Lighting journal sept 14

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September 2014

The publication for all lighting professionals

Getting the measure of daylight: the debate

Mean streets – Mark Major on missed opportunities How CMS can be much more than dimming and trimming





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Lighting Journal September 2014 03 EDITORIAL 04 NEWS






MEASURE OF DAYLIGHT Should the daylight metric reflect

the complexities of geography and climate? Andrew Bissell argues for the switch to CBDM, but Axel Jacobs says no


Mark Major takes a cool look at the once-in-a-lifetime opportunity that is being missed in switching to LEDs


Keith Henry and Dave Johnson consider different aspects of the untapped potential of CMS



Future concept: how designers and scientists are bringing more to the table

Howard Crossman examines the legal implications of building information modelling


Vice presidents’ column: Guy Harding, VP membership, on the dramatic rise in new members




LEDs, and the need for new guidance, were the topics for debate at the latest ILP PIP forum. Jill Entwistle reports

UNDER THE SON Light on the past: Simon Cornwell on future proofing in 1932





An installation at Foresta Lumina, a permanent illuminated night trail through the forest created by multimedia company Moment Factory at Parc de la GorGe de Coaticook, Quebec


Lighting Journal September 2014

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Editorial 3 Volume 79 No 8 September 2014 President Mark Johnson EngTech AMILP Chief Executive Richard G Frost BA (Cantab) DPA FIAM Editor Jill Entwistle Email: Editorial Board Tom Baynham Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL IALD John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Eddie Henry MILP MCMI MBA Alan Jaques IEng MILP Keith Lewis Nigel Parry IEng FILP Advertising Manager Julie Bland Tel: 01536 527295 Email: Published by Matrix Print Consultants on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 Fax: 01788 540145 E-mail: Website:


ne of the issues that inevitably bubbled up at the latest ILP Professional Industry Partnership forum on LEDs (A solid case for an update? p32) was that of colour temperature. Although one

participant said that in his own manor certain residents had unaccountably expressed a preference for 5700K LEDs, the general consensus is that cold white light is not conducive where most of the public is concerned. If we wish to predicate our urban and street lighting policy solely on cost and energy saving – and no one is arguing that these aren’t perfectly reasonable criteria – then cold, harsh lighting is likely to be the legacy for years to come given the longevity of LEDs. But as Mark Major argues (Mean streets, p20), we are at one of those crucial points in urban lighting history where we have an opportunity to ‘reshape the way we experience public space after dark’. This chance to change and improve has come about through a collision of circumstances: new technologies and the need to renew old stock, plus the pressure to save energy. If these drivers can be combined with more enlightened, creative ways of thinking about public spaces then we are likely to have more contented communities, healthier night-time economies and urban nightscapes that reflect 21st-century thinking rather than a myopic mentality. Jill Entwistle Editor

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Lighting Journal September 2014

4 News

SFT calls for street lighting rethink

The Scottish Futures Trust (SFT), in partnership with Scottish Enterprise and Zero Waste Scotland, has launched an R&D competition for Scottish SMEs

to invent a new street lighting system. The winner will get a feasibility grant of £10,000 to cover overheads. The winning invention will need to meet all low carbon demands, from reduced energy consumption and running costs to reusing or recycling waste materials. ‘An SFT study indicated that an investment of £300m in LED lighting could deliver up to £900m of avoided costs over a 20-year period,’ said Viv Cockburn (pictured left), low carbon director at SFT. Cockburn said the initiative followed on from the Street Lighting Toolkit introduced last year, aimed at helping local authorities look at ways of paying

for LED lanterns that would pay for themselves in a matter of years. ‘Building on that work, we’re now calling out to all Scottish SMEs involved in this area of work to come up with a cost-effective and pioneering solution to achieve even greater savings, and be part of an exciting programme to revolutionise how street lighting will be delivered in the future,’ she said. Scottish SMEs have until 3 October to submit their proposals. Go to services/develop-new-products-andservices/low-carbon-street-lightingfunding-call/whats-involved

Soft lights beat sweet music

The vast majority of British diners recognise the importance of good restaurant lighting for a romantic tryst, says a survey commissioned by Npower Small Business. According to the research, 88 per cent of people said that lighting in venues such as pubs or restaurants would affect how much they enjoy a date or romantic meal. More than 70 per cent said lighting was an important consideration when selecting a venue for a date, rating above other factors such as price (66 per cent) and music (53 per cent). Good lighting also increased the chance of customers returning to a venue, with 87 per cent stating that the lighting would influence whether they would choose it again. Nearly a third of respondents (29 per cent) claimed to have walked out of a restaurant or bar because of bad lighting, where it was either too bright or too dim. ‘We can probably all think of an occasion that has been spoiled by a restaurant or bar not getting the ambience right and lighting is a crucial part of that,’ said Rachel Vincent, head of customer service for small business at Npower. ‘Our research shows how damaging bad lighting can be to the success of a business.’ OnePoll was commissioned to carry out the research which involved 1500 people. l Meanwhile research initiated by Osram has found that in the majority of more than 350,000 global Trip Advisor hotel reviews that mention lighting, guest reports are critical of lighting quality. London hotels were subjected to nearly 10,000 reviews specifically directed at the lighting, with many travellers complaining about dim, bad and sparse lighting in their rooms.

Lighting Journal September 2014

Back to school

The ILP will again be supporting Light School at the Surface Design Show held at London’s Business Design Centre in February next year. The new section of the show was launched in 2014. Light School will also host the light and surface interior, and the light and surface exterior categories of the Surface Design Awards, again introduced for the first time at the 2014 show. Sharon Stammers and Martin Lupton of Light Collective, which organises Light School, will be among the judges. (Pictured is Blacklit Wood Walls at the National Cancer Institute, USA, by HOK/ MCLA, the 2014 winner of the Light and Interior Surface Award.) Deadline for submission to the awards is 26 September. The 2015 show will take place from 10-12 February 2015 at the Business Design Centre, London N1. Go to

News 5

Norfolk opts for switch-off Norfolk County Council has adopted a switch-off policy in a bid to reduce carbon emissions to half of the 2008 baseline by 2020. However, part-night lighting will only be adopted in low crime areas where there are low levels of through traffic, says the council. Street lighting accounts for 15 per cent of the council’s total energy use, with the authority

responsible for 51,000 street lights, 11,000 illuminated signs and 2500 illuminated bollards. ‘A total investment of around £274,000 over three years will be needed to maximise the financial and carbon savings across the street lighting service,’ according to the council’s website. ‘This includes the costs of the photocell technology and installation work. When the

change is completed, we will be saving around £167,000 every year.’ The council is currently running trials of LED lanterns in Norwich and Kings Lynn but says that fittings are currently too expensive to consider. All street light upgrade and maintenance work is covered by a 25-year PFI contract given to Amey in 2008.

Institutions launched for bright sparks Urban lighting workshop lands funding The Configuring Light research programme has received HEIF5 Knowledge Exchange and Impact funding from the LSE to host a five-day workshop in London in October. The event, Urban Lightscapes/Social Nightscapes, will be co-led by project partner the Social Light Movement, and will bring together lighting design professionals, architects, designers and social scientists. The focus will be on a lighting design intervention to help improve outdoor spaces in Peabody’s Whitecross Estate in Islington, north London. The workshop will have three elements: a training part for social research methods in design; a research and design part where designers create a new lighting concept in collaboration with the estate’s community, and a symposium on the final day. This is when the lighting concept will be presented to the Peabody and other stakeholders and invited guests. Technical sponsorship and support will be provided by iGuzzini. Urban Lightscapes/Social Nightscapes will be held from 13-17 October 2014. Go to

Designers get creative

The #makesomelights competition, organised by Mike Stoane Lighting and supported by the ILP, resulted in 19 different luminaire concepts from 15 different lighting designers. Part of MSL’s annual summer Park Event in London’s Hackney, #makesomelights was a new element, inviting lighting design practices to design and make their own luminaires. With help from Xicato, Mode, Soraa and LEDLinear, MSL put together boxes of lighting components and sent them out to participating practices in advance of the event. Guests were invited to vote for their favourites and by a large majority awarded first prize to Cinimod Studio for its helter skelter entry Elbram (pictured). Jason Bruges Studio came second, and Speirs and Major was third. The idea was dreamt up by Joe Vose of Light Bureau and Light Collective.

The Institution of Primary Engineers and the Institution of Secondary Engineers were officially launched at the House of Lords in July. Three primary schools that have been taking part in the pilot IPE met with chief executives, directors and engineers from top UK companies. The initiative allows pupils to become members of the institution by engaging with engineering as part of the curriculum, and interviewing and working with engineers. Speakers at the event included Terry Scuoler, CEO of the Manufacturers’ Organisation; Archie Bethel, executive director of Babcock International, and Mark Hunt, president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Pupils were from St George’s Primary School, St Mary’s RC Primary School and St Maxentius CE Primary School in Bolton. Nine pupils have now gained the post-nominal abbreviations MIPrimEng. Both the Institution of Primary Engineers and the Institution of Secondary Engineers have been designed to enable schools to coordinate, plan, record and evaluate their pupils’ engagement with STEM (science, technology, engineering and maths), and to encourage and support the engineers of the future. Susan Scurlock, CEO of Primary Engineer, called for companies to recognise the institutions as a way to engage with schools, nurturing and inspiring young people about engineering.

Lighting Journal September 2014

6 News NEWS IN BRIEF In addition to the recent introduction of its course on LEDs at Rugby, the ILP can now provide customised in-house training on solid state lighting to any company or organisation. Londonbased Atrium, which represents Flos among other brands and which has just moved to new architect-designed premises in London EC1, is among the first companies to deliver in-house training in this way. Contact Jess Gallacher for more details (

Shadow play Shadowing is the winning concept of the 2014 international £30,000 Playable City Award, organised by the Bristol cross-artform venue Watershed. Created by Jonathan Chomko, a Canadian interaction designer, and Matthew Rosier, a British designer with a background in architecture and urbanism, the concept uses people’s shadows to animate the streets. As pedestrians walk under a street light, the shadow of the previous visitor walks beside them. When they interact or react to the shadow, their movements and actions are recorded, becoming the shadow for the next visitor. If a visitor remains under the lamp, the lamp reaches further back in time, playing back the shadows of its previous visitors.

The designers went on to work with Watershed to develop the infrared technology needed to capture people’s outlines and work out ways to project movement back as shadows after people have moved on. Shadowing was selected from 78 applications received from 29 countries around the world. It will be produced and installed in Bristol this autumn, launching at the inaugural Making the City Playable conference (see below), before being toured internationally. Produced with support from Arts Council England, the award is co-funded by Future Cities Catapult, University of Bristol, University of the West of England and Bristol City Council. Making the City Playable will be held from 10-11 September at Watershed, Bristol. Go to playablecity/

Glowing global

The IALD is again organising its Chase the Dark event. Last year, the first event, lighting enthusiasts used light cubes to illuminate urban spaces in 18 cities around the world. The 2014 event will begin in Sydney at 7pm on 2 October, following the setting sun across the globe. Among the cities taking part are Athens, Milan, Barcelona, London, Manchester, New York and 11 other North American cities, ending in Seattle. This year’s challenge is to create a lampshade using one piece of paper and one light source in one hour. The event will again be sponsored internationally by ACDC Lighting. Go to for more information. Follow progress on the night on Twitter at #IALDchasedark

Lighting Journal September 2014

The inaugural Jonathan Speirs Memorial Lecture, a new lecture series organised by the SLL, will be held in Glasgow in September. The first address will be given by Speirs’s long-time creative partner Mark Major, with whom he co-founded the award-winning lighting practice Speirs + Major two decades ago. Major will be providing a talk called Light + Dark = Architecture. The Jonathan Speirs Memorial Lecture will be held at Glasgow City Chambers, George Square, Glasgow, at 6.30pm on 25 September 2014. Go to Lucy Zodion has appointed Glenn Carey (right) as operations manager. The company has recently won a £100,000 contract from the East Riding of Yorkshire Council. It will work with the council to design and make its bespoke Westminster units which will be installed in the Saturday Market area of Beverley. The unit will facilitate underground services needed with the 500mm road construction depth, and can be folded away when not in use. Researchers at the Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center have been investigating the effects of different types of lighting in military shelters on soldiers, according to the lighting education portal LightNOW. The team compared fluorescent and LED sources, examining the effect of lighting on mood, or affective state, as well as visual acuity, cognitive alertness/awareness and the ability to perform tasks. The NSRDEC team concluded that LED lighting in a work environment seems to foster positive mood, increased alertness, and faster performance on visual perceptual and cognitive tasks. Soldiers working in fluorescent lighting tended to feel less alert, more fatigued and more depressed over time. They also showed slower response times on cognitive tasks measuring spatial and verbal memory. CU Phosco has appointed Stephen Hart as area sales manager for north Wales and north-west region. Hayley Whittaker, who previously had this role, will now become national sales manager. SolarLeaf, the world’s first bioreactive facade presented at the BIQ House at the International Building Exhibition, IBA Hamburg, last year (Future Concept, Lighting Journal April 2013) has been shortlisted for the Zumtobel Group Award 2014 in the Applied Innovations category. The four-storey residential building has 200sqm of integrated photo-bioreactors which absorb CO2 emissions while cultivating microalgae to generate biomass and heat through photosynthesis. It was designed by Arup, in collaboration with SSC Strategic Science Consult and Colt International, and co-funded by ZukunftBau.

