impossible to measure by nonsquare law. Sources reduce in size, and light nuisance might be. On specialists. according to the laws of perspective, larger developments, it is possible to There is clearly much work to be while retaining the same measured lay down building luminance maxima done here if the Guidance Notes are luminance. Therefore that same small, in planning conditions, but postto be made fit for purpose for many of bright source, especially when viewed construction checks by planners, those whom it ought to serve. Part of against a dark background, might using luminance meters, is unlikely. the problem, undoubtedly, lies in the create an element of discomfort glare Only lighting professionals are going limited and unsatisfactory nature of the in the visual field and might still be to be in a position to do such checks. UK’s light nuisance legislation, which regarded as a nuisance. Interestingly, in the late 1980s, the has been covered elsewhere. But it is This brings us to recommendations first UK urban lighting masterplan for all we have to work with for the time for luminous intensity, measured in Edinburgh, undertaken by Lighting being. candelas. Might this be a measurable Design Partnership, laid down building Perhaps we need a simpler indicator of the worst potential form of facade luminance limits for different guidance document to help both light nuisance – glare? Theoretically city zones. The aim was to create EHOs, planners and other non-lighting it ought to be possible to measure a hierarchy of brightness, and to specialists. Based on my current luminous intensity using a lux meter prevent the ‘light wars’ phenomenon, training course, I myself am currently if you know the precise distance whereby commercial properties working on a standard Checklist between the light source and the try and outdo each other in the Lighting Assessment Procedure complainant’s window. One method brightness of their buildings, leading for EHOs, which I hope might be which has been recommended is to a steady escalation of lighting offered as a download via the ILP to use a black, non-specular tube levels. This proposal, if adopted as and the CIEH. This at least might fixed to a tripod. The tube is ensure that everyone across aimed at the light source, so authorities and departments it is visible in the end of the is singing from the same tube and the head of the light hymn-sheet (most local meter is completely covered authority departments don’t by the other end of the tube. have one so EHOs untrained The reading is taken in lux and in light are left to their own then subjected to the simple devices). But until some of the equation I = E x d2: Luminous weaknesses and anomalies in intensity (I) in candelas = E the current Guidance Notes (in lux) x the distance from are addressed, this will not be the light source (in metres) a total answer. Equipment for informally assessing luminous intensity. Is there a need for a squared reliable method of quantifying glare on site? However, as far as I
Lighting Journal January 2013
Regulation issue Iain Macrae assesses the solid state of play for safety and performance standards â€˜Where the performance of LEDs is concerned, reliability is the result of all system components and their interactions. This is just as true for all luminaires, although the effect of some components and mechanisms is more influential when it comes to LEDsâ€™
Considerations when designing an LED luminaire
Lighting Journal January 2013
ith the pace of LED adoption showing no signs of slowing it’s worth remembering that legislation and standards take time to catch up with technology. The driving forces for new guidance come from a number of different generic national or international sources. Each group involved represents a different position producing outputs with differing impact, from the hard requirements of legislation to the softer guidance from societies and associations. Some of these sources are quicker to produce guidance than others, so be careful not to get caught out. The application and safety standards currently known for lighting are generally unaffected when considering LEDs, as the quantity and quality requirements of light are independent of technology. LED technology moves quickly and
commented and voted on by every recognised national standards body, such as BSI, within Europe. Standards are important, and may be used legally to provide a benchmark against which all products or applications can be compared – they provide a level playing field. Comparison using a standard ensures apples are being compared to apples, and provides a check that a third party can independently verify. But even before standards can be created we need a common language. In the UK a car has a boot, an elephant a trunk and a joint might mean drugs, but in America a car has a trunk and a joint can be a public bar. Language can be confusing. We in the lighting industry may have made LEDs unnecessarily complicated too, so the four basic definitions need to be understood:
LED light source: light source based on LED technology • LED module: light source having no cap, incorporating one or more LED light sources on a printed circuit board, and often including electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal components, interfaces and control gear. • LED lamp: LED light source provided with a cap • LED luminaire: luminaire designed to include LED light sources Performance concerns have not changed much with the arrival of LEDs but the meaning and techniques have. Lumen maintenance and lifetime for a product that can last 50,000-100,000 hours without a ‘catastrophic’ failure mechanism present new challenges to the industry and customers alike. Product standards always assumed a
LED definitions rather than firm standards we see more frequent publicly available specifications being published by international standards organisations. These provide balance to energy efficiency targets that are sometimes written for political gain. Public documents come in one of three formats: • Technical reports: written when consensus is not achieved to establish a standard, or when published information would not be suitable for a standard. • Publicly available specification (PAS): considered a pre-standard, frequently used to publish recommendations quickly before a full approval process has been completed. • Standard: With a thorough process of comment, voting and approval by a body of independent experts. For example, a CEN standard will be
Light source risk groups
Lighting Journal January 2013
LED Standards light source to be replaceable, so our current tests were configured with this is mind. LEDs have created a need to adapt those standards to a light source that may be permanently fixed. Even the definition of non-replaceable is a variable one, because do we mean an absolutely non-replaceable light source, or only replaceable with special expertise and tools? The move from a traditional light source, being a replaceable self-contained chemistry laboratory, to LEDs, being an electric circuit board, also demands different electrical safety, where ensuring adequate electrical insulation could be critical to life. Thermal and electrical risks have made us adapt to the needs for heat-sinks, for example, which are designed to transmit heat but could also potentially become electrically live in a fault condition. Regarding safety, the biggest change LEDs bring is the increased prominence of photobiological safety. This characteristic is not actually new, but previous technologies have not raised as many concerns. The potential risk from a lamp falls into well-defined groups. Exempt (sometimes classed as Risk Group 0) and Risk Group 1 pose no risk at all; Risk Group 2 poses minimal risk for the majority of the population under normal conditions; and Risk Group 3 is extremely hazardous, and includes the sun. This has become a high-profile topic, after some issues have been
