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LIGHTING

JOURNAL The publication for all lighting professionals

THE SECOND REVOLUTION? After the opportunity of LED, why the industry must not get left behind by digitisation PRO PLUS How the EU’s Pro-Lite project is keeping Transport for London’s procurement on track OPPORTUNITY KNOCKS Inside the Lighting Industry Association’s new academy

November/December 2016


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Contents

LIGHTING JOURNAL November/December 2016

4

THE SECOND REVOLUTION? If LED has been the first lighting revolution, digitisation will be the second, with ‘Brexit’ also posing threats and offering opportunities, Ray Molony predicts

8 CIVIC DEBATE

Much of the smart city agenda up to now has focused on the technology. But, if smart cities are to work properly, there will need to be a profound transformation in how cities engage and communicate with their citizens, a report by Philips has suggested. Nic Paton looks at its conclusions

12 COUNSELLING COUNCILS Cash-strapped councils are failing to recognise the potential of the smart city agenda, meaning some risk being left behind as others power ahead, lighting controls company Lucy Zodion has argued. Nic Paton analyses its report

16 STREET CULTURE

A bespoke multi-function lighting scheme has helped to transform Bromley North Village on the outskirts of London, as Terry Dean and Lorraine Calcott show

20 OPPORTUNITY KNOCKS

The Lighting Industry Association’s Lighting Industry Academy has big plans to transform training and education, not least to help the industry respond to the arrival of innovative technologies, as Julie Humphreys outlines

26 PRO PLUS

The EU-backed PRO-LITE project is helping public sector organisations to use their procurement powers more effectively to source, specify and install new lighting products, as Dr Leon Smith explains

32 ROAD TO NOWHERE?

The new LM-84 and TM-28 standards were developed to help lighting professionals predict lumen depreciation at a luminaire level. But for anyone wanting to invest in high-performance LED roadway luminaires they’re a bit of a car crash, argues Trevor Leighton

34 CLOUD BUSTING

Lighting Reality’s Cloud-based ACE service could provide a stepchange in the speed and accuracy of road lighting luminaire analysis, writes Francis Pearce

36 ILLUMINATING VALUES

From perception and daylight through to eyesight and photography, light in all its facets was the focus of an event in Dublin supported by the YLP. Sarah Carolan was there

4

40 SPEAKING ‘DIRECTOR’

Theatre directors will know how they want to stage to be lit but, because light is so intangible, may struggle to articulate it. Kelli Zezulka outlines how lighting designers can better gauge what is being asked of them

42 LUX AND LEARN

With more than 80 presentations and over 250 exhibitors across ten sectors, this year’s LuxLive will once again be somewhere to wear out your shoe leather. Lighting Journal focuses in on what you can expect from the show’s newest arrival, the Escape Zone

12

44 COMPETITION VICTORY

The organisers behind The Illuminated River competition have said a lighting designer will now be part of the judging process, following criticism voiced in Lighting Journal that the landmark London competition had overlooked the role, and expertise, of the profession

46 PARCEL POSTS

Internet giant Amazon is now testing delivery drones in the UK and has proposed ‘docking stations’ could be located on lighting columns. Lighting Journal took a look

48 CONSULTANTS 50 LIGHTING DIRECTORY 52 DIARY

36 Barcelona: the revitalisation of the rundown industrial neighbourhood of El Poblenou into ‘22@’ has highlighted the city’s embrace of smart lighting technology

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


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Editorial Volume 81 No 10 November/December 2016 President Kevin Grigg, Eng Tech, AMILP Chief Executive Richard G Frost BA(Cantab) DPA HonFIAM Editor Nic Paton Email: nic@cormorantmedia.co.uk Editorial Board Tom Baynham MEng MA (Cantab) Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL IALD John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Alan Jaques IEng MILP Nigel Parry IEng FILP Richard Webster Designed by Julie Bland Email:julie@matrixprint.com Advertising Manager Andy Etherton Email: andy@matrixprint.com Published by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 E-mail: info@theilp.org.uk Website: www.theilp.org.uk Produced by

I had the pleasure of attending the grand opening of the Lighting Industry Association’s new Lighting Industry Academy in September and, combined with its new state-of-the-art £2 million laboratory, it is an impressive facility. Of course, the proof will very much be in the pudding as to whether, based in Telford rather than (and there’s no two ways about this) a more accessible location, the academy proves to be a success. I certainly hope it is because, for me, one of the more telling points of the day was the sense that lighting professionals are increasingly dealing with a changed, and fast-changing, world, one where skills and knowledge will be a critical success factor. As LIA commercial manager Julie Humphreys highlighted, the academy needs to be helping to develop not just the technical skills but also the resilience of the lighting community, its ability to respond to, and even lead on, the complex new lighting technologies, controls and energy efficiency solutions coming through on to the market. This sense of lighting being an industry grappling with a new, complex and increasingly uncertain landscape – not just the transition to LED, but ‘Brexit’ and, more long term, the revolution that is digitisation – also came through clearly in Ray Molony’s presentation to coincide with the launch of the academy. We’ve in this pages during the past year talked a lot about smart cities, and this edition, in fact, is no exception, with an analysis of two thought-provoking studies from Philips and Lucy Zodion respectively. But perhaps less discussed has been the different skill-sets and mindset that will be required from lighting engineers and designers to navigate this fast-changing world. As Ray made clear, the danger for lighting professionals is that they get left out of an increasingly technology-focused conversation when it comes to the transformation of urban spaces, both exterior and interior; that lighting professionals end up ‘just selling boxes’. Thankfully we’re a long way from that yet – the opportunity of digitisation is very much still on for lighting professionals. Let’s make sure we have the skills to grab it with both hands.

Nic Paton Editor

Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Unit C, Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 Email: gary@matrixprint.com Website: www.matrixprint.com © ILP 2016 The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


4 Urban lighting and smart cities

THE SECOND REVOLUTION? A changing world for lighting: Ray Molony speaking at the LIA Academy opening

W

e all know what happened on 24 June, and we are where we are. One thing slightly reassuring is that the general confidence of consumers in this country has held up, not so surprisingly, considering most people voted for it. But you can also see that, more broadly across society and industry, certain markets, such as construction and property, are feeling some pain.

If LED has been the first lighting revolution, digitisation will be the second, with ‘Brexit’ also posing threats and offering opportunities, Ray Molony predicted at the opening of the Lighting Industry Association’s Lighting Industry Academy in September. On page 20, find out more about the new academy The more tangible effect of ‘Brexit’ has been the fall in the pound against the dollar and the euro, 10-12% – it’s been varying for the last few months – and that is a real deal. Of course, the lighting industry is now in the electronics business, and the electronics business is all in dollars. If you’re buying from China or Asia, or anywhere really, you’re paying in dollars. Depending on the proportion,

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

that’s going to add 10% right there to your costs, and whether you can pass that on to your customers in sterling is a bit of a moot point. We talk about Brexit but we really don’t know what Brexit is, and that really depends on whether we have a ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ Brexit. A hard Brexit is basically that we’re out of the single market. In my opinion I don’t think that will have such a huge direct impact on


Urban lighting and smart cities 5 the lighting industry; the bigger impact will be the wider impact on the UK economy and the impact that, in turn, has on our industry. THREAT TO TALENT One concern in the specification community would be freedom of movement. If we had a hard Brexit and freedom of movement was impacted, it would definitely have an impact on bringing talent and skills into the country. The specification community – architects and designers – were complaining about this before we even had Brexit. It was just so difficult, so expensive, just to bring in talent from overseas. The lighting industry is extremely privileged in this country probably to have the world’s biggest specification community. It is an extraordinary punching above our weight – it’s between London and New York, and London wins. Anything that would impact on their ability to get people and to take on projects would be concerning, I would say. It is a shame

we don’t have kids coming into this creative and interesting profession, that we have to import them, but we are where we are. Another concern in a hard Brexit would be the impact on the City of London. When I go to Dublin they’re rubbing their hands trying to get the investment bankers over there, and for all its faults, the City of London has been a great customer to this industry. They get the top stuff, they’re willing to pay; it’s been a nice little earner for this industry, frankly, and it would be a shame if that was impacted or negated in any way. NEW MARKET OPPORTUNITIES So, what are the opportunities from Brexit? For me, the obvious opportunity is America because if you’re selling over there you’re getting a 10% bang for your buck; your prices are 10% relatively cheaper. In terms of manufacturing, however, to my mind there’s two big barriers to setting up in America. One is UL – you’ve got to get all your kit tested and it’s expensive, and they have a high

bar. I know there’s a UL room in the Lighting Industry Association laboratory here, so that will take care of some of that. The second barrier to America is the repping system. If you’re not familiar with it, this is an extra layer in the supply chain in America whereby you have these companies called lighting representative companies, basically who are sales guys. And they have what’s called a line card, which is they sell maybe 100 different brands but they major in one of the two big brands, maybe Hubbell or Acuity Brands. They’re not going to obsess about holding spec, these guys are just there to do a job and make money. So they will swap out products day in and day out, all day long, to suit themselves. These guys own their little patch and they do maybe 25% of their turnover with the big guys. So, if you’re getting a $100 lamp and you’re landing it in America, by the time all these guys have taken their cut – your wholesaler, your own guys and the contractor and these guys – it could be

The City: if a ‘hard’ Brexit were to affect the spending power of the City that could have a significant knock-on effect on the lighting industry

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


6 Urban lighting and smart cities $200-250. There’s a lot of mouths to feed; they have a stranglehold on the market, and it’s not as open a market as we’re used to in this country. You can’t put one of your sales guys in to see a consultant or an architect or a lighting designer on their patch; they have to be in the room, even if they say nothing. And you bypass these guys at your peril because you will not end up on projects. FROM ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL We talk about Brexit but, to my mind, there’s a bigger ‘monster’ coming over the hill into the lighting industry, which I would say is going to have a way bigger effect. This is the ‘second revolution’ after the LED revolution – the reshaping of our industry and the changing dynamics of the industry as we move from analogue to digital, and everything that comprises. We’ve had the LED revolution, but now that’s bringing along digitisation. This was an analogue business; it’s now going to be a digital business. What does that imply, and are we ready for that? To my mind, one factor here is commodification. Despite the fact LEDs allow some new form factors, we’re all making the same stuff and they’re all starting to look the same, and that just drives prices down because there’s no differentiation. And how can you differentiate? And you can change that top line to price erosion, and it’s the same thing. Go on to a site like Alibaba and you can buy LED tape for 80c or 65p a metre. OK, it may not be as good

as Osram’s but it’s probably as good enough for a lot of people; it’s almost a disposable product almost. Or you can get LED panels for $13-14. We comfort ourselves by saying the quality of product coming out of China is low. But we’re seeing some good stuff, stuff with decent colour rendering. If you want to make money in the lighting business, I tell you, get ten engineers, get ten software people in a room, and start looking at how you can use the data in a building, how can you manage it, how can you put it into a form that says something coherent to a client that they can act on. Because you will be bought out by one of the big boys in a few years’ time, because they’re desperate for this sort of knowledge and this technical capability. PITCHING THE TECHNOLOGY But the worry, for me, is who’s going to be in the room making those decisions and pitching that tech? Will it be Verizon or AT&T or Cisco, or will it be a lighting company? And will these guys say ‘oh we’ve got a lighting company, we can just put our tech into this and we can roll out all these luminaires’ or are they going to talk about CRI or R9 or colour quantity? That’s not going to be discussed, the stuff we love talking about. And the concern for me is that, as you get this digitisation, that bits get picked away from us, and we become subservient, just selling boxes. I think retail is going to be an early adopter in this area. We’re already seeing Target in the US trialling this

technology built into the lights in 100 of its stores. It has gamification so you can play to get points; it has special offers; it has location tracking in store. In France, Carrefour is doing a test with Philips, and there are others. It just takes one retailer to nail this and they’ll all want to go. And when they bring in ‘oh let’s use the lights to digitise and market’ who’s going to be in the room? Is it going to be the facilities management team that the lighting industry talk to all the time? Or is it going to be the marketing people? It is easy to dismiss lighting technologies, but the ‘killer apps’ will come. There is a great quote from Bill Gates: ‘We always over-estimate the change that will occur in the next two years, and underestimate the change that will occur in the next ten.’ And we learnt this the hard way; we learnt this with LEDs. I’m now hearing the same things about the Internet of Things and tech. I’m not saying it’s going to be for everything, but intelligence has to be the way to add value and add margin. These technologies will find their space, and it’s about can the lighting industry own them rather than be threatened by them? We know we have good stuff to sell, even if it’s not about tracking people in a store. But it’s about marketing what we do, and outside of the industry. It is about the value proposition; what is the value we add – and what will people pay a premium for? Ray Molony is publisher of Lux, Lux Review and Lighting magazine

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Lighting Journal November/December 2016


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8 Urban lighting and smart cities

CIVIC DEBATE

Much of the smart city agenda up to now has focused on the technology. But, if smart cities are to work properly, there will need to be a profound transformation in how cities engage and communicate with their citizens, a report by Philips has suggested. Nic Paton looks at its conclusions

B

ack in September, Philips Lighting announced that it was embarking on a major new pilot project with the City of Los Angeles to test smart city capabilities. At its heart was connected street lighting, building on the city’s roll-out last year of the Philips CityTouch street lighting management system. This already uses existing mobile networks and Cloud-

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

based technologies to control streetlights, monitor status, and analyse how much energy each light is consuming. But the pilot programme will see additional sensor nodes being attached to lighting columns to test a range of new applications, including environmental noise and energy grid monitoring as well as more sophisticated luminaire health data and maintenance monitoring.


