JOURNAL The publication for all lighting professionals
Lighting Design Awards 2014 Banking on a green future: the new loan for lighting 3D printing: the next big thing in optics?
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Lighting Journal April 2014 03 EDITORIAL 04 NEWS 08 LIGHT MINDED/
10 INSIDE AND OUT
Lighting Design Awards 2014: Jill Entwistle looks at two interior and two exterior winning schemes
16 PUTTING CITIES
ON THE MAP
James Eddy on the latest night- time aerial mapping technology and its potential for light pollution and energy use assessment among other applications
18 WELL-MET BY
Professor Martin White outlines the process behind the authentic and dramatic candlelit scheme for the Globe’s new Sam Wanamaker Playhouse
24 THE OPTIMUM OPTIC?
Richard van de Vrie explains how 3D printing is transforming the creation of optics
27 REDUCING THE
IMPACT The use of passive safety should
32 COLOUR FIRST
Future concept: a Japanese company claims the first dual colour OLED
35 SOURCE OF CONTENTION
Allan Howard reports back from the second Eco-Lighting workshop in Brussels
36 UNTAPPED RESOURCES
Vice presidents’ column: Keith Henry, VP technical, on current and future ILP guidance documents
40 ILP NEW MEMBERS
42 PRODUCTS 44 CALCULATED RISK
Why designing lighting by numbers doesn’t add up, says Emma Cogswell
45 CONSULTANTS’ DIRECTORY
46 LIGHTING DIRECTORY 48 DIARY
not be restricted to trunk roads, says David Milne
30 BANKING ON A
GREEN FUTURE Simon Cornwell examines the new Green Loan for street lighting and looks at the historical context
COVER PICTURE Hutong at the Shard: one of this
year’s Lighting Design Award winners (see p10)
Lighting Journal April 2014
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Editorial Volume 79 No 4 April 2014 President Mark Johnson EngTech AMILP Chief Executive Richard G Frost BA (Cantab) DPA FIAM Editor Jill Entwistle Email: email@example.com Editorial Board Tom Baynham Emma Cogswell IALD Mark Cooper IEng MILP Graham Festenstein CEng MILP MSLL IALD John Gorse BA (Hons) MSLL Eddie Henry MILP MCMI MBA Alan Jaques IEng MILP Keith Lewis Nigel Parry IEng FILP Advertising Manager Julie Bland Tel: 01536 527295 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Published by Matrix Print Consultants on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 Fax: 01788 540145 E-mail: email@example.com Website: www.theilp.org.uk Produced by
n the face of relentless modernity it is occasionally reassuring to find things being done the old-fashioned way. This is not a Luddite
or reactionary attitude but just an appreciation of simpler approaches. A few people at the local London Fire Brigade base probably spluttered into their tea when it was first mooted that the latest addition to the Globe, the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse, be lit by candlelight (see p20). Especially bearing in mind that Shakespeare lost the original Globe back in the day when a spark from a cannon during a performance of Henry VIII caused a conflagration. In fact given our sometimes hysterical attitude to health and safety, both real and apocryphal, it’s amazing that common sense prevailed – the fire officers listened to the facts, understood the case for both authenticity and aestheticism, were reassured by sensible precautionary measures and gave the go-ahead. Even from the images it is clear that the candlelight brings depth, nuance and a transformative quality to the performances. And while it is clearly a relatively primitive approach to lighting, the flexibility of the set-up has apparently been something of a revelation – raising and lowering chandeliers, using shutters over the simulated daylight openings (ok, that bit is LEDs), and using handheld devices such as torches and lanterns has produced a surprising range of light scenes. It’s back to the basics of illumination. And that makes a refreshing change. Jill Entwistle
Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Unit C, Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.matrixprint.com © ILP 2014 The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.
Lighting Journal April 2014
Landscape book launched at special event An audience of lighting designers, landscape designers and lighting manufacturers gathered for the launch of the ILP’s latest publication, Lighting Landscapes, at the Lightscene exhibition at Ecobuild last month. Author Carl Gardner, Rob Honeywill, managing director of Maurice Brill Lighting Design, and Nick Edwards, urban design
director of BDP, discussed various aspects of the book and fielded questions from the audience in the lively discussion that followed. ‘We found the launch event very encouraging,’ said Gardner. ‘There’s clearly a great demand for knowledge about how to get the best out of landscape lighting. This publication can definitely assist.’
Government EDR pilot launches in June Local authorities could benefit from the first Electricity Demand Reduction (EDR) Pilot which will be launched in June 2014 and is backed by £20m government funding. The money is being made available by the Department of Energy and Climate Change to support projects including street lighting that deliver lasting reductions in electricity demand. To take part, authorities will have to bid in an ‘auction’ and commit to delivering a kilowatt saving. There will be a minimum bid size of 100kW which can be
achieved by a single project or through several projects, aggregated into a single application. Authorities will also have to submit a project plan with estimated savings and a plan for measuring and verifying them. ‘Similar schemes are already in operation in the USA. But this is still a fairly novel approach; so we are running a pilot scheme to explore whether electricity demand reduction could participate in the Capacity Market in Great Britain and also to learn wider lessons about the delivery
and design of EDR schemes,’ the DECC said. ‘Under the pilot, businesses and other organisations which install measures that deliver verifiable reductions in electricity demand will be able to bid for a financial incentive. More efficient motors, air conditioning and lighting are examples of the kinds of measures that could receive support.’ Final pilot rules and guidance will be published in June 2014. To register an interest email email@example.com
Council gets tougher on environmental crime The Sentencing Council has released new guidelines advising judges to hand out harsher sentences for individuals and companies convicted of environmental crimes. The guidelines will come into force on 1 July this year. Companies that knowingly break the law will face much stiffer penalties than those who do so in spite of taking all appropriate due diligence. The harshest fines of up to £3m are recommended for large businesses that knowingly contravene the law.
Lighting Journal April 2014
‘The new guidelines apply the highest offence category to hazardous chemicals,’ commented Recolight chief executive Nigel Harvey. ‘Given that waste fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous, this means that all those collecting or transporting waste lamps should double check that they are following legal requirements. ‘More importantly, the risks to any individuals or companies who knowingly fly tip or dispose of waste lamps inappropriately are now much higher.’
Lighting Landscapes: a Guide to Implementing Successful Lighting within the Public Realm is a 96page book aimed at landscape architects, local authorities, architects, planning authorities, lighting engineers and other lighting professionals. Go to: www. theilp.org.uk/resources/ilp-generalreports/lighting-landscapes/
Companies join forces to link street lighting with telecoms Philips and Ericsson have joined forces to integrate mobile telecoms equipment from Ericsson into Philips’ LED lighting columns, enabling network service providers to rent space for mobile broadband infrastructure. The idea is to improve data coverage but it could also help local authorities speed payback on switching to efficient street lighting sources and controls, according to the companies, which announced the partnership at Mobile World Congress 2014 in Barcelona. ‘This new connected LED street lighting model is another example of us bringing the Internet of Things to life and demonstrates the capabilities of light beyond illumination,’ said Philips president Frans van Houten. ‘We are offering lighting as a service that scales with a city’s needs and enables city officials to offer their citizens a more connected, energy efficient and safer urban environment, while preserving existing budgets and resources to improve the livability of their city.’ 2014 in Barcelona.
Durham wins sustainability award Former ILP president wins Dark Skies award Former ILP president Pete Lummis, project engineer for Huntingdonshire District Council, has been given the Joy Griffiths Award 2014 by the British Astronomical Association/Campaign for Dark Skies. The certificate is presented annually to an individual, not necessarily an astronomer, who has contributed to preserving a view of the night sky for coming generations, and has spread the message of good lighting practice. ‘The British Astronomical Association’s Campaign for Dark Skies works with caring lighting professionals, environmentalists and others to win back our view of the starry night sky, the only part of our environment with no protection in law,’ said Bob Mizon, CfDS coordinator. ‘Pete is a long-standing friend of the CfDS, and is much respected by us as the lighting engineer who sets the standard for minimising the environmental impact of lighting installations, and spreading the word that quality lighting is compatible with a view of the night sky and a sensitively lit night-time landscape for both humans and wildlife. He has also been a useful link for the CfDS to the Institution of Lighting Professionals.’
Lummis said he was honoured to receive the award. ‘I have spoken on good lighting practice controlled through the planning process at a number of events, and have sought to encourage local authority planners nationwide to embrace good practice,’ he said. ‘The planning department at Huntingdonshire District Council has a clear lighting policy which seeks to stop light pollution, glare and light nuisance. The planners don’t want to stop lighting, but want the right light, in the right place, at the right time,’ added Lummis. ‘Pete Lummis has worked with this authority for many years, and to receive this award is great recognition of the work he has done to encourage good lighting practice,’ commented councillor Darren Tysoe, executive councillor for environment. Joy Griffiths was an active CfDS officer in Somerset who died shortly after moving from an urban location to enjoy the dark skies of Herefordshire. (Pictured from left to right are: Martin Male and Bob Mizon from CfDS, Pete Lummis, and Chris Allen, project and assets manager for HDC).
Danish warn against delay on halogen ban The Danish Energy Agency has warned against the EU’s proposal to postpone a 2016 ban on nondirectional halogen lamps in Stage 6 of the lighting Ecodesign requirements until 2018. ‘An EU lighting strategy that would freeze a phase-out of energyguzzling lamps for two years would hurt clean energy firms, dampen the EU’s environmental legislation and threaten future green laws,’ said the DEA, according to EU information website EurActiv. Last November, the Commission said that LED technology was not mature enough to replace nondirectional halogen lamps so soon. However, according to the Danish agency’s study, LED lamps are ready to replace nearly all halogen and comparable applications.
The DEA argues that delay would reduce the effectiveness of the Ecodesign directive, and have a negative impact on European businesses that have invested and integrated Stage 6 into their business strategy. It would also ‘establish a precedent of rolling back regulation’ in response to business lobbying, it says. The added energy savings from keeping to the 2016 deadline would amount to 97.2 TWh for the period to
2025, according to figures from the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (Clasp). This is roughly twice the 43.2 TWh posited by the Commission’s staff working document under the two-year delay, says EurActiv, and roughly equivalent to 34m tonnes of CO2 with a cost of €22.9bn, according to Clasp. l Phasing out incandescent lamps has reduced the energy used to light homes in Britain to just over two-thirds of the level in 1997, according to the Environmental Change Institute. On average it took 720kWh of electricity a year to light a UK home in 1997 compared to less than 500 kWh in 2013, a drop of more than 30 per cent. www.EurActiv.com
Lighting Journal April 2014
News in brief An alliance representing more than a thousand European cities has written to Herman Van Rompuy, president of the European Council, calling for binding 2030 targets of 40 per cent for energy efficiency, and 30 per cent for renewable energy, in line with a European Parliament proposal. Energy consumption in the EU fell by 8 per cent between 2006 and 2012, according to figures from Eurostat, but Europe remains dependent on fossil fuel imports for 53 per cent of its energy needs, and is off-course to meet its energy saving goals for 2020. TMP (Traffic Management Products) has appointed Daniel Robinson managing director. Robinson joins the company from the London Borough of Southwark, where he was senior lighting engineer. He’s a former chairman of the Young Lighting Professionals.
If you’re eating your breakfast probably best to look away now. It’s always good to see lighting get publicity so we’re pleased to bring you the important news that M Ravikumar from Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, lit a total of 30 60W lamps by inserting an electrical wire through his nose and out through his mouth. Who knows why but it was at an event organised by Tamil Nadu Book of Records. This achievement (please don’t try it at home) did happen some time ago (June 2012 actually) but news from the subcontinent sometimes travels slowly.