Biological risk to the skin
raised in the UK and French national press. It is a topic that sounds frightening and is generally poorly understood. But the mechanisms can be divided into two thermal interactions: the production of a temporary effect such as suntan, which generally comes from large wavelengths (infrared) or permanent alterations of tissue caused by photochemical interaction, which generally stems from small wavelengths (ultraviolet). An important distinction is that thermal interaction is generally concerned with the dose quantity at a particular point in time, whereas photochemical interaction is dependent on the dose quantity through time. Traditionally, conventional lamps have fallen between RG0 and RG1. LEDs, being more efficient at converting blue light into white light, have pushed toward the boundary between RG1 and RG2, and for a small number of high-output LEDs, into RG2. However, some more established light sources are also in RG2, so with reputable product and application design this is not necessarily a cause for concern. The blue light hazard, as itâ€™s called, is a concern due to the eyesâ€™ natural aversion response. If we look into a bright source we naturally blink and look away, exposure time is very short. This does not necessarily work with blue light, the eye response being more responsive to yellow wavelengths, so it is potentially hazardous. That said, it is theoretically impossible for a white LED with an intermediate or low colour temperature to fall above RG0 or RG1 when used for lighting at a distance to 500 lux, whereas the same LED intended for use as a close-to-task light could cause a high risk when within 200mm of the eye. In addition, given that the spectra of white LEDs are closely controlled, the only realistic hazard is from specific blue light sources. So it is clear that more specific requirements and standards for LED luminaires with regard to photobiological effects are needed and are currently being written. Where the performance of LEDs
is concerned, reliability is the result of all system components and their interactions. This is just as true for all luminaires, although the effect of some components and mechanisms is more influential when it comes to LEDs. The most common problems with LEDs are in the area of chemical, electrical and thermal design. Good thermal control and quality electrical components help but we must ensure that all luminaire materials are compatible with each other. Think about an LED now as that
Photobiological damage to the eye portable and self-contained chemistry laboratory, but much more compact, making any risks more severe. With age, impurities become trapped within silicone structures and can lead to discolouration. With LEDs this happens in the protective lens that focuses the light after the phosphor and LED wafer. As the LED ages, so the light output reduces. This needs to be considered when discussing the useful life of an LED, as well as a number of other factors. The failure fraction (Fx) due to catastrophic failure, as well as the number of LEDs that are below a minimum rated lumen output level, define the life. While catastrophic failure is rare, we must allow for it. A failure fraction of F10 (50,000hr) means that 10 per cent of LEDs can be expected to have catastrophically failed by the end of 50,000-hour use. A second life measure relates to LED ageing, or lumen maintenance (Lx), where x is the percentage of light
Lighting Journal January 2013
Life over predicted by TM-21 (IESNA) output remaining at the end of use. For example, L70 (50,000hr) means that 70 per cent of initial light output can still be expected to be produced after 50,000 hours of LED operation. This assumes, of course, that you do replace your LEDs at this time. There is a publically available specification, IEC/PAS62717, that allows you to check these numbers by using a defined 6000-hour test. But the designer has a responsibility to design correctly too. If our lumen maintenance is L70 (50,000hr), our design maintenance factor would be at least 0.7. Combined with a failure fraction of F10, our design maintenance factor could not be more than 0.7*0.9 =0.63. Not many lighting designers are using maintenance figures as low as this, nor would many be brave enough to. Other life designations exist, but currently lumen maintenance is the most popular one, being measured up to 6000 hours and then statistically extrapolated. This means, of course, that rated life is theoretical, and that lumen maintenance through life is generally not proved. It always makes sense to be aware that testing to the standard does not verify a manufacturerâ€™s life-time claim. The American IES published TM-21 in August 2011. This document seriously questions the use of 6000hour data. Analysis showed that LED lumen depreciation trends often change after 6000 hours and there is no reliable, consistent approach to predict them. Even 10,000-hour data is often insufficient to provide rigid statistical confidence of, say, 35,000 hours. TM-21 examined more than
Lighting Journal January 2013
Life under predicted by TM-21 (IESNA) 40 sets of data and discovered that basing lumen maintenance predictions on 6000-hour test data could seriously misrepresent the lifetime of the LED. If this is the case, can you trust a 50,000-hour life? The developing IEC performance standard also defines tolerances, colour temperature consistency and stability, colour rendering, and two thermal ratings. Tc is the maximum
Analysis showed that LED lumen depreciation trends often change after 6000 hours and there is no reliable, consistent approach to predict them. Even 10,000-hour data is often insufficient temperature rating to ensure product safety and Tp is the maximum temperature rating to ensure product performance. Confused? Try reading useful information on the purchase and use of LED products, such as the Lighting Liaison Group publication available on the internet, or hire a qualified and experienced LED lighting designer. Remember though that some are referring to current documents
that are actually publically available specifications, not standards, with a relatively short life. Therefore these may change before the publication of a standard, though not dramatically, so that requirements within these documents should be quoted with care in project specifications. In general safety standards are good to quote, except for those concerning the photobiological issues mentioned earlier. Performance standards are still developing as our understanding of LED technology grows. Even if you get all the standards in place there are times it gets confusing, especially when a new technology comes along. Standards are only part of the answer; policing has to happen and homework has to be done. Research the quality products, from a reputable manufacturer, and ensure they are suitable for the application. If you fail to do these things, whether itâ€™s LEDs or otherwise, you cannot expect to get the best solution to your lighting problem. This feature is based on the presentation given by Iain Macrae, SLL president of and head of global lighting applications management at Thorn Lighting, at the ILPâ€™s 2012 Professional Lighting Summit