           




LIGHT Minded... Until light and lighting become conceptually distinct, we cannot move forward, argues LRC director Mark Rea In case you haven’t noticed, it’s 1924. In the 1920s, neuroscience research led to what we now call the photopic luminous efficiency function: λ. This spectral weighting function, formally adopted through international consensus in 1924 by the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), became the basis for the photometric quantities we use today. λ also underlies most of the specifications for and regulations of lighting applications, primarily illuminance. Over the past 90 years, neuroscience has revealed many of the fascinating ways that we humans extract information about the environment from optical radiation incident on the retina. But for lighting, it’s as if that large body of neuroscience research does not exist. It’s remarkable that today’s lighting specifications and regulations are based on the same spectral weighting function established before Lindbergh flew the Atlantic. I believe the reason we are frozen in time is because we have not collectively decoupled the consistent measurement of light emitted by different lamps from the specification and regulation of lighting for different applications. Light is defined as a physical quantity, like mass and time, to support international commerce – the light produced by a given lamp should measure the same anywhere on Earth. Lighting is specified for a given application to provide a benefit to users – the lighting should vary depending on the visual and non-visual design objectives. Therefore, light should have a single definition with which everyone agrees, but the application of lighting for, say, reading should not be the same as the application of lighting for driving a car at night. Moreover, the ‘appropriate’ application of lighting in California is not necessarily the ‘appropriate’ application of lighting in Bavaria. Local economic conditions and social norms affect lighting, but they should have no effect on the definition of light. We also now know from neuroscience research that there are many neural channels emanating from the retina, not just one as implied by our reliance on λ. Each channel has a different spectral sensitivity to optical radiation incident on

Lighting Journal September 2014

It’s remarkable that today’s lighting specifications and regulations are based on the same spectral weighting function established before Lindbergh flew the Atlantic the retina, so to maximise human benefits while minimising wasted energy and cost, in other words increase value, we need to specify lighting for the visual or non-visual channels important for the application. And, importantly, how we apply lighting for human benefit is logically distinct from how we measure light. Until light and lighting become conceptually distinct, we will continue to be stuck in 1924. The central question is, ‘Who are the winners and the losers if light and lighting are separated?’ The separation will make no difference at all to international commerce, but the public would be the clear winner because greater benefits would be systematically provided at lower costs. I also like to believe that the specifiers and the manufacturers who design and engineer more valuable lighting will themselves become more valuable. But like Lindbergh’s flight across the vast ocean separating North America from Europe, it will take a steady tail wind from all lighting stakeholders to reach our destination of more valuable lighting. This was first published as the Opinion piece in Lighting Research and Technology, Vol 46, No 3, June 2014, and is reprinted courtesy of Sage Publications ( Mark Rea is director of the Lighting Research Center (LRC) and Professor of Architecture and Cognitive Sciences at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY

8 Opinion

LIGHT Hearted Richard Webster, electrical services manager of Suffolk County Council, on a long week in lighting It was 1992 and I was a secondyear apprentice with the Regional Electricity Company when I heard the dreaded words, ‘Can you work in lighting for a week?’ Locally, public lighting was affectionately known as the SOIL pool: operatives were erroneously perceived as sick, old, infirm or lazy. I wasn’t ill, I was only 17 and equipped with a normal degree of physical and mental strength. That left lazy. One experience I am not allowed to forget, even today, is replacing part-night time switches for all-night photocells and having the largest dog, reminiscent of Cujo (look it up) urinate in my toolbox. It seems surreal that these same photocells have now been replaced by a central management system and the county has reverted to part-night lighting. The county council is now in a position where we are looking to implement adaptive lighting on traffic routes based on traffic flow. The new maintenance contract is written around the CMS and the permutations seem endless, with abundant data on each lighting asset. While all this lighting inspires me, indeed it flows through the veins, it would not be possible without the people. Even at this time of austerity the industry’s appetite for improvement is insatiable; people spend their own time out on site in the middle of the night in all weathers, going far beyond what’s expected. It may not be appreciated by those outside lighting, but colleagues on other teams often look on enviously at the close bond lighting professionals have. I have been fortunate to meet a lot of people in the industry, united by a love of all things lighting; it is not just a job for us, it is a vocation. Without these people, all of you, lighting would not be what it is today. It has been a long week in lighting (22 years and counting), but long may it continue.

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10 Daylighting

Getting the measure of


There has been an increasing momentum to change the daylight metric to one that reflects the complexities of geography and climate. Andrew Bissell argues for the switch, but Axel Jacobs believes it would be a bad move

Daylighting 11

Andrew Bissell puts the case for changing the way we define and quantify good daylight

New sky



he benefits and importance of daylight, for both our wellbeing and reducing energy consumption, is understood by more people now than ever before. This awareness has come through years of hard work by many different groups of people and professional bodies in the building industry, including researchers, lighting designers, architects, authors of the BSEN Standards, BRE Guides and SLL Guides.

As awareness of good daylight has risen, so has the need to be able to qualify and/or quantify what good daylight is and what, as precisely as is possible, are the benefits of one design over another. Historically there have been a number of methods of assessing sunlight and daylight availability. However, the standards and guides have generally led us down an average daylight factor (ADF) and uniformity compliance route. Daylight factors (DF) are discussed in more detail elsewhere in this article, but in essence they use a uniform overcast sky to calculate the percentage of external light that will arrive internally within a space. The key issue here – and the reason the building industry needs a new approach and methodology – is that if you only review a space under an overcast sky then you only really know how it will perform under an overcast sky. A second issue is that the daylight factor is not an absolute quantity but a percentage, therefore you have no real data with which to inform the electric lighting design and control system. Finally, if you design a facade to work with or respond to DF percentages then you are likely to have a facade that does not work when the sun comes out. There are numerous examples

where apparently well-designed daylit buildings are simply not working in practice. Schools are a good case in point. Design guides, including BREEAM, have requested an ADF of two per cent and more with 0.3 uniformity. However, it is very common for the average figure to be achieved without the 0.3 uniformity being achieved. What this means is that you can often have a DF of 15 to 20 per cent at the window and less than one per cent at the back of the classroom. Not only is the balance of light across the space a problem, but it is common for the occupants adjacent to the window to close the blinds early in the day when the light exceeds the level of a uniform overcast sky. The same is found in offices where new buildings often have full-height glazing and the ADF calculations record good results and achieve the required standards or points. Unfortunately the occupants adjacent to the window will again be likely to close the blinds. A final issue with daylight factors is that the analysis of, say, a light shelf will show no benefit, yet with sunlight the real benefit would be evident. It is worth noting that the process of designing for daylight has now become such that rarely is a daylight practitioner part of the design team from the early stages. For quite some

Lighting Journal September 2014

12 Daylighting

Visualisation of north-east facing room with clear sky: from 10am the sun does not enter the room and the blinds can therefore remain up from that time onwards through the day



time software has allowed people to check for the two per cent ADF target and, as such, good design has been substituted with a tick-box exercise. An approach is needed where we examine buildings and the various facade and glazing options under a variety of sky conditions and, preferably, as our thermal analysis colleagues have done for some time now, we need to use real sky weather data so that we can include the sunlight intensity, altitude, azimuth, broken cloud or indeed heavy cloud cover. We also need to look at peak levels of light, in other words control the sunlight and daylight so that the light is always allowed in but in a measured and controlled manner. This approach would also promote the need for an expert in the field to be part of the design process from the outset, which in turn would see better quality daylight design. Climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM) There have always been architects and lighting designers who have reviewed buildings not only under a diffuse overcast sky but also with a variety of clear skies with various sun angles. This was the case for the daylight design for the Glasgow Museum of Transport, for instance. However, the work was

Lighting Journal September 2014

Daylighting 13 4.

as bringing daylight into a space has always been the objective. However, controlling the peak will lead to a change compared to how windows, blinds and facades are typically designed now. A number of years ago we reviewed an office space and used both daylight factors and climate-based daylight modelling. The intention was to review the final solutions created as we satisfied the DF criteria or the UDI2. The result was that the DF criteria led us to use bigger and bigger windows to satisfy the two per cent then three per cent daylight factor. The depth of the office meant that we didn’t satisfy the uniformity criteria. We added a light shelf to the facade to improve the balance of light across the space but the DF analysis using an overcast sky reported the light shelf as an obstruction rather than as a lightreflecting device. The result when using the UDI criteria was a facade with a lower percentage of glazing and where the light redirection was recorded as a positive change to the solution, with lower peak levels and a better balance of light within the space.


1 North-east room: daylight autonomy = 63.5% 2 North-east room: UDIa = 84.5% 3 North-east room: UDIe = 0.5% 4 North-east room: UDIs = 15%

very much a case study to examine what could happen to the internal objects under different skies in relation to lux/hour exposure. There are other documented examples where practitioners have used the mix of sky conditions to predict more accurately the potential energy savings in an office and the real impact of buildings that obstruct a portion of the sky. In each case the daylight practitioner set about investigating the implications of various sky conditions and then establishing the appropriate design solution. This is all well and good but a method is required that captures the detail of these types of studies while also presenting the industry with a way to compare building designs and facades. Since 2000 various methods have been proposed where climate files

are used to assess the quantity of light arriving on a facade or within a space. In 2006 John Mardaljevic coined the phrase ‘useful daylight index’ (UDI). Essentially this method used an annual climate file and through an assessment of a series of measurement points within a space the daylight was categorised as useful, supplementary or excessive, that is between 100 and 3000 lux1. What is significant here is that, in addition to establishing the actual light levels within a space, an upper limit of light has been introduced in order for daylight to be categorised as useful. In practice what this approach means is that the aim is to now deliver both a minimum and maximum level of daylight for a fixed period of time through the occupied day. The minimum in many ways is not an issue

In practice Until recently the UDI and other methodologies were very much reserved for researchers and expert practitioners. The criteria and methodologies had not made their way into the standards and guides which exist. This effectively resulted in a chicken and egg scenario. How could the industry demonstrate the benefit of the new methodologies and, more to the point, confirm the criteria as delivering higher quality daylit spaces when clients request compliance with the latest standards which all list daylight factor criteria. In 2011 SLL LG5 included a section on CBDM by way of introducing the subject to lighting designers who were currently working on school design projects. However, the school designs were still based around BREEAM and the Building Bulletins which required daylight factors. In 2013, as part of a new government school building programme, the EFA launched the Priority Schools Building Programme Facilities Output Specification (FOS) and this document included CBDM without an alternative DF route to compliance. A common problem seen in most schools designed during the building

Lighting Journal September 2014

14 Daylighting schools for the future programme is that the roller blinds are pulled down and the electric lights are on. The EFA wrote the FOS with the objective of raising the quality of the learning environment while also lowering the cost of building new schools. Through the baseline design period, CBDM was tested against daylight factors on a variety of building styles and facade designs. Each set of results demonstrated how CBDM directed the solution towards a lower percentage of glazing when compared to daylight factors. Furthermore, it also directed the window solution away from a roller blind, which simply blocks views and daylight; solutions included devices which redirected the light without blocking light or views. The annual analysis undertaken with CBDM showed that for a number of sites the principle of delivering useful daylight to a space was achievable and that the levels of light would see a reduction in energy while also controlling peak intensities and glare. Significant improvement The useful daylight criteria had been developed through academic research up to the release of the EFA FOS. However, with the schools building programme currently

Lighting Journal September 2014

The change of metric has had a significant effect on the quality of the environment happening we will soon be able to review the spaces created using this criteria. What we can safely say of the new school designs – with 3m and 3.2m floor to ceilings; light typically delivered from two facades; light control systems that do not simply block the daylight or views, and more considered building orientation – is the change of metric has had a significant effect on the quality of the learning environment and in a positive way. If the final criteria need amending or the methodology refining, then that will happen. One aspect that needs dealing with is to have a fixed set of climate files that all practitioners use in the UK. Since the introduction of the EFA FOS, the BCO office lighting guide has been launched and this discusses climate-based daylight modelling, albeit while still presenting DF criteria. BREEAM has also just launched the new assessment method which includes CBDM for schools.

