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PRESIDENT’S

GENERAL PRESIDENT’S LETTER

CROSSING THE THRESHOLD OF A NEW CENTURY

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e have crossed the threshold of our second century and now stand in an era that other African American fraternal organizations have yet to experience. Our journey during Alpha Phi Alpha’s Centennial Celebration has taken us to a new place and given us a new way of thinking about the community outreach that we need to provide in the Fraternity’s next century. The Centennial Pilgrimage to Cornell University in Ithaca, New York took us to a place where we met the spirit of the Fraternity’s Seven Jewels. We recognized the mandate to build on their beginnings and continue their original purpose of protecting and preserving that which is within. We also understood that we are here for the better making of men. Our journey to the nation’s capital where we celebrated the Fraternity’s 100th Anniversary Convention led us to a discussion with noted authorities on the African American community, which validated something we already knew—that the majority of young black boys and black men are not in trouble; and it is incumbent on us to grasp the mantle of leadership and help those who have lost their way. On our return to Washington, D.C. last November, we met on the National Mall with many of the most powerful and influential people in the country today for the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Groundbreaking. Our presence there brought us to the attention of the entire world. We echoed Dr. King’s message of democracy, justice, hope and love while also sending a signal that there are no bounds to our achievement when we walk in right paths. In these and other steps we took during the Centennial Celebration, we placed our mark on the chronicles of history—even as we have done throughout our 100-year existence. The current year promises to be another momentous one in the annals of the Fraternity’s history. The demand for Alpha Phi Alpha’s leadership and service is immense and your response has been nothing short of awesome. I am proud of the way this brotherhood has embraced our new mission statement and supported the mandate for greater involvement in our national programs and with our strategic alliance partners. There is a vital need for the service and leadership we provide to our communities and you have responded admirably; and with a greater emphasis on the deliberate execution of our national programs. Participation in our national programs is not an option and we demand strict adherence to Alpha’s mandates. Externally Alpha receives high marks across the nation for the service we give to our communities; and we know that we have yet to achieve our maximum potential. I am honored to serve as your General President in this historic time and to be able to lead the Fraternity through this critical phase of our existence. The greatest chapter of this august body has yet to be written; its greatest members—yet to be inducted; its greatest leaders— yet to take the oath of office. As we write the next chapters in our history let us remember those who have gone before us and who draw us back here now. Let us walk in their steps. Let us live in their time. Let us carry forth their mission. It is as if the Jewels are passing on to us the words of a famous poem paraphrased: To you from failing hands we throw the torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die, we shall not sleep... May God bless this great Fraternity of extraordinary men and all that we represent. Fraternally,

DARRYL R. MATTHEWS, SR. General President

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EXECUTIVE

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR’S LETTER

MOVING FROM THE CENTENNIAL YEAR INTO THE FIRST YEAR OF THE FRATERNITY’S NEW CENTURY My Brothers Beloved,

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reetings from your Corporate Headquarters! On November 13, 2006, I experienced one of the most humbling and proud moments of my life. I joined with hundreds of you, and thousands of others, as millions around the world watched us conduct the ceremonial groundbreaking ceremony for the memorial to our revered Brother, The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. I can recall listening to the speeches, the songs, the children’s essays and then pushing a shovel into the earth and actually turning the soil. It was another moment in a string of awesome moments during a Centennial Year of Celebration that I believe will have no rival. Now, we are actually into the first year of a new century of Alpha existence and we still have countless reasons to celebrate; however, the main thrust of our efforts must be on the work that lies ahead. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. develops leaders, promotes brotherhood and academic excellence, while providing service and advocacy for our communities. This is our mission statement, which was developed in 2006 along with our strategic plan. Both items were approved by the Fraternity’s Board of Directors and now, we move forward with the task of inculcating the new dynamics into the fabric of our culture. It is daunting, and yet, it is and should be invigorating. We are not attempting to be all things for all people. This Strategic Plan will guide us as we truly become One Alpha! There are no separate plans for different regions, different districts, different chapters or different brothers; we will collectively implement one Strategic Plan. The direction has been set and I look forward to taking this journey with you. The basic goals and objectives are available for your review on the corporate website. We soon will post on the website and provide a detailed operations manual to guide and direct your implementation efforts. You should be aware that a tremendous amount of work has gone into this effort. I want to thank Brother Dr. Zollie Stevenson, Chairman of the Organizational Effectiveness Committee, who leads this effort along with myself and the Board of Directors under the leadership of General President Darryl R. Matthews, Sr. Brothers, as we implement our Strategic Plan, this is the work that lies ahead and it is work that I know will make us proud. As the New Year began, many of you (those who ordered) started to receive the Centennial Edition of the Membership Directory. According to our publishers, slightly more than 45,000 Brothers submitted information for inclusion. Thank you!!! Use this as a tool to network and connect to your Brothers across the nation and around the world, and think ahead also; we should have 90,000 Brothers in the next edition. My Brothers, thank you again for this opportunity to serve! I look forward to seeing each of you at some point, soon. Make your plans now to join us at the Fraternity’s 101st Anniversary Convention, August 9-13, 2007 at the Rosen Shingle Creek Hotel and Resort in Orlando, Florida.

In the Truest Spirit of Fraternity—Always,

WILLARD C. HALL, JR. Executive Director

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A MEMORIAL IS BEING BUILT IN WASHINGTON, D.C. HONORING DR. KING’S LEGACY OF DEMOCRACY, JUSTICE, HOPE AND LOVE.