LETTER Is it time to end unmetered supplies? I think if you explained to the man in the street how highway lighting energy is paid for under unmetered supply agreements, which require UMSUG codes, switching regimes and the like, he would not believe it. The provision of UMSUG codes is becoming a major issue as we see an increasing market penetration of LED products. As we know, LED products come in a wide range of options and the performance of the drivers and LEDs is ever improving. It strikes me that those responsible for the assessment and provision of UMSUG codes just can’t keep up, and the manufacturers need to submit a range of luminaires covering the options for assessment, which all comes at a cost. The answer must be effective metering and the increasing use of central management systems, which must be a way of facilitating this change. To do this we, as an industry, need to raise these concerns with the National Measurement Office (NMO) and get them to accept the use of such systems for energy measurement. If this is successful then manufacturers’ costs will be reduced and products can be provided straight to market, enabling any energy savings to be realised immediately. After all, this is the 21st century. Allan Howard Technical director, WSP-UK
Lighting Journal April 2014
Animal protection charity WWF India is setting up solar-powered street lighting in villages in the Sundarbans, an area near Kalkotta, to deter tiger attacks. The villagers inhabit small islands often surrounded by mangroves but tigers can swim over long distances at speeds up to 16km/h. The lights are a more effective deterrent than fireworks, says the WWF. The plan is to light the whole area’s coastal paths, incidentally providing community lighting. Sign and street lighting specialist Signature has launched a new website (www.signatureltd. com). In addition to traffic and lighting products, it also includes a series of case studies. Following extensive profession-wide reviews during 2013, the Engineering Council has recently reissued its two key Standards documents: the UK Standard for Professional Engineering Competence (UK-SPEC) and the Information and Communications Technology Technician Standard (ICTTech Standard). Both are now available to download from the EC’s website (www.engc.org.uk). Provisional 2013 recycling figures released to WEEE schemes by the Environment Agency at the end of February 2014 showed that the UK lamp recycling rate increased from 39.5 per cent in 2012 to 52.8 per cent in 2013. The WEEE directive now includes a national target for all categories of 45 per cent by 2016 and 65 per cent by 2019. The growth in rate in 2013 is partly the result of a declining tonnage of new gas discharge lamps being placed on the market, according to Recolite, although there was also a material increase in total tonnage recycled. The growth rate is expected to drop in 2014 as a result of LED lamps being included in the same WEEE category as gas discharge lamps.
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Chris Hardy, lighting engineer for Bournemouth Borough Council, used to believe that there was an unbridgeable gulf between lighting designer and engineer. Not any more
Switch on to new technology, says Steven Lain, street lighting and traffic engineering manager at Milton Keynes Council
Having spent most of my life in engineering I did not really have much time for so-called lighting designers. After all, we could all place a few light fittings around the place, mount them in awkward places and cover them in coloured gels (there just wasn’t the range of devices, lamp technology or even solid state control when I started). Then the chap who had to maintain them could either hang precariously from scaffolding or a ladder perched on the edge of a building, or get his mate to hang on to his feet for dear life. By this point the designer having long ago disappeared into the ether with his wedge. I think perhaps that things began to change for me when I started to attend some of the ILP Joined Up Lighting meetings at BDP’s London office. These gatherings covered a whole range of topics but their primary achievement was to bring together the different factions of the lighting world and provide an opportunity for them to chat about each other’s specialities, difficulties and successes. Almost at the same time my lighting team here in Bournemouth started to work with light artists such as Peter Freeman, at the time working in neon lighting, and becoming involved in other small decorative, architectural lighting projects and artworks around the town. Working alongside one another, using our different skill sets, we were able to bring a variety of projects to completion together. One of the great things about the designers I have worked with (and I hope it continues) is early engagement with each other. Designers come up with some fantastic lighting elements for projects, but these schemes will ultimately fail if the infrastructure and support is not there to power the installations, as well as the provision to maintain them even in very adverse weather conditions (as proved to be the case over this winter where we had some fabulous temporary lighting units in Bournemouth Gardens developed by Michael Grubb and his associates). [See p14]. Where a structure is permanent, adequate provision needs to be made both in terms of manpower and monetary provision. Yes, we all know that LEDs are perpetual devices, but in time the fittings
I have been in lighting for more than 40 years which is a bit scary to admit. Starting with Essex County Council in the early 1970s my working life could not have been better and more varied – often thrown in at the deep end but probably why I still like a challenge. Lighting is an important part of my life; it has taken over on many occasions, even when my family should have come first. We need darkness for proper sleep, but lighting provides safety. My role has been to provide good, reliable, safe lighting in all the ways that can be achieved. In my latest role, lighting was at the heart of the town design, whether that was on the high-speed network surrounding Milton Keynes, or the 360km of Redways, the footpaths and cycle ways that link the conurbations with the town centre. My personal trepidation over changing from HID to LED has become lessened by some experience with this new technology and what it can offer in terms of energy savings and reduced maintenance costs. We are working with a healthy capital budget, no PFI for us, but with more than 40,000 out of over 60,000 of our street lights in need of replacement, we will over time renew these with LED lights. I believe the current trend of turning off street lights is wrong. What is it achieving? Why were the lights provided in the first place? They are there to provide a safe night-time environment. Turning them off may save money but will only lead to cost down the line. When I joined MK they had turned off around 2700 lights. These are now back on and not as a result of my protests. The savings of around £400,000 were put forward without thought of the outcome. I will pass over that, but we have found those savings by using modern technology to reduce wattage, trim the burning time and dim them when they are least needed, and no one has noticed any of these changes. So consider spending to save – we have, with great results. Long live good lighting.
Lighting Journal April 2014
will degrade and at the very least will require a clean. All the hard work that goes into these projects is completely futile if the long-term view is not taken into consideration; they look bloody awful if not maintained and lose their lustre and appeal to the people viewing them. The whole reason for these installations is to put on a show or enhance the experience of the person using the facility, whether it is purely for entertainment or whether the end goal is to entice people to buy or to stay.
One of the areas that I think engineers get hung up about is the requirement for uniformity in their schemes. Is it always so necessary? One of the areas that I think engineers get hung about is the requirement for uniformity in their schemes. Yes, it may be a requirement for our roads and highways in order that users can get around safely, but is it so necessary if the users are predominantly pedestrians in our parks and gardens, or within buildings, as long as the task is achievable – in other words, simply getting from A to B, viewing goods, or using a screen at a desk? Some of the better schemes I’ve seen recently provide good quality lighting without relying solely on uniformity. Instead they allow for contrast between areas, creating visual interest while still functioning properly by providing sufficient illumination for the purpose. This is why I believe it is necessary for all the different lighting factions, from both engineering and design, to work together. Both high-quality design and engineering, when executed properly, are necessary to a good lighting scheme. Ill-thought-out, poorly installed, badly maintained schemes should not be the province of any profession.
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Inside and out Jill Entwistle looks at two interior and two exterior winning schemes from this yearâ€™s Lighting Design Awards
Snow Hill Green Wall by MBLD (see p13)
Lighting Journal April 2014
Project: Edinburgh International Conference Centre (EICC) extension Lighting design: BDP Lighting Architect: BDP
he Edinburgh International Conference Centre (EICC) is the second major building by Sir Terry Farrell recently to come in for an extension or radical overhaul (the other being 1 Embankment Place over London’s Charing Cross Station). In this case it’s a new £75m, 3500sqm extension to the EICC, Scotland’s primary convention and conference centre. The additional space creates a new conference hall, cafe, bar and break-out rooms, all linked by a grand staircase and feature glass lift. There is also a speculative commercial development and new facade with interactive feature lighting. Different companies will be hiring the space so a significant driver for the lighting scheme was corporate branding. ‘Much of the lighting, both exterior and interior, is colour controlled with a powerful client interface to allow incoming companies to brand the building to their particular requirements,’ says BDP director of lighting Mark Ridler. The experience begins with the facade. A custom colourchanging RGBA LED luminaire uplights the glass fins that are both decorative element and a daylight-control device. The additional amber LED provides a broader palette than just RGB, especially for subtler colours. To ensure more colour and pattern options, each blade is individually addressable. Control is linked through the theatre systems so that the outside of the building can be visually linked to the event inside. This also gives the capability for complex
designs to be quickly created and edited even in real time. The atrium offers further opportunities for branding. The services above are screened by acoustic baffles (also providing a location for easy rigging of temporary event lighting), and again lit with custom RGBA luminaires. Colourchange fittings also light the top and bottom of the lift cab. The meeting rooms, pre-function areas, main hall and the bar are below ground. The bar itself is internally illuminated with a media wall behind, plus a colour-changing cove. Client video feeds can override the default programming of the media wall. ‘Because here the building is subterranean, the use of intensity and shades of white during the day, becoming more saturated at night, is important to retain the connection to the outside world when breaking out from the main event,’ says Ridler. Unusually, the corporate treatment even encompasses the loos. Colour-change lighting is integrated into coffers, peripheral ceiling slots and under the sinks so that the whole room can reflect the company livery (colour wash?). ‘The exterior of the building was very striking and, most important of all, the clients were delighted with the result. We liked the fact that the lighting scheme can be changed in line with the use of the building, and were impressed that the scheme even extended to the toilets’ – Lighting Design Awards judges
Lighting Journal April 2014
Photography: Hufton + Crow
Category: Hotels and Restaurants Project: Hutong restaurant, Level 33, The Shard, London Lighting design: Into Lighting Architect: SAY Architects
he food at Hutong is probably lovely but half the fun of dining a fair way up the Shard is to contemplate one of the best views in London. So when it came to the lighting, it was rather crucial not to compromise or obscure it with glare and reflections bouncing off the extensive glazing. ‘With so much perimeter glass we could not clearly calculate the amount of glare and inter-reflection of light there would be so we carried out extensive night-time mock-ups on site so we could evaluate any reflections with the interior designer and client,’ says Into director Darren Orrow. The venue is divided into the Beijing side and Shanghai side. The client wanted a scheme that was dramatic and dynamic but also intimate. It also had to be flexible to cope with different functions in each of the spaces. A key element in each space is the bar, clad in stone and wood. Tight pools of light on the bar top, shafts of light across the wooden back bar in the Beijing bar and across the feature ceiling in the Shanghai bar, all add drama. Concealed warmwhite LED profiles highlight the glass displays while also providing functional light for the staff. Very low glare adjustable spotlights on a suspended track provide the main accent lighting within the open ceiling areas. Fittings precisely focused on tables and key surfaces add further drama and avoid wasted light on the floor, while also allowing table layout to be altered. All luminaires are black with black snoots and/or baffles to help disguise them against the black ceiling and minimise glare and reflection. Mode Lighting and Precision Lighting were among the suppliers. Sources are LV halogen reflector IRC lamps. ‘They were chosen for their high colour rendering properties to light food and their ability to dim to a very low level,’ says Orrow. Each side of the restaurant has a feature lighting wall. On the Shanghai side bespoke Chinese lanterns are mounted floor to ceiling, with a mirrored ceiling augmenting the effect. The tea wall in the Beijing section has concealed linear LED fittings in the shelving and shafts of light illuminating the tea tiles. ‘This simple design was very well thought through. They’ve considered the 360-degree view and there’s a lot of glare control. It’s got character and a really good feel’ – Lighting Design Awards judges
Lighting Journal April 2014
Category: Exterior Project: Snow Hill Green Wall, Birmingham Lighting design: Maurice Brill Lighting Design Client:Cheshire Shakeshaft Landscape architect: Hyland Edgar Driver