Global standard The final point to discuss with DF and CBDM is that of having a relative global standard. Anyone who has designed offices in Qatar, Melbourne or Sweden will have quickly realised how designing a facade must be done with a metric that reflects latitude and local climate. In the UK the Met Office reports an average of 175 hours of sunshine in May for Manchester, which crudely equates to six hours a day. For the same period Qatar experiences just over 300 hours of sunshine or 9.7 hours a day. Climate-based daylight modelling is a truly global metric. Andrew Bissell is director of Light4 at Cundall References: 1 CF Reinhart, J Mardaljevic and Z Rogers. Dynamic daylight performance metrics for sustainable building design. Leukos, 3(1):7–31, 2006 doku.php?id=academic:publications 2 What Colour is Your Building?, by David Clark, shows a comparison of DF/UDI What-Colour-Is-Your-Building.aspx

Daylighting 15

Axel Jacobs believes that CBDM is too complex and will lead to poorly daylit spaces

The climate



aunched in February 2014, the new EFA Daylight Design Guide has already divided the UK’s daylighting community in a manner that until now only a certain yeastbased food spread was thought to be capable of. Two of the seven advisers who contributed to the new EFA guide were swift in publicly distancing themselves from it at the launch event. Daylighting professionals, it seems, are now divided into climate sceptics and climate believers. The panel of advisers to the new guide did not include any of the former. Hitherto, the ‘daylitness’ of a space was expressed as its average daylight factor (ADF). A daylight factor (DF) is simply the ratio of the indoor illuminance divided by the unobstructed outdoor illuminance,

making it a unitless metric. Note that this is in contrast to how levels of artificial light are measured, which is in lux at working plane height. The average illuminance tells us nothing about how well lit a space is, whether by artificial or natural light alone. The ADF of a space does. If it is less than two per cent, the room is considered ‘poorly daylit’ and will need to be artificially lit most of the time. An ADF of five per cent or more indicates that a space is well-daylit, and will not have to rely on electric lighting for the majority of daytime working hours. This is irrespective of facade orientation or site latitude. Representing a worstcase scenario, ADFs are calculated using an overcast sky. The new EFA Guide moves away

Lighting Journal September 2014

16 Daylighting

Having carried out thousands of CBDM computer simulations with Radiance, and compared them to the ADFs for those spaces, I firmly believe that the EFA Daylight Guide does, and will, lead to poorly daylit schools. There appears to be no justification for the complex and unverifiable computations

EEL BRS daylight factor meter from the early 1980s. After calibration against the external overcast sky, daylight factors can be measured for any point in a space. Since it double-functions as an illuminance meter, the BRS instrument can also be used to verify that the sky is an overcast one

from using the quality of daylight in a space, as expressed by its ADF, and instead establishes the illuminance on the working plane, or rather derivatives thereof, for the design and compliance verification of daylight in educational buildings. Those who have been following the recent debate about good practice of artificial lighting design will have noticed that it is increasingly considered inadequate to design a lighting system solely around the working plane illuminance. This debate arose because it is no longer a secret that illuminance levels do not correlate with the visual impression of a space. For this, alternative metrics need to be consulted; examples include, but are by no means limited to, vertical luminance distributions across the walls, and the cylindrical illuminance. If, for one reason or another, a DF is to be converted to a working plane illuminance value, the British Standard on Daylighting (BS 8206-2), suggests

Lighting Journal September 2014

a two-step approach. In step one, an orientation factor is applied to the daylight factor to account for the fact that, on average and throughout the year, the sky is brightest towards the south and darkest in the north. The BS-established orientation factors are 1.55 (south) and 0.97 (north). In the second step, the annual diffuse sky illuminance, filtered by working hours, is applied. It is worth pointing out that both steps are climate-based, derived from real, long-term observations and measurements of the sky. As such, climate-based daylighting has been part of the BS for a number of years. Advantages of average daylight factors Apart from quantifying the visual impression of a space, the ADF also has a number of other advantages that CBDM-based approaches cannot provide. First and foremost, it is very easy to

understand. An ADF of three per cent is better than an ADF of two per cent. Yes, it really is as simple as that. Secondly, the average daylight factor of a room can be calculated in about a minute with pen and paper on a napkin. This is thanks to the BRE daylight factor formula which takes a handful of input variables and outputs the ADF. Job done. Thirdly, daylight factors can be measured in the actual space which is important for compliance verification. Building professionals are increasingly becoming aware that computer predictions of a building’s performance rarely match observations and measurements made in the actual, finished and occupied building. The discrepancy between the predicted and the actual performance tends to amount to tens, if not hundreds, of per cent. It is, therefore, paramount for any new daylighting targets to be actually measurable. Owing to their very nature, CBDM predictions are not and never will be. Even if we assume that all the external and internal illuminance and/or irradiance values could indeed be acquired over the course of a full year, those who have taken a closer look at weather tapes will appreciate that the actual differences in climate between ‘long-term London’ versus ‘long-term Birmingham’ are going to

Daylighting 17 be significantly smaller than ‘long-term London’ versus ‘measured London’. One cannot help but wonder whether it is actually worthwhile investing all that time and effort into extremely complicated computations that cannot actually be verified. Brute-force approach Dynamic daylight simulations are essentially carried out by running a daylight calculation for each hour of the year during which the building is occupied. For each time step, a sun and, depending on the weather tape, sky are generated, and a daylight simulation is run. The use of Tregenza daylight coefficients allows for this brute-force approach to be made more efficient, but there is no generally agreed-upon way of how this should be done. A number of different approaches have been proposed to this computationally expensive problem. However, they all yield slightly different results. On a good day, that is… Irrespective of how the actual simulations are carried out, at the end of the day we are left with not just one number serving as a proxy of ‘daylitness’, but instead with one illuminance value for each of the grid points, and for each time period. The challenge now is to condense all these numbers into what we might want to call ‘nextgeneration daylighting metrics’. They are, supposedly, what will enable a designer or assessor to make a good/not-so-good or pass/ fail judgement. We are, after all, good with numbers, as long there are only one or two of them. For each classroom, a CBDM calculation tells us the number of times (X) in the working year during which an illuminance of Y is achieved for Z per cent of the working plane. Using this information for design decisions is no small feat for the human intellect, and since computers are inherently dumb (although they are very good at doing the same thing over and over again), they are not much help here, either. To the rescue come the new daylight metrics. Or do they? The most straightforward approach to boiling down the hundreds of thousands of values into something more digestible would be to pin down two of the three variables, and to come up with a sensible target for the third. This is what the current EFA implementation of CBDM is based on;

we simply set ‘illuminance’ to 300 lux, ‘percentage of hours’ to 50, and hope that the ‘percentage of the working plane’ (which is set to 50 per cent in the current EFA Guide) gives us sophisticatedly calculated, well-daylit spaces. Well, it does not. Instead, it leads to poorly lit spaces with ADFs of less than two per cent. Fortunately, it is not only the daylight autonomy (DA), as described in the previous paragraph, but also the useful daylight autonomy (UDI-a) that are now being introduced as potential replacements to ADFs. The largest-ever study of climatic daylight metrics to date was carried out by Heschong Mahone Group on behalf of the California Energy Commission in 2012. That study looked at a number of existing daylit workspaces, and how well different daylight metrics could be correlated with a subjective assessment of ‘daylitness’ by laypersons (the actual inhabitants of those spaces), as well as a panel of daylighting experts. What the PIER study had to say about UDI was that ‘the R2 for this metric was the lowest of the daylight sufficiency group’. Lack of methodology This tells us that it simply doesn’t work. The UDI metric introduces an upper limit, in addition to the mustachieve targets that DA and ADF do. The problem with this is that such an upper limit would necessitate a robust calculation methodology for glare, as well as a prediction of the occupants’ response to it; both of which have eluded researchers so far, and there are no indications that this is going to change any time soon. The PIER study expressed it in the following way: ‘The analysis could not detect an upper threshold at which the occupants or experts started to complain that the daylight was too bright...’ and ‘adding more sensor-hours at 5000 lux increases occupant satisfaction with the illumination levels. This is the opposite of the intent of previously defined metrics such as...UDI...that assume that the higher levels of illumination will be a negative predictor.’ Having carried out thousands of CBDM computer simulations with Radiance, and compared them to the ADFs for those spaces, I firmly believe that the EFA Daylight Guide does, and will, lead to poorly daylit schools. There appears to be no justification for the complex and unverifiable

computations that are now required to demonstrate compliance with the new daylighting targets. As others have shown, these targets do not correlate with the daylit appearance of indoor spaces. It is, of course, admirable that a job or two has been created along the way. However, more attention should have been paid to the most important stakeholders in this exercise – the children and young adults occupying such buildings. Falling short Recently, cases of rickets (caused by insufficient exposure to daylight and sunlight) have been observed in the UK. Can this country really afford to carry out experiments on the most vulnerable members of its society on such an unprecedented scale? The proposed new approach to daylighting completely does away with the knowledge and expertise developed over many decades, but fails to establish a framework that is qualitatively or quantitatively better. The new Daylight Design Guide for Schools demonstrably leads to daylight levels that fall considerably short of the existing best-practice guidance from BB95 and LG7, which both recommend ADFs between four and five per cent. Dr Axel Jacobs has recently joined the daylight and solar design department at GIA as associate partner. He was formerly daylight principal with Hoare Lea Lighting

Lighting Journal September 2014

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20 Opinion


streets The debate about LED street lighting is warming up. Mark Major takes a cool look at the once-ina-lifetime opportunity that is being missed


aving trained as an architect, with a strong interest in urbanism, I have always been passionate about the quality of our built environment. Having spent more than 25 years working as an independent lighting designer, no more so than after dark. It has therefore been with some considerable concern that I have been watching how the character of our much-loved cities and towns is gradually being changed by the increasing number of super-cool LED street lighting schemes. The fact that this is seemingly being done without reference to anyone other than the relatively small group of people responsible for the procurement, design and installation of such solutions, raises real questions about the ability of our current planning system to properly embrace public lighting design.