MAKE A DONATION TODAY 1-888-4-THE-DREAM WWW.BUILDTHEDREAM.ORG

Gro u n db rea ki n g is N ov emb er 20 0 6 Stone of Hope 10 Spring • Summer 2006

Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation, Inc. The Sphinx: www.APA1906.net


PUBLISHER’S

PUBLISHER AND EDITOR’S LETTER

LET’S DO IT AGAIN!

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lpha Phi Alpha Fraternity’s Centennial Celebration was a once in a lifetime event, the likes of which we may never see again—although if recent longevity reports are correct, many of our younger Brothers should be on hand for the 150th anniversary celebration; and perhaps a fortunate few will also witness the organization’s second centennial celebration and recall the triumphs of the first 100 year anniversary. Fraternity Brothers came in record numbers to the 2006 Centennial Year events, although there were some members who wished to be in attendance but found it impossible to do so. In preparing this Centennial Anniversary Edition of The Sphinx, the goal has been to capture the magnificent 100th Anniversary experience for those Brothers who attended, those unable to attend and those yet to be inducted into the Fraternity who will someday look back upon our rich heritage. Thousands of images were reviewed in hopes of presenting the year’s best highlights in the magazine. The profound and courageous words of the various Centennial speakers were listened to and the program events outlined in an effort to bring you the maximum coverage. However, after compiling all of the materials and information into what may be the largest Sphinx magazine published to date by the Fraternity, we recognized that there is still more to say. There are more pictures to be shown and more aspects of the celebration to be discussed than can be fit into this current magazine. A solution to this dilemma may be to “Do It Again.” Yes, prepare another special Sphinx publication so that more of the Centennial Celebration can be captured and the events of the amazing year will be preserved for future generations. This 100year milestone deserves extraordinary treatment. “Let’s Do It Again!” And so, work has begun on a special commemorative publication devoted solely to the events of the 100th Anniversary Year. We will have the opportunity to present some of the complete addresses of our speakers in the volume. Be on the look out for the special publication. Meanwhile, our coverage in this Centennial Edition of the magazine begins on the following page with the historic ceremonial groundbreaking ceremony for the Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. That November day shall live on in our hearts. Other Centennial Year coverage looks at the Fraternity’s Congressional Black Caucus Reception, 100th Anniversary Convention in Washington, D.C. and the activities surrounding our corporate partnerships with Big Brothers Big Sisters of America and the March of Dimes. A special report on “AIDS in the African American Community” has been prepared for the magazine, which looks at the Fraternity’s work in the community in response to the pandemic and also investigates the myths associated with the topic. It is my hope that you will appreciate the insightful work presented by the writers of the special report and enjoy the many other important and interesting features presented in this issue of the world’s second oldest continuously published African American magazine. Fraternally,

SEATON J. WHITE, III Publisher and Editor-in-Chief

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King Memorial Takes Monuments to United By Seaton White

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nited States Presidents and other government leaders, icons of the Civil Rights Movement, celebrities and Americans from all walks of life who were affected by the movement joined with the family of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity in paying tribute to Dr. King last fall during the ceremonial groundbreaking for his memorial on the National Mall. The Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial will be the first tribute of its kind on the Mall for a civilian or African American. The memorial will sit among the other monuments honoring U.S. Presidents and the nation’s wars. Expected to be completed in 2008, the King Memorial will be spread over four-acres and will sit inside an arc formed by the monuments to Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln and Franklin D. Roosevelt. The plot is located midway between the Jefferson and Lincoln Memorials—not far from where Dr. King gave his renowned “I Have A Dream” speech on August 28, 1963. The ceremonial groundbreaking on November 13, 2006 highlighted the weekend’s activities, which included an opening reception by the MLK, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation, the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Groundbreaking Reception and the National Dreamer Dinner, a $1,000-aplate celebrity fundraiser. Continued on page 14

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Above photo by Donald Baker


Rightful Place Among States Presidents

Additional Event photos by Donald Baker, Anthony Roberson, Seaton White and National Memorial Project photographers Gediyon Kifle and John Harrington.

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MLK Memorial Project Foundation President Harry Johnson

Continued from page 12

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nder overcast skies, light rain and cold wind, former President Bill Clinton—who signed legislation in 1996 authorizing construction of the memorial—spoke to a crowd of about 5,000 who attended the ceremony and to millions of television viewers around the world that witnessed the event. President Clinton said Brother King’s commitment to nonviolence and social justice causes, such as ending poverty, have not yet been achieved. “If he were here, he would remind us that the time to do right remains,” the former President said. President George W. Bush, in his address, said the MLK Memorial will give Dr. King his rightful place among the great Americans honored on the National Mall. “By its presence in this

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General President Darryl R. Matthews, Sr.

place, it will unite the men who declared the promise of America and defended the promise of America with the man who redeemed the promise of America,” President Bush said. “This is a memorial to the man who redeemed the promises of America that Jefferson and Lincoln made.” Brother Harry E. Johnson, Sr., President of the MLK, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation and former Fraternity General President, stated that about $70 million, of the $100 million needed to build the memorial, had been raised at that point. Those who marched with Brother King are now well into their 60s and 70s, Brother Johnson said. The Fraternity has been pushing for the memorial for more than 20 years and wants participants in the movement to witness its completion, he said.

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President George W. Bush

Former President William Jefferson Clinton

Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity General President Darryl R. Matthews, Sr., who also serves as Vice Chairman of the Memorial’s Board, recounted the beginning of the King Memorial. He stated that the effort originated in 1984 when Brothers in Silver Spring, Maryland put forth the idea. Brother Matthews recognized Brother Alfred Bailey, one of the original members of the group who was onstage at the groundbreaking; as well as the Fraternity’s other members at the ceremony. Three of Brother King’s children, Yolanda Denise King, Martin Luther King, III, and The Rev. Bernice Albertine King attended the ceremonial groundbreaking and surrounding events. They spoke lovingly of their father—with Dr. King’s youngest daughter, Bernice, stating “Our father just wanted to be a great pastor. Little did he know, he became a great pastor to a nation.”