now Hill’s Green Wall – Europe’s largest living wall – is part of the BREEAM Excellent Two Snow Hill development and a key part of the overall public realm enhancement. It sits in front of Snow Hill Station as the backdrop for the proposed future tramline. The feature was inspired by Birmingham’s historic Forest of Arden which once surrounded the city. Designed by HED with both nature and urban environments in mind, it is 220m long by 7m high and has 604sqm of plants. The panel material, colour and texture were designed to capture both natural and artificial lighting effects. Unusually, the lighting treatment drove the material selection. HED worked closely with MBLD throughout the design development before specifying the pale gold perforated metal with twisting vertical waveforms. Illuminating the planting are a series of dynamic white LED fittings (Philips Color Kinetics supplied by Architainment). These programmable high-output linear fittings allow the colour temperature of the white light to be tuned to the different seasons. By day, the panelling mixed with the planting creates a seasonally adapting display to passers-by. By night, movement and subtle tonal changes bring depth and life to the wall. ‘The fluid narrative of dynamic white light reveals
the material’s undulating forms and further enhances the natural variants of the planting,’ says MBLD’s Laura Mackay. There is also a more overt show element with a series of chase and fade sequences designed to emulate a tram’s movement, an allusion to the future aspirations of the development. This is created by cross-lighting the textured metal panels with adjustable high-output dynamic white spotlights in a combination of unlensed eight-degree beam and 10 x 41 degree versions, all fitted with glare cowls. Given that trams will be running in front of the wall, the installation also had to meet the technical requirements of Centro Tram operators, which involved extensive testing through on-site mock-ups to ensure that there will be no glare or direct view to tram drivers. The scheme is also very efficient, with an overall wattage of 4.7W/sqm when at full output. However, as luminaires will never run at 100 per cent output, the actual loading is likely be around half that figure. ‘This is quite a simple scheme of grazing light up a living wall and it works. There’s a mixture of warm and cool white, with dynamic lighting simulating the movement of the transport hubs around it’ – LDA judges
Lighting Journal April 2014
ost Light is a set of five interactive lighting experiences, or Light-Pods, created for Bournemouth’s 2013 summer Arts by the Sea Festival. Designed for reuse as part of a lighting masterplan for the town, they will reappear with five more installations during the 2013-2014 festive period. The Light-Pods are similar to beach huts but contain mini light experiences designed for different age groups. Michael Grubb Studio provided the total design, including architecture, materials, sound, video and lighting to create simple but dramatic lit effects, some literally using smoke and mirrors. They work individually and collectively as artworks at points on a route through the town. ‘Lost Light is a series of individual sensory experiences exploring how light can sculpt and define a space,’ says Mike Grubb. ‘Each light-house creates an immersive environment, creating a unique world of light and colour.’ The first, Disco Theatre, has seamless chrome cladding. Its interior is lit with 40 rotating disco balls, strobes, colourchanging floodlights and pinspots. Other ingredients include a DJ, mister and amplifiers. The Lounge resembles a beach hut whose sides have collapsed. These sides have seating, and subtle lighting from below creates a floating effect for the structure. Linear LEDs create colour effects at the centre of the space that appear not to match the sources visible from outside in. Tidal Waves uses bit-mapped projections on to a specially designed three-dimensional surface to create the effect of sea waves, while Optical World has reflective tassles hanging from its ceiling. They form a cocoon within which RGB filters create apparently white light that casts coloured shadows. The final pod, Colour Intensity, combines red, blue and green lamps to create colour shadows while achieving a white lit floor. Universal Fibre Optics, LED-Zip, Lucent Lighting and Philips Lighting were among the key suppliers. ‘This really succeeded in making people take an interest in lighting. Kids loved it and there was great interaction. It was both fun and educational’ – Lighting Design Awards judges
EXTERIOR Category: Special Projects
Project: Lost Light, Bournemouth
Lighting design: Michael Grubb Studio Client: Arts Bournemouth and
Bournemouth Town Centre BID
Designer: Ecological Developments
Lighting designer of the year
Winner: Mark Ridler, lighting director BDP, and the ILP’s vice president architectural lighting ‘Mark’s work consistently excels year-in, year-out. His guiding hand has driven the success of some outstanding BDP projects this year. He preaches a common-sense approach to lighting in the numerous presentations he has delivered at industry events, and his contributions to some significant guidance documents in 2013 are also worth acknowledging. Lastly, his work
Lighting Journal April 2014
with the Institution of Lighting Professionals has really helped to bring the industry together’ – Lighting Design Awards judges
‘His work with the Institution of Lighting Professionals has really helped bring the industry together’
WINNING PROJECTS Daylight
Winner: Tate Britain Millbank Project, Phase 1, London Lighting design: Max Fordham
Winner: Snow Hill, Birmingham Lighting design: Maurice Brill Lighting Design
Winner: Guildhall London Crypts Lighting design: DPA Lighting Design Highly commended: Mossley Hill Church, Liverpool Lighting design: Cundall Light 4
Hotels and Restaurants Winner: Hutong, The Shard, London Lighting design: Into Lighting
International Projects (Exterior)
Winner: In Lumine Tuo, Utrecht Lighting design: Speirs and Major Highly commended: Walled City of Derry Lighting design: Light and Design Associates
International Projects (Interior)
Winner: Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre, Baku Lighting design: Maurice Brill Lighting Design Highly commended: Saint Moritz Church, Augsburg Lighting design: Mindseye
Winner: Trinity Leeds Lighting design: BDP Lighting
Winner: Durham Cathedral Shop Lighting design: Sutton Vane Associates Highly commended: Smythson, New Bond Street, London Lighting design: IlluminationWorks
Lighting for Leisure
Winner: Edinburgh International Conference Centre (EICC) Lighting design: BDP Lighting
Winner: Mary Rose Museum, Portsmouth Lighting design: DHA Design Highly commended: Iona Abbey Museum Lighting design: KSLD
Winner: Lost Light, Arts by the Sea Festival, Bournemouth Lighting design: Michael Grubb Studio Highly commended: Fluidic Sculpture in Motion, Hyundai Advanced Design Centre Lighting design: WhiteVoid
Winner: Western Transit Shed, London Lighting design: Hoare Lea Lighting Highly commended: 200 Grays Inn Road, London Lighting design: Zumtobel The Lighting Design Awards is organised by Emap and supported by the ILP, the SLL and the IALD
Winner: Western Transit Shed, London Lighting design: Hoare Lea Lighting
Public Buildings winner: Mary Rose Museum, Portsmouth, by DHA Design
Lighting Journal April 2014
Night-time aerial mapping
Putting cities on the map
The latest technology provides a new perspective on managing street lighting, says James Eddy, technical director of Bluesky International and industrial associate at the University of Leicester
erial mapping specialist Bluesky in partnership with the University of Leicester has conducted initial trials of the world’s first integrated night mapping system. For those planning and managing street lighting this new technology promises to become a highly valuable source of data on existing lighting infrastructure across urban areas. The Bluesky Night Mapper system combines a variety of remote sensing technologies to provide a highly accurate digital map that can be used as an overlay in mapping or geographic information systems. Using advanced spatial queries and mapping techniques, the data can be used together with existing street light overlays and Ordnance Survey maps, as well as land, street and property details from council gazetteers. Employing new remote sensing technology fitted to an aircraft flying at 3000ft (900m), Bluesky is using a specially adapted camera to cope with the low light levels and temperatures associated with night-time aerial surveys. The aerial photography combines with state-of-the-art LiDAR (Light Imaging Detection and Ranging) and thermal imaging sensors. LiDAR uses lasers to accurately determine the exact distance between the sensor and the ground. The narrow laser beam maps features at a very high resolution and is commonly used for 3D mapping applications such as highway infrastructure mapping and flood risk assessment. The thermal infrared imaging system reveals heat sources on the ground at night and is already used by local authorities to map the heat loss from individual properties to support home energy conservation initiatives. Co-capturing detailed LiDAR 3D measurements and thermal images will provide additional intelligence relating to night-time light levels, heat loss and height. The 3D data will allow the assessment of the light source in vertical space to determine how close to the ground it is, for
Lighting Journal February 2014
example, and give more intelligence of how lighting affects a 3D environment. The thermal sensor is also intended to give an indication about the heat signatures of different lights, which in turn will give an idea about energy usage and effect on the environment. The system has been developed in partnership with the University of Leicester following a Bluesky-funded research project. The university worked closely with Bluesky in the specification and development of the night mapping instrument. Researchers within the university’s Space Research Centre have contributed expertise in instrument design and image analysis, and will continue to develop new information from captured images through expertise in the Earth Observation Science Group (www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq) . Mapping light pollution The impact of light pollution has been one of the primary drivers behind the development. The whole issue of street lighting has become a topic for public discussion mainly because of the concerns about energy wastage and the debate about plans for street light switch-offs and dimming. However, light pollution has been a longstanding concern and the loss of the night sky for star gazers may not really be as important when compared with the impact on bird or animal habitats. Researchers are showing that ‘ecological light pollution’ and the disruption of the natural patterns of light and dark are seriously affecting ecosystems. Some 30 per cent of vertebrates and more than 60 per cent of invertebrates are nocturnal with many other creatures most active at dawn and dusk. As well as the obvious effects on breeding and feeding patterns, millions of migrating birds are killed in collisions with man-made structures after being drawn to artificial light. It is thought that a significant decline in the moth population in the UK is
Night-time aerial mapping a result of nocturnal light, and this is important as they play an important role in pollination and as a food source for bats and birds. Bats will avoid lit areas and this impacts ecology and also agriculture where bats play a role in natural pest control. Humans are also affected by night-time light. Light disrupts sleep and confuses the 24-hour biological processes that regulate a body’s functions. One concern is the increase in LED-type blue wavelength that has a greater impact as it is the light that triggers the brain to wake up.
forecourts, train and bus stations. University researchers in the UK have found interesting lighting patterns relating to land. Studies revealed that about a third of brightly lit areas related to retail, distribution and industrial sites. Security lighting at industrial sites, although occupying quite small areas with relatively few lamps, was actually responsible for a large proportion of bright urban lighting. Aiding asset management Although the night mapping has obvious uses in analysing light
‘We enjoy a close working relationship with Bluesky International on a number of exciting projects related to airborne imaging. We are in the process of interpreting this data to derive information which may be valuable to local authorities and a variety of interested groups. These images will reveal valuable information on our use of artificial lights in our urban environments, and the impact they may have on humans, natural ecosystems and our use of energy’ – Dr Roland Leigh, University of Leicester The Night Mapper system produces for the first time a complete picture of an entire town or city. It encompasses all types of lighting, whether municipal or commercial. The debate on light pollution has focused around street lighting but as can been seen from the Leicester map shown here, some of the most striking light pollution is from commercial buildings such as the very bright white and blue-fringed lighting that is the top of a retailer’s multi-storey car park. Other very bright light is emitted from petrol
pollution, street lighting professionals are expected to find many benefits for the planning and managing of street lighting operations. The nighttime images can be used as an aid for street lighting inventories and condition assessments; with 7.4m road lights in the UK, identifying those requiring replacement could lead to substantial savings. Regular city-wide surveys could also be a cost-effective way to locate light outs and determine areas needing prioritisation for lamp replacement.
Additional applications are also expected to include measurement of illumination for energy consumption evaluations and additional intelligence to assess, for example, the light pollution impact of different types of lamps and shielding. Night Mapper will also be useful for supporting projects involving dimming or the switching off of selected street lights in an effort to save money and reduce carbon emissions. Tackling energy efficiency is, of course, a key factor as energy costs continue to rise, urban areas expand, and new roads and developments see the installation of more street lighting. Night Mapper will provide fundamental intelligence that will help to reduce unnecessary illumination and focus lighting infrastructure where it is needed most. Planning a brighter future With a seamless single view on the entire town or city, the light maps can be used as an aid for local authorities in planning their environmental zones for exterior lighting control within their development plans. In addition, conservation bodies can validate, for example, whether species protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act are being impacted by light pollution, and road traffic incident investigators can assess levels of street lighting at any location. Night Mapper has been in development for three years and now initial trials are underway a commercial service is planned for later in 2014. Over the next few years it is hoped that towns and cities across the UK will be mapped, allowing street lighting departments to share knowledge on how to improve their street lighting operations, including the reduction of light pollution and energy use, while minimising ecological impact.