Lighting Journal September 2014

Surely anything that fundamentally changes the character of our environment quite so completely, albeit after dark, should be subject to some sort of scrutiny? Also, given the lifespan of these schemes, we know that once they are installed there may be little change to them for 10 or 20 years – maybe even longer. Indeed that is one of their selling points. As for the appearance of supercool LED lighting in close proximity to heritage sites and the green belt, I cannot understand why local authority planners, English Heritage, CPRE and the National Trust are not as actively engaged about the subject of public lighting as perhaps they should be. Perhaps it is only a matter of time before they wake up to this issue. While much of the evidence is anecdotal, I have also yet to meet any member of the public who particularly likes cool LED lighting,

The upgrading of our street lighting across the UK represents an incredible, oneoff opportunity for the lighting industry not only to make a massive contribution to improving safety and security, and enhancing the nighttime economy, but also to reshape the way we experience public space after dark

and many that I have spoken to are truly shocked by what is happening in their neighbourhoods.Additionally, given that any change to our street lighting is the perfect time to drive down levels of illuminance, especially given the improved colour rendering and better visual acuity that results from the use of such sources, it is perhaps ‘lazy thinking’ not to properly reevaluate things as part of any upgrade. I quite frequently hear such solutions being defended on the grounds of improved safety and security but, critical as those aspects are, they are not the sole parameters against which public lighting should be designed.The quality of the lit environment, its character and issues such as increased light spill, light trespass and light pollution must all be properly considered. After all, this is the 21st century where we have the technology to do so.

Opinion 21 We know that going from Son to LEDs (by example) provides an ideal opportunity to reconsider the prevailing lighting standards, but frequently we see the classification remain the same when energy could be saved and obtrusive light reduced. Given the contrast that is created with adjacencies, the increase in glare, and the ghostly and unwelcoming colour of the light, I suspect that arguments to directly substitute schemes without substantive reappraisal are merely defending the indefensible – that is that the design of such solutions is largely being driven by considerations of efficiency and cost alone rather than a real concern for the people whom the lighting is for. Of course there are many who will see this commentary as either some form of Luddite response to the progress being made through the adoption of solid state lighting, or an entirely subjective cultural preference for warm light, for which I make no apology. There are also some who will say I am just plain wrong – but I certainly haven’t imagined the schemes that I have experienced, or those encountered in the planning stages through the ongoing urban lighting work within our practice. As we all know, LEDs offer many potential advantages over traditional sources going into the future. Improved energy use, better optical control and all the advantages

of ‘instant on’ and dimmability make them a good choice. The fact that it is possible to get LED street lighting available in a range of stable colour temperatures, including warmer sources such as 3000K (admittedly, at the moment, with some loss in efficiency) shows how the technology has come on in leaps and bounds. To that end it is perhaps even less forgivable now than it was two or three years ago for colour temperatures up to 5000K (or higher) to be so widely employed as ‘standard’. And before anyone argues that the various schemes that are bringing this phenomenon to your neighbourhood were all conceived some while ago, surely it is one of the fundamental precepts of good design and engineering to safeguard against the future availability of technology rather than ship yesterday’s solutions today – or tomorrow. Clearly it would be unfair to tar every scheme with the same brush – there are certainly some really good examples of sensitive LED street lighting solutions now beginning to go in – but if the lighting industry continues to push outdated and outmoded thinking into our cities and towns in the name of ‘progress’ then it seems only inevitable that at some point it will be held to account for its actions. The upgrading of our street lighting across the UK represents

an incredible, one-off opportunity for the lighting industry not only to make a massive contribution to improving safety and security, and enhancing the night-time economy, but also to reshape the way we experience public space after dark. Given the apparent vacuum that currently exists in our planning system when it comes to lighting this should not be seen as an excuse to not consider the aesthetic outcomes – rather to set new standards that are not based around numbers alone but that are sensitive to the need for lighting to be integral to the best values of good urban design. The worry is that failure to address this will leave a legacy of overlit and overcool solutions for future generations to deal with. If that happens they certainly won’t thank us for missing what should be a golden opportunity.

The worry is that failure to address this will leave a legacy of overlit and overcool solutions for future generations to deal with

Lighting Journal September 2014


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CMS 23

Exploiting the system Keith Henry and Dave Johnson look at the untapped potential of CMS

A Taking more than a dim view

Justifying investment in CMS means fully exploring the ways it can be used to save energy – and looking to future possibilities, says Keith Henry

s energy costs soar and street lighting engineers around the country embrace the use of LED technology to provide savings of upwards of 50 per cent, many authorities are looking to the use of central management systems (CMS) to make further significant cuts and efficiency improvements. But do the additional benefits of using trimming, dimming, dynamic dimming, constant light output (CLO), night scouting and other maintenance factors justify the investment in a centrally managed control system? Previous energy price hikes and anticipation of further steady rises, combined with continuing budget reductions, have focused the minds of local authority energy managers on investigating how they can save energy while still providing a service to the public. The energy savings available from switching to LED solutions are in the region of 50 per cent when compared with existing HID light sources (Son and Sox), with payback periods reducing as the cost of the technology continues to fall. In this context, and with standalone, preprogrammed dimming drivers increasingly available,

CMS systems need to compete and justify their continued deployment and use for both energy and maintenance saving benefits. We need to look, therefore, at savings achievable with CMS: these can be broken down into the following areas; trimming, dimming, dynamic dimming, maintenance, night scouting and carbon reduction. Before doing so, given that CMS can be used to make savings at different times, it is worth understanding the relationship between energy price and time of use. The time of maximum demand for electricity during the winter months of November through to February is between 4pm and 7pm (figure 1), when there is cross over between business and residential users also consuming at the same time. The local distribution component of electricity price, namely Distribution and Use of System (DUoS) is highest across the country in this period. DUoS costs are Ofgem regulated and published; they are presented in bands coloured green, yellow and black, applied in time and seasonal periods. Costs vary from around ÂŁ0.20 per kWh in Scotland to around ÂŁ0.85 per kWh in south-west England. Using a

Lighting Journal September 2014

24 CMS Time bands for half-hourly unmetered properties

Monday to Friday Nov to Feb

Black time band

Yellow time band

Green time band

16:00 to 19:00

07.30 to 16.00 19:00 to 21:00

00.00 to 07:30 21:00 to 24:00

Monday to Friday Mar to Oct

07:30 to 21:00

Weekends Notes

All the above times are in UK clock time

00:00 to 07:30 21:00 to 24:00 00:00 to 24:00

Figure 1:

LV UMS (Pseudo HH Metered)






Figure 2:

figure of £0.10 per kWh as the total amount paid by an authority for its energy, and taking example DUoS tariffs of £0.00671: green, £0.01217: yellow and £0.39298: black, as shown (figure 2), it’s possible to derive a split between the two parts of electricity cost as £0.0273 per kWh for DUoS and £0.0727 for the remaining supply part (figure 3). These values can then be taken into consideration when discussing the most effective way to save both energy and money.

output at lower daylight levels. For a P4 lighting class, where the average is five lux and the minimum one lux, is it not unreasonable to switch on at five or 10 lux? The table opposite (figure 4) shows how minutes of burning can be saved at the solstice and equinox daylight extremes of the calendar overall and the savings annually. The level of saving, when comparing the switchon at 70 lux being reduced to five lux and the switch-off being reduced from 35 to five lux, would be around 221 hours of consumption a year, or around five per cent. The saving in terms of hours and energy is further enhanced as this occurs substantially during those periods of maximum demand during the winter months and particularly in the expensive black DUoS band. By mapping the trimming savings on to DUoS charges, we see a greater percentage is saved in terms of money than kWh. The example

Trimming The normal method of switching a luminaire on and off is through the use of a photocell, to allow the lamp to reach operating temperature and maximum output before it needs to light the task, whether this is M or P class lighting. CMS, with an accurate light meter, can provide a switch-on level when combined with LEDs which provides an instant switch-on at near maximum


£ Energy cost by month by supplier price and DUoS price brand

















Figure 3:

Lighting Journal September 2014








shown in figures 5 and 6 is for a fictional authority in middle England with a base load after conversion to LED of 1.6 MWh. This load, based on the switching regime described previously, will give an energy saving of 3.78 per cent and a monetary saving of 5.05 per cent. Dimming Since the introduction of electronic HID ballasts and LEDs, engineers can consider dimming as a viable alternative to part-night switch-off as a primary means to save energy. The ILP recognised the importance of variable lighting levels when it first released TR27: Code of practice for variable lighting levels for highways, in 2005. This document will shortly be replaced by PLG08: Guidance on the application of adaptive lighting. It should be noted that the change in lighting level is not always a reduction as town centres may need an increase in lighting levels on certain nights. The dimming of lighting is normally based on a change in the use of the lit area by either pedestrians or vehicles, and the time at which these reductions occur, both of which will vary between cities and rural locations. As an example, dimming by 50 per cent power between 7pm and 7am gives an energy saving of 55 per cent, based on a 9MWh load. With a similar treatment as shown above for trimming, namely mapping the dimming energy savings on to DUoS time periods as shown in figures 7 and 8, we can calculate that the monetary saving will be 50 per cent overall. The reason for the lower monetary value is that no dimming takes place during the expensive black DUoS charge periods, in other words a shift to the cheaper DUoS bands overall.

CMS 25 Constant light output and maintenance factors Constant light output (CLO) drivers can provide a gradual increase in power to compensate for the reduction in light output performance of the LED over time. This approach is then reflected in the Elexon UMSUG code as an average consumption over the life of the luminaire, which is usually established as 20 years. The effect of the UMSUG code being a static 20-year average, as shown in figure 9, is that for the first 10 years the authority overpays for the electricity actually consumed (shaded red) and vice versa for the last 10 years of the expected 20-year life (shaded green). Using CMS as an external CLO control of the driver (of course, layered on top of the daily switching and dimming profile), means that the correct energy would be paid at every stage of the luminaire life. This may be especially relevant if the use of the luminaire, or its components, does not run the full expected life. For example, with the rate of change in the LED market not showing any sign of slowing down, it may well be feasible to replace the LED module in the luminaire in 10 years’ time with an even more energy efficient one. If

this were the case, then the first 10 years will have been overpaid, without seeing the benefit of the subsequent period of underpayment. Similar to the way in which CMS can be used to manage CLO, it can also be used in the context of the other aspect of maintenance factor (MF), namely dirt build-up and cleaning cycles. As a luminaire gets dirty the light output reduces. Rather than set the luminaire’s power to compensate for the worst dirt case, the CMS can apply fine-tune control, progressively increasing power as dirt builds and then reducing it again in accordance with the cleaning cycle. With links between asset management systems (AMS) and CMS developing strongly it is now feasible to link the cleaning of the luminaire recorded in the AMS with a maintenance factor profile managed by the CMS. Figure 10 shows combined CLO and MF profiles managed by CMS. The shadings are the energy savings that can be made. With CLO and MF levels typically quoted by vendors at around 15 per cent and seven per cent respectively, the overall energy savings available by careful management of these lifetime and maintenance factors could be in the region of 10 per cent.

Residential 70/35 trimmed to 5/5 lux

Minutes saved









Average per day



Hours saved per year



Total hours saved per year


Figure 4:

Trimming saving kWh DUoS band 25,000




kWh 10,000





Figure 5:













Dynamic dimming Historical data collected from either roadside traffic counts or through loop detection provides engineers with a good basis for understanding when traffic flow increases or reduces. It then allows for preprogrammed variation in lighting level, normally based on an average time at which the change takes place.The limitation of this is that a cautious approach is taken to application of these regimes and there is no deviation from the regime without manual intervention. A typical application of manual intervention would be the closure of a motorway and traffic being diverted

on to the alternative main road infrastructure. The ‘on call’ engineer receiving a call would log into the CMS to make the change in light level based on a reactive response. Dynamic lighting has long been seen as the answer to providing proactive lighting management and giving the public the right light, at the right time, in the right place. This approach provides two benefits: improved public service and optimised use of energy by taking advantage of the savings available by varying the lighting as soon as there is a change in traffic flow (figure 11). With the improvements made in communications systems it is now possible to link the outputs from both traffic loops and from radar vehicle detection directly to a CMS, and dynamically control the lighting based on real-time traffic flow. If dynamic control was applied to the example of motorway closure above, the change in traffic flow would result in the main road increasing in light level automatically as vehicle use increased.