Dr. King’s sister, Christine King Farris, and her family accompanied Brother King’s children. Other speakers at the groundbreaking included Presidential Candidate U.S. Sen. Barack Obama, talk show host Oprah Winfrey, poet Dr. Maya Angelou, designer Tommy Hilfiger, former United Nations Ambassador Andrew Young, civil rights activist Rev. Jesse L. Jackson, U.S. Rep. John Lewis, educator and human rights activist Dr. Dorothy I. Height, former Congressman Jack Kemp, MLK Memorial Foundation Co-chairman of the Executive Leadership Cabinet Gary Cowger, and MLK Board Chairman Roderick D. Gillum. Good Morning America co-host Diane Sawyer read a letter from former South African President Nelson Mandela; and CNN cable television’s Soledad O’Brien and news talk-show host Tavis Smiley

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Memorial Project Co-chairs Andrew Young and Gary Cowger.

Tavis Smiley and Soledad O’Brien emceed the event.

Presidential Candidate Sen. Barack Obama.

emceed the event. Among the many celebrities and dignitaries in attendance were Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice; former Labor Secretary Alexis Herman; members of Congress; White House Cabinet members; Marriott International Chairman & CEO J.W. Marriott; recording artists Gladys Knight and Michael Bolton; gospel artists Marvin Winans; radio broadcaster Donnie Simpson; hip-hop mogul Russell Simmons; world heavyweight boxing legend Muhammad Ali, and NBA greats Bill Walton, Bill Russell and Nate Thurmond. The Ebenezer Baptist Church Choir, representing the congregation once pastored by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., helped supply the music with gospel artists Bebe Winans and Byron Cage leading popular songs. Mother and daughter country singers Naomi and Wynonna Judd sang their Grammy-winning song “Love Can Build a Bridge” and school children read essays they had written about Dr. King.

Following the program presentation, the dignitaries on stage processed to an area where about 50 shovels were set in soil taken from the memorial’s Tidal Basin area. Once the VIPs were in place behind the shovels, Rev. Jesse Jackson prayed for God’s blessing on the memorial and all that it symbolized. Brother Andrew Young spoke about Dr. King’s determination to proceed with the civil rights agenda despite being emotionally drained and facing continual threats and attacks. He also recounted the movement heading to Memphis, Tennessee where Dr. King was assassinated on April 4, 1968. Brother Young was overcome with emotion and comforted by Rev. Jackson. The former Ambassador then called for those at the shovels to “turn the earth”; and the subsequent actions marked the next phase in construction of the memorial whose entrance will include

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The King family stands in support as Martin King III addresses the program.

a central sculpture called “The Mountain of Despair” with towering split rocks meant to signify the divided America that inspired the nonviolent efforts of Brother King and others to overcome racial and social barriers. The memorial also will feature a 28-foothigh “Stone of Hope” with Brother King’s image chiseled near the top; along with 24 semicircular stone niches dedicated to Medgar Evers and others who died in the civil rights movement. Streams of water from the niches will join and flow down rough walls.

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ollowing the groundbreaking ceremony, the Fraternity reception was held in the Grand Ballroom of the JW Marriott Hotel Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. where Brothers Darryl Matthews and Harry Johnson brought greetings. Members of the King family and other dignitary thanked the

Fraternity for its efforts toward building the memorial. Others who spoke included Congresswoman Sheila Jackson-Lee, Tommy Hilfiger, Gary Cowger, Rev. Jesse Jackson and Brother Andrew Young. Monetary presentations toward the memorial’s construction were given by the Coca Cola Foundation, Jack & Jill of America and the Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity. The MLK Memorial Foundation’s Welcome Reception was held the previous day with Foundation members acknowledging the work of everyone who has assisted with the project. The King Kids, school children who participated in essay writing contests, were featured at the reception. The Foundation’s closing groundbreaking event, National Dream Dinner, attracted a bevy of celebrities and Washington legislatures, including Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi; U.S. Rep.

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(l-r) Fannie Mae Foundation President Stacy Davis Stewart, MLK Co-chair Andrew Young and former Labor Secretary Alexis Herman.

Oprah Winfrey.

MLK Memorial Project photo

(l-r) Former U.S. Ambassador Andrew Young and U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.

CNN’s Soledad O’Brien and General President Darryl Matthews.

Bobby Scott; U.S. Rep. Sheila Jackson-Lee; actor Laurence Fishburne; actress Kerry Washington; and activist Dick Gregory. Singers Michael Bolton, Bebe Winans and Brian McKnight performed; and superstar Gladys Knight ending the evening with a concert performance. Entertainer Nick Cannon hosted the evening’s program. Monetary presentations were given during the evening, with the Coca Cola Foundation presenting a check for $2 million; AARP presenting a $1 million check; Lehman Brothers giving $1 million; McDonald’s presenting a $1 million; NEA presenting a check for $1 million; and Morehouse College presenting a check for $500,000. Fundraising for the memorial has covered a vast spectrum, including corporate, foundation, grassroots, and faith-based con-

tributions. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity has led in organizational giving to the project with strong support coming from many other groups, especially fellow Pan-Hellenic Council organizations. The major donations to the project; however, have largely come from major corporations and celebrities. General Motors has donated $10 million and Tommy Hilfiger has donated more than $5 million and is working with Russell Simmons to raise the remaining $30 million needed. The NBA has donated more than $2.5 million and filmmaker George Lucas has donated more than $1 million. Other major corporate contributors include Toyota, Wal-Mart, PepsiCo Foundation, State Farm Insurance, Walt Disney Company and Exxon Mobile, among others. To make contributions and learn more about the historic effort, log onto www.buildthedream.org.