Did you know, that if you take a place in the Consultants Directory (see page 45) the listing is included on the main ILP website with your company logo call Julie on 01536 527295 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Lighting Journal January 2013
France’s foremost city of light wins award
‘This is truly a different way to light a street, creating an atmosphere using the three dimensions of light, vegetation and paintings. The result is a beautiful project’ – Awards jury president Laurent Lhuillery
Rue de l/Annonciade, Lyons
yons, something of a byword in pioneering urban lighting strategies, has won the 2012 City People Light Awards. The French city was given the prize for a panorama called Le Mur Vegetalise de l’Annonciade in the Rue de l’Annonciade in the La Croix Rousse area. The project combines lighting, vegetation and paintings to create an interior, living-room atmosphere. The lighting design was carried out by the city’s public lighting department. The idea behind the concept was to create a warm, intimate atmosphere in which passers-by could view the three immense images on the wall by photographer Yann Arthus-Bertrand. ‘This is truly a different way to light a street, creating an atmosphere using the three dimensions of light,
vegetation and paintings. The result is a beautiful project,’ said awards jury president Laurent Lhuillery. ‘The project shows that lighting plays more than a functional role of illumination in cities,’ added Pascoal Koutras, CEO of Philips in North Latin America, who presented the award. “The winning project from Lyons and all the entries for this year’s awards reinforce the role that light can play in creating vibrant, attractive cities that encourage the participation of its citizens and visitors.’ The second prize went to Stavanger in Norway for a project involving the city’s cathedral and adjacent areas. Lighting design was by Vladan Paunovic of Ramboll Denmark who created a scheme for the cathedral and the adjacent areas of the Kongsgárd High School, Byparken (the city park) and Dornkirkeplassen. The project ‘allowed the serenity of the place to be maintained with a well-balanced lighting design’, said the judges. Based on the redevelopment of the old coalmine at Winterlag, C-MINE in Genk, Belgium, won the third prize. A cultural, educational, creative and business centre, C-MINE combines an industrial heritage – much of the mine’s historic machinery, including the two massive mine shaft towers, have been preserved – with a contemporary
approach to culture and creativity. The lighting concept, designed by Luc Peumans, ‘enabled the preservation of the story of the mine with light and created a new destination out of an old industry park’, said the jury. There were also Special Mentions for projects from Moscow and Taipei. The Treasure Hill Public Art project in Taipei was designed by I-Ju Pan from Environmental Art Design. The weekly interactive LED art installation, called Painting Saturday Night, allows people to change the colour and speed of the lighting on the hillside. The judges applauded the way the project involved the people of Taipei. Novy Arbat street is in the Arbat district of central Moscow. Extending from the Arbat Gate Square to the Garden ring and involving light installations on 25 buildings of different architectural styles, the scheme brings a unity and coherence to the area. When the Novy Arbat-Kutuzovsky street project is fully completed, all the lighting, animated screens and illuminated landscaped areas – more than 150 sites in all – will be simultaneously controlled to create one coordinated scene. ‘It converts plain buildings into an attractive area to visit at night, through the simple use of light,’ commented the judges. ‘A true metamorphosis of the area takes place when it becomes dark.’ This was the 10th City People Light Awards, an annual global competition organised by Philips Lighting and the Lighting Urban Community International Association (LUCI). For further information go to www.citypeoplelight.com/award
Novy Arbat Street, Moscow Lighting Journal January 2013
Streets ahead Glow-in-the-dark tarmac might seem a cockamamie idea but the Smart Highway not only won a Dutch Best Future Concept design award, but will begin to be implemented this year
Daan Roosegaarde and Heijmans director Roland de Waal
Priority lane for electric vehicles
Lighting Journal January 2013
esigner and innovator Daan Roosegaarde of Studio Roosegaarde and development partner Heijmans Infrastructure used Dutch Design Week at Eindhoven in the Netherlands to present the first prototypes of the Smart Highway which includes techniques such as dynamic paint, interactive light, induction priority lanes and wind light. Glow-in-the-dark roads are treated with a special photo-luminising powder that replaces road markings and makes additional lighting unnecessary. Charged during daylight hours, the powder illuminates the contours of the road at night for up to 10 hours. ‘It’s like the glow-in-the-dark paint we had when we were children,’ says Roosegaarde, ‘but we teamed up with a paint manufacturer and pushed the development.’ Dynamic paint, which becomes visible in response to temperature fluctuations, enables the road surface to communicate traffic information directly to drivers. Symbols of snowflakes, for instance, will be painted across the surface so that when temperatures fall to a certain point, these images will become visible, indicating that the surface is likely to be slippery. The province of Brabant in the Netherlands will have the first installation in Europe. A few hundred metres of glow-in-the-dark, weatherindicating road will be installed there in mid-2013, followed by priority induction lanes for electric vehicles, interactive lights that switch on as cars pass and wind-powered lights within the next five years. At first glance Studio Roosegaarde and Heijmans seem unlikely bedfellows. Studio Roosegaarde describes itself as a social design lab which specialises in interactive designs and has a team of designers and engineers led by artist Daan Roosegaarde. Heijmans is at the grittier end of the business, a 2.4bn euro company involved in property development, building, installation engineering and infrastructure, and operating throughout the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. Both partners have attributed their progress to a high level of cooperation and a willingness to take a more lateral
rather than traditional approach. The technology basically existed and it was a matter of developing and applying it. ‘With this project we have been successful because of a truly innovative way of looking at products,’ said Heijmans communication manager Marieke SwinkelsVerstappen. ‘Cooperation and cocreation with partners outside the construction sector have taught us that. We believe this will lead to feasible technologies and products, some materialising this year, others three or five years from now.’ www.studioroosegaarde.net/project/ smart-highway/
‘The goal,’ says Roosegarde, ‘is to make roads that are more sustainable and interactive by using interactive lights, smart energy and road signs that adapt to specific traffic situations’
Glow-in-the-dark road markings
Lighting Journal January 2013
S/P ratios was the subject of a pilot profession/industry discussion forum organised by the ILP. Jill Entwistle reports