Leicester at night
The Night Mapper image of Leicester is map matched and can be used as a GIS overlay together with street lighting assets overlays and OS mapping. Using new super high resolution camera sensors, data is captured in greater detail than ever before. Leicester City Council is part of the way through a £14m scheme to convert all of its 33,000 street lights from sodium to LED. The work, due to be completed by February 2016, will ultimately cut the authority’s annual street lighting bill from £2m to £800,000, while also reducing carbon emissions. The map clearly shows the light emitted from different types of lamp reflecting the introduction of new white light LED lamps. The very bright light area on the top left is the top of a multi-storey car park with the John Lewis store ringed in blue light. The city’s Highcross shopping centre can be seen close by.
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Well-met by candlelight
The new Sam Wanamaker Playhouse represents the transition from the outdoor Elizabethan Globe to the indoor Jacobean theatre. Authentically, and dramatically, it is lit by candles. Professor Martin White explains
David Dawson and Gemma Arterton in the opening production of The Duchess of Malfi
n January this year, Shakespeare’s Globe in Southwark, London, opened the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse, a recreation of an indoor 17th-century playhouse to stand alongside its reconstruction of the original outdoor Globe Theatre, which opened in 1997. In 1609, Shakespeare’s company, the King’s Men, which owned the original Globe, acquired the use of an indoor playhouse almost directly opposite, across the Thames in Blackfriars, and from that time performed outdoors from May to September, and indoors through the autumn and winter months.
I’m often told how ‘realistic’ artificial candles can appear, especially as technologies have advanced, but I remain unconvinced The indoor playhouses (often termed ‘private’ to distinguish them from open-air ‘public’ playhouses such as the Globe) were lit by candles, and had the capacity to shutter their windows to vary the amount of daylight they admitted. Indeed, until the introduction of gas lighting in the 1820s, illumination in British theatres would continue to be provided by candles or oil lamps (often both in the same playhouse). My connection with the Globe project began in the late 1990s, but when it was decided to work towards completing the indoor playhouse, my involvement increased. For many years I had been researching the nature, operation and impact of candlelight in the early modern indoor playhouses, studying the texts of plays performed indoors, and other documentary records and, perhaps most significantly, had undertaken a series of practical experiments and productions in the theatre of the Department of Theatre at my university in Bristol. In 2009, working with a cast of professional actors and designers I published an interactive DVD, The Chamber of Demonstrations, that explores the theatre practice (especially lighting) of the early modern indoor playhouse using a fullscale reconstruction of the stage and
auditorium based on a set of drawings by John Webb (at one time Inigo Jones’s apprentice), held in the library of Worcester College, Oxford. The drawings show a view of the outside of the theatre, two views of the interior (one looking at the stage from the pit, the other from the stage to the pit) and a plan of the interior. Since their discovery in the 1960s the drawings have been dated between 1617 and (most recently) around 1660 and the playhouse they show is unidentified, perhaps never built. However, they are the only contemporary drawings of an early modern indoor playhouse and they conform in virtually every respect to what other sources indicate were their key features. My own responsibility in the project was the lighting, and so far as that was concerned, the first question to answer was clear: real or artificial candles? There were some cautious views that we would be unlikely to be licensed to perform publicly in a wooden theatre using live flame. But from the start I was convinced that
The colour and texture of surfaces, including a high degree of gilding, are a crucial part of the candlelit effect
The £7.5m Sam Wanamaker Playhouse opened in January 2014. Designed using painstaking research into the materials, methods and decorative aesthetics of Jacobean architecture and interiors, it is an archetype rather than a replica of a specific Jacobean indoor theatre. The theatre has a capacity of 340 people, with two tiers of galleried seating and a pit seating area. The auditorium is predominantly lit by pure beeswax candles. Acrylic LED edgelit panels mimic daylight coming into the auditorium. this was the fundamental issue that had to be resolved. I’m often told how ‘realistic’ artificial candles can appear, especially as technologies have advanced, but I remain unconvinced. The reason is simple: the candles – like the actors and audience – are live, and their light plays with the textures of costumes and paint finishes in a way quite distinct from artificial versions. Fortunately,
Exploded isometric of Sam Wannamaker Playhouse and foyer (Allies and Morrison)
the London Fire Brigade felt the same way. A crucial meeting was held to put to them the case for allowing live flame. The Globe was represented by the artistic director, Dominic Dromgoole, the project’s fire consultant (Andrew Nicholson of The Fire Surgery), architect Oliver Heywood of Allies and Morrison, a number of the key production staff (including the Wanamaker project coordinator, Paul Russell, who played a major role in developing the practicalities of the lighting) and myself. There was a group of officers from the LFB, including the fire safety officer, David Rowson, and representative of the Globe’s insurers. I lit some candles (a mix of wax and tallow) which burned as we talked. The first topic was, of course, safety – for the audience and the actors: the nature of the candles we intended to burn, the fixings we would use in the chandeliers, the particular stewarding arrangements and evacuation plans that were proposed, all contained in the crucial
candle management strategy and risk assessment documents. But what was especially heartening was their obvious interest in why it was so important that the candles should be live, beyond the desire for historical accuracy, and their clear understanding of the aesthetic significance of candlelight. The LFB’s decision to allow us to perform in candlelight remains, for me, the watershed moment in the whole project. With this support secured, we could now turn our attention to specific and fundamental practical issues. I had assured the LFB that no candles would be suspended above the audience and that we proposed to burn only wax candles with modern braided wicks instead of the rolled wicks used in the 17th century. The early modern theatres burned both candles made from beeswax and those made from tallow (essentially animal fat from sheep or beef). Much that is written about tallow overstates the degree to which it smells and smokes, but there is no doubt that the
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candles can burn less predictably than wax, they break easily when handled and are hard to store, which is a crucial factor for a theatre. The standard size of an early modern theatre candle (wax or tallow) was 10.5 inches long (27cm) and 0.75 inches (2cm) at the base, tapering (because made by dipping) towards the wick, and there is no significant difference in light output between wax and tallow. (Experiments undertaken at the Baroque Theatre Institute in Cesky Krumlov in the Czech Republic confirmed my own findings, and in this and many other areas of research and practice the project owes a great debt of thanks to the institute and its director, Dr Pavel Slavko.) I knew that the candles would be positioned in chandeliers above the stage and in sconces on the pillars supporting the upper gallery (all the lighting instruments were made for the SWP by Penny Spedding, an artisan metal worker), but I needed to ascertain how many candles we would burn. The Globe is committed to the idea that any decision regarding the
Theatre lighting historical aspects of its theatres should have some root in the early modern period, but where the use of candles is concerned the evidence is thin on the ground. Only one reference is known that refers directly to a commercial indoor playhouse (the Salisbury Court, built in 1629) and that is itself rather vague, leaving it unclear what ratio of wax to tallow was purchased. However, my analysis of this reference led me to a possible range from 102 (if all tallow) to 25 (if all wax), and a conclusion of an average of 66 (54 tallow, 12 wax). I then looked at records of performances at court by professional actors (where, unlike a commercial theatre, cost was presumably not a constraint) and found that an indicative range was between 60 and 90 candles being used in spaces comparable to that of the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse. As a result, at the SWP, we have so far burnt 72 in the six chandeliers with a further 20 five-inch (13cm) candles in the sconces. Rather than the lofty position often seen in illustrations of old theatres, the chandeliers are hung exactly eight feet (2.4m) above the stage, a height supported by the little evidence there is. This ‘permanent’ rig is supplemented and its light articulated by a wide variety of hand-held lighting instruments – torches, lanterns and candles – and by the simulated daylight to provide what originally came through the playhouse windows, which have shutters that can be closed to dim the theatre as the historical records suggest was done. The
CGI by Allies and Morrison
Chandeliers are just one component of control, raised and lowered to create different light levels
candles would be trimmed or replaced in the interval where necessary. However, the candlelight is not an isolated component of the indoor theatrical experience. There is what I think of as an ecology of lighting of which the candles themselves are just one part. The colours and textures of the painted surfaces are crucial, with a high degree of gilding applied to the cornicing and other carved features designed to catch the light. Costumes too need to be sympathetic to the lighting. In 1625, Sir Francis Bacon wrote of fabrics that ‘the colours that show best by candlelight are white, carnation, and a kind of sea-water-green’ – as can be seen in the work of the 18th-century English painter Joseph Wright, who made his name with a series of ‘Candle Light’ pictures that show his especial interest in the contrasts of artificial and natural light, the effects of a single light source and the play of shadows that resulted. Bacon also noted that ‘rich embroidery’ was ‘lost and not discerned’, but recommended the use of ‘oes or spangs [what we would call sequins], as they are of no great cost, so they are of most glory’. The silver thread in costumes was similarly designed to catch the light, as indeed was the actors’ make-up, gleaming with a lustre derived from crushed pearl or oyster shells, and their collars and ruffs reflecting the light to their
faces. The total effect must have been captivating. Candle technology is basically simple. But what I have discovered is just how flexible it is, varying the ambient light using the shutters, creating different light levels by adjusting the height of the chandeliers or extinguishing lights in the sconces, and using gentle additions with lanterns or strikingly dramatic effects with torchlight. The recent production of John Webster’s 1614 masterpiece, The Duchess of Malfi, demonstrated the impact of the candlelight, with reviewers praising how it revealed the play quite differently from a conventionally lit production. Of course, more tests await us; as I write, the second production – the anarchic Jacobean comedy, The Knight of the Burning Pestle, about as different from Webster’s play as you can imagine – is about to open, which, I imagine, may require us to rethink some of our assumptions about the relationship between light and laughter. Martin White is professor of theatre at the University of Bristol and the associate for playhouse lighting for Shakespeare’s Globe. He has published extensively on early modern drama and theatre practice, has directed more than 40 plays at the university, and is also a consultant to the RSC.
Lighting Journal April 2014
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3D printed optics
The optimum optic?
Richard van de Vrie, founder and chairman of rapid prototyping provider LUXeXceL, explains how 3D printing is transforming the creation of optics, radically changing both the manufacturerâ€™s and speciferâ€™s experience with customised solutions
Convex lens array
Lighting Journal April 2014
3D printed optics
Custom application LED lens array
n his State of the Union address last year, President Obama mentioned that 3D printing will revolutionise the way we make almost everything. So how could digital manufacturing – the Third Industrial Revolution according to The Economist – potentially change and improve the lighting industry? Since the last decade the industry has learned about all the pros and cons of the transition from analogue light sources to digital LEDs. The usually long product development cycles can’t follow the pace of the improvement in LED light sources. Manufacturers regularly have to write off huge inventories of expensive moulds and components used in traditional manufacturing. The consequences are that financial departments put pressure on R&D, manufacturing and sales teams to develop high-volume products fast and efficiently, to take care that obsolete components are sold in time or are used for new products. Digitised production takes care of the problem of obsolete stock as production can happen on demand. Inventory becomes digital and the expensive moulds and other tools are no longer necessary. Unreliable sales forecasts that would otherwise include the very negative impacts of investments in moulds, inventories
and write-off of obsolete stock will soon be a thing of the past. In the development of LEDs the focus has perhaps been less on light quality and distribution, but rather on creating the highest lumen output per watt. But we have now entered a stage where creating the newer, more powerful LED is no longer enough. The rat-race of having the best LED chip based primarily on performance has passed.