Urban lighting and smart cities 9 As Ed Ebrahimian, director of the city’s Bureau of Street Lighting, put it: ‘Los Angeles’s lighting infrastructure is among the largest in the world and one of our city’s most valuable assets. It is a reliable, omnipresent fixture in the public spaces where people live, work, travel, shop, dine and interact. ‘If we imagine that every light pole can collect all kinds of data points about the city environment and its uses, there is so much more value that street lighting can afford to our citizens in addition to providing illumination,’ he added. Last month, too, Philips announced a partnership with the city of Eindhoven to create what it called ‘the world’s first crowdsourced smart city’. This will encourage citizens to work with city planners to create a ‘Roadmap Urban Lighting Eindhoven 2030’, including the development of lighting applications such as connected LED street lighting in public spaces, and the maintenance and management of public lighting in the municipality. Certainly, the progress of both these projects will be interesting for lighting professionals to watch. But, as Lighting Journal has highlighted a number of times over the past year, the smart city agenda is about much more than just technology; it is about a profound transformation in terms of how the city engages and communicates with its citizens and, critically, vice versa. After all, sensors may be able to gather data, computing power may be able to analyse it and elected officials and city administrators may as a result be able to get a new, unparalleled understanding of how ‘their’ city infrastructure and services are working. But if the citizens within smart cities are disengaged from or uncomfortable with these technologies and what they’re aiming to achieve, then it is just that, so much data barrelling around in the ether. CITIZEN RELATIONSHIP In effect, the smart city is not just about embedding ‘smart’ technology, it is about fundamentally changing the relationship, the dynamic, between citizen and municipality. But what does that actually mean? And will citizens and communities even want this new relationship? Two recent pieces of research, one a combined study from Philips Lighting and the research body The Economist Intelligence Unit, and the other from lighting controls company Lucy Zodion have attempted to drill down into these difficult questions. These are, of course, debates that go beyond street lighting per se but are nevertheless fundamental to our understanding of how the smart city agenda might unfold, or even accelerate, and in turn the opportunities that might then arise in terms of urban and street lighting. Over the next five pages I will be distilling down some of the key messages from these two studies, with an analysis of the Lucy Zodion report starting on page 12. I make no bones about the fact some of the issues raised here are tangential to lighting. In terms of our understanding of the future evolution of smart cities and the likely drivers influencing this process, they are nevertheless important discussion points for the lighting community to be considering. The Philips/EIA report, Empowering Cities: the real story of how citizens and businesses are driving smart cities, has investigated and analysed how citizens and businesses in 12 diverse cities around the world – Barcelona, Berlin, Buenos Aires, Chicago, London, Los Angeles, Mexico City, New York City, Rio de Janeiro, Shanghai, Singapore and Toronto – envision the benefits of smart cities. It highlighted, first (and positively for lighting professionals), there does appear to be a genuine appetite among citizens to engage and interact with this new technology.

Citizens, it argued, felt they could guide the improvement of infrastructure and services in three key areas: social services (in other words, areas such as healthcare and education); pollution reduction and environmental sustainability; and waste collection, treatment and recycling. Moreover, they agreed digital technologies were already improving their city services Almost a third of respondents (31%) said digital technology had improved their transportation services in the past three years. A quarter of businesses also saw this as an area that will be improved in the near future. Yet, at the same time, few (15%) believed they were currently able to make any ‘meaningful’ contribution to this. Just under a third (32%) were currently providing feedback to their local authorities, yet more than half said they would be happy to do so. ‘Overall, the desire for digital communication channels and transparency in city services is strong. A large number of citizens (51%) want wider access to digital platforms to enable them to communicate with government; they believe that the expansion of free internet access in public spaces and more information about smart city projects (both 50%) would encourage them to engage further,’ the report stated. TRUST ISSUE There remains a significant barrier around trust: trust that the data being gathered will be used properly and kept secure. There is also potentially an issue of ‘be careful what you wish for’ – by empowering citizens to use and engage with technology in this way, cities risk opening themselves up to heightened citizen expectations and, potentially, heightened criticism as well.

Perhaps the biggest challenge for cities as they roll out new digital feedback channels is the resulting shift in the traditional relationship between municipal government and its constituents. As technology enables citizens to become increasingly vocal in expressing their views on urban spending decisions, they may start to question types of spending or taxation which they feel are inefficient or inappropriate As the report argued: ‘Perhaps the biggest challenge for cities as they roll out new digital feedback channels is the resulting shift in the traditional relationship between municipal government and its constituents. As technology enables citizens to become increasingly vocal in expressing their views on urban spending decisions, they may start to question types of spending or taxation which they feel are inefficient or inappropriate.’ The report went on to look at how digital technologies are creating increasingly ‘fixable’ cities, allowing citizens to provide real-time feedback on urban services. But, again, there is a danger that, as technology shines a more powerful

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


10 Urban lighting and smart cities light on the performance of urban authorities, cities need to be sure they are equipped to respond adequately. One positive finding is that citizens were surprisingly willing to share their personal data, particularly if it led to improvements in transportation services or reduced traffic congestion (39%) as well as for improving emergency services and reducing crime (37%). Residents in North American cities – Chicago (47%), Toronto (49%) and New York City (41%) – showed the greatest willingness to share their data. And, perhaps unsurprisingly given its notoriously bad traffic congestion, half of the residents of Los Angeles also agreed. However, this willingness to share personal data could evaporate if citizens lost trust in government, the report emphasised, quoting professor Carlo Ratti, director of the SENSEable City Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology: ‘Privacy issues need to be taken very seriously,’ he said. ‘The issue is not in “data collection” but in the way they are used. In other words, the issue is not technological but political: Who has access to the data? What are they used for?”.’ There was also considerable scope for municipalities to engage more with employers and businesses on urban decision-making within this context. As the report stated: ‘Many respondents say their companies are not engaged with urban improvements, and three out of five executives believe that city governments should do more to engage businesses in smart city projects. Room for greater corporate-sector engagement exists.’ Part of the problem was that cities too often tended to treat companies as suppliers or service providers rather than strategic partners. This was a complaint raised by almost a third of executives (32%), the report said. MUNICIPAL OPPORTUNITIES For many urban leaders – beset by shrinking budgets on the one hand and rising populations and expectations on the other – the opportunities of the smart agenda are hugely attractive, the report conceded. ‘Technology offers a way forward at two levels: topdown and bottom-up. At the top, investments in connected infrastructure enable cities to run more smoothly and at lower cost. But with a bottom-up approach they [municipalities] can harness not only the data that residents generate as they use city amenities and services, but also the ideas they have on how to make cities more liveable,’ it said.

Yet simply providing more innovative digital communication channels – via lighting columns or elsewhere – or opening up access to data will not in itself build sustainable smart cities. ‘Urban leaders must provide the resources necessary to analyse those data, and they must respond to citizens’ suggestions. They need to build resources internally and work more collaboratively both across departmental divisions and with private-sector partners. This means thinking beyond software, hardware or social media and re-examining the culture and organisational structures of government itself,’ it argued. Urban leaders, in turn, needed ‘to make the shift from seeing citizens as passive consumers of municipal services and generators of data on consumption patterns to active participants in shaping the city’s future’. ‘The path toward citizen engagement will not be easy,’ the report argued. ‘Digital communication technologies enable cities to engage with citizens and businesses in unprecedented ways, but in doing so they also shake up the status quo, forcing municipal leaders to relinquish their command-and-control approach to running city services and embrace new, innovative approaches such as bottom-up management and crowdsourcing. ‘Technology also has political ramifications. For if citizens can use digital channels to provide real-time feedback on potholes and monitor and reduce their own energy consumption, their expectations of the speed with which politicians act on their commitments also is changing,’ it said. Within this, technology will be only part of the answer; successful smart cities will be about creating a culture of greater openness and transparency to encourage citizens to participate in the transformation. As the report concluded: ‘For cities that can adapt to this new world, the rewards could be rich. Providing digital tools that help business and citizens participate in urban planning and policy-making promises to create a more engaged set of urban stakeholders. It could allow cash-strapped administrations to do more with less while unleashing a wealth of new insights that will make cities smarter, more environmentally sustainable and ultimately more appealing places in which to live.’ To check out the full Empowering Cities report, go to: http://www.lighting.philips.com/main/systems/connectedlighting/connected-lighting-for-smart-cities/empoweringcities1.html

BARCELONA’S EMBRACE OF TECHNOLOGY The report included a number of city case studies, including looking at how smart city technology is being implemented in the Spanish city of Barcelona. Barcelona’s move to embrace technology began several years ago, prompted by the revitalisation of the rundown industrial neighbourhood of El Poblenou into ‘22@’, an innovation district (pictured right). This has been followed by the roll-out of free Wi-Fi across many of the city’s neighbourhoods. Wirelessly connected sensors have been installed in much of the city’s urban infrastructure, allowing the city to collect data on a range of factors, from temperature and air quality to pedestrian traffic, waste bins and parking meters. This data can all be accessed by citizens on their smartphones, so helping the city to manage services more efficiently and plan new developments and transportation networks. As Vicente Guallart, former chief architect of Barcelona City Council, put it: ‘People are participating more and more in public debates on the construction of new facilities or the transformation of public spaces.’

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


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12 Urban lighting and smart cities

COUNSELLING COUNCILS Cash-strapped councils are failing to recognise the potential of the smart city agenda, meaning some risk being left behind as others power ahead, lighting controls company Lucy Zodion has argued. Nic Paton analyses its report The smart city agenda is, at one level, about cities across the globe looking at how to respond to the challenge of growing urban populations and, at the same time, the opportunity of connected technologies. But, as a report from lighting controls company Lucy Zodion has emphasised, the ‘push’ of creating smart cities (as opposed to the ‘pull’ of citizen demand) is very much something that has to come from the local level, from the local council or municipality. Its report looking at this, Our enlightened future: the journey to smarter cities, has been built on interviews carried out with senior executives within councils across England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland during May and June 2016. The top-level finding was that the

research identified strong evidence for a lack of understanding within councils about the smart city agenda. More than 80% of the 187 councils polled did not have an appointed lead for smart cities, and many confessed to a low awareness of the topic and what it could mean for them. A range of common barriers were identified, from securing funding and resourcing at a time of budget cuts, to a lack of collaboration between services and departments hindering progress. ‘It is only when councils are able to make smart cities a strategic priority and work together to implement them efficiently, putting the citizen at the centre of their plans, will we be able to realise the potential of our future cities,’ the report argued.