t the end of November, the ILP held the first in what Simpson said that it was important to reassess lighting is planned to be a regular event designed to bring levels before committing to S/P ratios as the only measure in lighting professionals and industry members together a standard. ‘A lot of installations in the past two years would for mutually beneficial discussions on specific topics. The be deemed unacceptable so coming out with a standard aim is to hold two or three forums this year. that appears to increase energy use makes me nervous.’ ‘This will become an exclusive It was important to educate the benefit for the new ILP Professional lighting profession of the benefits of the Industry Partners which is a new move without frightening people off, scheme aiming to join up the ILP said Stuart Bulmer. with its industry supporters more Pete Lummis added that it was effectively and to greater mutual inevitable that S/P ratios would be benefit,’ said ILP chief executive introduced even if it took time. ‘We Richard Frost. ‘We hope it will have mustn’t stop the science even if there is value for everyone and provide inertia,’ he said. a basis for future engagement Allan Howard agreed. ‘We’ve got between profession and industry to follow the science and we’ve got to partners.’ progress,’ he said. ‘There might be The event was chaired by ILP both winners and losers in terms of professional services manager energy consumption.’ Stuart Bulmer and the discussion There was broad agreement that opened by Steve Fotios of Sheffield the session had been productive. ‘I University. found it to be very useful as it gave Pete Lummis Among the issues covered was the opportunity to see things from the the need for a more unified approach perspective of others,’ said Eddie Henry. throughout Europe to the introduction of S/P ratios. ‘From Alistair Scott was also very positive. ‘From my point of a manufacturer’s point of view, the last thing we want is view the subject matter was very relevant and the outcome different systems in different countries,’ said Mike Simpson. has helped me to galvanise thoughts on the way forward ‘At the moment the SEN guide doesn’t seem to be going with this issue in BS5489-1.’ down the S/P route.’ A key part of the discussion centred on the implications for energy usage that the introduction of S/P ratios had. It was agreed that it would involve a slight increase in energy usage though exactly how much had yet to be quantified. The consensus was that this was justified given that the quality of light would be improved, though it was pointed out that there might be some resistance given that the focus was now on saving energy by switching to white light and stepping down an S-class. ‘By introducing white light, the one step reduction is being adopted by most authorities as an energy-saving measure. The S/P ratio is a more scientific approach to that,’ said Alistair Scott. Guy Harding, Alistair Scott, Stuart Bulmer, Eddie Henry, Ian Evans, Paul Carter
Lighting Journal January 2013
ILP Forum 39
PARTICIPANTS Stuart Bulmer (ILP professional services manager) Paul Carter (CU Lighting) Ian Evans (Amey) Steve Fotios (Sheffield University) Guy Harding (Woodhouse) Eddie Henry (LB Southwark) Allan Howard (WSP Group) Pete Lummis (ILP President and Huntingdonshire DC) Rory Marples (iGuzzini) Alistair Scott (Designs for Lighting) Mike Simpson (Philips)
Photography: Allan Howard
Steve Fotios, Rory Marples
Mike Elwell, Mike Simpson
S/P ratios Alistair Scott outlines the basics Background
In 2003, when BS5489-1 was updated to support the new European standard BS EN 13201, the decision was taken to make an allowance for the variation of visual performance with different light sources at different luminance levels. This was achieved by allowing a reduction of lighting level (for subsidiary roads) by one class for lamps which had a colour rendering index Ra>60. This was known to be an approximation, the result of both site and laboratory assessments.
The measurement of light is referenced to the response curve of a typical human eye at daylight conditions, in other words when the eye is adapted to levels of luminance of at least 5cd/sqm. The vision at these light levels is photopic, where the cones are the principal receptors. Scotopic vision is the term given to the eyes’ visual performance at very low levels of luminance where the rods are the principal receptors. Mesopic vision is the term given to the vision of the eye at luminance levels between photopic and mesopic vision – at the levels normally associated with the lighting of subsidiary roads. The S/P ratio is the ratio of the luminous ‘scotopic’ output to the luminous ‘photopic’ output and is dependent on the spectral distribution of the light source. Typically sodium lamps have low output at the blue end of the spectrum and a correspondingly low S/P ratio. Conversely, lamps where the spectral distribution is stronger at the
blue/green end of the visual spectrum – metal halides, fluorescents, white LEDs – will typically have a higher S/P ratio. In 2012, the ILP produced PLG03 Lighting for Subsidiary Roads which is based on a more scientific approach, taking into account more detailed taskrelated research and a CIE report on mesopic photometry. The report expands the theory that for tasks related to lighting of subsidiary roads, light sources with a higher S/P ratio provide a better visual performance at a given luminance within the mesopic region (see Lighting Journal December, New Guidance for Lighting in Residential Streets).
One of the concerns raised at the forum was that the introduction of the S/P method into a standard would have the potential to increase energy consumption. I have undertaken some typical calculations on streets that we are currently designing and am comparing energy consumption between Son and Cosmo using the 2003 standard, and then Cosmo using the proposed 2013 standard. With the new selection process, new MFs and the S/P ratio, there are typically energy reductions compared with the 2003 standard. This is before we start using variable lighting. www.theilp.org.uk/resources/ilp-technical-reports/ plg03-lighting-for-subsidiary-roads/
Lighting Journal January 2013
THE NEW BRITISH STANDARD FOR LIGHTING A one day seminar introducing you to the substantial changes the new British Standard will bring. An updated BS 5489 Part 1 was published on Dec 31st 2012 - this CPD seminar will inform lighting professionals of the changes in this important document. The new British Standard provides guidance on all aspects of the design of road and public amenity lighting, including passive safety, sustainability, variable lighting, scotopic and photopic ratios and risk assessments. This educational seminar also includes the draft proposals for EN13201, conflict areas and the latest research on mesopic vision and what action lighting professionals must take.
Here is what you will learn: 1) British Standard • • • • • • • •
Introduction to BS5489-1 (Proposed changes) Introduction to BS EN 13201 (Draft proposed changes) Reasons for road lighting Environmental considerations Energy considerations Design strategy and lighting classification – Risk assessment Variable lighting for subsidiary roads Variable lighting for traffic routes.
2) When does a Highway become a Conflict Area? • • • • •
The purpose of a conflict area Determining the lighting class What is and is not a conflict area Size of a conflict area Worked examples of achieving those results using Lighting Reality (questions from the delegates will be encouraged).
3) Understanding mesopic vision • Basic understanding of the CIE photometry • Awareness of research behind the changes • Changes from currently dropping a lighting class to dropping the light levels required based on the light source S/P ratio • What roads/areas it applies to.