Lighting Journal September 2014

26 CMS CMS for future proofing The UK is facing an energy crisis as demand for energy increases and the generation capability of the UK decreases in the short term. The balance of supply and demand is unclear but the most optimistic outlook is that the UK will only have a five per cent surplus, while the pessimistic view is that there will be a 10 per cent shortfall in generation capability. Anticipating the squeeze over the next few years, National Grid has already consulted with users who have loads greater than 1MW and proposed a payment for planned reductions in energy consumption through load reduction at times of maximum demand. (National Grid: Demand Side Balancing Reserve – Supporting Report to Authority 18 November 2013). This presents a scheme in which large users who can reduce their demand at short notice have an opportunity to be compensated financially by National Grid for doing so – cashback in effect. There is no guarantee that the process will be used, but given the potential shortfall the likelihood is that it will be. For CMS users with loads less than 1MW there is the opportunity for an intermediary to broker a deal based on the capacity of several small users, whose combined dimming and trimming capability offers the same facility to reduce their load or generate their own electricity. Street lighting uses energy at the point of maximum demand and the use of CMS could provide authorities with the opportunity to make savings during this period under this rebate scheme. Of course reducing lighting at this time in the winter may not be desirable, but would a modest, say 10 per cent, reduction be noticeable? This is an example of how CMS provides future proofing. Who would have considered this as a potential use of CMS, just a year ago? The Internet of Things Having gone to the trouble of building a communication network for its lighting infrastructure, local authorities are now looking to optimise the use of the platform to deliver further savings and services. These do not need to be directly linked to the lighting system in terms of having an effect on lighting level. Applications already using the same network include smart meters for gas, water and electricity. Environmental sensors such as

Lighting Journal September 2014

Trimming saving £ by DUoS band




4000 Yellow




















Figure 6:

Dimming saving kWh DUoS band 300,000



kWh 150,000



















Figure 7:

Dimming saving £ by DUoS band 25,000





£ 10,000






Figure 8:












CMS 27 rainfall detection can be used as triggers for VMS signs warning of flooding and so on. Parking is another area where a sensor detecting the presence of a vehicle in a parking space can be the trigger for multiple events. The first could be the reduction in available spaces in a street or car park being displayed on a VMS sign. The second is a reduction in congestion as drivers do not slow down to look for on-street parking spaces if the VMS says that there are none available. The third use is increasing lighting in the vicinity of the parking spaces when they are occupied and reducing the lighting when they are empty.

UMSUG v CLO 260 250 240 230 Wattage 220


















Figure 9

Lifetime power profile 100

Constant light output 95


Maintenance factor (cleaning cycle)

% Power 85



70 0






Time (years)

Figure 10

Conclusion With energy costs soaring, the use of CMS continues to grow and deliver measureable benefits for the lighting engineer as well as the energy manager. Potential savings of between 20-30 per cent in addition to those made by the change to LEDs are achievable by implementing a central control system and introducing efficiencies in areas such as trimming, dimming, maintenance and night scouting. Looking further ahead, with a CMS platform in place and the growth of interoperable technologies for smart metering, traffic management continuing apace, the future possibilities are only limited by the imagination of the end user. Keith Henry is VP technical of the ILP and business development manager of Telensa

Average vehicle count 24 hours 60


40 Vehicle count averaged over 15 minutes




0 2am










Figure 11

Lighting Journal September 2014

28 CMS

Turned to good account

Dave Johnson argues the case for using CMS to bring about a step change in accounting for energy consumption

Lighting Journal September 2014


long, long time ago, in a land not far away, at a time when the people were just emerging from the Dark Age, a wise advisor to the state came up with what seemed to be a very good idea. As we all install new electric lighting in our streets, he said, we should account for the energy that we consume by declaring it in an inventory, and that will save us all the time and expense of sending someone round the streets to read electricity meters. Everyone was very pleased with that for quite a while, but then the Rule Maker, a close cousin of the Child Snatcher, said that we couldn’t carry on doing this without a proper set of regulations, and so set about preparing them as quickly as he could. After he had finished and agreed them with a close-knit circle of friends, he divided them up into small pieces and

cast them to the far corners of the kingdom. In that way no one person could ever have sight of, or properly understand them all. Then he set his minions a never-ending task of making each element of the rules more and more complex, under the guise of increased accuracy, so that eventually the Rule Maker would become indispensable to the system and be able to live off the spoils of his fiendish plans for ever more. At a recent meeting of the UK Lighting Board, the chair observed that if you tried to explain the current system of accounting for the unmetered electrical energy for our street lights, then people would think you were telling a fairy story. Well, this is no fairy story, and it’s no joke. What started out as declaring the nominal wattage of a handful of different lamps in a simple

CMS 29

inventory, then passing that to the local electricity board for a bill to be prepared, has evolved into a system that chases its tail in the futile interests of ever-increasing accuracy. We now have close to 5000 different 13-digit charge codes, each identifying the electrical load of different pieces of equipment, one of which must be assigned to each item in an inventory, together with 6500 switch regimes, which estimate the operational hours of that kit in different parts of the country. All that without variable light levels. Together these codes combine to estimate the theoretical energy consumption of each street light on our roads. The regulations prevent authorities from installing new street lighting equipment until it has an authorised charge code, so that delays the deployment of

new products and places a burden on manufacturers who need to process products through a test house in order to obtain valid charge codes. The rules were drafted at a time when current mobile communication capability was unthinkable, so using a central management system to record energy consumption, rather than simple on/off and power settings, falls entirely outside of either the metered or unmetered systems. So, how can hard-stretched local authorities break the mould and secure a step change in the way that we account for our energy consumption? Individually we are unlikely to do so, but combined we represent the interests of the whole of the UK, and that’s how we must press for change. The UK Lighting Board has set itself a target of finding a way of enabling CMS metering capability so that it does not only control lighting levels and send fault reports without scouting the streets, but also records actual energy consumption. This would then enable councils to secure immediate and complete benefit of any energy efficiency measures that they deploy. Earlier this year the board, together with representatives from industry, met with the National Measurement Office and Elexon (custodians of the unmetered supply system), to explore the possibility of using CMS capability to its full extent. The meeting was surprisingly constructive, albeit that there was no magic lamp. Because the regulations are so disparate, and because CMS energy settlement sits somewhere between the metered and unmetered systems, if we are to secure any benefit in the short term, then a stopgap solution,

working within current regulations, needed to be found. After ruling out a number of suggestions as being too protracted, an option to be explored in more detail was tabled. It was to use the unmetered system, perhaps with a new generic charge code for a CMSenabled street light, registered with a load of say 100W, then to use CMS metering capability to record the percentage of power actually used either above or below that value at any point in time. That would then form the basis of an event log that would enable an accurate energy bill to be presented to the customer, based on actual consumption. In that way a unit consuming 250W would record consumption of 250 per cent of the base load, and one consuming 35W, 35 per cent and so on. If this process can be successfully worked through, then it would eliminate a significant amount of estimation from the current processes, customers would accrue immediate and accurate benefits of their energy efficiency programmes, and be able to identify exactly where investment would result in real savings from detailed analysis of their inventories. The next step was to identify a willing customer with the equipment and resources to pilot a scheme, ultimately taking it to Elexon for formal approval. Step forward the Highways Agency, who have much to gain from CMS metering, hopefully eliminating electricity meters located on the verges of motorways and other high speed trunk roads, where access is always problematic. If the comparison between accurate metering at the supply point compares favourably with loads recorded by the CMS at each lighting point in the tests that the HA is preparing, then we seem to have the embryo of a workable system. This does not provide a complete answer as it only addresses lighting systems with CMS control and much is still to be done. But a way forward has been identified and it is a step in the right direction. Dave Johnson is highway manager at Transport for London Both articles are based on presentations made by the authors at the Surveyor Conference held in London on 24 June

Lighting Journal September 2014

30 Future concept



Photography: Mathijs Labadie

table is a table is a table, right? Wrong. Not only can you eat off them and put stuff on them, but now you can also now generate energy from them. What’s more you can do it indoors. The Current Table (pictured below)was designed by Marjan van Aubel, a British-based Dutch designer of materials and objects whose practice also encompasses the disciplines of science and chemistry. Nothing too ambitious, but it can harvest sufficient energy from daylight to charge appliances. The orange glass table surface contains ‘dye-sensitised solar cells’, developed with Swiss company Solaronix, which use the properties of colour to create an electrical current – as in photosynthesis. Unlike conventional photovoltaic

Lighting Journal September 2014

cells, these coloured cells don’t need direct sunlight and are able to function under diffused light. The current is stored in a set of eight solar cells within the table’s surface. Two USB ports on either side of the table allow users to power a phone, laptop or lamp while they work. A graduate of the Royal College of Art and the Rietveld Academy Designlab, van Aubel has exhibited at many international design institutions including the Vitra Design Museum, the V&A, and the Design Museum in London, where she was nominated for the Design of the Year Awards 2013. She is a great believer in making the functional aesthetic. ‘Very often if there’s a new technology, for example solar cells, they’re only thinking, how can we make it efficient, how does it work, and not how do we want to

How designers and scientists are bringing more to the table live with it?’ she told Icon magazine. The idea of a table producing energy is not new though. A couple of years ago a group of scientists from Cambridge and Bath Universities (see box) created the Moss Table concept (below) through the Design in Science research project, an intiative to explore how designers might support scientific research. This took a more biological approach – biophotovoltaics, also using photosynthesis. It is conceivable that it will eventually generate enough energy to power lamps and laptops, but the concept version could only muster up enough for a digital clock. The table, which measured 1m in diameter and 1.2m high, was capable of producing around 520 joules of energy a day. A typical laptop requires roughly 25 joules a second, so in a day the table would produce about

Future concept 31 enough energy to power a laptop for just 20 seconds. As with the various applications of energy-producing algae (see Future Concept, Lighting Journal April 2013), the process relies on photosynthesis, the process by which plants and algae convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into organic compounds using energy from sunlight. The table featured an array of 112 ‘moss pots’ acting as bioelectrochemical devices. When the moss photosynthesises it releases some of these organic compounds into the soil, which contains bacteria. The bacteria break down the compounds, which they need to survive, creating by-products that include electrons. These were captured by conductive fibres inside the Moss Table. ‘In this way the devices harness energy which would otherwise be wasted,’ says the research team. Each moss pot generated a potential of around 0.4-0.6V and a current of 5-10 microamps. That adds up to around 50 milliwatts a square metre. According to scientists, future devices may be able to generate up to 3W/sqm (Strik at al, 2011). Lowenergy consumption laptops are also in the pipeline (for example, the XO series, made by Quanta Computer) which could operate at as little as 1W. ‘In this futuristic scenario, the Moss Table could power a laptop for over 14 hours,’ says the team. The idea clearly has legs.

Research into biophotovoltaics (BPV) is funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and is led by Professor Christopher Howe from the Department of Biochemistry, Professor Alison Smith from the Department of Plant Sciences and Doctor Adrian Fisher from the Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, all at Cambridge University, and Doctor Petra Cameron from Bath University.