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(l-r) NBA greats Bill Russell, Bill Walton and Bob Lanier are pictured at the groundbreaking program.

A Personal Reflection on the MLK Memorial By Vic Carter

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ho would have thought that a kitchen table conversation back in 1984 would one day bring two Presidents of the United States, three members of the Presidential Cabinet, countless Senators, members of the House of Representatives, civil rights leaders, business and media giants, actors and thousands of others together for a moment like this? It is quite evident to me that Alpha Men have that vision; and more importantly, we have the means to make it happen. I have always believed that when you do something good, you should do it and expect no recognition. I often give and I want few people to know that I gave. I help and prefer people not to realize how they were assisted. Today, though, is different and I want all of Alpha to know what we have done—and selfishly, what it all means to this humble servant. Please allow me this indulgence and know that I will not let it happen again. Personal Reflection The gentle rain and cloudy skies could not dampen the spirit of this day. Thousands of people are here to witness history. It is a chapter in American History written by the Brothers of Alpha Phi

Alpha and I helped to write it. Moments before the event is to begin, I am in the “green room” tent. It is here that program participants, dignitaries and other civil rights icons are gathered. Also here are the people who are giving millions of dollars to help build a memorial to our beloved and celebrated Brother Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. I see someone whom I came to know through this project, clothing designer Tommy Hilfiger. He says, “Great to see you again, Vic. This is a big day!” A big day indeed! A few feet away is J.W. Marriott. Yes—that one. Also in the room is Gary L. Cowger, Vice President of General Motors. Dr. Maya Angelou is there and so is former U.S. Ambassador Brother Andrew Young. The children of Dr. King— Martin III, Yolanda, and Bernice are also in the room. They are followed by hip-hop mega-mogul Russell Simmons. We are all here in anticipation of the arrival of President George W. Bush, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and former President Bill Clinton. I am excited this day—not because of the luminaries assembled, but rather because of what this project means to me and what it means to the history of the U.S. In 1996, I was asked by my Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity to assist

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(l-r) Vic Carter is pictured with former General President Ozell Sutton and Brother Waldo Johnson at the MLK Groundbreaking Opening Reception.

with the planning for a memorial to Dr. King. Brother King is our most celebrated member and certainly deserving of a memorial in Washington, D.C. Of course, I agreed to help. For the next several years, the memorial would become my second job. Many weekends, I would anchor the 11 p.m. Friday newscast at my CBS network affiliate station in Baltimore, go home and sleep a few hours and then catch the first pre-dawn flight out to attend countless meetings across the country. I participated in hundreds of conference calls that ran well into the night, and wrote numerous speeches, remarks and fact sheets. In my job as Director of Communications for the memorial, I hired public relations firms, graphic designers, photographers, film crews and many others. I helped to organize special events for the memorial and assisted in presentations before the Fraternity’s Regional and General Conventions. I wrote some of the testimony given before Congress, seeking approval for the memorial and the site on which it is to be built. I helped to prepare facts sent to the White House for President Clinton’s remarks after he signed the legislation into law. Also, I prepared materials to be presented to all the major commissions in Washington, D.C. that would decide the location and parameters for the memorial. Throughout the course of my work with the project, I also had chances to write speeches for Dr. King’s widow, Coretta Scott King. I met with her on several occasions at the King Center in Atlanta. I wish she could have seen this day and all the people who came to cheer on this memorial. On the four-acre Tidal Basin site of the memorial there is a plaque placed in the soil. It sits in a straight line between the Lincoln and Jefferson Monuments. This, especially, gives me proud

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thoughts. I helped to design the plaque and wrote portions of its inscription including the following: “This memorial will embody the man, the movement, and the message. It will honor this 20th century visionary who brought about change through the principles of non-violence and equality for all. It will be a memorial symbolizing promise and hope for a brighter future for humanity.” I owe so much to Dr. King and his followers—known and unknown. The sleepless nights, the thousands of miles traveled, the constant phone calls and the myriad of meetings have all been worth it. I owe so much to my Alpha Brothers whose involvement in the Civil Rights Movement has allowed this little black boy from Radford, Virginia to sit in the news anchor chair at the top of Television Hill in Baltimore. I am a product of the vision of Dr. King and I am challenged to pass his message on to others and to help make dreams come true. If only each of us could live a life worth remembering, like that of Dr. King… Thank you, dear Alpha Brother, for giving me a reason and an opportunity to be of service so that people around the world will remember that you were here. Brother Vic Carter is evening news anchor for the CBS Network Affiliate WJZ-TV in Baltimore, Maryland and serves as Public Relations Chairman for the Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Project Foundation

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Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Reflections 1 2

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1. Brother Darryl Matthews greets former U.S. Rep. J.C. Watts in the green room tent. 2. Yolanda King greets boxing legend Muhammad Ali backstage. 3. J.W. Marriott, Chairman and CEO of Marriott International. 4. Gospel recording artist Byron Cage. 5. Harry Johnson is interviewed by Tavis Smiley before ceremony. 6. Former U.S. Rep. Harold Ford, Jr. and human rights activist Dr. Dorothy I. Height 7. Rev. Jesse Jackson and MLK Memorial Co-Chair Andrew Young are unable to hold back their emotion.