FOCUS ON LIGHTING COLUMNS However, and perhaps more relevant for a Lighting Journal audience, the report incorporated a separate focus on the smart city debate in the context of street lighting. Looking at the lighting column first, comments from the council executives questioned, included: ‘We have previously seen streetlights just as streetlights, and now we see them as a piece of furniture that can host a whole load of different sensors that can do different things such as free wireless for residents, monitor noise and air quality, host cameras for public safety – they are seen as multifunctional now.’ ‘We [have] 90,000 lampposts.we have used some of those for public Wi-Fi, as a divisive power, as a host for certain technology we can do people counting, i.e. where people are walking to, what traffic is going on. It’s quite a large value in utilising the different kinds of services just on a lighting column beyond just lighting and we have successfully done that in a couple of areas,’ added another. Indeed, the ability to apply Wi-Fi connections to lighting columns in city centres was the most cited example of a smart solution already rolled out in cities, not least because it was

Manchester town hall: Manchester Smarter City uses new technologies and ways of working to understand and optimise city systems to change how the city functions to improve how people live, work, play, move, learn and organise

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


Urban lighting and smart cities 13 seen as immediately offering benefits to citizens in a cost-effective way. As one respondent said: ‘Lampposts are real estate that can be rented to companies; we did that with the street Wi-Fi, BT did a wireless concession zone in the city so we had an agreement where they were allowed to use the street furniture in exchange for complete delivery of the Wi-Fi…there was no cost to us and quite a good outcome so those sorts of partnerships are ideal.’ APPETITE FOR SENSORS The research looked at the potential, and appetite for, sensors on lighting columns. These were deemed by councils to be especially valuable for things such as monitoring traffic or air pollution levels. ‘Putting sensors on [a lamppost] to understand traffic flows…you apply it as some kind of point to help you understand the use of car parking spaces or availability, it’s a piece of street furniture with power in it, it’s an interesting structure,’ said one respondent. ‘For floating data there’s usually a bias attached to them which they put in to retain anonymity of people so you need some sort of validation network… and the obvious place to put them

would be lampposts,’ added another. Efficient street lighting was the next topic up for consideration. The report found that, by and large, councils have recognised that lighting itself can be improved through more energyefficient lighting, including dimming and automatic switching on/off settings. This generally ranged from using controls to turn off street lighting through to using sensors to automatically switch on or adjust brightness when a passing pedestrian or cyclist was detected.

BARRIER OF PFI One important barrier identified by councils was the existence of Private Finance Initiatives (PFIs) in some areas, which could limit the ability of councils to use the lighting column to its full potential, or could mean lengthy negotiations were needed when it came to trying to broaden the scope of a PFI contract. ‘We haven’t done any PFIs or anything on our street lights so we’re in quite a good position. Other places are stuck in 20-year agreements so they have to work it out with their partners, so we’re in a better position,’ said one council respondent. ‘Our streetlights were replaced quite a few years ago under a PFI contract, so they’re actually quite new. We’re still getting the value back from them, so it’s not that we could replace every street light and if we did that we could do different things – the issue is they’ve already replaced the street lights; so anything you did to a street light would be additional costs now in putting anything else on it,’ said another. The variability of engagement among councils meant there was a risk of the UK developing a three-tiered approach to smart cities delivery, the report argued.

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


14 Urban lighting and smart cities The first tier would be early adopters who had secured funding or made a conscious decision to lead in this field. They would be leading the way and, Lucy Zodion argued, ‘reaping the benefits of more efficient, effective and streamlined services and closer partnerships with third parties.’ The second tier of councils would be those keen to progress projects in principle, and identifying solutions to their city problems. ‘These councils have no designated smart council project managers or teams, nor do they have the power to siphon funding away from core service provision to invest in trialling projects. Others may have applied for funding but failed,’ the report added. And the final tier, ‘are those who may not have fully grasped the concept of smart cities and the benefits it could offer them, or who are too focused on balancing the budgets to look to the future.’ This, the report emphasised, was the majority of councils. Councils, the report therefore recommended, needed to do four ‘big picture’ things: make future cities a strategic priority; encourage greater collaboration; place citizens at the heart of smart cities; optimise existing infrastructure.

It is only when councils are able to make smart cities a strategic priority and work together to implement them efficiently, putting the citizen at the centre of their plans, will we be able to realise the potential of our future cities In practice, this would require councils to do seven things to optimise their infrastructure in the context of smart cities. These were: • Create an over-arching strategy or vision. As the report argued: ‘Whether it’s installing sensors to monitor traffic flow or developing applications for residents with up-to-date public transport, all solutions must sit within an overarching objective: you need a clear strategy about what you want to achieve first.’ • Make a sustainable business

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

case. ‘When developing a project, decide benefits which could be a return on investment and consider which partners to engage to help deliver it,’ it said. • Ensure internal prioritisation. ‘Cross-departmental support and senior buy-in is crucial,’ it argued. • Put money behind it. This could include ‘engaging external partners with a clear proposition or inviting businesses to develop a solution too.’ • Engage citizens. Citizens and the community needed to be involved in plans for the design and architecture to ensure services provided met their needs. • Look at your working. ‘Consider expanding functions of existing assets before creating new ones to achieve greater cost effectiveness,’ the report recommended. • Recognise that technology is just an enabler. ‘And your role is to facilitate the process’, it concluded. The full Our enlightened future, report can be found at http://www.djsresearch. co.uk/Free/published/Enlightened_ Future_Smart_Cities_Jul16.pdf


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16 Urban lighting: Bromley North Village public realm improvements

STREET CULTURE A bespoke multi-function lighting scheme has helped to transform Bromley North Village on the outskirts of London, as Terry Dean and Lorraine Calcott show

D

arker evenings are well and truly here; it’s almost winter and Christmas is right around the corner. One town with an extra reason to be excited about its Christmas celebrations this year is Bromley on the outskirts of London, following a revamp of its North Village, complete with bespoke street lighting. The revamp has been part of a £5.5 million public realm improvement scheme to the historic market town, giving the area an economic boost and providing longer-term improvements around the borough. The scheme was funded in partnership with the London Borough of Bromley, Transport for London and the London mayor’s Outer London Fund.It was completed in 2015. REDUCING STREET ‘CLUTTER’ Lighting designer it does Lighting and DW Windsor worked together to realise the vision of landscape architect Studio Egret West to minimise high street clutter and give the centre of Bromley a modern European ‘café culture’ feel. So, what did the scheme involve? Finding the right lighting solution for such an ambitious project was always going to be a challenge. We were tasked to create a bespoke ‘smart’ streetlight that performed multiple functions: lighting the road, lighting the path and the integration of CCTV. This was achieved through a design that, we believe, is an exciting first-of-its-kind product: a 9m high split-level feature luminaire with integrated lighting and CCTV that we have called the Forza. Within each Forza luminaire there is a 90W CosmoPolis light source to illuminate the road plus a 3m LED light source (4,000K) to illuminate the paths; complementary in colour temperature to the CosmoPolis road lighting. One challenge on this particular project was how to overcome the dark patch you can commonly get underneath the column. This was achieved by adding an LED back light section that helped to distribute the light closer to the column as well as improving uniformity. ADDING SEASONAL DECORATIONS The need to allow for the addition of seasonal decorations was also considered from the outset. Electrical connections have been tucked away, so they are invisible for the majority of the year and neat even when in use during the festive season. Another distinctive element of the luminaire, and one that will immediately be noticeable to anyone visiting Bromley High Street this Christmas, is the striking bronze colour of the columns (RAL 1036, textured matt pearl gold). The key was to achieve a hue that was distinctive yet not overbearing, and the feedback we’ve had from the community and from Bromley Council, both in terms of the

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

colour of the column and the general scheme, has been very positive. The new lighting is now fit for task, meets BS5489:2013, has minimised street clutter and has allowed for the addition of festive lighting and the integration of CCTV. As Bromley Town Ward councillor Michael Rutherford has said: ‘The brighter and pedestrian-friendly streets have brought fantastic new bars, restaurants and shops to the area. Weekday footfall is up 62%, weekend footfall is up 49%, and empty units are down; the improvements have been great for shoppers, restaurant-goers and businesses alike.’ Terry Dean is managing director of DW Windsor and Lorraine Calcott is managing director of consultancy it does Lighting


Urban lighting: Bromley North Village public realm improvement 17

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


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20 The Lighting Industry Academy

OPPORTUNITY KNOCKS The Lighting Industry Association’s Lighting Industry Academy has big plans to transform training and education, not least to help the industry respond to the arrival of innovative new lighting technologies, as Julie Humphreys outlines

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e’re really proud of our Lighting Industry Academy and what we’ve done here. But, first, what is the academy all about? The obvious answer at a basic level is that it’s a bunch of training rooms in Telford. But it’s much more than that. Yes, these rooms are an incredible facility for industry, but it’s really not just about these rooms, it’s about a bigger vision. The bigger vision is the fact that we want to develop the skills and resilience of the lighting community. As Ray Molony has highlighted earlier in this edition, we need to bring new skills into this industry and the wider lighting community so it can make the most of the exciting new products and technologies that are coming through. That’s why our strapline is ‘developing the lighting community for a bright and exciting future’. The vision of the LIA is to bring together stakeholders to collaborate to create an ‘Academy for Learning’, with the learning both physical and virtual and with quality-assured material from a range of providers. In a nutshell, we’re hoping the academy will come to be seen as a one-stopshop for all the industry’s training and development needs as

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

well as being able to develop the lighting expertise of wider users of lighting products Of course, at the LIA, we’ve been a part of educating the industry for many years; there’s been the Lighting Certificate course, which about 300-400 people will go through this year. And there is already good training out there; a lot of organisations deliver good training in the industry. Yet, generally, our industry’s training structures are struggling to meet the changing needs of our industry. Career development is also still an issue. Historically if you ask the question ‘how did you get into lighting?’ the answer will be something like, ‘well I was doing this, and then I got interested in that, and then I got more interested in lighting.’ In other words, people often come into our industry via a number of routes, and often indirectly; there is no real structure to careers within it. Then there’s the issue of a lack of recognised qualifications. A lot of our members will have come from engineering backgrounds or the design side – architecture, lighting and design degrees. But the recognised qualifications of the industry are quite lacking at the minute.


The Lighting Industry Academy 21 CAREER PATHWAYS What we want to do, therefore, with the academy is to try to create career pathways so that people who do come into lighting, young people we attract to the industry or more widely, actually have somewhere to go and see where their career pathways are. More widely, as touched on earlier, the lighting community is really beginning to struggle with the technology our members are bringing out and introducing, and what to do with it. Contractors, facilities managers, electrical distributors, energy managers – they are often struggling in terms of the changes coming through on the market. Who do they go to to best understand how to use new lighting technologies, new controls, new energy efficiency solutions? There’s a million and one questions, and they really don’t know who to go and ask. All of which bring us back to the Lighting Industry Academy. The academy is a set of rooms in Telford but it is also quite unique. Why? First, because it sits next door to our laboratory. And that makes it an absolutely stunning place for learning; the fact students can go in there and see things, they can come in and do some work, they can go and set some photometric data up and see the results of it, that makes it a really rich learning environment. But, second, the academy is also about trying to create an umbrella for our industry to put all its learning under, to allow us all to collaborate more effectively and to build up a training and development hub for learners right across the lighting community. Within this, of course, we need to be very careful to ensure the learning being delivered is fit for purpose; it is really important that learning is delivered to the highest quality.