Potential ways of boosting power: • Increase the rate at which the moss excretes organic compounds into the soil • Increase the rate at which the bacteria break down the organic compounds and produces electrons • Improve the electrical connection with the bacteria • Reduce the internal resistance of the device









O2 H2O


Lighting Journal September 2014



PIP forum

A solid case for an update? LEDs, and the need to revisit existing guidance, were the topics for debate at the latest ILP Professional Industry Partnership forum. Jill Entwistle reports

Nigel Parry and Fiona Horgan

Colin Ball and Nick Smith

Lighting Journal July/August 2013 Lighting Journal September 2014

A key objective of the latest ILP PIP forum was to establish whether the current document on LEDs – A Guide to the Specification of LED Lighting Products – produced by the Lighting Liaison Group in 2012, was in need of updating given the rapid advances in solid state technology. Discussion also ranged on the type of issues that LEDs were throwing up for specifiers and the industry. ‘There is still a lot of misunderstanding about how to specify LEDs, and how to get the lifetime and quality within a budget,’ said Mark Cooper. ‘It’s not really about the product information but looking at how to specify that product. We have to bear in mind that not everyone specifying LEDs is an engineer. That is particularly true in local authorities where we have less and less qualified engineers. Any guidance has to be simple.’ There was general discussion on how the current document supplied a series of questions that could be asked of LED manufacturers, but the problem was that it might not help as the questioner would not necessarily understand the answers. Dave Franks pointed out that, ‘if you don’t understand the answers then you’re not competent to ask the questions in the first place’, confirming Cooper’s contention that specifiers were not always engineers. The problem with providing guidance, continued Franks, was that it was ‘like trying to draw a line down a river – the technology is changing so fast that there’s more chance of getting it wrong than right. The way we do it at Westminster is to keep LED products under review.’ Nigel Parry agreed that people were still trying to come to terms with the technology. ‘We’ve still got a lot of educating to do. We are discussing a first document not a tender document.’ Colin Ball agreed that the evolving technology was a problem for specifiers and that BDP dealt

ILP forum


approach to managing stock – there can’t be just one model.’ Grigg agreed. ‘Over 250,000 PFI units have had to be changed,’ he said. ‘We are in danger of finding ourselves in the same situation again with the whole lot having to be changed.’ Ultimately though, said McRury, ‘The new technology will

On the controversial issue of colour temperature:

‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘

William Marques: ‘People have shot themselves in the foot with colour temperature – some are still specifying 5700K.’

Kevin Grigg and Dave Franks

with it by establishing a performance standard. ‘We now have a column noting the required output. We state what the design is and then fill in the specification later.’ Discussion moved to the various problems encountered when grappling with the transition to solid state technology. ‘I think there is a fundamental question,’ said Franks. ‘I don’t think as an industry we know what the life frame of these products is.’ Nick Smith agreed. ‘A product that’s got 20 LEDs now could be replaced with 16 in the near future.’ The importance of lifetime could depend on whether it was an interior or exterior scheme, said Parry. ‘The lifetime of interior schemes tends to be shorter.’ But that depended on the application, said Alasdair McRury. ‘In industry it could be 30 to 40 years but in retail much shorter.’ Another aspect of this was whether the columns that are being installed are of sufficient quality to be upgraded, said Smith. ‘Light is only one aspect of the installation,’ agreed Franks. ‘You could be putting up a lantern with a 20-year warranty on a column with a 10-year life. Is that good asset management? I would rather have a steady investment over a full life cycle.’ Mark Cooper pointed out that this touched on the warranty issue. ‘Column manufacturers will say a design life of 30 to 40 years but won’t give a warranty. Specifiers want warranties for lanterns though.’ This stemmed from uncertainty about when was the best time to

upgrade and how much the technology could be trusted. Rather like other forms of rapidly evolving technology, specifiers were cautious about when to commit. However, said McRury, ‘people who delay upgrading may end up with a better payback but could also be getting a quick payback now’. Guy Harding pointed out that the pressure will remain on energy budgets, and that ‘it’s not only about getting a payback but also making savings’. Kevin Grigg added that ‘once you’ve gone to LED, the savings you get after that from new technology will be minimal’. Franks said that current technologies ‘were the biggest opportunity local authorities have to harvest savings on the energy budget – but it’s also their biggest risk’. He suggested that ‘it’s about understanding the individual asset. I don’t think wholesale replacement is the answer. It could be cheaper in three or four years to invest again. Every single owner has a different

Richard Webster: ‘In Suffolk the public preference was for 5700K – that was with two products compared in a residential street.’ Nick Smith: ‘I’ve looked a lot into this and a cool colour temperature just doesn’t look right.’ William Marques: ‘It’s just about taking the cheapest option.’ Richard Webster: ‘It depends where you live. Also, in the case of the Hounslow example, only one street was the source of complaint.’ Colin Ball: ‘Moonlight is 6000K-8000K so perhaps cooler temperatures are seen as more natural in rural areas... Should there be publications on the reaction of the eye to different colour temperatures? That might help explain the public’s response. If the ambient light is low, cool white will appear brighter and that might also be why they’re going for it in some cases.’

‘ ‘

Kevin Grigg: ‘In the Midlands the tendency is to go for neutral. There have been complaints from people where 5700K was used.’ Allan Howard: ‘We also need to be mindful that we’re looking after more than humans. We also need to consider bats and insects. The critical concern is the short wavelength of the cool whites.’

Nigel Parry: Warmer LEDs are getting closer in efficiency terms to cooler temperatures so it won’t be such an issue in future.’

Mark Cooper

Lighting Journal September 2014

34 ILP forum drive people to have to buy. The principles of lighting are still the same and should remain whatever source is being specified.’ Allan Howard agreed. It came down to basic principles, he said. ‘The LED industry has tried reinventing a lot of processes. It’s unnecessary – the light on the road is the light on the road, it doesn’t matter if it’s LEDs.’ However, manufacturers’ data sheets ‘are all over the place,’ said McRury. ‘The industry’s goal should be to standardise first. If you don’t do that properly the lighting industry will still be debating while the solid state industry moves on.’ Parry agreed. ‘That’s right. How do you compare apples, oranges and pears – and bad apples?’ Operation also depends on a range of factors such as different ambient temperatures, suggested McRury. ‘End users will always have to ask for a lot of data.

Asking for test certificates is very important, for example. It’s important because the good apples have to invest in product test certification – we have a duty to do that.’ ‘People need to understand what data is important and what’s not,’ added Cooper. Fiona Horgan said that it was a pity that ‘there has been a lack of communication, a lack of understanding and a lack of education. All local authorities have gone down their own route. They all could have shared at a much earlier stage.’ The consensus was that the current document was of limited help.‘It definitely needs updating and rewriting,’ said Cooper. ‘How can anyone understand what they’re specifying from it? It’s too generic and too wide. We need to make it more apt for particular applications – retail and road lighting are very different propositions.

Alasdair McRury


• The existing document, A Guide to the Specification of LED Lighting Products, needs simplifying and updating • Rather than aiming to be a document that attempts to encompass all applications in one, an interior and exterior version is needed • It should include worked examples • It should include standard templates, based on standard layouts • The industry needs to standardise and establish useful parameters that specifiers can understand – whether lifetime should be L70 or L80, for example

Dave Johnson and Allan Howard

William Marques

Participants Colin Ball Dave Franks Kevin Grigg Guy Harding Fiona Horgan Allan Howard

BDP Lighting Westminster City Council Urbis Woodhouse Doncaster MBC WSP UK

Lighting Journal September 2014

Dave Johnson TfL William Marques CU Phosco Lighting Nigel Parry Orangetek Alasdair McRury Lighting Industry Association and Holophane Europe Richard Webster Suffolk CC





36 Legal issues

BIM: THE NEXT LEVEL From 2016, building information modelling will be compulsory at Level 2 for all publicly procured construction projects. Howard Crossman looks at the legal implications BIM – building information modelling – is certainly the buzz word at the moment. It is an issue that affects many elements of lighting, from design and supply through to street lighting operation and maintenance. The government has stated that it wants BIM Level 2 (see below) to be used on all publicly procured projects by 2016. What is it? BIM is a model that depicts a project visually. It uses software that works in 3D, 4D and even 5D. It manages the data for the project, concentrating not just on the design stage but the whole construction process, including the management, running and maintenance phase. The aim of BIM is to improve efficiency and facilitate cost savings throughout the lifecycle of the project. Statistics show that it can produce savings of around 20 per cent during the construction phase and up to 33 per cent over the lifecycle of the project. BIM is certainly not simply 3D CAD modelling; it incorporates data relating to geometric, visual, dimensional and process information. The idea is to limit the information that is lost between design, construction and management. Each key member of the project team inputs their information to contribute to the BIM model.

Lighting Journal September 2014

The aim is to transform the way project teams work. BIM can assist an engineer with energy consumption, a contractor with buildability, a client in relation to delineating the project lay-out, and manufacturers with product maintenance, servicing and product performance. The idea is to make extra coordination checks superfluous. The model will ideally result in fewer errors caused by uncoordinated and inaccurate information. If each consultant, contractor and sub-contractor is working on the same model from the design phase through to completion, and thereafter in management and maintenance, then all changes will be coordinated through the model with quality data that is accurate and adaptable. The argument has been made that the future for the construction industry lies within technology and BIM is the future of design and long-term facility management. It is government-led and technology driven. It provides a virtual information model. The legal profession is perhaps behind the rest of the construction industry in understanding how to deal with legal relationships in the context of BIM. The BIM levels There are currently four levels. Level 0 is unmanaged CAD with 2D formats through to Level 3 (see above right). Level 2 involves 3D designs produced and overlaid over each other on the model to produce the project design for mutual sharing by the team. Level 2 also allows for 4D with time and programming information and 5D, quantity surveying cost information. Each consultant is still responsible for its own design for the model. The United States and Level 3 The BIM evolution in the US is at the more advanced Level 3 stage. Each designer adds to the same model with the project design being openly developed at the same time. Commentaries have suggested that this approach

Legal issues 37 could remove the ‘blame game’ between parties to the design process in establishing liability. In the States, this more collaborative approach has resulted in a call for general project insurance where a premium is paid by each member of the design and construction team. It has been proposed that this will have a dramatic effect on the insurance markets. However, it is interesting to note that there has been a dispute in the US which relates to a lack of coordination and communication between parties. In this case, the model confirmed the design was buildable, but had to be constructed in a particular sequence. The sequencing issue was not communicated clearly between the parties, which resulted in clashes and problems. The tool is only as good as the coordination and communication between the parties to define what must be achieved. Level 3 software allows specifications to reference statutory and other regulatory requirements. This in itself will need to be clearly considered in the contractual documents to avoid confusion and potential disputes as to responsibility for the design. Contractual issues BIM has been heralded as the answer to all problems for the construction industry. However, this was also what was said about ‘partnering’ a few years ago. In a nutshell, BIM is only as good as the information inputted and ‘rubbish in’ equates to ‘rubbish out’. From a legal perspective, BIM clauses can be drafted into contractual documents making the use of BIM a requirement for each member of the design team and contractors/sub-contractors. However, care must be taken in drafting the documents to clarify exactly what is required. It is one thing to stipulate the requirement for a 3D visual of the design. It is another to facilitate a fully integrated process using the entire design team and a contractor with 4D (time) and 5D (costs) requirements. It is possible to expressly stipulate within the contractual document a programme for the deliverables and the necessary level of detail required for each part of the work as it relates to BIM. Also, it is probably advisable to record the details of which party will be in charge of the BIM model. As ever, the documents must clearly allocate risk between the team in connection with the model. BIM highlights issues relating to the current legal position where a contractor takes on and completes the design prepared by another specialist consultant/sub-contractor before completing installation in accordance with the BIM model design. In these circumstances, the contractor will probably be liable for any design defects inherited from the previous design of the consultant/sub-contractor when the design is completed ‘with reasonable skill and care’. The whole supply chain may be expressly contractually ‘caught’ by a BIM-enabled project with some global wording. Some companies may not realise this because they have not spotted the relevant wording or realised its impact. Again, this can catch, for example, peripheral manufacturers in the web of design liability. It is of course possible that such a manufacturer won’t have PI cover? Proper protocols to deal with these issues can help. Construction Industry Council (CIC) BIM Protocol A protocol has been developed for Level 2 building information modelling by the CIC. This can be appended to contract documents and indeed takes precedence over

the appointments, building contract and other contract documents as it relates to BIM Level 2. The appendices must contain full particulars. These will include the level of detail, delivery stages and timing, software and coordination to be used for the design models and the data levels to be provided. A model production and delivery table should be included in Appendix 1. This will be an important document that must be accurate and define the models that team members must produce. The table will delineate responsibility for the preparation of models. It should also contain level of detail (LOD) schedules describing the detail to be produced at all stages. Anything that is not listed will not be the subject of the protocol. There may be a requirement for a new role on the project to deal with BIM. This can be a BIM manager, managing information and responsibilities. Often the client will organise the manager of what will ultimately be its completed models. There may be further costs involved in operating and managing the system. Intellectual property and licences are dealt with extensively as these will be central to any software-based model. There is a definition of ‘permitted purpose’ to define the licensed uses of models rather than specifying the use of each model. The standard of care for delivery of the design models by the consultants in accordance with the protocol is ‘reasonable endeavours’. The consultants are only liable for non-compliance with the reasonable endeavours standard and any other relevant details in the appendices. There is explicit carve out for liability in relation to the integrity of the electronic data in the design model submitted, including the corruption or unintended amendment of such data. There is a right of the consultant to revoke the licence in the event of non-payment. This could of course be problematic, given the interplay between the consultants, with just one fee dispute potentially damaging the smooth running of the BIM model. Finally there will be an information requirements (IR) document, usually at Appendix 2, which includes projectwide information requirements to be adopted by the team. The IR defines the development of the model. Usually the IR will incorporate employer’s requirements put forward at tender stage. The protocol does stress that it has sought to minimise any changes to preexisting contractual documentation on a project. It seeks to imbue a culture of collaborative working practices and common standards of working methods. Conclusion Some people have argued that BIM will have a revolutionary effect on the construction industry. The potential is definitely there for offering greater certainty with reduced risk, improving efficiency, integration and coordination. The net effect, it is to be hoped, is less waste, a better product, and less disputes and issues. Howard Crossman is head of construction at Greenwoods solicitors LLP. With offices in London, Cambridge and Peterborough, Greenwoods is a UK commercial law firm providing legal advice and pragmatic solutions to local, national and international clients (