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Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Reflections 1

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1. Naomi and Wynonna Judd perform. 2. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi addressed the dinner gala. 3. Congressman Bobby Scott is pictured with his wife at the gala. 4. MLK Memorial Foundation Co-chairman Gary Cowger. 5. Brothers Willard Hall, Harry Johnson and Michael A. Blake. 6. Congresswoman Sheila Jackson-Lee gives remarks. 7. The Ebenezer Baptist Church Choir from Atlanta sang gospel music. 8. Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity Past President Peter Adams (right) along with the organization’s undergraduate 2nd Vice President (left) present Brother Matthews with a MLK Memorial donation. 9. Andrew Young shares a light moment with Maya Angelou.

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Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Reflections 1

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1. Supporters of the MLK Memorial prepare to turn the earth. 2. President George Bush, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and President Bill Clinton meet before the program. 3. Clothing designer Tommy Hilfiger and hip-hop mogul Russell Simmons are working to raise the remaining monies needed. 4. Jack & Jills of America from the Southern Region present $10,000 check toward the MLK Memorial. 5. (l-r) Martin Luther King, Jr.’s children, Bernice, Yolanda and Martin III, arrive at the gala with Dr. King’s sister Christine King Farris. 6. Singer Michael Bolton delivered a soulful performance. 7. (l-r) General Presidents Harry Johnson, Adrian Wallace, Milton Davis, Henry Ponder, Charles Teamer, Darryl Matthews and James Williams are pictured at Alpha Reception.

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1. Brother Al Bailey and his sister at the groundbreaking. 2. Music legend Gladys Knight gave a concert performance. 3. Singer Brian McKnight performed at the gala. 4. Entertainer Nick Cannon hosted the gala program. 5. Martin Luther King, III is pictured with activist Dick Gregory at gala. 6. Brothers Jamaal Bailey and Willard Hall. 7. Bernice King (center) addresses the Alpha Reception as (l-r) a cousin, Martin King III, Yolanda King and Brother Darryl Matthews look on. 8. U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and General President Darryl Matthews at MLK gala dinner.

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Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Reflections 2

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1. Bebe Winans sang gospel selections at the groundbreaking ceremony and dinner gala, performing here with his singing partner. 2. King Kids share time at welcome reception with NBA greats (back row, l-r) Nate Thurmond, Bill Russell and Bill Walton. 3. Actress Kerry Washington (2nd from left) and Tommy Hilfiger (3rd from left) are pictured with their dates on the red carpet. 4. The gala attracted a number of distinguished Fraternity Brothers. Pictured here are (l-r): MLK Memorial Board member Chris Womack, former Eastern Region V.P. Sam Wilson, Washington, D.C. Councilman Vincent Orange, and General Presidents Charles Teamer, Darryl Matthews and Milton Davis. 5. Members of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority leadership joined Sorority Executive Director Betty James (3rd from right) at the groundbreaking events and gala. 6. Actor Laurence Fishburne was accompanied by his daughter, Montana. 6

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Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial Reflections 1

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1. Supporters of the MLK Memorial turn the earth during the Groundbreaking. (MLK Memorial Project photo) 2. Actor Lawrence Fishburne and General President Matthews are pictured at Groundbreaking. 3. Brothers Congressman Bobby Scott and Darryl Matthews pause for photo during Groundbreaking. 4. (l-r) First Lady Allison Matthews, President Bill Clinton and former Clinton White House staff member Brother Al Rutherford meet in green room tent before Groundbreaking Ceremony. 5. Boxing legend Muhammad Ali throws a knock-out punch. 6. (Front row, l-r) MLK Project Co-chair Gary Cowger, clothing designer Tommy Hilfiger, CEO of Marriott International J.W. Marriott and MLK Board Chairman Roderick D. Gillum.

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Yolanda Denise King 1955 – 2007

Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. mourns the passing of Yolanda Denise King, the eldest daughter of Fraternity Brother Martin Luther King, Jr. and Coretta Scott King. Our prayers are with her siblings, Bernice, Martin III and Dexter King, and the entire King family. An author, actor and activist, Yolanda King represented the strength and voice of her late parents— expressing that over the years through her artistic gifts. She was a tremendous supporter of the Fraternity’s actions in honoring the legacy of her father and along with her siblings participated in the recent ceremonial groundbreaking for the Washington, DC Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity proudly honors her life and personal legacy. Her work will continue to enhance the King legacy of promoting peace, justice, love, hope and freedom for all humanity.

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Dr. Norman C. Francis Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom

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avier University President and Chairman of the Louisiana throughout our country, as a man of deep intellect and compassion Recovery Authority Dr. Norman C. Francis was awarded and character,” President Bush said. “He’s an Army veteran. He led The Presidential Medal of Freedom during a White the United Negro College Fund. He was chairman of the board of the House ceremony held December 15, 2006. Educational Testing Service, and he holds 35 honorary degrees.” The Presidential Medal of Freedom is the nation’s highest Last year, after Hurricane Katrina did great damage to the civil honor. The Medal recognizes high achievement in public Xavier campus, Dr. Francis vowed the university would overservice, science, the arts, education, athletics, and other fields. come and reopen its doors by January—and he kept the Established by Executive Order 11085 in 1963, the Medal may pledge, the President continued. “Dr. Francis continues to help be awarded by the President “to any person who has made an the people of Southeast Louisiana as the leader of the Louisiana especially meritorious contribution to (1) the security or Recovery Authority. As they continue to rebuild the devastation national interests of the United States, or (2) world peace, or of the hurricanes, the people of the Pelican State will benefit (3) cultural or other significant public or private endeavors.” from the leadership of this good man. And all of us admire the Brother Francis, who has good life and remarkable served as President of Xavier career of Dr. Norman C. University of Louisiana for Francis.” nearly 40 years, also serves as Hurricanes Katrina and Chairman of the Louisiana Rita devastated South Louisiana, Recovery Authority (LRA) claiming 1,464 lives, destroying where he played a vital role in more than 200,000 homes and helping the people of the Gulf 18,000 businesses and inflictCoast rebuild their lives in the ing about $25 billion in insured aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. losses. The Louisiana Recovery In awarding the Medal to Authority is the planning and the LRA Chairman, President coordinating body that was creGeorge W. Bush said Brother ated in the aftermath of the Francis has dedicated his life to storms by Governor Kathleen education, achieving early disBabineaux Blanco to lead one tinction as the first African of the most extensive rebuilding American to graduate from the efforts in the world. The LRA is Loyola University College of a 33-member body which is Law. In 1968, he became prescoordinating across jurisdicident of his alma mater, Xavier tions, supporting community University in New Orleans, and recovery and resurgence, he is today the longest-serving ensuring integrity and effectiveuniversity president in the ness, and planning for the United States. “Dr. Francis is Dr. Norman C. Francis receives Presidential Medal of Freedom recovery and rebuilding of known across Louisiana, and from President George W. Bush. White House photo Louisiana.