HOW THE ACADEMY WAS FUNDED

The academy is the culmination of a significant long-term expansion programme by the association, chief executive Steven Davies said at the launch. ‘We have developed and expanded quite a bit over the last two years, and the vast majority of that has been made possible by funding from LIA members but we were also very lucky to secure a Regional Growth Fund grant of just over £1 million. Without that we would not have been able to finish and do what we’ve done,’ he said. ‘My design for a new lab was way beyond what our reserves were, so we needed to look for help elsewhere and it was forthcoming. So I was very pleased to secure that and what we’ve been able to build is a pretty impressive facility. ‘The whole process been ten years in the making, at least, for the new laboratory. We have a little bit of a way, still, to go in terms of finishing off. It’s been a bit of a long journey to get here, but essentially we’re now fully operational.’

Big training vision: Julie Humphreys at the launch of the Lighting Industry Academy

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


22 The Lighting Industry Academy LEARNING RECORD Another thing we’re looking to tackle is the lack of recognised qualifications in this industry, especially for apprentices. Very importantly, too, we’re working to create a learning record. This will mean people working within the lighting community will have a training record that can grow with them and be updated as they advance and will be held for them, available on the website. They will also have the option to record other CPD and courses alongside their certificated learning record. We’re working to build a strong portfolio of quality learning. How we’re going to do that is by collaborating with other industry partners, and manufacturers as well, to invite them to become academy ‘Ambassadors’. This is not about sponsorship; it’s about everybody being prepared to come along and support what we’re trying to do. Ambassadors will take a leading role in how we educate the industry and the wider community. As well as this, we’re going to try and create relationships with training provider partners. The idea is we bring provider

partners in and offer their training under the academy umbrella. For example, we want to offer things such as project management training. Yes, you can buy that anywhere but, by positioning it within the academy, we have the opportunity to bring together people working in the same industry. Another important thing we are introducing is a recognition process called ARP (Academy Recognised Process). We’re also creating a steering group from within and outside the industry to help us to decide which learning we do, where best to prioritise and where best to put any funds. As an academy, and as an industry, we need to identify what qualifications we want and will need, both now and into the future. We need to share resources and knowledge, whether that’s physical training rooms or learning resources. Ultimately, we want to ensure this academy to work not just for us at the LIA, but for the whole industry and the wider lighting community. Julie Humphreys is commercial manager at the Lighting Industry Association

THE LIA LABORATORY

As well as the academy, the LIA’s new £2 million laboratory is Europe’s largest independent test laboratory dedicated to lighting. Early this year, the laboratory moved into a custom-built facility on its Telford site, twice the size of its previous premises. Facilities now include: Wet Room • Pressurised tank with compressor • 1000L Stainless steel tank for submersion test • IPX3/4 Test rig – up to 2metres wide • IPX5/6 – 12L/min or 100L/min Testing Room • Three x thermal chambers • Environmental chamber • Humidity cabinet • Glow-wire cabinet with fume extractor • Needle-flame cabinet with gas inlet and fume extractor Photometric Room  • 2 x 1.0m sphere • 1 x 1.8m sphere • Lamp racks Gonio Room  • Gonio photometer Lamp Room  • Seven x lamp racks Main Laboratory • Endurance room 1 – 35°C • Endurance room 2 – up to 60°C Oven room • Four x metal ovens • Two x wooden ovens UV Room • Bentham double monochromator • Specbos 1211UV

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


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26 Procurement

PRO PLUS The EU-backed PRO-LITE project is helping public sector organisations to use their procurement powers more effectively to source, specify and install new lighting products and technologies, as Dr Leon Smith explains

T

here’s no two ways around it, rail operators have historically been slow to adopt and procure new lighting technologies. Why is this? There’s a multitude of reasons, all in their own way valid but all, equally, able to be overcome. The industry has traditionally been quite risk-averse, primarily (and understandably) because of issues such as passenger safety. This has led to a propensity for people to ‘hide’ behind the standards. Whilst often more complicated than they need to be, the standards are there for a reason, and there are important safety issues that constantly need to be addressed. But this focus has created something of a business culture of ‘we’ve always done it this way, always used high frequency fluorescents, why would we want to do it any differently?’. What this means is it has been very much up to the lighting industry to be making the business case to operators for taking on a new technology; all

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

and every change has to be carefully implemented and evaluated; it is important that what is specified is fit for purpose and does its intended job. Then there’s the fact designing railway station lighting is complex. We’ve seen some wonderful architectural spaces in recent years – with St Pancras being a great example – but station lighting needs to be multifunctional as well; the lighting needs to help passengers find their way through to their platform and on to their train, it needs to create a safe environment, it needs to work for the staff who are there all day every day, it needs to consider work, too, for the trains as they approach the station. LONG LEAD TIMES Another factor, especially given the rate of change and innovation within LED, is the fact the industry works to quite long lead times. When it comes to procurement, operators have to plan ahead and look at the technology that’s


Procurement 27

liable to be around when the items are procured, which could be two to three years from the point when that decision is made. But it has also become increasingly clear that LED technology can offer rail operators significant benefits in terms of reducing energy, increasing maintenance cycles and combating light pollution. As LED has become more mainstream and accepted, so the business case has become more compelling. LED, as all lighting professionals will well know, can allow operators to manage their lighting much more proactively and efficiently. Rather than having to maintain lighting at 100% 24/7, it gives the potential through Central Management Systems (CMS) to dim down to 50% after the last trains have gone and there are no longer people on the platforms or in the car parks. Energy savings of 50-60% can be achieved by replacing traditional lights

Ultimately, the PROLITE project has built up our confidence to break the traditional mind-set of the industry and, in turn, enabled us to invest more confidently in innovation

with LEDs. But, even more important is the savings that can be accrued from reduced maintenance. Maintenance is a huge issue, and a huge cost, for all transport operators. For example, under normal circumstances, changing a fluorescent tube above a London Underground escalator can cost up to ÂŁ1,000. So the less often you have to do this, self-evidently the better, and London Underground has been rolling out LED lighting to stations since 2013, replacing many of our T12 and T8 fluorescent tubes with LED. Another important factor is the role reduced maintenance costs will play in allowing TfL to run a sustainable night tube. PROCUREMENT INNOVATION This gradual acceptance of LED brings us rather neatly to the PRO-LITE project, as it has been a major part of our more recent procurement strategy. The European Commission-funded

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


28 Procurement PRO-LITE initiative (or Procurement of Lighting Innovation and Technology in Europe) is a partnership of six organisations (see panel), of which TfL is the leader. It is designed to show how public sector authorities can use their procurement powers in better and more innovative ways to source, specify and install new products and technologies. It is focused on procurement within a wide range of areas: lighting, signage, tiling, ceilings, flooring, IT systems and CCTV, among others. So, what benefits have we seen in terms of the procurement process and/ or savings from gradually rolling out to LED? It has led to a mechanism through which we will be able to realise the benefits achievable through the implementation of a new design idiom for our Underground stations (Lighting Journal, March 2016, vol 81, no 3). One of these benefits is focused on using layers of lighting – ambient, accent, feature and orientation – to aid passenger flow, define important areas and make finding your way around more intuitive. The idiom is now being rolled out as a matter or course at our more well known and busiest stations across London. We are seeing a 25% saving in whole-life costs, and a 75% reduction in maintenance costs at Charing Cross Station alone. There have also been significant savings across the network as a whole. We now have much better engagement with the lighting industry, with new companies entering the market in addition to the existing manufacturers that we’ve used in the past. This has given us the opportunity to identify and procure products that will demonstrate the most superior whole-life costs and performance. In fact, through PRO-LITE, we have received information on more than 350 lighting products from over 70 different

manufacturers and suppliers, or the equivalent of approximately 25% of all known UK and European suppliers. This is a step-change from the limited number of manufacturers we were able to engage before. We’ve implemented a new contract formula where we offer our contractors longer term contracts (£8 million up to eight years) and the potential for economies of scale. We actively encourage and incentivise innovation, including putting a focus on improvements to technologies that will reduce whole-life costs, and rewarding manufacturers that improve their technologies. We now have contracts with 13 manufacturers for more than 45 products, which are mandated for use across the London Underground. As long as the manufacturers ‘perform’ to the contract and continue to demonstrate best value and innovation, then we make it clear that their products will remain our ‘first choice’ option for installation across the network. Our contracts have already inspired manufacturers to innovate to reduce TfL’s whole-life costs and our impact on the environment, for example, through the use of technologies that are more efficient in their use of energy. Ultimately, the PRO-LITE project has built up our confidence to break the traditional mind-set of the industry and, in turn, enabled us to invest more confidently in innovation. We can now take a leading role in guiding and influencing innovation across many industries to deliver the products and solutions that meet the needs of our society and network. Dr Leon Smith is project manager – technology and innovation (Europe) within the Capital Programmes Directorate of London Underground, Transport for London

The new TfL design idiom uses layers of lighting – ambient, accent, feature and orientation – to aid passenger flow

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

HOW THE PRO-LITE PROJECT WORKS The PRO-LITE project was launched in 2013, and is designed to demonstrate how public sector authorities can: • consolidate their procurement power to create economies of scale; • procure innovative products/technologies; and, • drive the European economies. The project is focused on the procurement of innovative technologies and solutions that will offer improved social, environmental and economic benefits. PRO-LITE partners will spend more than €1.5 billion through the contracts put in place. The intention is that the approaches the partners in project develop will be applicable or transferable to all the assets procured by public sector authorities across Europe. The six PRO-LITE partners are: • Transport for London • The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, Germany • The Municipality of Torino, Italy • Consip, a delivery body of the Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance • EVE, a Spanish energy-saving company specialising that has improved the efficiency of the Basque Country by more 40% of its GDP • PIANOo, a Dutch ‘Public Procurement Expertise Centre’ that works with a network of more than 3,000 public procurement and tendering bodies across the Netherlands More details on the PRO-LITE project can be found at http://www.prolitepartnership.eu/


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THE NEW MODULES ARE: Emergency Battery technology – provides information on the different battery technologies used in self- contained emergency luminaires in the UK, including their advantages and limitations, alongside information on the extensive testing performed by inverter manufacturers to ensure battery lifetime and compatibility with their products. LED handling and precautions – With the move to LEDs, the industry must learn to deal with electronic components that can be damaged by the voltages generated through static build-up in the human body and other objects. This module explains the need for the correct storage and handling of static sensitive products and how this is achieved. LED Terminology - The introduction of LEDs has brought new terminology which must be understood to ensure the correct use these products. This CPD explains the new terms found on LED module and driver documentation. One company whose staff have already benefitted from some of Tridonic’s earlier modules is Fagerhult. “In order to offer

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

the best service and support to our customers it is important that our engineers keep abreast of the latest developments. Tridonic’s CPD modules brought the team up to date on both LED modules and driver technology and will help them in their day to day roles when talking to potential customers about the benefits of these new approaches,” said Les Thomas, Technical Manager, Lighting Solutions, Fagerhult. Simon Blazey, Strategic Solution Sales Manager at Tridonic, said; “Here at Tridonic we understand the importance of investing in continuous training for both staff and customers. We’re delighted with the portfolio of resources available and will continue to develop new modules inline with our new products and solutions.”

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32 Lighting standards

ROAD TO NOWHERE?