Dates: 23rd January 2013
27th February 2013 26th March 2013
Did you know members save £145 on this course
you can become a member today - rates start at just £160 per year Discover all the benefits of ILP membership and join us instantly online!
How to book: To book on this course just visit www.the ilp.org.uk/standard A Training Request template for this course is available FREE to all ILP members For further information on this course please visit www.the ilp .org.uk or contact Jess (jess@theilp .org.uk) on 01788 576492. Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby, CV21 2PN T: 01788 576492 F: 01788 540145 info@theilp .org.uk www.the ilp .org.uk
Whatâ€™s new SELC
The AcRo Cell is suitable for use on mains power systems operating between 185265V (50/60Hz) and incorporates a specially designed switching technology within an IP67 sealed enclosure. With a Nema twist-lock socket the photocell also has specially designed finger-grip base for ease of installation. AcRo Photocells are made in the EU using new state-of-the-art automated production machinery to IS EN ISO 9001 and come with a seven-year guarantee.They are available from stock for turnkey projects through to asset-replacement schemes. www.selclighting.com/productsservices/photocells/
The Avanza range of exterior LED fittings features a new patented optic called Cross Beam Technology (CBT). The LEDs are preset in the direction of their application using a choice of asymmetric reflectors. This precise alignment ensures homogeneous lighting of traffic areas or squares. An additional optical attachment can widen light density at the light exit to enhance visual comfort. Tailor-made thermal management is integrated into the IP66 housing, allowing the fitting to be used in regions with high external ambient temperatures up to 55 degrees C. Light management systems can also be integrated into the luminaire. The fitting comes in either 3000K or 4500K and is available in two sizes, Avanza 450 and Avanza 600. All electrical components can be replaced without tools and the fitting has been future-proofed for further LED developments. www.selux.com/uk
Light Projects Birdie/Mentor
Light Projects has adapted its Birdie and Mentor fittings as part of a programme to reengineer its most popular luminaires to house the latest LED modules. Both fittings, primarily used for interior architectural and display lighting, are now available with the latest LEDs from Megaman. These range from 10W G53 dimmable AR111 equivalents on the Mentors through to 6W GU10 and 8W GU5.3 MR16 equivalents on the Birdies. Both ranges can be used as standalone fittings on a surface plate or on single or three-circuit tracks in a run. They come with a wide range of accessories including frosted lenses, dichroic filters, eggcrate louvres, scrims, cowls and barn doors. All fittings are made from steel and aluminium with a polyester powder-coated finish that comes in black or white as standard. www.lightprojects.co.uk
Lighting Journal January 2013
Light Projects LEDFlux
Light Projects has also launched a new collection of light fittings designed for their high energy efficiency coupled with long life, low maintenance and low life-cycle costings. The Green Line Products Collection includes both LPâ€™s own fittings and products from other manufacturers. First in the collection is the LEDFlux, a Class 1 IP65 LED floodlight designed to replace 35W, 70W, 150W and 250W metal halide floodlights. The fittings are available in four, nine, 16 and 25 LED configurations, from 25W through to 120W. They offer a luminous flux of between 1950 and 9173 with a choice of beam angles that ranges from a narrow 17-degree spot through to a 40 x 80 degree wall wash. Three colour temperatures plus an RGB option are available and the entire range can be supplied in black, white or silver. The LEDflux range carries a five-year guarantee and uses the new Cree XP-E chip with an LM80 life of 50,000 hours. www.lightprojects.co.uk
Thorlux Lighting Solow LED
Designed for industrial and warehouse applications, Solow LED features two aluminium extrusions from Sapa Profiles, which enable a number of design features appropriate for the productâ€™s applications. The extrusions are designed and fitted together so a hinge runs along the length of the luminaire. The fitting can be produced in three different lengths: from 1.1m (68 LEDs, 140W) to 2.1m long (136 LEDs, 275W). The thermal properties of black anodised aluminium have been used in the design of the extrusion to conduct heat away from the LEDs and drivers, so that every component is operating within critical temperature limits. www.thorlux.com
The CrystalCool LED lamp uses nanotechnology to provide effective radiative heat dissipation and thermal management. A specially designed ceramic plate conducts heat away from the LED chip. This plate, or substrate is coated with a layer of active nano-crystals.These radiative crystals transform the heat produced by the LED into infrared thermal radiation. By dissipating the heat away from the light source, the crystals cool the lamp from 95 degrees C down to 70 degrees C. This approach to thermal management allows for an ultra-high lumen output, says the company. It also enables a reduction up to 50 per cent in heat sink size, so that the lamps are smaller, lighter and more efficient. The range of lamps (all RA80) includes direct replacements for MR11, MR16, GU10 and PAR16 halogen lamps, which in the 8.5W version is rated at 500lm (58lm/W). The lamps come with a three-year guarantee and a claimed average lifespan of 40,000 hours to L70. www.auroralighting.com
Lighting Journal January 2013
Light on the Past: 7
The first British Standard
Simon Cornwell traces the beginnings of specification in street lighting ‘Since street lighting is a service upon which public money is spent, and since it is obviously desirable that there should be reasonable uniformity in the lighting of streets of similar type throughout the country, some agreed and official guidance is necessary to which engineers can work’
o wrote Jack Waldram in Street Lighting in 1951. With the recent changes to BS54891, one might think that specifications have always been with us. But that wasn’t the case in the early decades of the 20th century when it was far more ad hoc – an authoritative specification didn’t appear until 1927. That’s not to say that there weren’t specifications before this date. Each lighting authority had its own set of clauses against which any new or existing street lighting installation could be judged. The City of Westminster used a system whereby the performance of its lighting could be checked by measuring the illumination of lanterns at 20 and 50 degrees from the vertical, and a special
This battered cover of the standard reveals much of its later history. It was quickly revised in 1931, before being unofficially usurped by the MOT Report of 1937. It was finally quietly withdrawn in 1948 as a new standard based on the MOT Report was prepared
Lighting Journal January 2013