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BROTHER SYLVESTER FULTON NAMED BBBS NATIONAL BIG BROTHER OF THE YEAR

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rother Sylvester Fulton was named as the 2006 National Big Brother of the Year by Big Brothers Big Sisters of America. A 46-year-old resident of Memphis, Tennessee, Brother Fulton was presented the award last June at the Big Brothers Big Sisters National Conference in Indianapolis, Indiana where BBBS agencies and boards from across the country were represented. He was honored in a private meeting in the oval office with President George W. Bush after receiving the award. Following the meeting, he traveled across town to the Fraternity’s Centennial Convention in Washington, D.C. where he was presented to the body by General President Darryl R. Matthews, Sr. and BBBS President and CEO Judy Vredenburgh. Brother Fulton has been a Big Brother to Jeremy Moore, 15, for more than four years. The 2006 Big Brother of the Year says he had plenty of excuses for not becoming a Big Brother when he was invited to do so in 2001. He listed being a full-time graduate student, having diabetes, being a husband, being a father, and spending all his spare time on the golf course as reasons for not getting involved with the program. He eventually volunteered to be a Big Brother through the Fraternity’s national partnership with Big Brothers Big Sisters of Greater Memphis. He got involved with the program while he was president of his Chapter in Memphis. Brother Fulton said his motivation to become a Big Brother came through his awareness that too many African American boys endure negative maturation because of a lack of mentoring. He felt a little nervous and a little excited the first time he met Jeremy but that they soon established a rapport, he said—adding that BBBS does an excellent job at matching Big Brothers with children they have something in common with. Brother Fulton says he saw in Jeremy’s face that the boy was happy to have a Big Brother. Jeremy was always on the lookout for teachable moments, he said. The two went to sporting contests, took road trips or just hung out. He takes Jeremy everywhere— even to get his oil changed, says Brother Fulton. They talk about how to get a car through hard work, mileage rates, interest rates and other topics that will benefit his Little Brother. Jeremy’s mother was very encouraging about the relationship, Brother Fulton said. His wife of 17 years and his teenage daughter also have been helpful and allowed him the freedom to go places with Jeremy and to bring him to their home. They also remind him to talk with Jeremy daily. The Big Brother of the Year says he has great respect for dedicated single mothers. He also realizes that men such as himself

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2006 Big Brother of the Year Sylvester Fulton and his Little Brother Jeremy Moore.

cannot replace missing fathers. However, that does not stop him from doing all that he can, he said. Brother Fulton, who has been employed with FedEx for the past 23 years, recently earned his Master’s degree in education. He plans to enter the teaching field in a few years, possibly teaching in his old zip code area, where he says the infant mortality rate is the highest in the country. Brother Fulton was selected as the 2006 National Big Brother of the Year after nominations were submitted from BBBS agencies across the country. The oldest, largest and most effective youth mentoring organization in the United States, BBBS has been the leader in one-to-one youth service for more than a century, developing positive relationships that have a direct and lasting impact on the lives of young people. Big Brothers Big Sisters serves 240,000 children, ages 6 through 18, in all 50 states. Brothers attending the Centennial Convention were given a BBBS/Alpha Phi Alpha brochure with updated information about the program along with volunteer sign-up cards. General President Matthews has called for 10,000 Fraternity Brothers to volunteer to become Big Brothers by 2008.

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Photograhed by Keith Major

Saving our babies... there’s nothing more worth it. Heather Headley RCA Records recording artist and Tony Award winner

One in six black babies is born prematurely. Every year, thousands of premature babies die as a result of not getting their full nine months. Join me and the March of Dimes in the fight to reduce premature births in our communities. Together, we can make the research and education possible to help save babies. Visit marchofdimes.com to learn more.