The new LM-84 and TM-28 standards were developed to help lighting professionals predict lumen depreciation at a luminaire level. But for anyone wanting to invest in high-performance LED roadway luminaires they’re a bit of a car crash, argues a disappointed Trevor Leighton

I

am a lighting guy, have been for more than 20 years. The changes to our industry in the last 15 years have been somewhat turbulent, to put it mildly. Some of us were street lighting engineers who had to almost become semi-conductor engineers and start talking about quantum physics principles and spout impressive formulae, alphas and betas, least squares fit and so on. In the good old days if you wanted to find out what lumen output reduction you could expect over the useful lifetime of a lamp, for lighting design maintenance factors, you simply checked the lamp manufacturer’s datasheet, LLD x LDD and off you went. With LED, this is not so straightforward anymore. As a luminaire manufacturer, we choose the exact binning of LED chip we want. For example, for the chip family we

want, we can choose the flux range, the colour tolerance range and the forward voltage range. This means you and I can both offer a product with CREE XPG2, say, I use the higher flux range and tighter colour tolerance, say, five steps, and you offer a product with the same chip family but much lower specs. In essence, we both state that we use CREE XP-G2 4000K CRI 70. But my chips are double the price of yours. There is no lamp datasheet as such, we get what we ask for from CREE and make regular internal quality checks to ensure consistent performance. We currently use a chip bin that yields minimum 170 lm/LED pulsed at 25°C with 350mA, but there’s simply no datasheet from CREE. The next challenge is how to predict what the LLD will be at a certain point in time and at a realistic average ambient operating temperature, for example 35°C for the Gulf Co-operation Council region (in other words Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). Once we understand the hottest solder point temperatures of the LEDs at the right ambient, via thermal test, we can then look up the appropriate alpha and beta values from LM-80 from the

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

chip manufacturer and plug those into the TM-21 formula with the 50,000 hours, or however many hours are expected. LLD sorted, well as long as the MEP consultant understands it… sigh. I am constantly frustrated as a luminaire manufacturer with consultants and clients stating that they require a minimum chip performance of, say, 160 lm/W. Why? What benefit will that offer? Surely what’s coming out of the luminaire in a useful direction divided by the total circuit load may offer something worth comparing between luminaires? That would be LM-79 then. The point I am trying to stress here is that we are fairly tired of getting into so much minutiae on components when the system – the luminaire – should be what ultimately really matters. LUMINAIRE TESTING So imagine my excitement when I heard that LM-84 and TM-28 were being planned as a way to predict lumen depreciation at a luminaire level, no more LM-80, TM-21? I was like a kid at Christmas when I paid my $20 and eagerly downloaded the LM-84 paper hoping to see submittal heaven – and mostly the future of my mental wellbeing. After completing my initial reading of


Lighting standards 33 the four or five main pages, I had to reread it as I was unable to find anything useful in it. The second reading confirmed my initial suspicion. It simply said to take a fitting and perform an LM-79 test, then put it on a rack and run it for a ‘period’ of time, then repeat the process ad infinitum. No indications of time were stated, but it dropped little hints like L70 and L50. Let me just be very clear about what L70 means for a high-quality, 1W, high-power LED chip these days – for most datasets, that point in time is more than 400,000 hours. L50? I formed the opinion this was not suitable for performance roadway luminaires, suspecting the real target of the US laboratories were retrofit LED lamps, a market of course worth many millions of pieces annually. Remember that in Europe, standards have usually always been driven by industry; in the US they seem to be driven by laboratories. LM-84 also has a small section on use of a thermal camera to determine the hottest solder point temperatures in the luminaire. But for a roadway luminaire you first have to remove the cover glass, next remove the lens and only then use the thermal camera. Then attach thermo-couples, re-attach the lenses and put the cover glass back. Hang on, we’ve just altered that thermal system twice? This is not practical nor useful! For a roadway luminaire we have much more effective ways of proving our thermal performance. Seems to yet again support my theory of the primary target market. Recently TM-28 was finally published, and I was hoping for some direction change that may have made the twin documents more useful. Sadly, it only compounded the first.

I was like a kid at Christmas when I paid my $20 and eagerly downloaded the LM-84 paper. After completing my initial reading of the four or five main pages, I had to re-read it as I was unable to find anything useful in it Two methods of extrapolation are described, ‘Direct’ and ‘Combined’, the latter to be used in conjunction with LM-80/TM-21 chip data. Time ranges are now defined, both up to 6,000 hours, and for the latter involves taking LM-79 measurements at 3,000 hours and then periodically every 500 hours until the final test at 6,000 hours. CLIENT EXPECTATIONS But now here’s a catch. For the ‘Combined’ method, the minimum sample set to be tested is five luminaires and once you have this data you are then only allowed to extrapolate 1.5 times the testing time, in other

words 1.5 x 6,000 hours = 9,000 hours. Not much use to tell a client what we expect the LLD to be after just over two years of operating use for a roadway luminaire running 12 hours a day. They demand 50,000 hours minimum. So, if I interpret the standard correctly, I need to use the maximum 6 x testing time criteria, which then means I need to test 15 luminaires for approx. 8,333 hours. Third party testing? Sounds a little pricey, in my estimation it would cost US$60,000-70,000, without considering shipping and the actual cost of the luminaires. Let me now put this into some sort of product life-cycle perspective. My company has changed chip platforms three times in four years and normally we wait at least 6,000 hours for LM-80 data before we even think of putting chips into a luminaire. If we now have to comply to LM-84/ TM-28, we lose another whole year plus before we have a product suitable for the market, at which point we’d need to start all over as we’ve gone through yet another efficacy barrier and are no longer offering that option. In the last seven years we have gone from 350 lm/kg of luminaire to now just over 3,500 lm/kg, not bad considering the cost of making poles cope with increased weight. It gives a good idea of how the technology is changing so rapidly. To conclude, however, LM-84 and TM-28 bring nothing to the table for anyone who wishes to invest in the latest high-performance LED roadway luminaires. Back to the drawing board, chaps. Trevor Leighton is regional technical officer at Schréder, based in Dubai in the United Arab Emirates

Dubai at night: predicting the LLD at a point in time and a realistic average ambient operating temperature can be challenging in hot countries such as the Gulf states


34 Lighting technology

CLOUD BUSTING Lighting Reality’s Cloudbased ACE service could provide a step-change in the speed and accuracy of road lighting luminaire analysis, writes Francis Pearce

D

etails of a browser-based service said to have the potential to revolutionise road lighting design and luminaire development were revealed at the IES Street and Area Lighting Conference in Hollywood in September. UK-based street lighting design software developer Lighting Reality has found a way to automate – and therefore vastly accelerate – the analysis of road lighting luminaires through utilising the Cloud, according to its technical director Nick Smith. Using the data contained in luminaires’ photometric data files, Lighting Reality’s ACE (or Advanced Calculation Engine) calculates the performance of a product for huge numbers of different road configurations and luminaire arrangements. It then stores the results for instant access by consultants, lighting departments or product development and sales teams. Nick unveiled details of ACE in a paper at the conference, contrasting street lighting design practice in the USA, UK and Europe. Such a step-change in the speed and volume of calculations will potentially enable consultants, planners and highways authorities to cost-justify lighting improvements with increased confidence and ensure they conform to standards such as EN13201 in Europe, CIE standards and IES RP08 in the USA. The scalability of Cloud computing, ‘allows both manufacturers and end-users to achieve a level of coverage that simply is not practical for manually-generated data sets,’ Nick told Lighting Journal. ‘A traditional desktop street lighting design application will perform a single set of calculations for a single luminaire

with one road and luminaire configuration,’ he said. Using such traditional methods, an individual user of a lighting design application might process around 150 to 200 different configurations per day, a process that also requires a great many user interactions and therefore carries the risk of human error. ‘But, ACE will calculate the results for many different luminaires, across a multitude of road, pole and luminaire configurations, which could be many thousands, or millions, of calculation scenarios,’ added Nick. It does this by using multiple Cloud computers and then by creating or shutting down virtual machines as required in order to minimise the costs of computing. Since the ACE calculations are performed by virtual machines running in the Cloud, the available computer power can rapidly be scaled up or down to meet demand. Ahead of the official launch, street lighting manufacturers have been betatesting ACE. Lighting Reality predicts the new system will benefit product design, sales, tendering and marketing design functions, describing ACE as a ‘luminaire intelligence solution’. DEFINING SCENARIOS It allows manufacturers and end-users to upload production, development, or prototype photometric data files so every scenario can be tested against them. They can then rapidly define many different street lighting scenarios, varying the mounting characteristics of the luminaire, or the road configuration or type. Typical parameters include the configuration, surface, number of lanes and width of roads or highways; the

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

mounting height, tilt and outreach of a luminaire, and the maintenance factor or light loss factor. The system has six modules, which can be divided into three groups: data input/definition; calculation and data storage, and data extract and query. Users are assigned roles that permit or deny access to modules, and define the level of functionality available within a module. Data can also be tagged, so that access to development data, for example, can be restricted to development engineers. The ACE ‘Photometry Manager’ allows users to import, manage and tag the photometric data needed to calculate the performance of individual street lighting luminaires, while the ‘Scenario Generator’ allows them to test road configurations. Then, the ‘ACE Engine’ uses the data defined to calculate luminaire performance data. From there, the ‘ACE Exporter’ enables users to query performance data and export it to a spreadsheet. Finally, the ACE ‘Sales App’ gives sales personnel access to performance data for a specific road configuration, using a tablet or smart phone, while the ACE ‘Technical Evaluator’ allows users to view and compare performance data graphically. ‘Depending on the class of road, one computer running ACE will carry out five to 40 calculations a second,’ explained Nick, depending on the quality figure requirements. ‘But you are also getting the output must faster. It’s all automated in terms of doing the maths and pushing it back into a spreadsheet, an app-enabled database – and it’s accurate. The greater the volume of calculations or the urgency of the task, the bigger the network of computers that can be put to work,’ he added.


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internal testing program, which includes specific acceptability limits, UL can offer manufacturers the opportunity to have an independent third-party laboratory verify the validity of claims about the level of Optical Perceived Flicker in their products. Products not exceeding the identified thresholds are eligible to carry the UL Verified Low Optical Flicker Mark, allowing for easy identification and differentiation during product specification.

“Manufacturers whose product offers benefits such as low optical flicker should have the opportunity to differentiate their service offerings on the shelf” said Roberto Inclinati, business development manager with UL’s lighting division “and specifiers and purchasers also benefit – not only because they can now easily identify low optical flicker products for their lighting projects, but

also because the third-party verification mark provides peace of mind and helps protect their professional reputation for quality.” Together with Disano Illuminazione, who was the very first company to get the UL Verified Low Optical Flicker Mark, others companies, like Dyson, have got that Mark today. Those firms recognized the benefit of determining the validity of their marketing claims by a third party, and worked with UL to evaluate their products according to the new protocol.

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36 Inside the ILP: YLP

ILLUMINATING VALUES

From perception and daylight through to eyesight and photography, light in all its facets was the focus of an event in Dublin supported by the YLP. Sarah Carolan was there

T

he Limelight Lecture hosted in the school of Multidisciplinary Technologies at Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) on Bolton Street on 25 May shone a fascinating spotlight on the lighting community in Ireland. The event, which was supported by the Society of Light and Lighting and the YLP, was not a single lecture but gathered together a diverse team of presenters, covering topics ranging from perception and photography though to daylight and eyesight. The evening aimed to capture various interpretations and opinions on, simply, the theme of ‘light’ from a range of multi-disciplinary perspective. And it certainly achieved that aim. It is easy to become submerged in one’s own field and it is only on taking a step back and listening to the opinions of others that we learn and discover new ways to appreciate the full spectrum. James Duff, a lighting designer with Arup, gave an enthusiastic insight into some oversights made when designing glazed buildings in urban areas. One such building he detailed was London’s Rafael Vinoly-designed ‘Walkie Talkie’ Tower in Fenchurch Street in London, which was notoriously

affected by adjacent buildings and streetscapes. The bright southern sun was being reflected off the curved surface of the tower, beaming it into the streets below, melting car parts, cracking tiles and even frying eggs, as seen above. Retrofit measures had to be introduced to negate the problem, but came at a cost of millions. DAYLIGHT IN INTERIOR SPACES Anne Gorman, an architect and daylight researcher, talked about daylight in our living spaces, and the role that a view may have on our perception of daylight in the interior. She also discussed the latent potential of window orientations other than south and the use of photography/

high dynamic range (HDR) imaging as a new way of exploring daylight in buildings, a topic at the heart of her recently-completed dissertation at the Bartlett School of Graduate Studies (see Figure 1). Artist Vauney Strahan presented her recently-completed master’s work, entitled Lateral, and based on her research into human consciousness and perception. Vauney embraces the idea of spaces within spaces, often generated by reflections and interplays of light revealing stories and creating atmospheres in space. She stated that her paintings were ‘symbolic of both our inner world and the physical experience’, as we can see in Figure 2.