This process allows the creation of a perfect tailored lighting solution for each product, application or project Arguably there is now more emphasis on the importance of both the design of a lighting fixture as well as the quality of the light distribution, creating new and innovative tailored lighting experiences in projects. Implicit in that process are the challenges that customised lighting brings. How to reduce the product development time from many months to several weeks? How to take care that financial teams will not have to put pressure on reducing
inventories and cost, impeding the innovation process? How to enable the customisation of both the lighting fixture and the light distribution? This is where 3D printing is able to deliver enormous advantages to both lighting manufacturers and lighting designers. Pre-investments in moulds are no longer necessary and inventories can now be stored as CAD files. Once something changes in the design, only the CAD files have to be adapted and the requested number of components can be 3D printed directly. In this way, new and unique 21st-century lighting fixtures can be designed. Current 3D printing techniques are versatile in terms of materials – electronics, metal and plastic components can all be printed. As a final piece to the puzzle, 3D printed optical surfaces and lenses have also been added to the list of digitally manufactured components, a process invented by the Dutchbased LUXeXceL Group. Because the optic takes care of the light distribution, this means that we can now create a particular light pattern and a special beam shape. Printoptical Technology, a patented process, is not about printing layer on layer, using rather slow 3D printers. Instead it involves 3D printing optical PMMA materials
Lighting Journal April 2014
Road lighting 1 with fast inkjet machines using a process the company calls â€˜fluent dynamicsâ€™ as a way to overcome the problems traditional 3D printers would have when printing optical surfaces. Because of this, the printed surfaces are perfectly smooth and do not need any post processing, such as polishing, to obtain optical functionality. This process also allows the creation of freeform-shaped optics to be digitally created in a single go. The digitisation of optics manufacturing has started. However, there are continuous improvements to printers, software and printing materials to increase the printing speed and product quality. This increases the possibilities for the manufacturing of optics. CAD files can be sent electronically, but in the short term LUXeXceL will enable optical and lighting designers to upload their optical designs online and make use of all kinds of optical design tools to enhance the possibilities of improving every lighting product or application. This allows the creation of a perfect tailored lighting solution for each product, application or project. Every museum picture can be
highlighted with perfect light distribution, for example, and every street lighting pole will be able to receive the customised optic to ensure that the light distribution fits exactly to that individual location. This one-step, CAD-to-optic manufacturing process has been developed to ease the design stage and to offer prototyping and manufacturing as a service. Within a few days the printed lenses can be forwarded worldwide, presenting product designers with a new flexibility to test the performance of their fixtures and to ease manufacturing.
Printoptical Technology has won the Deloitte Fast-50 2013 MostDisruptive-Technology Award; the Belgium/Dutch Accenture Innovation Award 2013, and a Product Innovation Award 2014 from US-based Architectural SSL magazine in the Technology Brand Leader category.
A variety of functional micro-optics including fresnel lens and colour optographics (third from top)
Lighting Journal April 2014
Reducing the impact
The use of passive safety products is still largely restricted to trunk roads, says David Milne, despite the reduction in fatalities more widespread use could bring
onventional signposts and lighting columns have always had the capacity to kill or severely injure in a vehicle impact. Using passively safe street furniture to EN 12767 can almost totally eliminate these casualties. Typically passive safe street furniture is comparatively light and shears off and/or deforms relatively easily to lessen the severity of an accident in a vehicle impact. The passively safe street was initially a Scandinavian initiative in the 1980s and 1990s. Norway developed aluminium Lattix signposts, and lighting columns in steel and aluminium were also Scandinavian developments. Finland has notably made great steps with passively safe lighting columns now used on most of its roads. A standard was published in 2000: EN 12767: 2000 Passive safety of support structures for road equipment
â€“ requirements, classification and test methods. This pan-European standard is a protocol for carrying out crash tests using a small car at speeds up to 100kph to identify if an object of street furniture is relatively safe to hit. The car is instrumented with accelerometers to record accident severity. This standard allowed highway authorities to specify passively safe street furniture with confidence. The Highways Agency approved passively safe Lattix signposts for large signs without a safety barrier on the A43 Silverstone bypass which opened in June 2002. This was the first major new road scheme to use passively safe road signs throughout. In 2004 (updated in 2005), the Design Manual for Roads and Bridges document, TA89 Use of passively safe signposts, lighting columns and traffic signal posts to BS EN 12767, was
published. This document legitimised installation of signs and lighting columns on trunk roads without the disruptive provision of expensive protective safety fences. It greatly aided the extensive use of passively safe street furniture in the UK which effectively began in the same year. Three years later the first European standard was updated to EN 12767: 2007 and now includes some
Lighting engineers are both conservative and more likely to consider illumination the main priority. The concept of trying to protect passengers in errant runoff vehicles has yet to gain traction away from the trunk road network limited guidance on using passively safe street furniture in the National Annex at the back of the document. TA89 was then withdrawn. Further guidance on using passively safe street furniture is given in the Passive Safety UK Guidelines for Specification and Use of Passively Safe Street Furniture on the UK Road Network (see website below). Passively safe street signposts and lighting columns are now almost universally specified for any new installation on a trunk road.
Jerol passively safe lighting columns distributed in the UK by Signature. The conical polymer composite shaft with internal polyester bands prevents the columns becoming detached during a collision and also reduces the effects of column whiplash
Products There is an extensive range of passively safe products for signposts, lighting columns, traffic signal posts and even stainless steel roadside cabinets being marketed in the UK. Products can be made from fibrereinforced plastic, steel, aluminium and stainless steel. Initially the products tended to be almost entirely Scandinavian but increasingly UK
Lighting Journal April 2014
firms are developing their own products (see UK Roads website below for a selection of products). Use of passively safe street furniture on non-trunk roads The table below demonstrates casualties from hitting lighting columns are mostly an urban problem with most deaths occurring in towns. On trunk roads the use of passively safe lighting columns or installing lighting columns behind safety fences has almost eliminated casualties. Hitting conventional lighting columns, even at the lower speeds in urban situations, is often serious or fatal as the figures below demonstrate. Specifying passively safe street furniture on urban roads has still hardly begun. There are a number of reasons for this slow take-up: • There is a profusion of obstacles and often people next to the road in an urban environment • Lighting engineers are both conservative and more likely to consider illumination the main priority. The concept of trying to protect passengers in errant run-off vehicles has yet to gain traction away from the trunk road network • Passively safe lighting columns are often more expensive than conventional lighting columns. Developing a range of passively safe lighting columns and undertaking the crash tests to get the range approved is expensive. However, with increasing use costs should fall • There is an additional requirement for electrical isolation in an impact for passively safe lighting columns in the National Annex to BS EN 12767. This requires the power supply to a passively safe lighting column to be cut off in an impact. A number of competing systems have been developed to achieve this, including pullout plugs and impact sensors on the lighting column, activating a remote relay in a cabinet away from the highway. There is probably a case for reviewing this requirement as in practice the risk of electrocution from electrically live lighting columns after an impact is probably similarly low for passive and non-passive lighting columns with the real risk being death or injury from the impact accelerations on the vehicle.
Lighting Journal April 2014
Car after a fatal accident involving a side impact on a conventional steel lighting column
Car after hitting a Kapu passively safe lighting column in a side impact (a non-injury accident)
Non built-up roads
Casualties in Great Britain from hitting lamp posts in 2012 (in single vehicle accidents)
My view is that passive safety has most certainly demonstrated its worth on trunk roads. The extension to busier urban 40mph and 30mph highways would have much to offer in increasing road safety.
Passive Safety UK Guidelines for Specification and Use of Passively Safe Street Furniture on the UK Road Network: www.ukroads.org/webfiles/ Guidelines%20Print%20ready.pdf
Free from the ILP: www.theilp.org.uk/documents/csssl4-passive-safety/
Available passively safe products: www.ukroads.org/passivesafety/ scripts/products.asp
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Banking on a green future
Simon Cornwell explains the new Green Loan for street lighting and looks at the historical context for transitions to new technology
n 4 February 2014, I found myself in an anonymous basement studio in Farringdon, London, carefully arranging some crib sheets of current facts, projected figures and a condensed street lighting timeline. I was joined by Shaun Kingsbury and Stephen Moir, chief executive and head of communications of the Green Investment Bank (GIB) respectively. They were engrossed in their own literature and glued to a recently published video in which the leader of Glasgow City Council enthused about the forthcoming replacement of the city’s 70,000 street lights by LEDs. This was to be made possible by a Green Loan provided by the bank, and Shaun, Stephen and I were booked in for a day of local radio interviews in which we talked about the past, present and future of street lighting, and how the GIB could finance future developments. The original intention was to spread the word about the new Green Loan while I was brought in to add some colour and historical background as a street lighting historian. But by the time the 13 interviews were organised, it became apparent that many radio stations wanted to talk to me alone: the subject had taken on unexpected popularity thanks to public disquiet over switch-offs and part-night schemes. Shaun leaned over: ‘If you could Simon, could you mention the Green Investment Bank and the Green Loan?’ As it turned out, it was easy to steer the interviews in this direction. Beginning operations in November 2012, the GIB’s mission is ‘to help the UK transition to a greener economy by supporting projects that are both green and commercial’. Operating independently of government, but capitalised with £3.8bn in funding from them, the bank is unashamedly and unambiguously for profit, both ensuring its own sustainability and its capability of accelerating investment in the transition to a greener economy. Its mission is to see every street light replaced by an energy efficient unit by 2020.
Lighting Journal April 2014
Its ‘green impact’ is quantified through five measures: reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase natural resource efficiency, protect the natural environment, enhance biodiversity and promote environmental sustainability. So far this has been achieved through loans to support offshore wind-farms and waste management, but the bank has now turned its attention to street lighting.