piece of knotting string was supplied to aid measurements. (Not that anyone knew why these particular angles were considered important). Several attempts were made to rationalise this situation with experts ratifying local authority or institution-based proposals. AP Trotter was asked to formalise ‘Standard Clauses for inclusion in a Specification of Street Lighting’ in 1913 after deliberations drawn up by representatives from several institutions. Another set of clauses, now involving Haydn T Harrison and Trotter, were published in 1917. But they weren’t widely adopted. They were overtaken by improvements in lighting technology, the increase in fast-moving motor traffic and, despite the provenance of the authors, a lack of authority. Yet these early attempts formed broad foundations. Measuring an installation’s worth by the illumination produced three feet above the road surface (as though for clerical work) became a de facto procedure. Trotter suggested the minimum illumination should be used as a single figure to gauge and rate installations, and this concept was retained tenaciously. A true street lighting specification, backed by an independent professional body, was not considered until the early 1920s. The British National Illumination Committee (a constituent member of the CIE), when faced with the forthcoming standardisation of many lighting disciplines, approached the British Engineering Standards Association (the forerunner of the BSI) with a view to undertaking this work. BESA gave a favourable response and in January 1924 established a Sectional Committee on Illumination. In its first meeting of June 1924, it appointed a sub-committee headed by CC Paterson to deal with street lighting with the following terms of reference: ‘To consider the best basis for the evaluation of highway lighting with special reference to motor traffic, and if possible to recommend standards for the same.’ Paterson was the ideal man to lead the project, and give it the necessary gravitas, having headed up the National Physical Laboratory before being poached by Hugo Hirst to run the research laboratories of the GEC. Earlier published clauses provided a suitable starting point with the sub-committee, which was unanimous that street lighting installations should be classified by their minimum horizontal illumination. They initially developed seven, and then eight, classes of illumination with maximum space-height ratio and minimum height specified for each class. The earlier concepts of ‘units of cooperation’ of two adjacent lanterns were expanded to five rigid ‘units of system’ which included staggered, central and opposite arrangements. The illumination could be checked
by illustrated test points located close to (but not necessarily coincident with) the positions of minimum illumination. The committee could also take advantage of seminal work on glare, as LL Holladay and U Bordoni had just published their groundbreaking papers. Glare had become an increasing problem with the introduction of highly directional lanterns and JWT Walsh (of the National Physical Laboratory) devised an ingenious graphical method to calculate the glaring effect of an installation. (It was a measure not so much of glare as of the ability of the observer to see, taking into account the illumination of the road surface by the sources, as well as the deleterious effect on vision of the glare). With its eight classes of illumination, five types of unit of system, and provisions for checking the minimum illumination and degree of glare, the specification was considered complete and published as BS 307: Street Lighting in 1927. One thousand copies of the slim booklet were distributed to interested institutions and associations. It initially had great influence upon the practice of street lighting in the UK with manufacturers, designers, maintainers and authorities quick to claim adherence to the specification. But there were problems, and the fundamental principles on which it was based were going to prove shaky. Hindsight reveals how BS 307-1927 was, in many ways, the final culmination of the first era of scientific street lighting. Its illumination model was founded on principles upheld by Trotter and Harrison, some of the first experts in the field of street lighting. But the specification was shown to be lacking the next year: by a demonstration and a technical paper both of which would revolutionise thinking in the subject.
The five units of system with the test points clearly shown
Consultants Carl Ackers
MSc CEng MCIBSE MILP MSLL CIBSE Diploma in Lighting Pick Everard Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Halford House, Charles Street Leicester LE1 1HA
T: 01162 234400, F: 01162 234433 E: email@example.com
These pages give details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services.
Colin Fish IEng MILP Associate
WSP Unit 9, The Chase, John Tate Road, Foxholes Business Park, Hertford SG13 7NN
T: 07825 843524 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.wspgroup.com
Technical Director (Lighting)
Designs for Lighting Ltd
BEng(Hons) CEng FILP WSP
WSP House, 70 Chancery Lane, London WC2A 1AF
T: 07827 306483 E: email@example.com W: www.wspgroup.com
BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MIMechE 17 City Business Centre, Hyde Street, Winchester SO23 7TA
T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: designsforlighting.co.uk Professional lighting design consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.
Professional services providing design and technical support for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways and associated infrastructure. Expert surveys and environmental impact assessments regarding the effect of lighting installations and their effect on the community.
Professional exterior lighting and electrical services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice regarding energy and carbon reduction strategies, lighting efficiency legislation, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations. Registered competent designers and HERS registered site personnel.
It Does Lighting and Energy Ltd
CSG Lighting Consultancy Ltd
Sector Leader – Exterior Lighting
12, Banner Buildings, 74-84 Banner Street, London EC1Y 8JU
Broadgate House, Broadgate,Beeston, Nottingham, NG9 2HF
Professional multi-disciplinary consulting engineers providing extensive experience in the design, specification and project management of sustainable building services engineering including specialist skills in internal and external lighting design within the architectural, commercial, industrial and residential sectors.
IEng MILP MSLL
31 Jenkins Close, Shenley Church End, Milton Keynes, MK5 6HX
T: 01908 867077 M: 07990 962692 E: Information@itdoes.co.uk W: www.itdoes.co.uk Professional award winning international lighting designer Lorraine Calcott creates dynamic original lighting schemes from a sustainable and energy management perspective. Helping you meet your energy targets, reduce bottom line cost and increase your ‘Green’ corporate image whilst still providing the wow factor with your interior, exterior or street lighting project.
BA (Hons) MSc (Arch) FILP
T: 02077 248543 E: email@example.com W: www.csglightingdesign.com Architectural and urban lighting design; specialist in urban lighting plans; expert witness in planning and light nuisance cases; training courses for local authorities on the prevention of light nuisance; marketing and product development consultancy for lighting manufacturers.
IEng MILP Atkins
T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 F: +44 (0)115 9574901 E: firstname.lastname@example.org The consultancy offers a professional exterior lighting service covering all aspects of the sector, including design, energy management, environmental impact assessments and the development of lighting strategies and policies. It also has an extensive track record for PFI projects and their indepedent certification.
Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd Lighting & Electrical Consultants, Dukes Way, Teesside Industrial Estate, Thornaby Cleveland TS17 9LT
T: 01642 766114 F: 01642 765509 E: email@example.com Specialist in all forms of exterior lighting including; Motorway, Major & Minor Highway Schemes, Architectural Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Open Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Strategies, EIA’s, Planning Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.
MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd
Principal Engineer WSP
Lighting Consultancy and Design Services Ltd
Nick Smith Associates Limited
43 Vine Crescent, Reading Berkshire, RG30 3LT
T: 0118 3215636, M: 07838 879 604, F: 0118 3215636 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.mma-consultancy.co.uk
The Victoria,150-182 The Quays, Salford, Manchester M50 3SP
T: 0161 886 2532 E: email@example.com W: www.wspgroup.com
T: 01625 348349 F: 01625 610923 M: 07526 419248 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.4wayconsulting.com 4way Consulting provides exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialises in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector (including PFI/DBFO).
T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E: email@example.com W: www.nicksmithassociates.com
Alan Tulla Lighting
Waters Green House, Sunderland Street, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 6LF
T/F: 01452 417392 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.lcads.com
36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR
Road, amenity, floodlighting and cable design. Tunnel and mast lighting. Policy and environmental impact investigations.
MMA Lighting Consultancy is an independent company specialising in Exterior Lighting and Electrical Design work. We are based in the South of England and operate on a national scale delivering street lighting and lighting design solutions.
4way Consulting Ltd
43 Old Cheltenham Road, Longlevens, Gloucester GL2 0AN
Specialist exterior lighting design Consultant. Private or adoptable lighting and cable network design for highways, car parks, area lighting, lighting impact assessments, expert witness. CPD accredited training in lighting design, Lighting Reality, AutoCAD and other bespoke lighting courses arranged on request.
Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways. PFI technical advisor and certifier support. HERS registered site personnel.
MA BEng(Hons) CEng MIET MILP
BA (Hons) IEng FILP
BTech, IEng, MILP, MIET Mouchel
Severn House, Lime Kiln Close, Stoke Gifford, Bristol, BS34 8SQ
T: 0117 9062300, F: 0117 9062301 M: 07789 501091 E: email@example.com W: www.mouchel.com Widely experienced professional technical consultancy services in exterior lighting and electrical installations, providing sustainable and innovative solutions, environmental assessments, ‘Invest to Save’ strategies, lighting policies, energy procurement, inventory management and technical support. PFI Technical Advisor, Designer and Independent Certifier.
BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Capita Symonds House, Wood Street, East Grinstead, West Sussex RH19 1UU
T: 01342 327161 F: 01342 315927 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.capitasymonds.co.uk Chartered engineer leading a specialist lighting team within a multi-disciplinary environment. All aspects of exterior and public realm lighting, especially roads, tunnels, amenity and sports. Planning advice, environmental assessment, expert witness, design, technical advice, PFIs, independent certification.
IEng FILP FSLL
12 Minden Way, Winchester, Hampshire SO22 4DS
T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E: email@example.com W: www.alantullalighting.com Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Specialising in public realm, landscaping and building facades. Site surveys and design verification of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Visual impact assessments and reports for planning applications. Preparation of nightscape strategies for urban and rural environments. CPDs and lighting training.
Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.
LIGHTING DIRECTORY Contact Julie Bland 01536 527295 to advertise
CUT OUTS AND ISOLATORS
Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.tofco.co.uk Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories Contact: Kevin Doherty Commercial Director email@example.com If you would like to switch to Tofco Technology contact us NOW!
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COLUMN INSPECTION & TESTING BANNERS WIND RELEASING
CMT (Testing) LIMITED Non-destructive testing at the root, base, swaged joint and full visual inspection of steel lighting columns. Techniques employed include the unique Relative Loss of Section meter and Swaged Joint Analyser in addition to the traditional Magnetic Particle Inspection and Ultra Sonics where appropriate. Prime Parkway, Prime Enterprise Park, Derby DE13QB Tel: 01332 383333 Fax: 01332 602607 Email: email@example.com Website: http://www.cmt-ltd. co.uk
ABACUS LIGHTING LIMITED From the initial design through to installation and final commissioning, choose Abacus and specify with confidence-the number one for amenity, road and floodlighting systems. Tel: +44(0)1623 511 111 Fax: +44(0)1623 552 133 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.abacuslighting.com
DECORATIVE & FESTIVE LIGHTING
Specialist in high quality decorative and festive lighting. A full range of equipment is available for direct purchase or hire including unique firework lights, column motifs, cross road displays, festoon lighting and various tree lighting systems. Our services range from supply only of materials, hire, design and or total management of schemes. More information is available from: Head Office City Illuminations Ltd 15 Whitehall Road Sale, Cheshire M33 3WJ Tel: 0161 969 5767 Fax: 0161 973 9283 Email: email@example.com
Designers and manufacturers of street and amenity lighting. 319 Long Acre Nechells Birmingham UK B7 5JT t: +44(0)121 678 6700 f: +44(0)121 678 6701 e: firstname.lastname@example.org
candela L I G H T MACLEAN ELECTRICAL LIGHTING DIVISION Business info: Specialist Stockist and Distributors of Road Lighting, Hazardous Area, Industrial/ Commercial/ Decorative lighting. We also provide custom-built distribution panels, interior and exterior lighting design using CAD. 7 Drum Mains Park, Orchardton, Cumbernauld, G68 9LD Tel: 01236 458000 Fax: 01236 860555 E-mail: email@example.com Web site: http://www.maclean.co.uk/
Contact Julie Bland 01536 527295 firstname.lastname@example.org
HIGHWAY & OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTRACTORS
LIGHT MEASURING EQUIPMENT HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD Suppliers of a wide range of quality light measuring and photometric equipment.