© March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundtion, 2006


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ADDRESSING THE PANDEMIC OF HIV/AIDS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS The Correspondence Between the Fraternity’s Operationalization of Manly Deeds and its Historic Impact on Mankind By Dr. Ronald Peters

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ccording to Founder Henry Arthur Callis, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. was organized “to bring together our college-trained men across the country to stimulate the youngsters and to work with public officials and to stage public meetings where problems of the period could be discussed and placed before those of us who had to work for their solution” (Wesley, 1977). For a century, under the foresight of the Jewel Brothers’ fraternal wisdom, the Fraternity has served as a guiding force in the academic, political and public health pursuits of our times. Historically, there is a parallel between Alpha Phi Alpha’s national program focus and the major needs of African Americans at that specific period in time. In the period from the 1920s through 1930s, our fraternal Commission of Graduate Work and Public Affairs initiated a movement with the purpose of influencing African American students across the country to go to high school and to college. To diffuse this initiative, in 1920, our forefathers set aside the first week in June for all chapters throughout the country to conduct our “Goto-High School, Go-to-College” educational campaign. General President L. L. McGee sent letters to all chapters urging each to function in this movement. He stated, “In this effort, we must not shoot in the air, but accomplish results. No feeble effort will be effective, but each chapter must do its part of the program over with interest and drive.” The early 1930s marked our Fraternity’s “Education for Citizenship” movement which carried the slogan “A Voteless People is a Hopeless People”. In this critical period for African American civil justice, the Fraternity’s chapters were at the forefront of America’s civil rights empowerment campaigns and were very

instrumental in increasing national voter participation and abolishing poll tax laws. I believe the major social, economic and health problems that Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity needs to address are relative to the malignant trends of teenage pregnancies and HIV/STIs. Despite the fact that most African Americans are well informed about how pregnancies occur and how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is contracted, in 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that HIV/AIDS is one of the top causes of death for African Americans (CDC, 2005). Furthermore, CDC estimated that African Americans—who comprise 13 percent of the U.S. population—make up approximately 50 percent of the newly diagnosed cases of HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2005). Regardless of our socio-demographic backgrounds, in some capacity, we are all affected by the hardships that HIV/AIDS has placed on the African American community.

Overview of Risk Factors The following is an overview of the behavioral and environmental factors that set African Americans at increased risk for HIV/AIDS: • The Double Sentence of HIV/AIDS – The rate of HIV/AIDS is higher in incarcerated populations than in the population-atlarge. According to Bonczar and Beck (1997), for males born in 1991 the likelihood of incarceration is much higher for African Americans (29%) compared to their Hispanic (16%) and Anglo-American (4%) counterparts. It is well known that consensual and nonconsensual sexual behavior among men occurs at a higher rate in incarcerated environments. In fact, Sabin’s et al. (2001) seminal work in HIV/AIDS trends identified

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a 56% seroprevalence rate of newly identified HIV/AIDS infections among those tested in prison. Often, these men have longitudinal relationships with females and when released from prison, many diffuse the spread of HIV/AIDS—acquired during their absences from home—to their companions and other sex partners. • The Prospective Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse – Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a widespread problem in the United States and an underreported taboo in African American communities. In a study by Cohen et al. (2000) which consisted of 65 percent African American women, CSA was strongly associated with a lifetime history of high-risk behaviors, including using drugs, having more than ten male sexual partners, having male partners at risk for HIV infection, and exchanging sex for drugs, money, or shelter. • Lack of Mental Health Services – In our society, sexual predators such as pimps and players (Iceberg Slim, Bishop Don Juan, Whitefolks, etc.) are often glorified for their maladjusted behavior. In our communities, pimps and players often prey on young men and women with CSA histories and in desperate need of subsequent mental health intervention (Coid, Petruckevitch, Feder et al. 2001). Many prostitutes and sexually destructive women are clinically depressed from their retrospective CSA and do not have adequate funds to obtain high dollar cognitive and behavioral therapies to remove the power that traumatic memories hold over them (McClanahan, McClelland, Abram & Teplin, 1999). Often to cope with their clinical depression and anxiety, many turn to self medication and “sex for drugs” to provide themselves with short-term mental health intervention. Sadly, many men who consider themselves gentlemen may take advantage of clinically depressed sisters in a variety of so-called “normal” social settings (bachelor parties, gentlemen-clubs platinum rooms, etc.) and place themselves and their families at risk for HIV/AIDS. • Corporate-American Attitude of Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Administrators – Many young people who come to college armed with strong morals and principles find it hard to resist the overwhelming force of peer approval and sexual attraction. In a confidential interview, a health administrator in the southern part of the United States stated, “A couple of HBCUs in our state have HIV/AIDS sero-prevalence rates as high as 30 percent; it flusters me because when we asked their administrators to afford us the opportunity to provide campus-based prevention and treatment interventions to their young adults, each stated they did not want HIV/AIDS services on their campuses because it may scare off tuition paying parents

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and the university would suffer financially from the negative stigma of HIV/AIDS.” • Crack Cocaine Self-Medication – The Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) revealed that African Americans were more likely to have crack cocaine related treatment admissions (60.8 percent) compared to whites and Hispanics (31.6 percent and 5.5 percent, respectively) (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1997). The prevalence of cocaine use is cause for concern because of its association with increased sexual risk taking behavior. Because of the powerful euphoric and sexually stimulating effect cocaine has on the body, several studies have linked stimulant abuse with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Shoptow, Reback & Rawson, 1998; Miquez, Page & Baum, 1997). • Television Illiteracy Among Youth – Today, almost every household in the U.S. has a television set. While television can be a source of news, entertainment, and education, it can also encourage behaviors that promote sexual risk taking behavior among adolescents who did not have media literacy. Today, African American children spend more time in front of a television set than any other race of youth (Andersen et al., 1998). Because many adolescents are modeling the risky sexual behaviors depicted on television, especially in music videos, its negative influences are starting to outweigh its benefits to society. Toprated shows such as the Newlywed Game that many adults watched as youth have been replaced with top-rated sexual “train wreck” shows that often depict young adults in bizarre multiple relationships (The Flavor of Love, Cheaters, Wife Swap, The Ultimate Love Test, The Real World, The Bachelor, The Bachelorette, Extreme Dating, etc.). • Massive Conservative Government Cuts for HIV Services – Over the last ten years, conservatives in our government have failed to understand the fundamental causes and consequences that lack of HIV/AIDS prevention services have had on African Americans. This lack of emotional intelligence was displayed by former House Speaker Newt Gingrich, telling his students in his televised college course, “If combat means living in a ditch, females have biological problems staying in a ditch for 30 days because they get infections and they don't have upper body strength. I mean, some do, but they’re relatively rare. On the other hand, men are basically little piglets. You drop them in the ditch, they roll around in it, doesn’t matter, you know. These things are very real. On the other hand, if combat means being on an Aegis-class cruiser managing the computer controls for 12 ships and their rockets, a female may be again dramatically better than a male who gets very, very frustrated sitting in a chair all