Lighting Journal September 2014

38 VPs’ column

Healthy growth Guy Harding, VP membership, on his first year and an impressive increase in new members


s I write this article it is almost exactly a year since I was elected to the post of VP membership. A lot has gone on in that time and I thought that this would be a good opportunity to update you on what has been happening. One of my first jobs was to invigorate the membership committee. Following an email appeal for volunteers, we were delighted to have more than 40 people apply for the available positions. From these we were able to select people with a broad range of skills to give the committee a wide range of experience to call on. The committee meets only once a year but conducts the majority of business online, using a private group on Linked-In. This allows membership matters and approvals to be handled much quicker than would normally be the case. The beginning of 2014 saw a flurry of new members in the first four months, with the result that we had already overtaken last year’s total of 200 new members by April. New members are still joining us and the current total at time of going to press stood at 270 and rising. This brings our total membership back up to pre-recession levels. As part of making the process of upgrading easier, I held a training day for the regional membership officers to enable them to host a membership upgrade workshop at local meetings. These workshops will take participants through the upgrade process step by step, and give them an opportunity to discuss their application on a one-to-one basis with their RMO. Please look out for these workshops at your local meetings. With so many new members, many of you will be relatively new readers of this journal. As new members of the institution we would be delighted to get your feedback and to know if your

Lighting Journal September 2014

membership is proving worthwhile and what we can do to help or improve. Earlier in the year we ran the Our ILP survey through the ILP website and social media to get feedback on, among other things, how we can improve and achieve our vision of promoting excellence in all forms of lighting for members. I am sure this will be repeated but feedback is an ongoing process. If you have any suggestions or feedback, please contact your regional committee members, a vice president or your RMO (see box for contact details).

The beginning of 2014 saw a flurry of new members in the first four months, with the result that we had already overtaken last year’s total of 200 new members by April

Regional membership officers Northern: Allun Preece North East: Chris Rayner Irish: Jim Molloy Western: Kevin Ridge London and South East: Paul Bateman Midland: Richard Law Scottish: Derick Ramsay

The regional membership officers are my representatives at a local level and should be your first port of call regarding membership matters. They will then pass feedback on to me or the appropriate vice president or the executive board. My main aim is to ensure that all members, new and longstanding, get the full benefits from the institution. These include networking, reduced rates on events, training and publications, access to back issues of the Lighting Journal online, plus the benefits of CPD and the opportunity to become professionally recognised with Engineering Council registration. We do understand, however, that people do not stay in lighting forever and existing members can move into

new fields. Remaining as a member of the institution will give you the benefit of keeping in touch with colleagues and developments within the industry. In addition, and most important, if you have any Engineering Council qualifications such as EngTech, IEng or CEng then you need to stay a member of a professional engineering institution such as the ILP for them to remain valid. Finally, my thanks must go to Chantal O’Sullivan for her hard work dealing with member registration and upgrades, database administration and the general day-to-day support that has kept membership in such a healthy position.

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LEDs versus the rest: What makes most sense for street lighting?


Are there still conflicting interests between cameras and lighting?




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42 Products

What’s new Kosnic

Kurve Chinese company Kosnic has launched its first UK-designed and manufactured LED fitting. The Kurve 600mm x 600mm recessed retrofit modular luminaire range has a Samsung LED chip and driver. It is available in 4000K and 6500K colour temperatures and in three under-face options. Efficiency is up to 58lm/W.


Olivio RGBW Selux has added an RGBW option to its range of Olivio modular exterior luminaires designed for lighting paths and squares, spotlighting facades or accenting buildings. The specially developed optics are based on a circular arrangement of coloured and white LEDs in a rotation-symmetrical, freely configurable reflector. The geometry enables precision colour mixing entirely within the optics unit. Control is either through Dali or DMX, including Selux’s own Netcomposer. The light management system allows up to 32 luminaires to be controlled using Dali or up to 256 with DMX. Fittings can also be controlled using smartphones, tablets and touchscreen panels. The luminaire heads have been redesigned with white 3000K or 4000K LEDs and optimised reflector geometry for spot, medium or flood light distributions. These can be switched and dimmed using various interfaces. Luminaire heads come in Grande, Medio and Piccolo sizes and can be combined with various arms and pole types from the three Sistema, Floracion and Candelabra lines.

Harvard Engineering Fluorescent to LED

Harvard has launched a system that allows manufacturers of fluorescent lighting fixtures to convert them to LED. The company’s CoolLED drivers are combined with its 3000K, 3500K and 4000K light engines (80 and 90CRI), from the LEDeng range. The modular plug-in solution needs one 33W CoolLED driver to run two 30cm light engines in parallel. Efficacy is more than 130lm/W (120-277V mains input), with analog 0-10V dimming down to five per cent. It is scalable to any length with push wire connections between boards. With both standard and high lumen output options, the system can generate up to 1615lm/30cm.

Lighting Journal September 2014

Products 43


Vecto A recessed LED spotlight, Vecto can be used for both ambient and accent lighting. For general lighting, it can be used as an adjustable downlight, with a lighting head that can be tilted up to 20 degrees. A directional variant has a 40-degree tilt, while a third option can be tilted forwards from 20 to 60 degrees, to illuminate the upper section of walls and decorative areas. System output is 5000lm, and fittings come with spot, medium-flood or flood reflectors.



XSolar upgrade The light output of Steinel’s XSolar range of solar-powered external fittings has been boosted to provide 150lm from a 1.2W LED. The XSolar GL-S provides light for an area of up 20sqm and is designed for pathway lighting, while the wall-mounted XSolar L-S can illuminate up to 30sqm. LEDs are cool white (4000K) and mounted on a panel that can be adjusted plus or minus 60 degrees. The solar panel is rotatable by 330 degrees, with a built-in compass to enable perfect alignment to the south.

Flow Scolmore’s new lighting management system – a 16-way and 8-way outlet distribution box, 2-way splitter plus accessory leads and connectors – is designed on a plug-and-play principle for easy installation. The lighting management box (CT1016) features 16 connections that can be controlled in three different ways: 1 x 16-way with one-way switching; 1 x 16-way with two-way switching and 2 x 8-way with one-way switching. The marshalling box is hung from the ceiling suspension system, close to the luminaires, and compact enough for confined voids. It can support more than 16 light fittings if used in conjunction with further splitters. The 8-way outlet distribution hub (CT1008) features nine outputs so installers can link multiple units together or extend a circuit. The slimline 2-way splitter (CT350) can be used with the lighting management box and distribution hub, doubling the number of outputs.

Lighting Journal September 2014

44 Independent Light on the lighting past:13 design

Nothing new under the Son Future proofing technology was around way back in 1932, says Simon Cornwell

arc tube was enveloped in a Dewar vacuum jacket which greatly reduced the heat losses by conduction and convection. But it was an expensive component and Philips was concerned about the excessive costs when its lamp was pitted against the mercury vapour discharge lamp. The solution was simple if not a little fiddly. The Dewar jacket was made detachable and lighting engineers could simply purchase new arc tubes once the rated 2500 hours were up and fit them into the existing Dewar jacket. The company was also quick to realise an additional marketing advantage. GEC only supplied a 400W version of its mercury vapour discharge lamp so Philips offered a family of four wattages, allowing for the lighting of both side streets and traffic routes. It was the complete road lighting solution and thanks to the positive reception given to the Purley Way scheme, Philips was now in a commanding position to start marketing its new lamp in direct competition with GEC. The lamp was designated the SO/H, the trailing letter an indication that it had to be operated horizontally. (The origins of this nomenclature are vague: the suggestion that the single [S] bent arc tube and oxide [O]-coated electrodes contributed to its name has some possibility; but other authors have suggested the name comes directly from SOdium.) But little did Philips realise that it had just laid the foundations of a direct line of lamps which would come to dominate the market and enjoy success for many decades to come. Such lamps can only be found in museums and collections today. But if you gave an SO/H lamp to a lighting engineer now, I’m sure the response would be that it was ‘a funny-looking Sox.’ As the technology evolved, the lamp never shook off its U-shaped arc tube, its fundamental dimensions, its electrical characteristics or optical distribution. And that’s why my rescued lantern survived for so long: not because it was durable or built to withstand an earthquake, but because generation after generation of lighting engineers were able to stick in lamp after lamp, and not care if it was the original low-pressure sodium (SO/H), its integral all-in-one replacement (SOI) or its thermally coated successor (Sox). That’s what I call future proof.

Philips had begun trialling versions of its low-pressure sodium lamp earlier the same year. The lamp had quickly evolved from a DC-only curio into an AC-driven unit (the Philips DA-90) and had been installed in the successful Purley Way scheme. It was an almost fully formed fledgling but, perhaps, had left the nest a little too early. Philips had pushed it out fast, hastened by arch-rivals GEC and its mercury vapour discharge lamp. But the DA-90 had several problems when viewed against its competitor. Its compactness was an optical advantage but this worked against it – both in terms of efficacy and electrical complexity. It was time for a number of small tweaks. The doubly bent arc tube was unfolded into a single long ‘U’ shape. This Philips ran a series of adverts extolling the benefits of its low-pressure reduced reabsorption sodium lamp which it marketed under the Phillora name of the light, pushing up the efficacy, but magine installing a luminaire it also increased the starting voltage. and, with the exception of Philips solved this by abandoning the relamping or cleaning, doing secondary starting electrodes and nothing to it or its control gear for the cathode preheaters; the new coldnext 60 or 70 years. I rescued such cathode design got its initial starting a relic several years ago and while kick thanks to a cumbersome, but part of its longevity was down to the electrically simple, leak transformer durability of its glass and aluminium that also doubled-up as a current construction, its survival was primarily limiting device. And the side-effect due to the slow, linear improvement of this simplification was a huge of its associated lamp. reduction in the number of external There is much talk at the moment connectors and required wiring – the of ‘future proof’ technology. This has new lamp could be simply fitted with a been prompted by the lengthy lifetime common bayonet plug. promised by LED luminaires seen However, the lamp still needed against the accelerating changes in thermal insulation, as the inner arc semiconductor design, materials and tube had to get manufacturing. It appears that any hot enough to new technology will be quickly made vaporise all the obsolete and future proofing offers a sodium. Achieving potential upgrade path for those this optimum willing to commit. Yet I’d argue that temperature of one example of future proofing 260 degrees C has already been seen and that it required another The 85W Philips SO/H lamp. The thumbscrew allowing the Dewar jacket to be appeared in late 1932. addition: the inner removed is facing the camera in this shot

And how the lighting designer helps you avoid them, says Emma Cogswell, IALD UK projects manager


Lighting Journal September 2014

Consultants Carl Ackers

MSc CEng MCIBSE MILP MSLL Built Environment Consulting Ltd 5 Redwing Court, Long Acre Willow Farm Business Park Castle Donington DE74 2UH

T: +44 (0) 1332 811711 M: 07867 784906 E: W:

BEC are Chartered building services consultants based in Castle Donington in the East Midlands. Our location allows us to serve the whole of the UK from our central base. With many years’ experience we are able to bring a wealth of knowledge and experience to the design process. Our vision is to deliver class leading sustainable solutions for the built environment, including specialist internal and external lighting design and specification services. record for PFI projects and their indepedent certification.