The cornerstone of the entire Green Loan is LED controlled by CMS. HID lighting, even using the smartest SON or metal halide schemes with their own CMS-controlled dimming, are not considered Noting that as much as 30 per cent of a local authority’s energy consumption is due to street lighting, and also with a keen eye on the rise, potential benefit and increasing efficiency of LEDs, the bank has created the Green Loan to accelerate the uptake of the technology. This deal will finance all the capital expenditure, including the new LED luminaires, CMS and replacement columns. It allows local authorities to make the switch to this new, low energy lighting by taking on this low, fixed-rate loan. The Green Loan has been specifically designed to finance public sector energy efficiency projects, ensuring that repayments are made from within savings. Local authorities deciding to make the switch to low energy street lights will have a short payback period on their investment; as early as five years, but up to 20 years if needed. After that, they will be able to enjoy a reduction in their electricity bill of up to 80 per cent. The interviews started and, perhaps inevitably, most presenters reflected the concerns of their
listeners and were quick to ask why the street lighting was being turned off. This was my cue: I mentioned the black-out of the Second World War and the switch-offs during the energy crisis of the 1970s. Both created more problems than they solved and so the black-out was replaced by the dim-out and the provision of ‘starlight’ street lighting; the energy crisis meanwhile saw the adoption of the ‘invest to save’ ideal which witnessed local authorities replacing inefficient light sources and investing in more accurate switching control. Turning off the lighting again is an inevitable knee-jerk reaction to energy saving and mounting costs, especially where street lighting is still, in many districts, a permissible and not an obligatory asset. Again, the solution is not to turn them off, but to invest to save and take on the new technologies that have started to appear. Financial schemes such as the Green Loans available from the GIB can achieve this without any cost to the taxpayer. The GIB has prepared some impressive figures to promote the scheme. The electricity bill for the UK’s 7m street lights totals more than £300m a year, representing one of a local authority’s greatest energy costs, and yet fewer than one million of these lamps are low energy. (The GIB’s definition of low energy lamps is fluorescent, induction and LED.) The legacy of the remaining 6m street lights is higher energy consumption, cost, environmental impact and the safety concerns of those 2.3m columns that are 30 years old (or more). The environmental impact also includes the 1.3m tonnes of CO2 emissions every year, which is equivalent to the electricity consumption of 674,000 households and the emissions of 330,000 cars on the road. The GIB predicts potential energy savings of £200m if all these lamps were converted to LED, with the initial part of these savings being used to pay off the loan. ‘Bad lighting does not come cheap, it carries an electricity bill
Energy-saving finance which can be cut by up to 80 per cent with a move to low energy, LED lighting,’ says Shaun Kingsbury. ‘Making the switch saves councils’ money, increases community safety and dramatically reduces the UK’s carbon footprint. ‘The GIB Green Loan is essentially a corporate loan facility that covers the set-up, capital investment and installation costs of lighting upgrades to LED, with repayments being made from within forecast savings,’ he continues. ‘Put more simply, local authorities borrow money from the GIB, but repay the loan entirely through the money they save by changing their lighting.’ Yet it would be extremely unfair to accuse the street lighting industry of being profligate. Ever since the birth of public-funded lighting, the onus has been to provide an adequate amount of light for public safety at a minimal cost from a usually extremely small public purse. The industry has reinvented itself several times: the early adoption and improvement of discharge lighting, the use of ever more sophisticated controlling mechanisms, the ongoing adoption of research (S/P lighting ratios being the current vogue) and now the trialling and gradual switch to LEDs. And here is the catch. The low energy lighting being advocated by the bank, and the cornerstone of the entire Green Loan, is LED controlled by CMS. HID lighting, even using the smartest SON or metal halide schemes with their own CMS-controlled dimming, are not considered. But is this restriction anything
new? Even back in the dim-anddistant days of the mid-1930s when the Ministry Of Transport begrudgingly offered to pay 50 per cent of the lighting of trunk roads – the first time a national authority agreed to funding lighting – there were stipulations and restrictions: lanterns had to be MOT approved, lighting levels had to adhere to the MOT Final Report, columns had to be ticked off by the Fine Arts Commission. Yet it is new, in that the light source itself is being stipulated. The arrival of a new technology – especially in a field as understandably cautious as street lighting – has historically been slowly taken up as the new technology proves itself. Gas was not rendered obsolete overnight by the emergence of the incandescent or discharge lamp; both coexisted until discharge lamp improvements and gas price increases pushed the older technology into gradual and permanent decline. But is the LED revolution being pushed through on the back of government loans perhaps before the technology is ready? The deal hinges on the empirically unproven promise of the lifespan of the LEDs. Will the LEDs, and more important their drivers, last their predicted 100,000 hours? The GIB has answers to these concerns, pointing out that larger manufacturers can now show more than 70,000 hours of LED testing in extreme conditions on their ‘older’ sources, and are offering long warranties on LEDs and luminaires of up to 20 years to provide assurance for their products. The drivers/ballasts, the other vital components, are catching
up and long warranties on the full package are emerging. Therefore the GIB offers this new financial package for the replacement of ageing stock. In an age where money is increasingly tight, energy is getting increasingly expensive, and the complex and onerous PFIs seem to be done and dusted, then the Green Loan is an offer that deserves long, serious consideration. www.theilp.org.uk/resources/greeninvestment-bank/ www.greeninvestmentbank.com ‘Once again the UK GIB is leading the way in the green revolution. Street lighting across Britain tends to be very costly and energy inefficient, emitting the same amount of carbon dioxide each year as a quarter of a million cars on the road. This investment by GIB into new LED technology could make big strides in saving money for local councils and reducing our carbon footprint. I urge councils across the country to follow Glasgow City Council’s lead and GIB’s new Green Loan can help speed up the take up of this street lighting. So far through the Green Investment Bank – the first of its kind in the world – we have invested more than £750m in energy projects which are driving innovation and our plans for green growth. For every £1 the bank has invested, £3 has been raised from the private sector for projects in areas ranging from offshore wind to waste to energy efficiency products.’ – Vince Cable, Business Secretary
Green loan sculptured repayment
Lighting Journal April 2014
Using the printed polymer method, a Japanese company claims the first dual-colour OLED
Small molecule OLEDs The production of small molecule OLEDs usually involves thermal evaporation in a vacuum, making the production process more expensive and of limited use for large-area devices. However, unlike polymer-based devices, this vacuum deposition process results in wellcontrolled, homogeneous films, and the construction of very complex multi-layer structures. The high flexibility of the method is the main reason for the high efficiencies of the small molecule OLEDs.
ith companies playing things pathologically close to their chest in the run up to Light and Building in Frankfurt, it is possibly foolhardy to anticipate a first before the event has taken place. But Sumitomo Chemical is claiming that it will have ‘the world’s first dual-colour OLED’ at the show. Colours can be customised from saturated to pastel, and can be used for two-colour graphics, logos and symbols, for instance. There are two main families of OLED: those based on small molecules (also known as SM-OLED) and those employing polymers (PLED). Sumitomo has opted for the second approach. ‘Compared with small molecule organic LEDs, PLED technology has great potential to enable more cost-effective production of lighting panels because of its simpler production process,’ says the Japanese company. ‘Our technology enables a light-emitting layer to be formed by a single printing. With printable PLEDs, production costs will be lower and larger lighting panels will be easily produced.’ As it did for the 2012 show, the company has invited leading Japanese lighting designer Motoko Ishii to design the display of multi-coloured OLEDs (pictured above and right). ‘We are aiming to develop PLEDs for design lighting applications by 2013 and general lighting by 2015,’ says Sumitomo. ‘We are developing PLEDs with plastic substrates with the aim of commercialisation by 2015.’
PLEDs Vacuum deposition is not suitable for forming thin films of polymers, but they can be processed in solution. Spin coating, more suited to forming large-area films than thermal evaporation, is a common way of depositing thin polymer films. No vacuum is required, which makes the process cheaper, and the emissive materials can also be applied on the substrate by a technique derived from commercial inkjet printing. It also means the thin, flexible film can be produced in larger sizes. However, as the application of subsequent layers tends to dissolve those already present, formation of multilayer structures is difficult with these methods.
Lighting Journal April 2014
Features for May Issue Top picks from Light and Building The Year of Light:
what is it and whoâ€™s it for?
Illuminating concepts: part of the furniture
Source of contention
Allan Howard, technical director for lighting at WSP-UK, reports back from the second EcoLighting workshop
een readers may recall my article in Lighting Journal in May 2013 discussing the European Commission Eco-Lighting project and its aims to develop the criteria for an Ecolabel for the 10 per cent best sources available. I looked at the then programme and at whether such a label was truly achievable, and advised that the final proposals would be issued in January 2014. Well, as might be expected, the topic is more complex than originally envisaged and the programme has been extended, with February seeing the second stakeholder consortium meeting in Brussels to discuss the Ecolabel’s revised criteria. The Ecolabel requirements – set by Regulation (EU) 66/2010 – are a voluntary scheme to promote the best 10 to 20 per cent of products in all sectors that have a reduced environmental impact along their life cycle, in this case lamps. Essentially the Ecolabel sets performance targets higher than those required under the Ecodesign criteria. The aim is to raise consumers’ awareness of the best products that achieve a balance between the environmental benefits and burdens, by considering the most significant environmental impacts. This will be set by key environmental performance indicators while fully recognising that the quality of light must be at the forefront of any considerations. The first change is the extension of products within a category that can achieve the label from 10 per cent to a maximum of 20 per cent; the term ‘light source’ has also been dropped in favour of ‘lamps’ (personally I am not sure on this point). The current criteria being developed are for domestic lamps only but it was observed that
the criteria set here could then be used for all other lamps/sources. We therefore need to provide comment and correctly identify definitions and requirements now. The scheme currently applies to lamps with a luminous flux of ≥ 60 and ≤ 12,000lm that produce visible radiation and are fitted with a cap to EN 60061. Lamps not included at this time comprise, but are not limited to: ■ High intensity discharge lamps ■ Coloured lamps ■ LED tubes or LED modules These are excluded as they are not currently considered to have suitable market penetration within this sector, which in the case of LED tubes may be debatable. I won’t examine all of the criteria here; the complete proposal document can be viewed under the Ecolabel tab on the Eco-Project website (see below). I will, however, just look at some of the key criteria: Criterion 1: All lamps must meet the appropriate Commission Regulations. Criterion 2: The luminous efficacy of the lamps should be A++ based on measurements at 1000 burning hours. This raised some debate over whether to place the requirement as A+++, effectively ruling out a number of light sources as it was considered that CFLs cannot achieve this and may not even achieve A++. Essentially, should the label apply only to products that can achieve this efficacy, perhaps ultimately limiting it to only one source type – and why at 1000 hours? Criteria 3 and 4: Ensuring a defined level of lumen maintenance ≥ 0.95, no early failures and colour rendering index ≥ 85 all measured at 1000 hours.
Criteria 6 and 7: Mercury and hazardous materials. In accordance with Article 6(6) of Regulation (EC) No 66/2010, the product or any part of it shall not contain substances referred to in Article 57 of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, nor substances or mixtures which may be or have been assigned hazard statements. This has a profound effect when considering electronic components and circuit boards in that devices containing these, in other words LEDs, would fail the criteria. It is therefore being considered that concentration limits for what is termed substances of very high concern (SVHC) should not exceed 0.1 per cent weight for weight. Prior to December 2013 there were 144 substances on the SVHC list which is reviewed twice a year; this number is expected to increase to 170 in 2014 and to 600 by 2020. Homogeneous materials as defined by RoHS are also considered with a limitation to a weight below 5g. This area provoked a great deal of discussion and is still unresolved. The above is just a summary of 12 key criteria – which must be met to achieve the Ecolabel and create some real barriers to its uptake. All electronic components contain SVHCs; LEDs alone have some 150 components involved with 1500 homogeneous materials and 50 suppliers. This requires a huge consideration and management of data, especially with an ever-changing list of SVHCs and the potential for changes in suppliers. From this point of view it is a mission impossible to track all substances in the supply chain. LED technology is evolving fast and would need a dynamic label whose criteria change at least annually to award only the top 10-20 per cent of the market. Suppliers would be advised that new LED improvements will be reviewed every six months. To aid development, the Ecolabel programme has been extended into the last quarter of 2014 and the consortium members have much to think about, mainly in relation to hazardous materials. So it is a matter of ‘watch this space’. If you wish to read more or comment on the proposals, they can be viewed at the Eco-Lighting website or, if you would like to let me know your views I will pass them through. www.eco-lighting-project.eu/
Lighting Journal April 2014
36...Vice presidents’ column
Untapped resources Keith Henry, VP technical, on the fund of information available to members and plans to update guidance
Since becoming VP technical some two years ago, along with other members of the institution I have watched the evolution of the lighting industry and seen significant changes in both the engineers’ approach to lighting and the authorities’ approach to budget control – all of which are challenges to the ILP to keep members up to date with advice and support. The engineer’s primary goal is, I believe, still to deliver the best quality lighting within the constraints offered by his or her budget. This role also includes exploring and sourcing new ways of funding the improvement of lighting such as through Salix, the Green Investment Bank (see p32) or from authority reserves. I would like to begin with an outline of the technical committee and its role. Its main function is to provide up-to-date guidance and advice to the membership. The main communication link to members is through the regional technical liaison officers (RTLOs), all members of the technical committee. Their dissemination of information to members through presentations at technical meetings stimulates the ideas and comments coming back to committee, which helps decide which Professional Lighting Guide or advice note should be produced next. During the past two years the former Technical Reports have been rebranded as Professional Lighting Guides and as the older TRs are revisited and revised these will also be rebranded. Four PLGs have been published, with a further four planned for publication during 2014. The PLGs published to date are: PLG02: The application of conflict areas on the highway This was produced to clarify the situation where individuals interpreted the requirements and definition of a conflict area in their own way. This led to conflict areas being overlit
Lighting Journal April 2014
and extended beyond reasonable distances along the highway and associated footpaths. Guidance is referenced to BS5489-1: 2013. PLG03: Lighting of subsidiary roads This identified that the wholesale reduction of lighting classes for residential roads allowed within BS5489: 2003 gave the engineer the tools to compare the lighting of subsidiary roads with light sources of varying CRI and apply a correction factor to enable the reduction of lighting levels on a qualitative basis. This has had a dramatic effect on the selection of sources and seen more LEDs specified. PLG04: Environmental lighting impact assessments This gives a consistent framework for the production of lighting impact assessments, typically for planning applications. It gives guidance on the procedures required to prepare a report for consideration as part of the National Planning Policy Framework. PLG07: Highmasts for lighting and CCTV applications This has been produced and revised for more than 30 years and is the key document for all involved with highmast lighting and other mast-type structures such as CCTV masts. It has been updated following the publication of the Eurocodes, including the windload method in BS EN 1991-1-4. The PLGs planned for publication in 2014 are: PLG01: CMS This will provide professionals with a clear understanding of available systems and areas to consider when selecting a CMS. It is directly referenced to PLG08 (see below) as the two PLGs provide both decision makers and end users with the tools to help in the management of lighting installations, as well as in reducing energy and maintenance costs.