Figure 1. Test scene generated by Anne Gorman for her thesis survey

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


Inside the ILP: YLP 37

Figure 2. Crystal, oil on panel, 45cm x 58cm, 2013, by Vauney Strahan

Figure 4. ‘Live music’ by Ste Murray

Figure. 3. Architectural photography by Ste Murray, the ‘cowshed project’

Next up was Dublin-based Ste Murray, who works between performance and architectural photography. He explained that there are contrasts as well as similarities between the two disciplines, and that both involve patience. In architecture it is the changing sky that discloses the qualities and textures of materials in a different light, as illustrated in a barn and school project that he showed us (Figure 3). Performance photography also involves patience, in that it requires catching a single moment, which will pass in seconds but is a perfect combination of light and action aligning to reveal the soul of the performance, as highlighted in Figure 4. Architect Michael Mescal gave a presentation on his work, which aims

to create a multi-disciplinary software program enabling the architect at concept design stage to easily test areas such as solar gain, daylight and wind load, while avoiding the expense of engaging a consultant. Addressing these issues at concept stage is vital, as current practice involves consultants too late in the project to rectify early design faults, he argued. Stained glass artist Peter McGuire spoke about the natural resource of our beautiful, constantly changing skyscape, highlighting his beautiful glass works and in the process making the compelling point that, for him, light works as the engine, the fuel, that makes his artistry beautify (Figure 5). A lecturer in the School of Architecture at University College Dublin (UCD), Paul

Kenny is also the principal investigator with the university’s Earth Institute and actively engaged in research around daylight, sustainable design and building performance. He spoke about his past and proposed research, including how the famous light artist James Turrell was drawn to Ireland because of its forever mutating skies, and where he created his sky garden in Lissard Estate in Cork. Paul’s current ‘Threshold Project’ looks at how certain environments allow you to see spectral elements of light you may not see in other environments, and also how these spectral qualities relate to human wellbeing (Figure 6). Architect and researcher in UCD Morteza Matkan demonstrated how he is using HDR imaging to measure brightness levels, arguing that the traditional methods used to measure light are not conducive to well-daylit spaces. Looking for a common language, he has used this technique to measure ‘sacred light’, testing it on the cuppulas of the San Lorenzo in Florence and the Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque in Iran (Figure 7). Ophthalmology research fellow Conor Malone, who works at the Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital in Dublin, gave a humorous medical presentation entitled ‘Lasers and leprechauns’; the leprechauns in this case being the disordered vision experienced by a person suffering from Charles Bonnet Syndrome.

Lighting Journal November/December 2016


38 Inside the ILP: YLP

Figure. 7. HDR modelling of the Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque, Iran

Figure 5. Stained glass project by Peter Maguire, catching the changing light

Figure 8. The left image shows a realistic interpretation of Monet’s Water Lilies as they were and, right, is the real painting he painted it in old age while suffering from cataracts

Figure 6. The Threshold Project

Figure 9. Vermeer used shifts in light in his studio to convey messages in his work

Conor compared studies of Monet’s famous Water Lilies paintings carried out in his early career and in his declining years, contrasting the differences in perception and clarity, between the healthy eye and the eye distorted by cataract development (Figure 8). Architect Stephen Tierney addressed the work of Vermeer. Light in Vermeer’s work is used to portray many different qualities, and subtle shifts can often alter the meaning of an element and consequently the message.

Stephen’s research aims to understand how Vermeer used his studio to create these shifts in light, which was possibly achieved through curtains, props and changing weather conditions (Figure 9). Overall, the Limelight evening gathering provided an interesting and stimulating glance into a myriad of disciplines to which light is of paramount importance. We all came away better informed and more curious, and very much hoping

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

there will be further exploration of this topic via a continuation of the Limelight series. Special thanks go out to the speakers for giving their time on a voluntary basis, to DIT for the venue and refreshments, to SLL, ILP and Arup for their guidance and support of the evening, and of course to the audience for attending. Sarah Carolan is an architect and lighting designer and a member of the YLP


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40 Lighting design

SPEAKING ‘DIRECTOR’ Theatre directors will know how they want a stage to be lit but, because light is so intangible, may struggle to articulate it. In an innovative research project, Kelli Zezulka is looking at how lighting designers can better understand what is being asked of them

L

ighting designers are in a unique position. The material that we work with – not the technology and tools that produce it, obviously, but the actual material itself – is intangible. You can’t see it unless it’s interacting with something else, haze or smoke perhaps, or something more solid like a piece of furniture, a wall, or a person. In theatre and live performance, light can only really be seen when in situ: in the theatre, with the set, with the actors in their costumes. In short, we work with an immaterial material. Light only has materiality by proxy. So it can be difficult to describe. My research is a mixture of my two professional interests: lighting and language. Through recordings and transcripts thereof, I’m creating a ‘lighting corpus’, which I’m analysing using a variety of techniques. I’m hoping to understand how lighting designers and other members of the creative team communicate about light, and to what extent lighting designers can use language to exercise agency in creative collaboration. To take a basic example, not everyone has the same idea of ‘blue’ and for every director, designer or client you work with, you have to work out what their ‘blue’ is. And it’s not just colour, either. There are hundreds of words that can be used to describe light and how others perceive it. CONVERSATION TRANSCRIPTS Here’s an example from my current research. I’ve been spending a lot of time with lighting designers lately – in technical rehearsals, lighting plotting sessions and dress rehearsals. I’ve recorded their conversations with directors, designers and lighting programmers, transcribed them and run the transcripts through some language analysis software. So far I’ve transcribed 50 documents with a total of just over 12,000 words. One of the first things I looked at was colour, which is talked about more often

than any other property of light – and by quite some distance as well: 16 times more than intensity, the second-most frequent.

This word cloud above shows the frequency, so far, of basic colour terms. English has eleven basic colour terms: black, white, red, green, yellow, blue, brown, orange, pink, purple and grey. Some languages have more than this; for instance, Russian has two words for what we would call ‘blue’ in English: one for lighter blues and one for darker blues. Some languages, for instance Welsh, have what English-speaking linguists call a ‘grue’ colour – one word that encompasses the English for blues and greens. Coincidentally, ‘blue’ and ‘green’ are the largest words in this word cloud, and therefore the most commonly used basic colour words so far in my corpus. The word cloud below shows you all of the adjectives or adverbs that occur near basic colour terms, so we can see what words designers use to describe colour. The largest word by far is ‘good’. What does that mean? How can we qualify what a ‘good’ colour is? There are some more descriptive words here as well – disgusting,

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

vibrant and strong – but what is a ‘violent’ colour? Or one that’s ‘nice’ or just ‘alright’? Interestingly, ‘greener’ and ‘bluer’ are both used as adjectives to describe blue. In the excerpt these are used in, the lighting designer asks to see different colours (shades of blue) and eventually settles on one, saying: ‘I think I prefer that one.’ This demonstrates another interesting frequency so far in my transcripts: the use of sensory detail imagery. This is anything that uses or references one of the five senses, and I’ve also included thought in this category. There are 92 uses of sensory detail imagery so far and these include phrases such as: • ‘That feels a bit dirgy to me.’ • ‘If we make it a bit bright then pull them down I think it would make it really epic.’ • ‘Yeah, it needs to feel like a burst into the – like he’s bursting into the door.’ • ‘I guess what I’m thinking is if they could be softer.’ • ‘I just need to feel this space a bit, don’t I?’ This last sentence is a great example of the skill theatre lighting designers employ during technical rehearsals, and why the space itself is so important to our perception of and discussions about light and lighting. In an article for American Theatre in 2003, Stephen Strawbridge, the cochair of the design department at Yale School of Drama and resident lighting designer for Yale Repertory Theatre, wrote: ‘Only in the theatre [...] can we be certain we are all talking about the same thing. Only then can we see what we are talking about.’ Of course, there are computeraided drawing programs that can help, but they are often not entirely representative. As lighting designer Nigel Levings warns: ‘Intentions can be discussed but it is very difficult to convey the three- or actually fourdimensional nature of a light plot flowing through the course of the production.’


Lighting design 41 Or as one lighting designer recently put it to me: ‘Who has time to do drawings in theatre? I would hope that my words would be able to articulate what I want better and quicker than the time it takes to do a drawing.’ So, what can we do to facilitate more effective communication? In the transcripts I’m working with, I’ve identified two types of discourse: unidirectional and collaborative. Unidirectional discourse consists primarily of instructions or direct commands. These tend to come from the lighting designer and to their programmer, but they can also come from the director or designer. Collaborative discourse can be to or from anyone on the creative or production teams and is most often used in problem solving or group decision making. In analysing these two types of discourse, I’ve found there are more words used per turn – that is, every time someone new speaks – in collaborative discourse than in unidirectional discourse. This is perhaps not surprising; when giving commands we tend to have a good idea about what we want and are fairly economical with the language: ‘channel X at X%’, ‘make the beam softer/harder/bring that shutter in’, ‘change the colour’, etc. Of the lighting designer’s 394 turns, 266 are in collaborative discourse and 128 are in unidirectional discourse (about a 2:1 ratio). There are some interesting patterns that occur when these different types are analysed separately. RHETORICAL QUESTIONS For instance, rhetorical questions are used twice as often in collaborative as in unidirectional discourse. Tag questions (such as ‘isn’t it?’ or ‘don’t you think?’, in other words questions tagged onto the end of a sentence), hesitations (‘um’ and ‘uh’) and hedges (‘kind of’ and ‘maybe’, for example) are used two-and-a-half times more in collaborative discourse. My first reaction to these figures is that this difference is accounted for in the fact that collaborative discourse can be very unstructured and ‘stream

of consciousness’ as people work to articulate what they want, what others want, and how to get there. Take, for example, this exchange from my recent fieldwork: Lighting designer: ‘What do you want it to go to?’ Director: ‘Cause it went to blue just now, didn’t it? It went to a very pale light – I’m not sure about that. Do you – are you – are we thinking of gradually losing the warmth?’ Lighting designer: ‘Yeah. I mean, you saw it happen over five seconds, where it should – the timing should be 40 seconds.’ [...] Director: ‘OK, so – ’ Lighting designer: ‘It just shifts – you shouldn’t realise it; it should just sort of take over.’ I’ve labelled this collaborative, rather than unidirectional, discourse, as it involves a degree of problem solving and the articulation of artistic intention. There are two interesting things to point out in the director’s first turn: the use of a tag question (‘didn’t it?’) and something interesting that I have a vague theory about: the use of ‘we’ or ‘you’, in other words first or second person. The director starts his question with the second person ‘you’ and shifts to the first person ‘we’, which immediately changes the focus of the question. By making this simple change, the director has included himself in the lighting designer’s creative process, making it a collaborative decision (albeit one the lighting designer has already made). In the lighting designer’s final turn in this excerpt, there are two

interesting elements to note. The first is the lighting designer’s assertion: ‘you shouldn’t realise it’. Although not overtly referencing sensory detail imaging, ‘realise’ implies two senses: sight and what I’m calling affective feel (so how something feels in a metaphorical or abstract sense), as opposed to haptic feel (which refers to feeling in a tactile, literal sense). There’s a hedging phrase in this turn as well: ‘sort of’. While hedges are usually considered to be markers of ‘powerless language’, I don’t think that’s the case in this excerpt. However, it is interesting to note the hedge occurs in a turn where the lighting designer is explaining or clarifying their choice. My hunch is that hedges reinforce the collaborative partnership, supporting the idea that no one party is overly influencing another; the creative decisions are being made collaboratively. These are just some preliminary thoughts, and as I generate more data over the next two years, these thoughts will become better formed and will be backed up with further first-hand observations. My hope is also that this research could be further extrapolated to other creative industries, particularly those with similar challenges in translating artistic intention to technical processes, for example music, art and IT/software, or in other industries (including the sciences) where people with diverse skill sets, expertise and points of view work together to create new and innovative work. I’m really interested in what you – the practitioners – think as well, so I welcome your questions and comments. Feel free to drop me an email at enklz@leeds.ac.uk Kelli Zezulka is a PhD student at the University of Leeds as well as a freelance theatre designer and nonexecutive director of the Association of Lighting Designers