CU PHOSCO LIMITED Manufacturers of Lighting Columns, Floodlighting & Luminaires. Specialists in the design of Lighting Schemes for sports, car parks, docks & airports. Standard Lighting Columns and Lanterns available from stock at competitive prices. Charles House, Great Amwell, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 9TA Tel: 01920 860600 Fax: 01920 485915 E-mail: email@example.com Website: www.cuphosco.co.uk
Contact Julie Bland 01536 527295 firstname.lastname@example.org
FEEDER PILLARS & ACCESSORIES
LUCY LIGHTING Lucy Lighting manufactures and supplies: Low voltage cutouts, Isolator units, Fuse units and accessories • Trojan isolator • Titan fuse unit • Oxford Series Cutout • Combined REC/Local Authority isolator unit • MCO40DN Double Pole Fuse unit • MCO40SLE Single Phase Fuse unit Feeder Pillars • Fortress range of galvanised and sheet steel pillars • Heritage range of cast iron pillars Pre-wired distribution, street lighting and control pillars Walton Well Road, Oxford OX2 6EE, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1865 311670 Fax: +44 (0) 1865 554752 Email: email@example.com Internet: http://www.lucylighting.com Contact: Mike Strickson, UK Sales Manager
ETDE’s infrastructure arm provides utility services, civil and electrical engineering solutions in lighting, telecommunications, electrical and gas network infrastructure and associated areas with a specific focus on energy efficient technologies. ETDE INFRASTRUCTURE LIMITED T 01707 630700 F 01707 630702 E firstname.lastname@example.org www.etde.co.uk
HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD PO Box 210 Havant, PO9 9BT Tel: 07900 571022 E-mail: enquiries@ hagnerlightmeters.com www.hagnerlightmeters.com
LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE
Forward-looking Street Lighting Engineers use HiLight Horizon to record all their inventory details. Job management, including planned maintenance, is easily accomplished while electrical testing, cost management and customer care links are all available. Horizon works with all major mapping systems also hand held devices for night scouting, inventory and job management. A flexible report writer enables users to create any report they need. HiLight is unique in being owned and developed by its users. Contact the HiLight User Group’s Administrator, Lance Stephens, at: Sunningdale House, 12 Wychwood Park, Weston, Crewe, Cheshire, C0W2 5GP. Tel: 01270 820994. Email: email@example.com www.hilight.org.uk
Power Data Associates Ltd provide Meter Administrator services to Lighting Authorities. Achieving accurate energy calculations are vital in these times of rapidly rising energy prices. We are independent of any energy supplier or distributor so we can focus on providing a quality service to our customers. Power Data Associates also offer consultancy advice, training & guidance to ensure correct inventory coding and unmetered energy forecasting. Tom Chevalier, Director 01525 862 870 info@PowerDataAssociates.com www.PowerDataAssociates.com Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds., MK45 4HR
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SHATTER RESISTANT LAMP COVERS
Holscot Fluoroplastics Ltd Fluorosafe shatter resistant covers – Manufactured from high molecular weight Fluoroplastic material whose lifespan exceeds all maximum quoted lifespans for any fluorescent Lamps. Holscot supply complete covered lamps or sleeves only for self fitting. Alma Park Road, Alma Park Industrial Estate, Grantham, Lincs, NG31 9SE Contact: Martin Daff, Sales Director Tel: 01476 574771 Fax: 01476 563542 Email: email@example.com www.holscot.com
CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality • AutoluxLighting Standards • Lighting Design Techniques • Light Pollution • Tailored Courses please ring Venues by arrangement Contact Nick Smith
Nick Smith Associates Ltd 36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR t: 01246 229 444 f: 01246 270 465 e : firstname.lastname@example.org w: www.nicksmithassociates.com
Diary 2013 23 January Midland region Technical meeting Venue: Sapa Poles, Redditch Contact: Dave Beniston E: email@example.com 23 January New British Standard for Lighting BS5489 (CPD seminar) Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org 5-7 March: Ecobuild at Londonâ€™s ExCel, with new ILP Lightscene section 30 January-28 April Light Show (Light art works) Venue: Hayward Gallery, South Bank, London http://ticketing.southbankcentre.co.uk
27 February New British Standard for Lighting BS5489 (See 23 January for details)
31 January Lighting Masterclass Beyond the Code Location: Hethel Engineering Centre, Norwich NR14 8FB www.sll.org.uk
28 February Lighting Masterclass Beyond the Code Location: Royal Liver Building Liverpool L3 1HU www.sll.org.uk
7 February North Eastern region YLP technical meeting Venue: Thorn Lighting, Spennymoor Contact: Jim Millington E: email@example.com
5-7 March Ecobuild (With ILP Lightscene section) Venue: ExCel, London E16 www.ecobuild.co.uk
12 February London and South Eastern region Technical meeting Venue: tbc Contact: Dave Franks E: firstname.lastname@example.org
6 March Joint Midland/Western region Technical meeting Venue: Gala Club, Gloucester GL2 9EB Contact: Roger Joy E: email@example.com
12 February The Future of Light Sources (SLL event) Venue: Bishopsgate Institute, London EC2 www.sll.org.uk
14 March North Eastern region Technical meeting Venue: Valmont factory, Teesside Contact: Jim Millington E: firstname.lastname@example.org
15 February Scottish region Dinner dance Venue: Airth Castle, Fairkirk Contact: Alistair Maltman E: email@example.com
21 March Lighting Masterclass Beyond the Code Location: Dynamic Earth, Edinburgh EH8 8AS www.sll.org.uk
26 March New British Standard for Lighting BS5489 (See 23 January for details) 27 March Lighting Design Awards Venue: London Hilton, Park Lane www.lightingawards.com 9-14 April Euroluce Venue: Milan Fairgrounds www.cosmit.it/en/euroluce 12 April Focus on Lighting Energy SLL/CIBSE Ireland International Lighting Conference Venue: Croke Park, Dublin www.cibseireland.org/cibseannual-conference/ 23-25 April Lightfair exhibition and conference Venue: Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, US www.lightfair.com 25 April Lighting Masterclass Beyond the Code Location: Cutlers Hall, Sheffield S1 1HG www.sll.org.uk 19-21 May The Arc Show Venue: ExCel, London E16 www.thearcshow.com