PLG05: Illuminated advertising displays The document updates TR05 and takes into consideration the increase in video wall advertising. PLG06: Attachments and seasonal decorations This document has been extended from just seasonal decorations to now include all attachments to lighting columns and building structures. PLG08: Adaptive lighting This will provide guidance on partnight switch off, dimming, trimming and dynamic control of lighting to suit each authority’s individual requirements. It references PLG01 as there are similarities in approach where dynamic and adaptive lighting need control other than through photocells. Many members are still not aware of the resources available on the website. These include access to download current PLGs and older TRs as well as other documents such as ‘Prioritising investment in public lighting: A Framework for developing a Street Lighting Value Management Model’ which was produced in conjunction with the London Lighting Engineers Group ( LOLEG). The ILP has developed links with other organisations such as CIE and IET and members of the committee represent the ILP on these bodies and report back to the technical committee. This information is then communicated to members through the Lighting Journal and the RTLOs. Currently the majority of LAs are considering cuts in services. These typically affect the lighting industry in two ways: staff cuts or requirements to reduce energy. The PLGs help in the second of these two challenges, while the ILP continues to champion the importance of CPD and professional qualifications to ensure those competent to manage the lighting stock are retained in their posts. Looking to the future, areas currently identified for further PLGs – and for which panels have either been set up or are in the process of being formed – are: photometry of LED luminaires, colour temperature of LEDs for exterior lighting applications, guidance on lighting car parks, electrical street furniture and the revision of TR22. If you can contribute to the preparation of these documents please get in touch. email@example.com
LIGHTING LANDSCAPES A Guide to Implementing Successful Lighting within the Public Realm
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Lighting Journal April 2014
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Lighting Journal April 2014
Whatâ€™s new Toshiba
Neoaccent The Neoaccent range of LED retail fittings has three models. The tracklight (shown) has a three-circuit universal adapter and independent dimming lever at the gear box. The recessed extractable fixture has Dali controllable gear and adjustable lighting head. The recessed battery version has single, double and triple installation frames and individual lamping. Lumen packages range from 1700lm (equivalent to 20W CMH) to 2600lm (35W CMH). The system power consumption is 22W/32W with a luminaire efficacy of up to 81lm/W. Beam angles are 15, 25 and 35 degrees, and colour temperatures are 3000K and 4000K. Colour rendering is RA85 but a filter that can achieve RA96 is available as an accessory. With a diecast aluminium housing, finishes are white, silver or black. www.toshiba.co.uk
SmartStar Gear Tray The SmartStar combines a gear tray with lampholder, ballast and lamp, and enables customers to convert from magnetic to electronic control gear with a white light source. If needed the ballast also comes with dimming and CMS capabilities. The all-in-one solution is designed to install quickly and easily, minimising time on site, allowing for volume replacement schemes in short or restricted timescales. www.selclighting.com
Dix Heures Dix
Albedo Albedo is a floorstanding lamp made of metal, produced by the French brand Dix Heures Dix. Measuring 180cm high and 80cm across, the lamp is made of epoxy black steel (stem) with PMMA (diffusers). Source is either halogen (3 x GU10) or LED. www.dixheuresdix.com
Lighting Journal April 2014
Intelligent light shopping system Philips is piloting an intelligent personalised shopping lighting system. Using visual light communications, the LED in-store lighting communicates location-based information to shoppers through a smartphone app which they can opt to download. This can be used to send special offers to the shopper, for example, or information on the location of specific ingredients relevant to their location in the store. The light fixtures form a dense network that acts as a positioning grid. Each fixture is identifiable and able to communicate its position to the app on the shopper’s smart device. The advantage of the system, says Philips, is that retailers don’t have to invest in additional infrastructure to house, power and support location beacons for indoor positioning, as the light fixtures themselves can communicate this information by virtue of their presence everywhere in the store. www.lighting.philips.co.uk
CLS80 driver Harvard has added a low-profile, high-voltage LED retrofit driver for fluorescent lighting to its CoolLED range. Delivering up to 80W of power, the driver is designed for T5 and T8 luminaires and is available in non-dim and Dali touch dim variants, with up to 94 per cent efficiency. The CLS80 is also compatible with Harvard’s LEDeng range of light engines.
CLH driver Harvard Engineering has launched the first in a range of high-power drivers specifically designed for street lighting applications. The CLH Single Channel driver offers up to 200W of power with resistive programmable drive current. The product can be easily programmed across a number of different current ranges, says the company, which means customers can standardise on a single compact driver to reduce inventory and associated carrying costs. The driver is designed to be compliant with all 90 per cent-plus efficiency industry standards. Its 120-277V universal input offers 91 per cent efficiency at 120V and 93 per cent at 277V, with 6kV surge protection. WiMAC compatibility comes as standard, so that it can be used alongside the company’s LeafNut system. Although designed for the street lighting market, the driver can be used in all applications needing a high-power driver. An IP66 rated version is also available. www.harvardeng.com
Lighting Journal April 2014
Independent lighting design
Calculated risk Why designing lighting by numbers doesn’t add up, says Emma Cogswell, IALD UK projects manager
am incredibly biased about design because of my education and genuine love of it: design is fundamentally important. One of the first lessons I had at college was art history where I learnt about form following function. The actual quote from US architect Louis Sullivan is, ‘Form ever follows function’, but the simpler phrase is the one usually remembered. For Sullivan this was distilled wisdom, an aesthetic credo, the single ‘rule that shall permit of no exception’. The full quote is: ‘It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and all things superhuman, of all true manifestations of the head, of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognisable in its expression, that form ever follows function. This is the law.’ After all what’s the point of having something if it doesn’t work? Lighting is peculiar because there are lots of elements at play. A good light fitting has to deliver fantastic light quality on to a surface whether it’s in a stadium, on a street or the dining table in your home. Then the fitting that houses and propels this light should
also look beautiful, but not just for the sake of it – it has to have a purpose or a function. Some time ago Speirs and Major collaborated with product designer Priestman Goode to create a new exterior street light, the Sorento, for DW Windsor. Originally designed for use in an urban lighting project in Cambridge, it has since been commercialised for use in other public spaces. The street light was developed in response to the lack of lighting products that were suitable for historic areas. ‘When you are specifying for historical areas, you either get appalling heritage Victoriana, or you get inappropriate modern designs,’ says designer Paul Priestman. ‘We wanted to create something that was in-between.’
Saving energy is the key concern and a valid one, but it can be achieved using design rather than simple number crunching ‘The success of this product is that it works in a historic context,’ adds Mark Major. ‘We built up an aesthetic based on what we knew planners and heritage bodies would accept, and
we were conscious of what it takes to insert modern performance sensitively into a historic context.’ A key feature of the light is the way heat is managed away from sensitive components such as control chips and sensors. ‘The light runs exceptionally coolly, which gives it a very long life,’ says Alan Grant, design and development manager for DW Windsor. It is a good example of the marriage of practical and aesthetic considerations. It would be nice to think that the world generally is aware that design is important because it enriches our environments. Sadly this is not the case, and after some years of experience in the lighting design industry I still all too often come across schemes that have been designed by numbers and not for effect. There is a danger that this will become more rather than less common as the pressure to save energy increases. In a recent government report for my review, the familiar facts were listed, as well as the key challenges the lighting industry has to face: • Lighting consumes 20 per cent of all UK electricity; UK lighting consumes 58,000 GWh per year (CIBSE) • Consumption of lighting energy breaks down as follows: 70 per cent commercial, 26 per cent residential, 4 per cent street lighting • Domestic lighting consumes 18 TWh • Using effective lighting controls and energy efficient lighting could reduce the total UK lighting figure from 20 per cent to 4-6 per cent (14,500 GWh per year) Saving energy is the key concern and a valid one, but it can be achieved using design rather than simple number crunching. An architect I know said, ‘Good design is inherently efficient’, and he’s right. Let’s all remember that thought next time we specify a fitting, and think about the aesthetic effects of the light quality and the housing of the fitting itself. Lighting is a major contributor to the built environment and design should be the primary concern not the last.
Lighting Journal April 2014
Consultants Carl Ackers
MSc CEng MCIBSE MILP MSLL Built Environment Consulting Ltd 5 Redwing Court, Long Acre Willow Farm Business Park Castle Donington DE74 2UH
T: +44 (0) 1332 811711 M: 07867 784906 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.bec-consulting.co.uk
BEC are Chartered building services consultants based in Castle Donington in the East Midlands. Our location allows us to serve the whole of the UK from our central base. With many years’ experience we are able to bring a wealth of knowledge and experience to the design process. Our vision is to deliver class leading sustainable solutions for the built environment, including specialist internal and external lighting design and specification services. record for PFI projects and their indepedent certification.
Steven Biggs IEng MILP
These pages give details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services. Listing is included on main ILP website with logo (www.theilp.org.uk)
MA BEng(Hons) CEng MIET MILP 4way Consulting Ltd Fernbank House, Tytherington Business Park, Macclesfield, SK10 2XA.
T: 01625 348349 F: 01625 610923 M: 07526 419248 E: email@example.com W: www.4wayconsulting.com 4way Consulting provides exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialises in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete Project Life Cycle for both the Public and Private Sector (including PFI/DBFO).
BEng(Hons) CEng FILP
Technical Director (Lighting)
WSP WSP House, 70 Chancery Lane, London WC2A 1AF
T: 07827 306483 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.wspgroup.com Professional exterior lighting and electrical services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice regarding energy and carbon reduction strategies, lighting efficiency legislation, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations. Registered competent designers and HERS registered site personnel.
Skanska Infrastructure Services
Dodson House, Fengate Peterborough PE1 5FS
Unit 9, The Chase, John Tate Road, Foxholes Business Park, Hertford SG13 7NN
T: 07825 843524 E: email@example.com W: www.wspgroup.com
BSc (Hons) CEng FILP MIMechE Designs for Lighting Ltd 17 City Business Centre, Hyde Street, Winchester SO23 7TA
T: 01962 855080 M: 07790 022414 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: designsforlighting.co.uk Professional lighting design consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.
Technical Lead for Lighting Design
T: +44 (0) 1733 453432 E: email@example.com W: www.skanska.co.uk
Are you an individual member of the ILP? Do you offer lighting consultancy? Make sure you are listed here
Stainton Lighting Design Services Ltd Lighting & Electrical Consultants, Dukes Way, Teesside Industrial Estate, Thornaby Cleveland TS17 9LT
T: 01642 766114 F: 01642 765509 E: firstname.lastname@example.org Specialist in all forms of exterior lighting including; Motorway, Major & Minor Highway Schemes, Architectural Illumination of Buildings, Major Structures, Public Artworks, Amenity Area Lighting, Public Open Spaces, Car Parks, Sports Lighting, Asset Management, Reports, Plans, Strategies, EIA’s, Planning Assistance, Maintenance Management, Electrical Design and Communication Network Design.
Award winning professional multi-disciplinary lighting design consultants. Extensive experience in technical design and delivery across all areasof construction, including highways, public realm and architectural projects. Providing energy efficient design and solutions.
Professional services providing design and technical support for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways and associated infrastructure. Expert surveys and environmental impact assessments regarding the effect of lighting installations and their effect on the community.