42 LuxLive 2016

LUX AND LEARN With more than 80 presentations and over 250 exhibitors across ten sectors, this year’s LuxLive will once again be somewhere to wear out your shoe leather. Lighting Journal focuses in on what you can expect from the show’s newest arrival, the Escape Zone

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he Escape Zone will be the newest arrival to LuxLive later this month (23-24 November), a theatre and presentation area dedicated to all things emergency lighting. What, then, will lighting professionals with an interest in this area be able to check out? There are set to be some 19 presentations within just this one zone across the two days, so it will pay to plan your visit carefully. But, to give you a flavour, on the Wednesday, Ian Watts of Hochiki will be outlining the key requirements to ensure your emergency lighting is compliant with current UK legislation and there will be an ‘ask the experts’ panel discussion devoted to emergency lighting. Jonathan Ball of Liteplan will run a ‘battery masterclass’ looking at the common technologies in use today and solutions coming to the market that can extend service life, reduce maintenance costs and save energy. EMERGENCY HERITAGE LIGHTING Geraldine O’Farrell of Historic England will lead what is set to be a fascinating presentation on the tricky area of emergency lighting in heritage interiors, including looking at the questions: can all luminaires be converted safely to emergency lighting use and what are the issues with luminaire conversions?

and a presentation on how to reap the benefits of automatic testing. In this presentation, Andy Davies, of Harvard Technology, will look at topics including the advantages of automatic emergency lighting systems, where and when it is appropriate to install them and whether retrofitting a system is cost-effective. And don’t forget, this abridged line-up is just what is going on in one presentation area. With more than 80 presentations and over 250 exhibitors across ten sectors, things are expected to be equally busy throughout the site.

There will also be a panel discussion looking at what the future holds for emergency lighting against the backdrop of LED, IoT and new wiring protocols, such as power over Ethernet. Thursday, meanwhile, will encompass presentations on ‘five ways you could be breaking the law’ and how to do a risk assessment. There will be a focus on managing emergency lighting across large estates

DIFFERENT ZONES There will be an array of presentations taking place in the main Lux Arena, the Internet of Things (IoT) Arena, the Lightspace Arena, and in the two technical arenas, the Whitecroft Tech Theatre and Tech Theatre 2. In all, more than 8,000 lighting professionals are expected to make the trek out to London’s ExCel centre on 23 and 24 November. Bear in mind that on the Wednesday the focus will be more on lighting for retail, hospitality, offices, education and healthcare. On the Thursday, the programme will be devoted more to industrial, outdoor and transport lighting. Full details of all speakers and timings can be found online at www.luxlive.co.uk

LOGISTICS AND DETAILS When: Wednesday 23 November, Thursday 24 November Doors open: 9am Doors close: 9pm (Wednesday), 5pm (Thursday) How to get to the ExCeL London: Tube: take the Jubilee Line to Canning Town, pick up the Beckton-bound Docklands Light Railway (DLR) and then go two stops to Custom House. River and cable car: The Emirates Air Line (Cable Car) connecting ExCeL London and the O2 opened now makes it possible to travel by Thames Clipper between central London and the O2 and then by cable car across the Thames to the ExCeL.

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

Air: the nearest airport is London City Airport, which is five minutes from the ExCeL by taxi or ten minutes by DLR. Car: follow signs for Royal Docks, City Airport and ExCeL. There is access from the M25, M11, A406 and A13.

Finally, don’t forget to register to attend. This can be done by clicking on the ‘Register here’ button on the website.


GAME PLAYER

TO GAME CHANGER 1978 - 2016

Dextra Group are rewriting the lighting rule book. Find out more at Lux Live 2016, stand H20.

ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY AWARDS 2016 Finalist

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INNOVATE TO ILLUMINATE


44 Inside the ILP: ILP news

JOURNAL WINS RIVER VICTORY The organisers behind The Illuminated River competition have said a lighting designer will now be part of the judging process, following criticism voiced in Lighting Journal that the landmark London competition had overlooked the role, and expertise, of the profession. IALD UK projects manager Emma Cogswell argued in Lighting Journal in September that it was ‘disappointing, and an indication of how far lighting design still needs to go to get itself on to the design “top table”, that a competition with such potential to promote our industry to the wider public managed to stumble on what should have been a straightforward element, getting a lighting designer on to the judging panel.’ In response, the competition organisers have made it clear the judging process will now be widened to include a supporting panel. This, in turn, will feature Mark Major, principal at Speirs + Major, who will represent lighting designers. Project manager Sue Davies told Lux magazine that the supporting panel had been set up ‘in recognition of the importance of both the lighting design and other key technical and design aspects of the Illuminated River competition. ‘The supporting panel plays a key role in the competition process by enabling a very deep analysis process to be undertaken around each of the shortlisted submissions,’ she added. The competition will see 17 London bridges receive stunning new lighting designs and, in all, 105 teams (made up of 346 individual firms) entered the competition, with nearly half the submissions coming from overseas, the organisers said in September. A shortlist of six teams has now been drawn up: • Adjaye Associates with Chris Ofili, Thukral & Tagra, Doug Aitken, AKTII, HPF (Hurley Palmer Flatt), Four Communications, DP9, Plan A and DHA Designs • AL_A with Asif Kapadia, Simon Stephens, SEAM Design and GROSS.MAX • Diller Scofidio + Renfro with L’Observatoire International, Arup, Transsolar, Jennifer Tipton and Oliver Beer

• Les Éclairagistes Associés with ecqi, ewo, Federico Pietrella, and GVA Lighting Europe Limited

• Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands with Future\Pace,

Leo Villareal, Pentagram, Price & Myers, Atelier Ten, Beckett Rankine and Core Five • Sam Jacob Studio and Simon Heijdens with Electrolight, Daisy Froud and Elliott Wood Competition organiser Malcolm Reading said: ‘This shortlist brims with promise: these teams are at the intersection of art, architecture, technology, engineering, film and literature. They have put together fascinating combinations of skills and we expect great things of them.’ During this month (November), the finalists’ concept designs will be unveiled, and, as Hannah Rothschild, chair of the Illuminated River Foundation,put it, ‘London will have six possible visions of how the river and the city might be transformed after dark. ’It is anticipated jury interviews with the shortlisted practices will take place during late November 2016, with the winner set to be announced in early December.

‘BRIGHT LIGHTS, BIG CITIES’ IS BEST LJ ARTICLE IN 2016 Well done to Barry Hale, business director at Amey, whose article Bright Lights, Big Cities, was voted the best article of 2016 at the ILP lecture in October. Barry’s article, which appeared in the January edition (Volume 81, No 1), looked at the opportunities the smart city agenda could bring to the lighting community, but also the significant practical obstacles that will therefore need to be overcome by lighting professionals along the way. At the same event student Owen Stephens was awarded the ILP’s

Student of the Year Award for achieving the highest marks in the Exterior Lighting Diploma and completing his Module 4 project on time. Owen said: ‘The Exterior Lighting Diploma is an achievement in itself and the award for highest achieving student is one which I am very proud of.’ There will be a write-up of the ILP lecture, delivered by leading optician Ian Jordan, in the January edition of Lighting Journal. Before the lecture, Ian was also awarded Best Professional Lighting Summit Presentation for his speech at last year’s Summit.

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

Barry Hale receiving award from ILP President Kevin Grigg


Line Grazer by

www.atrium.ltd.uk


46 Future concept

PARCEL B POSTS

Internet giant Amazon is now testing delivery drones in the UK and has proposed ‘docking stations’ could be located on lighting columns. Lighting Journal took a look

ack in July the internet giant Amazon announced it had agreed a partnership with the UK government to explore the steps that might need to be taken to make the delivery of parcels by small drones a reality on our streets. The partnership will see a crossgovernment team supported by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) explore three key potential innovations: • flying drones ‘beyond line of sight’ in rural and suburban areas • testing how sensors might work to allow drones to identify and avoid obstacles • testing flights where one person operates multiple highlyautomated drones. As Paul Misener, Amazon’s vice president of global innovation policy and communications, put it at the time: ‘Using small drones for the delivery of parcels will improve customer experience, create new jobs in a rapidly growing industry, and pioneer new sustainable delivery methods to meet future demand. The UK is charting a path forward for drone technology that will benefit consumers, industry and society.’ Tim Johnson, policy director of the CAA, added: ‘We want to enable the innovation that arises from the development of drone technology by safely integrating drones into the overall aviation system. These tests by Amazon will help inform our policy and future approach.’ There are, of course, huge questionmarks around the use of unmanned drones for this sort of activity, not least the whole issue of public safety and confidence, and the ‘Big Brother’ debate about what it could potentially mean for intrusion and surveillance. But a more practical question is, if delivering parcels and packages in this way were ever to become a reality, where would such drones dock and/or recharge when they’re not buzzing about above our heads? One answer – possibly – appears to be lighting columns. DOCKING PATENT How we know this is that, also in July, Amazon successfully filed a patent with the US Patent and Trademark Office for ‘docking stations’ for its delivery drones that could be located on tall structures, including, potentially, the tops of churches and lighting columns. ‘The docking stations may incorporate a number of features to enable UAVs

Lighting Journal November/December 2016

(unmanned aerial vehicles) to fly longer routes, to fly routes more accurately, and to provide shelter during adverse conditions,’ Amazon’s filing said. Of course, like any patent it is just that – a piece of paper that may or may not ever come to fruition. But it nevertheless is an intriguing idea. Within the patent, Amazon outlines the idea that there would be a ‘central control system’ that would communicate with each docking station to pass on routing information as well as details such as wind conditions. The docking stations could be used as charging points for the drones or even as restocking points, with packages moving up and down the column via a ‘vacuum tube, dumbwaiter, elevator, or conveyor’ to a delivery person on the ground. The stations, Amazon has argued, could act as points for providing local free or fee-based Wi-Fi services in public areas ‘without bearing the burden of installing some, or all, of the necessary infrastructure’. They could also be used for advertising to ‘generate additional revenue for the provider’, it said in the patent documents. PROTOYPE TESTING So, what are the chances of this actually happening? It is clear, first of all, from Amazon’s agreement with the CAA that this is something it is pretty serious about pursuing and, of course, is a company that has seriously deep pockets. The use of drones across the UK is increasing, and we may in fact not be that far off delivery drones becoming a reality. In September, for example, The Daily Mail published pictures of what it said was a prototype of an Amazon delivery drone being tested by engineers in Cambridgeshire. The aim is such drones will eventually be able to fly for 10 miles at a height of 400ft and carry packages weighing up to 5lb. And, of course, bolting this type of technology – literally – on to lighting columns very much fits in with the wider ‘smart city’ and connected lighting agenda. However, as Lighting Journal has also much discussed over the past year, the barriers to using lighting columns in this way are also significant, not least whether lighting columns will be physically able to cope with being festooned with an array of extra kit and technology. Where this is all going appears to be very much a question of ‘watch this space’. Or, perhaps more accurately, ‘watch the skies’.