Steven Biggs IEng MILP

These pages give details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services. Listing is included on main ILP website with logo (

John Conquest

MA BEng(Hons) CEng MIET MILP 4way Consulting Ltd Fernbank House, Tytherington Business Park, Macclesfield, SK10 2XA.

T: 01625 348349 F: 01625 610923 M: 07526 419248 E: W: 4way Consulting provides exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialises in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector (including PFI/DBFO).

BEng(Hons) CEng FILP

Technical Director (Lighting)

WSP WSP House, 70 Chancery Lane, London WC2A 1AF

T: 07827 306483 E: W: Professional exterior lighting and electrical services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice regarding energy and carbon reduction strategies, lighting efficiency legislation, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations. Registered competent designers and HERS registered site personnel.


Team Principals

Skanska Infrastructure Services


Dodson House, Fengate Peterborough PE1 5FS

Unit 9, The Chase, John Tate Road, Foxholes Business Park, Hertford SG13 7NN

T: 07825 843524 E: W:

Alistair Scott

BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MIMechE Designs for Lighting Ltd 17 City Business Centre, Hyde Street, Winchester SO23 7TA

T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E: W: Professional lighting design consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

Anthony Smith

Colin Fish

Technical Lead for Lighting Design

T: +44 (0) 1733 453432 E: W:

Allan Howard


Are you an individual member of the ILP? Do you offer lighting consultancy? Make sure you are listed here


Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd Lighting & Electrical Consultants, Dukes Way, Teesside Industrial Estate, Thornaby Cleveland TS17 9LT

T: 01642 766114 F: 01642 765509 E: Specialist in all forms of exterior lighting including; Motorway, Major & Minor Highway Schemes, Architectural Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Open Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Strategies, EIA’s, Planning Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.

Award winning professional multi-disciplinary lighting design consultants. Extensive experience in technical design and delivery across all areasof construction, including highways, public realm and architectural projects. Providing energy efficient design and solutions.

Professional services providing design and technical support for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways and associated infrastructure. Expert surveys and environmental impact assessments regarding the effect of lighting installations and their effect on the community.

Lorraine Calcott

Stephen Halliday EngTech AMILP

Alan Jaques

Nick Smith

It Does Ltd

Team Principals

Sector Leader – Exterior Lighting

Milton Keynes Business Centre, Foxhunter Drive, Linford Wood, Milton Keynes, MK14 6GD



Nick Smith Associates Limited


T: 01908 698869 M: 07990 962692 E: W: Professional award winning international lighting designer Lorraine Calcott creates dynamic original lighting schemes from a sustainable and energy management perspective. Helping you meet your energy targets, reduce bottom line cost and increase your ‘Green’ corporate image whilst still providing the wow factor with your interior, exterior or street lighting project.

Mark Chandler EngTech AMILP

The Victoria,150-182 The Quays, Salford, Manchester M50 3SP

T: 0161 886 2532 E: W: Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways. PFI technical advisor and certifier support. HERS registered site personnel.

Philip Hawtrey BTech IEng MILP MIET Technical Director

MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd


99 Old Bath Road, Summer Field House Charvil, Reading RG10 9QN

Severn House, Lime Kiln Close, Stoke Gifford, Bristol, BS34 8SQ

T: 0118 3215636, M: 07838 879 604, F: 0118 3215636 E: W: MMA Lighting Consultancy is an independent company specialising in Exterior Lighting and Electrical Design work. We are based in the South of England and operate on a national scale delivering street lighting and lighting design solutions.

T: 0117 9062300, F: 0117 9062301 M: 07789 501091 E: W: Widely experienced professional technical consultancy services in exterior lighting and electrical installations, providing sustainable and innovative solutions, environmental assessments, ‘Invest to Save’ strategies, lighting policies, energy procurement, inventory management and technical support. PFI Technical Advisor, Designer and Independent Certifier.

Call Julie on 01536 527295 for details


Broadgate House, Broadgate,Beeston, Nottingham, NG9 2HF

T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 F: +44 (0)115 9574901 E: The consultancy offers a professional exterior lighting service covering all aspects of the sector, including design, energy management, environmental impact assessments and the development of lighting strategies and policies. It also has an extensive track record for PFI projects and their indepedent certification.


36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR

T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E: W: Specialist exterior lighting design Consultant. Private or adoptable lighting and cable network design for highways, car parks, area lighting, lighting impact assessments, expert witness. CPD accredited training in lighting design, Lighting Reality, AutoCAD and other bespoke lighting courses arranged on request.

Tony Price

Alan Tulla


Alan Tulla Lighting

BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Capita House, Wood Street, East Grinstead, West Sussex RH19 1UU

T: 01342 327161 F: 01342 315927 E: W: Chartered engineer leading a specialist lighting team within a multi-disciplinary environment. All aspects of exterior and public realm lighting, especially roads, tunnels, amenity and sports. Planning advice, environmental assessment, expert witness, design, technical advice, PFIs, independent certification.


12 Minden Way, Winchester, Hampshire SO22 4DS

T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E: W: Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Specialising in public realm, landscaping and building facades. Site surveys and design verification of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Visual impact assessments and reports for planning applications. Preparation of nightscape strategies for urban and rural environments. CPDs and lighting training.

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.





Kiwa CMT Testing Non-destructive testing at the root, base, swaged joint and full visual inspection of steel lighting columns. Techniques employed include the unique Relative Loss of Section meter and Swaged Joint Analyser in addition to the traditional Magnetic Particle inspection and Ultra Sonics where appropriate. Unit 5 Prime Park Way Prime Enterprise Park Derby DE1 3QB Tel 01332 383333 Fax 01332 602607


Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email: Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories Contact: Kevin Doherty Commercial Director If you would like to switch to Tofco Technology contact us NOW!

MACLEAN ELECTRICAL LIGHTING DIVISION Business info: Specialist Stockist and Distributors of Road Lighting, Hazardous Area, Industrial/ Commercial/ Decorative lighting. We also provide custom-built distribution panels, interior and exterior lighting design using CAD. 7 Drum Mains Park, Orchardton, Cumbernauld, G68 9LD Tel: 01236 458000 Fax: 01236 860555 email: Web site:




Lucy Zodion manufactures and supplies a complete range of Electrical/ Electronic products for Streetlighting: • Vizion CMS • Feeder Pillars • Pre-Wired Pillars • Photocells • Cutouts/Isolators


• Electronic Ballasts • Cutouts/isolators • Lighting Controls Lucy Zodion Ltd, Station Road, Sowerby Bridge, HX6 3AF tel: 01422 317337 Email:

Designers and manufacturers of street and amenity lighting. 319 Long Acre Nechells Birmingham UK B7 5JT t: +44(0)121 678 6700 f: +44(0)121 678 6701 e:

candela L I G H T



Specialist in high quality decorative and festive lighting. A full range of equipment is available for direct purchase or hire including unique firework lights, column motifs, cross road displays, festoon lighting and various tree lighting systems. Our services range from supply only of materials, hire, design and or total management of schemes. More information is available from: Head Office City Illuminations Ltd Griffin House, Ledson Road, Roundthorn Ind Est Manchester M23 9GP Tel: 0161 969 5767 Fax: 0161 945 8697 Email:



LIGHTING LUCY LIGHTING Lucy Zodion manufactures and supplies a complete range of Electrical/Electronic products for Streetlighting: • Vizion CMS • Feeder Pillars • Pre-Wired Pillars • Photocells • Cutouts/Isolators • Electronic Ballasts • Cutouts/isolators • Lighting Controls Lucy Zodion Ltd, Station Road, Sowerby Bridge, HX6 3AF tel: 01422 317337 Email:


Holscot Fluoroplastics Ltd Fluorosafe shatter resistant covers – Manufactured from high molecular weight Fluoroplastic material whose lifespan exceeds all maximum quoted lifespans for any fluorescent Lamps. Holscot supply complete covered lamps or sleeves only for self fitting.

Alma Park Road, Alma Park Industrial Estate, Grantham, Lincs, NG31 9SE Contact: Martin Daff, Sales Director Tel: 01476 574771 Fax: 01476 563542 Email:


CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality • AutoluxLighting Standards • Lighting Design Techniques • Light Pollution • Tailored Courses please ring Venues by arrangement Contact Nick Smith

Nick Smith Associates Ltd

LIGHT MEASURING EQUIPMENT HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD Suppliers of a wide range of quality light measuring and photometric equipment. HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD PO Box 210 Havant, PO9 9BT Tel: 07900 571022 E-mail: enquiries@

Meter Administrator Power Data Associates Ltd are the leading meter administrator in Great Britain. We achieve accurate energy calculations assuring you of a cost effective quality service. Offering independent consultancy advice to ensure correct inventory coding, unmetered energy forecasting and impact of market developments.

01525 862690 Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4HR

36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR t: 01246 229 444 f: 01246 270 465 e : w:

Diary 2014 2-4



ALAN 2014 (Artificial Light at Night) Venue: Hugh Aston Building, Faculty of Business and Law, De Montfort University, Leicester

Urban Lightscapes, Social Nightscapes (Five-day workshop organised by the Configuring Light research programme) Venue: Peabody’s Whitecross Estate, Islington, London N1 urban-lightscapes-social-nightscapes

Fundamental Lighting Course (ILP course) Venue: Regent House, Rugby




Shanghai International Lighting Fair Venue: Shanghai New International Expo Centre



Exterior Lighting Diploma Module 1 Venue: Draycote Hotel, Nr Rugby





IALD Enlighten Americas Venue: Hilton San Diego Resort and Spa, San Diego, California



Exterior Lighting Diploma Module 2 Venue: Draycote Hotel, Nr Rugby




Rethink the Night (International lighting design workshop organised by the Hellenic Illumination Committee) Venue: Kea Island, Greece

The Energy Show Venue: NEC, Birmingham


ILP Professional Lighting Summit Venue: St John’s Hotel, Solihull



Inaugural Jonathan Speirs Memorial Lecture: Light + Dark = Architecture Speaker: Mark Major Venue: Glasgow City Chambers



How to be Brilliant: at diversity in lighting (Organised by the ILP) Speaker: David Atkinson Venue: ACDC Studio, London N1 Time: 6.30pm


September (-2 Oct)

LED professional Symposium and Expo 2014 (LpS) Venue: Festspielhaus, Bregenz, Austria




SLL Masterclass Location: Birmingham



Light in the City Location: Eskilstuna, Sweden projects/lic/activities/eskilstuna



How to be Brilliant: at photometrics, light meters and lux levels (Organised by the ILP) Speaker: Joe Vose Venue: ACDC Studio, London N1 Time: 6.30pm

Full details of all regional events can be found at:

24-25 September: Professional Lighting Summit, St John’s Hotel, Solihull




TR22: Managing a vital asset (ILP course) Venue: Regent House, Rugby



New British Standard for lighting: BS5489 (ILP course) Venue: Regent House, Rugby



LuxLIve Venue: ExCel, London E16



Young Lighter of the Year LuxLive Venue: ExCel, London E16



Lux Awards Venue: The Troxy 490 Commercial Road, London E1



Exterior Lighting Diploma Module 3 Venue: Draycote Hotel, Nr Rugby



SLL Masterclass Location: Dublin

As simple as 1, 2, 3... STREET LIGHT RETROFIT


+44 (0)20 3051 1687

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