Stephen Halliday EngTech AMILP
It Does Ltd
Sector Leader – Exterior Lighting
Milton Keynes Business Centre, Foxhunter Drive, Linford Wood, Milton Keynes, MK14 6GD
Nick Smith Associates Limited
IEng MILP MSLL MIoD
T: 01908 698869 M: 07990 962692 E: Information@itdoes.co.uk W: www.itdoes.co.uk Professional award winning international lighting designer Lorraine Calcott creates dynamic original lighting schemes from a sustainable and energy management perspective. Helping you meet your energy targets, reduce bottom line cost and increase your ‘Green’ corporate image whilst still providing the wow factor with your interior, exterior or street lighting project.
Mark Chandler EngTech AMILP
The Victoria,150-182 The Quays, Salford, Manchester M50 3SP
T: 0161 886 2532 E: email@example.com W: www.wspgroup.com Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways. PFI technical advisor and certifier support. HERS registered site personnel.
Philip Hawtrey BTech IEng MILP MIET Technical Director
MMA Lighting Consultancy Ltd
99 Old Bath Road, Summer Field House Charvil, Reading RG10 9QN
Severn House, Lime Kiln Close, Stoke Gifford, Bristol, BS34 8SQ
T: 0118 3215636, M: 07838 879 604, F: 0118 3215636 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.mma-consultancy.co.uk MMA Lighting Consultancy is an independent company specialising in Exterior Lighting and Electrical Design work. We are based in the South of England and operate on a national scale delivering street lighting and lighting design solutions.
T: 0117 9062300, F: 0117 9062301 M: 07789 501091 E: email@example.com W: www.mouchel.com Widely experienced professional technical consultancy services in exterior lighting and electrical installations, providing sustainable and innovative solutions, environmental assessments, ‘Invest to Save’ strategies, lighting policies, energy procurement, inventory management and technical support. PFI Technical Advisor, Designer and Independent Certifier.
Call Julie on 01536 527295 for details
Broadgate House, Broadgate,Beeston, Nottingham, NG9 2HF
T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 F: +44 (0)115 9574901 E: firstname.lastname@example.org The consultancy offers a professional exterior lighting service covering all aspects of the sector, including design, energy management, environmental impact assessments and the development of lighting strategies and policies. It also has an extensive track record for PFI projects and their indepedent certification.
36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR
T: 01246 229444 F: 01246 270465 E: email@example.com W: www.nicksmithassociates.com Specialist exterior lighting design Consultant. Private or adoptable lighting and cable network design for highways, car parks, area lighting, lighting impact assessments, expert witness. CPD accredited training in lighting design, Lighting Reality, AutoCAD and other bespoke lighting courses arranged on request.
Alan Tulla Lighting
BSc (Hons) CEng MILP MSLL Capita House, Wood Street, East Grinstead, West Sussex RH19 1UU
T: 01342 327161 F: 01342 315927 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.capita.co.uk/infrastructure Chartered engineer leading a specialist lighting team within a multi-disciplinary environment. All aspects of exterior and public realm lighting, especially roads, tunnels, amenity and sports. Planning advice, environmental assessment, expert witness, design, technical advice, PFIs, independent certification.
IEng FILP FSLL
12 Minden Way, Winchester, Hampshire SO22 4DS
T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E: email@example.com W: www.alantullalighting.com Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Specialising in public realm, landscaping and building facades. Site surveys and design verification of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Visual impact assessments and reports for planning applications. Preparation of nightscape strategies for urban and rural environments. CPDs and lighting training.
Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing.
LIGHTING DIRECTORY ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING
COLUMN INSPECTION & TESTING
CUT OUTS & ISOLATORS
Kiwa CMT Testing Non-destructive testing at the root, base, swaged joint and full visual inspection of steel lighting columns. Techniques employed include the unique Relative Loss of Section meter and Swaged Joint Analyser in addition to the traditional Magnetic Particle inspection and Ultra Sonics where appropriate. Unit 5 Prime Park Way Prime Enterprise Park Derby DE1 3QB Tel 01332 383333 Fax 01332 602607
CONTACT JULIE BLAND 01536 527297 BANNERS WIND RELEASING
DECORATIVE & FESTIVE LIGHTING
MACLEAN ELECTRICAL LIGHTING DIVISION Meadowfield, Ponteland, Northumberland, NE20 9SD, England Tel: +44 (0)1661 860001 Fax: +44 (0)1661 860002 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.tofco.co.uk Manufacturers and Suppliers of Street lighting and Traffic Equipment • Fuse Units • Switch Fuse Units • Feeder Pillars and Distribution Panels • The Load Conditioner Unit (Patent Pending) • Accessories Contact: Kevin Doherty Commercial Director email@example.com If you would like to switch to Tofco Technology contact us NOW!
7 Drum Mains Park, Orchardton, Cumbernauld, G68 9LD Tel: 01236 458000 Fax: 01236 860555 email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: www.maclean.co.uk
LUCY LIGHTING Lucy Zodion manufactures and supplies a complete range of Electrical/ Electronic products for Streetlighting: • Vizion CMS
Specialist in high quality decorative and festive lighting. A full range of equipment is available for direct purchase or hire including unique firework lights, column motifs, cross road displays, festoon lighting and various tree lighting systems. Our services range from supply only of materials, hire, design and or total management of schemes. More information is available from: Head Office City Illuminations Ltd Griffin House, Ledson Road, Roundthorn Ind Est Manchester M23 9GP Tel: 0161 969 5767 Fax: 0161 945 8697 Email: email@example.com
Business info: Specialist Stockist and Distributors of Road Lighting, Hazardous Area, Industrial/ Commercial/ Decorative lighting. We also provide custom-built distribution panels, interior and exterior lighting design using CAD.
• Feeder Pillars • Pre-Wired Pillars • Photocells • Cutouts/Isolators
• Electronic Ballasts
Power Data Associates Ltd are the leading meter administrator in Great Britain. We achieve accurate energy calculations assuring you of a cost effective quality service. Offering independent consultancy advice to ensure correct inventory coding, unmetered energy forecasting and impact of market developments.
• Cutouts/isolators • Lighting Controls Lucy Zodion Ltd, Station Road, Sowerby Bridge, HX6 3AF tel: 01422 317337 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
01525 862690 info@PowerDataAssociates.com www.PowerDataAssociates.com Wrest Park, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4HR
EXTERIOR LIGHTING Designers and manufacturers of street and amenity lighting.
CONTACT JULIE BLAND 01536 527297
319 Long Acre Nechells Birmingham UK B7 5JT t: +44(0)121 678 6700 f: +44(0)121 678 6701 e: email@example.com
candela L I G H T
LIGHTING CONTACT JULIE BLAND 01536 527297
CONTACT JULIE BLAND 01536 527297 LIGHTING CONTROLS
LUCY LIGHTING Lucy Zodion manufactures and supplies a complete range of Electrical/Electronic products for Streetlighting: • Vizion CMS • Feeder Pillars • Pre-Wired Pillars • Photocells • Cutouts/Isolators • Electronic Ballasts • Cutouts/isolators • Lighting Controls Lucy Zodion Ltd, Station Road, Sowerby Bridge, HX6 3AF tel: 01422 317337 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.lucyzodion.com
SHATTER RESISTANT LAMP COVERS
Holscot Fluoroplastics Ltd Fluorosafe shatter resistant covers – Manufactured from high molecular weight Fluoroplastic material whose lifespan exceeds all maximum quoted lifespans for any fluorescent Lamps. Holscot supply complete covered lamps or sleeves only for self fitting.
LIGHT MEASURING EQUIPMENT
CPD Accredited Training • AutoCAD (basic or advanced) • Lighting Reality • AutoluxLighting Standards • Lighting Design Techniques • Light Pollution • Tailored Courses please ring Venues by arrangement
HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD Suppliers of a wide range of quality light measuring and photometric equipment. HAGNER PHOTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS LTD PO Box 210 Havant, PO9 9BT Tel: 07900 571022 E-mail: enquiries@ hagnerlightmeters.com www.hagnerlightmeters.com
CONTACT JULIE BLAND 01536 527297
Contact Nick Smith Alma Park Road, Alma Park Industrial Estate, Grantham, Lincs, NG31 9SE Contact: Martin Daff, Sales Director Tel: 01476 574771 Fax: 01476 563542 Email: email@example.com www.holscot.com
Nick Smith Associates Ltd 36 Foxbrook Drive, Chesterfield, S40 3JR t: 01246 229 444 f: 01246 270 465 e : firstname.lastname@example.org w: www.nicksmithassociates.com
Diary 2014 10-11
LumeNet 2014 (PhD forum) Venue: TU Berlin campus, Berlin www.li.tu-berlin.de/lumenet2014
LED Lighting Institute (Three-day seminar on the latest in LEDs and OLEDs organised by the Lighting Research Center) Venue: LRC, Troy, New York www.lrc.rpi.edu/
Energy and Environment Expo Venue: ExCel, London E16 www.energy-enviro-expo.com/
International Conference on Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency (CIE) Venue: Hotel Istana Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia http://malaysia2014.cie.co.at/
How to be Brilliant: at lighting design interviews (Organised by the ILP) Speaker: Colin Ball, associate lighting designer, BDP Venue: ACDC Studio, London N1 Time: 6-30pm email@example.com
SLL Masterclass: Quality Up Energy Down Venue: Royal Concert Halls, Glasgow www.sll.org.uk
Lightscene in Scotland Venue: Westerwood Hotel, Cumbernauld, Glasgow firstname.lastname@example.org
Light in the City Location: Tatu, Estonia www.valonkaupunki.jyvaskyla.fi/english/ projects/lic/activities/tartu
LEDTEC Asia 2014 Venue: Saigon Exhibition and Convention Center (SECC) Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam www.ledtecasia.com
Exterior Lighting Diploma Module 3 Venue: Draycote Hotel, Nr Rugby email@example.com
Full details of all regional events can be found at: www.theilp.org.uk/events/
From Data to Decisions (CPD seminar organised by Yotta) Venue: NEC Gallery Seminar Suite NEC, Birmingham http://yotta.co.uk/events/
SLL Masterclass: Quality Up Energy Down Venue: RIBA, London W1 www.sll.org.uk
How to be Brilliant: at sketching and communication (Organised by the ILP) Speaker: Lee Sweetman, senior designer, Speirs and Major Venue: ACDC Studio, London N1 Time: 6.30pm firstname.lastname@example.org
Surveyor and ILP Conference Venue: Prospero House, Borough High St, London SE1 email@example.com
How to be Brilliant: at portfolios (Organised by the ILP) Speaker: Paul Nulty, Paul Nulty Lighting Design Venue: ACDC Studio, London N1 Time: 6.30pm firstname.lastname@example.org
LR&T Symposium (Lighting Research and Technology) Venue: UCL www.sll.org.com
Shanghai International Lighting Fair Venue: Shanghai New International Expo Centre www.light.messefrankfurt.com.cn
SLL AGM and Awards Venue: Greenwich Maritime Museum London SE10 www.sll.org.uk
Exterior Lighting Diploma Module 1 Venue: Draycote Hotel, Nr Rugby email@example.com
Lightfair Exhibition and IALD conference Las Vegas Convention Center www.lightfair.com
Guangzhou International Lighting Exhibition Venue: China Import and Export Fair Complex, Guangzhou www.light.messefrankfurt.com.cn
ILP Professional Lighting Summit Venue: St Johnâ€™s Hotel, Solihull firstname.lastname@example.org
September (- 2 April)
LED professional Symposium and Expo 2014 (LpS) Venue: Festspielhaus, Bregenz, Austria www.LpS2014.com
LuxLIve Venue: ExCel, London E16 www.luxlive.co.uk
7 May: Lightscene, Cumbernauld, Glasgow (Image: Glasgow Squiggly Bridge)
The Lighting Journal is read by key decision makers and specifiers in lighting. Make sure your products and services reach them in 2014.
Contact Julie for information on rates and features 01536 527297 email@example.com
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