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Lighting Consultants

Go to: www.theilp.org.uk for more information and individual expertise

Carl Ackers

Mark Chandler

Alan Jaques

Built Environment Consulting Ltd

MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd

Atkins

MSc CEng MCIBSE MILP MSLL

Castle Donington DE74 2UH

EngTech AMILP

Reading RG10 9QN

IEng MILP

Nottingham, NG9 2HF

T: +44 (0) 1332 811711 M: 07867 784906 E: carlackers@bec-consulting.co.uk

T: 0118 3215636 E: mark@mma-consultancy.co.uk

T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 E: alan.jaques@atkinsglobal.com

With many years’ experience we are able to bring a wealth of knowledge to the design process. Our vision is to deliver class leading sustainable solutions for the built environment, including specialist internal and external lighting design and specification services, record for PFI projects and their indepedent certification.

Exterior lighting consultant’s who specialise in all aspects of street lighting design, section 38’s, section 278’s, project management and maintenance assistance. We also undertake lighting appraisals and environmental lighting studies

Professional consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

Steven Biggs

John Conquest

Tony Price

Skanska Infrastructure Services

4way Consulting Ltd

Vanguardia Consulting

T: +44 (0) 1733 453432 E: steven.biggs@skanska.co.uk

www.skanska.co.uk

T: 0161 480 9847 M: 07526 419248 E: john.conquest@4wayconsulting.com

Award winning professional multi-disciplinary lighting design consultants. Extensive experience in technical design and delivery across all areas of construction, including highways, public realm and architectural projects. Providing energy efficient design and solutions.

Providing exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialising in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector

Chartered engineer with wide experience in exterior and public realm lighting. All types and scales of project, including transport, tunnels, property development (both commercial and residential) and sports facilities. Particular expertise in planning advice, environmental impact assessment and expert witness.

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WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

LED

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www.sseenterprise.co.uk Professional consultancy from the largest external lighting contractor maintaining 1.5m lights in the UK and Ireland. Exterior lighting/electrical design for Motorways, Highways, Architectural, Car Parks, Public Spaces and Sports lighting. From advice on carbon reduction strategies to delivering the whole installation package.

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MA BEng(Hons) CEng MIET MILP Stockport, SK4 1AS

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IEng MILP

Hertford SG13 7NN

T: 07825 843524 E: colin.fish@wspgroup.com

www.wspgroup.com

Providing design and technical services for all applications of exterior and interior lighting from architectural to sports, rail, area, highways and associated infrastructure. Expert surveys and environmental impact assessments regarding the effect of lighting installations on wildlife and the community.

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BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Oxted RH8 9EE

T: +44(0) 1883 718690 E:tony.price@vanguardiaconsulting.co.uk

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BEng (Hons) CEng MILP

Cumbernauld G68 9LD

M: 07726 358955 T: 01236 805995 E: ian.runciman@lightandenergy.co.uk

www.lightandenergy.co.uk

Professional lighting consultancy offering technical advice, design and management for exterior and hazardous area lighting, services for architectural lighting using the latest colour changing technologies and advice on energy and asset management, policy and strategy preparation..

Simon Butt

Stephen Halliday

Alistair Scott

Capita

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

Designs for Lighting Ltd

BEng(Hons) CEng, MICE, MILP, MAPM Blackburn, BB2 1AU

EngTech AMILP

Manchester M50 3SP

BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MIMechE Winchester SO23 7TA

www.capita.co.uk/infrastructure

T: 0161 886 2532 E: stephen.halliday@wspgroup.com

Capita are a market leading design consultant, who specialise in street lighting design, LED retrofit schemes and project management. We also provide budget reducing solutions through technical expertise in products, specifications and procurement. We offer energy reduction advice, funding mechanisms and financial evaluations.

www.wspgroup.com

T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E: alistair@designsforlighting.co.uk

Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

Professional lighting design consultancy offering technical advice, design and management services for exterior/interior applications for highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

Lorraine Calcott

Philip Hawtrey

Anthony Smith

it does lighting ltd

Mouchel

Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd

T: 01254 273000 E: simon.butt@capita.co.uk

IEng MILP IALD MSLL

Milton Keynes, MK14 6GD

T: 01908 698869 E: Information@itdoes.co.uk

www.itdoes.co.uk

Award winning lighting design practice specialising in interior, exterior, flood and architectural lighting with an emphasis on section 278/38, town centre regeneration and mitigation for ecology issues within SSSI’s/SCNI’s.Experts for the European Commission and specialists in circadian lighting

BTech IEng MILP MIET

Sutton Coldfield B72 1PH

Widely experienced professional technical consultancy services in exterior lighting and electrical installations, providing sustainable and innovative solutions, environmental assessments, ‘Invest to Save’ strategies, lighting policies, energy procurement, inventory management and technical support. PFI Technical Advisor, Designer and Independent Certifier.

Specialist in: Motorway, Highway Schemes, Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.

Clayton Fourie Consultancy Ltd

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

BEng(Hons) CEng FILP FSLL London WC2A 1AF

T: 07722 111424 E: claytonfourie@aol.com

T: 07827 306483 E: allan.howard@wspgroup.com

Internationally experienced multi-disciplinary consultants. We provide design and technical advice on all aspects of exterior lighting, hazardous area lighting, traffic signals and other highway electrical works.We also provide Planning Advice, Road Safety Audits and Expert Witness Services

Professional artificial and daylight lighting services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice and analysis to develop and implement energy and carbon reduction strategies. Expert witness regarding obtrusive lighting, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations.

www.clayton-fourie-consultancy.com

Stockton on Tees TS23 1PX

T: 01642 565533 E: enquiries@staintonlds.co.uk

Allan Howard

Edinburgh, EH15 3RT

Eng FILP

www.mouchel.com

T: 07789 501091 E: philip.hawtrey@mouchel.com

Euan Clayton IEng MILP

www.designsforlighting.co.uk

www.wspgroup.com

www.staintonlds.co.uk

Nick Smith IEng MILP

Nick Smith Associates Limited Chesterfield, S40 3JR

T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E: mail@nicksmithassociates.com

www.nicksmithassociates.com Specialist exterior lighting consultant. Private and adopted lighting and electrical design for highways, car parks, area and sports lighting. Lighting Impact assessments, expert witness and CPD accredited Lighting design AutoCAD and Lighting Reality training courses

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.


Alan Tulla IEng FILP FSLL

Michael Walker

Winchester, SO22 4DS

WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

CMS IEng MILP

Alan Tulla Lighting

Ferrybridge, WF11 8NA, UK

T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E: alan@alantullalighting.com

T: 0197 7632 502 E: Michael.Walker@pbworld.com

www.pbworld.com

www.alantullalighting.com Site surveys of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Visual Impact Assessments for planning applications. Specialises in problem solving and out-of-the-ordinary projects.

Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.

This directory gives details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services.

If you are

AMILP, MILP or FILP and registered with Engineering Council, and would like to appear here please contact Andy at Matrix (andy@matrixprint.com) who will be happy to help you organise an entry in the Lighting Journal

LOOKING TO RECRUIT? ADVERTISE YOUR JOB VACANCY IN THE LIGHTING JOURNAL

Contact Andy Etherton at andy@matrixprint.com 01536 527297 for more information and prices


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DIRECTORY BANNER SYSTEMS European distributors of StormSpill®, only system specified by: • London 2012 Olympic Games • Glasgow 2014 Commonwealths

Patented Raised Lamppost Banner System that significantly reduces loading on columns and prevents banners twisting and tearing. Column testing and guarantee service available.

ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION

Kiwa CMT Testing MACLEAN ELECTRICAL LIGHTING DIVISION Business info: Specialist Stockist and Distributors of Road Lighting, Hazardous Area, Industrial/ Commercial/ Decorative lighting. We also provide custom-built distribution panels, interior and exterior lighting design using CAD. 7 Drum Mains Park, Orchardton, Cumbernauld, G68 9LD Tel: 01236 458000 Fax: 01236 860555 email: steve.odonnell@maclean.co.uk Web site: www.maclean.co.uk

The most approved system by Highways Engineers

CUT OUTS & ISOLATORS

0208 343 2525 baymedia.co.uk

Power Data Associates Ltd are the leading meter administrator in Great Britain. We achieve accurate energy calculations assuring you of a cost effective quality service. Offering independent consultancy advice to ensure correct inventory coding, unmetered energy forecasting and impact of market developments.

01525 601201

info@PowerDataAssociates.com www.PowerDataAssociates.com Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4HR

Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email: info@tofco.co.uk www.tofco.co.uk Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories Contact: Kevin Doherty Commercial Director kevindoherty@tofco.co.uk If you would like to switch to Tofco Technology contact us NOW!

FESTIVE & DECORATIVE LIGHTING Specialists in supply and installation of high quality decorative and festive lighting for City centres, shopping centres, towns and villages.A full range of equipment is available for purchase or hire including column motifs, cross road displays, IP68 festoon lighting, and various tree lighting systems.Our services range from supply, hire, design, installation, and total management of schemes. More information is available from: Head Office City Illuminations Ltd Griffin House, Ledson Road, Roundthorn Ind Est Manchester M23 9GP

Non-destructive testing at the root, base, swaged joint and full visual inspection of steel lighting columns. Techniques employed include the unique Relative Loss of Section meter and Swaged Joint Analyser in addition to the traditional Magnetic Particle inspection and Ultra Sonics where appropriate. Unit 5 Prime Park Way Prime Enterprise Park Derby DE1 3QB Tel 01332 383333 Fax 01332 602607 cmtenquiries@kiwa.co.uk www.kiwa.co.uk

METER ADMINISTRATION

Meter Administrator

COLUMN INSPECTION & TESTING

Tel: 0161 969 5767 Fax: 0161 945 8697 Email: dave@cityilluminations.co.uk


LIGHTING Designers and manufacturers of street and amenity lighting. 319 Long Acre Nechells Birmingham UK B7 5JT t: +44(0)121 678 6700 f: +44(0)121 678 6701 e: sales@candela.co.uk

candela L I G H T

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TRAINING SERVICES

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CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality • AutoluxLighting Standards • Lighting Design Techniques • Light Pollution • Tailored Courses please ring Venues by arrangement Contact Nick Smith

Nick Smith Associates Ltd 36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR t: 01246 229 444 f: 01246 270 465 e : mail@nicksmithassociates.com w: www.nicksmithassociates.com

0203 051 1687 www.indolighting.com

LIGHT MEASURING EQUIPMENT HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD Suppliers of a wide range of quality light measuring and photometric equipment. HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD PO Box 210, Havant, PO9 9BT Tel: 07900 571022 E-mail: enquiries@ hagnerlightmeters.com

www.hagnerlightmeters.com

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13-15 November

IALD Enlighten Europe Venue: Prague, Czech Republic www.theilp.org.uk/events

16 November

Practical Street Lighting Venue: ILP, Regent House, Rugby www.theilp.org.uk/events

17 November

Western Region Charles Endirect Mini Papers. ‘Digging up the past’, with Amanda Reece Venue: Nailsea Rugby Club www.theilp.org.uk/events

23-24 November LuxLive Venue: Excel, London www.theilp.org.uk/events

29 November

How to be brilliant… with Jonathan Rush and team Venue: Marshalls Design Space, Clerkenwell, London www.theilp.org.uk/brilliant

LuxLive Excel London – 23-24 November

January 2017

ISSUE

THE EYES HAVE IT

Pain, dizziness, confusion – following up his ILP lecture, optician Ian Jordan looks at the remarkable effects light, and lighting, can have on our senses, especially our sight

BRIDGE OF SIGHTS

How lighting and lighting infrastructure has been at the heart of the refurbishment and improvement of the Erskine Bridge over the River Clyde in Scotland

ILLUMINATING HISTORY

The challenges involved in museum lighting, from funding cutbacks through to interactive displays, conservation and maximising daylight

For full listings of all regional and national ILP events go to: www.theilp.org.uk/events


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