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Alpha Eta Lambda Brothers conduct their Project Alpha Kick-off Program at the University of Texas Health Science Center School of Public Health.

the time because males are biologically driven to go out and hunt giraffes”. In December 2005, our 104th Congress voted for major reductions in Medicaid spending—one of the primary resources for vulnerable Americans with HIV/AIDS. In fact, the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives have proposed a $170 billion cut to Medicaid over the next seven years as part of the congressional budget resolution. For people living with HIV, access to quality health care appears to be the primary factor in the delay of disease progression. Consequently, if many vulnerable people lose their Medicaid coverage, they will be forced to only obtain care during life or death events. • Social Status Integration – Compared to other racial cohorts, African Americans are more likely to operationalize a “village” approach towards our socio-cultural interactions. Comparatively, African Americans who obtain high academic and social capital are more likely to have salient friends and family members who are diverse in the social-economic situation. In addition, African American social events usually attract a beautiful cross-section of social classes within the racial group. Regardless of an individual’s income, living arrangement, martial status, age, or level of educational attainment, African Americans seldom stratify themselves from one another (i.e., Essence Music Festival, college homecomings, block parties, concerts, night clubs, etc.). Consequently, because of these social interactions, African Americans from low HIV/AIDS risk profiles are more likely than other racial groups—which are more likely to divide themselves by socio-economic status—to develop intimate relationships with individuals from high HIV/AIDS risk profiles.

Strategically Addressing the Needs Although there are additional causal factors for contraction of HIV/AIDS (such as alcohol and drug abuse, multiple sexual partners, needle sharing, transfusion of infected blood, HIV positive pregnancies) among U.S. citizens, the behavioral and environmental factors defined above are hypothesized by the author to provide an explanation about the differences in the trends between African Americans and our other racial counterparts. There are several Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity chapters conducting programs through Project Alpha and additional HIV/AIDS efforts to strategically address the needs of African Americans in their localities. In the District of South Carolina, the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc. Leadership, Education, and Prevention Foundation (SC Alpha Foundation or SCAF) has been awarded professional health services contracts for their facilitation of several continuing education workshops, training, public speaking activities, and community presentations on HIV/AIDS promoting prevention, education and awareness throughout South Carolina. In the last year, over 500 health and community professionals, such as physicians, social workers, health educators, public administrators, teachers, outreach workers and pastors have turned to SC Alpha Foundation for grassroots training on culturally sensitive methodologies for African American HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and cessation. SCAF collaborates with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control STD/HIV Division and Office of Minority Health as well as the South Carolina Department of Education-Healthy Schools Program to provide health information on free HIV/AIDS testing and counseling sites, statewide con-

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dom distribution sites, use of the SCAF HIV/AIDS hotline, as well as referrals and supportive services organizations for HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment for African Americans throughout the state. Brother Lewis Hicks who serves as the executive director of SCAF stated, “Because of increasing cases of HIV/AIDS and STDs among African American youth, 13- to 24-years-old, our primary outreach objectives are to provide strong male leadership to our male youth through Project Alpha and professional resources to the change agents who impact HIV/AIDS trends across our state. Most programs are for females so without the Foundation’s board support, chapters of Alpha, March of Dimes, and the hardworking volunteers who produce dynamic Project Alpha workshops, seminars and public presentations and mentoring, a lot of high-risk and at-risk communities of youth would be untouched by this information and an opportunity to learn how to make good decisions about sex and to act sexually responsible”. In Houston, Texas, Alpha Eta Lambda Chapter Brothers have a year-long mentoring effort of Project Alpha at both Smiley and Kashmere High Schools. Under the leadership of Brother Byron Gautier (Southwestern Region Project Alpha Chair), each month Alpha Eta Lambda Brothers go to the respective campuses and implement the Project Alpha curriculum, having had an influence on nearly 1,000 inner-city male students. In addition, the Alpha Eta Lambda and Epsilon Tau Lambda (Prairie View, Texas) Brothers partner with the college Brothers from Delta Theta at Texas Southern University; Eta Gamma at Prairie View A&M University; and Eta Mu at the University of Houston to conduct Project Alpha seminars on their respective college campuses. At these workshops, local health professionals volunteer information on the biological aspects as well as the epidemiologic trends of HIV/STI in African-American communities. Delta Theta President Theo Roshell stated, “We work as a collective force with our older Brothers to make a positive impact on the sexual behaviors of young men on our campus. I am amazed about how little college men really know about their sexual health”. In Hayward, California, the Brothers of Omicron Theta Lambda work in collaboration with the Alameda County Juvenile Justice System, Alameda County Office of Education, and the Cornerstone Foundation for Educational Advancement (CFEA) to conduct their Project Alpha and HIV/STD education intervention at Camp Wilmont Sweeney. Camp Wilmont Sweeney is a facility where teenagers serve out their court sentences for crimes involving drugs, gangs, and theft. Wilbur Jackson who serves as National Alpha Phi Alpha Liaison with the March of Dimes states,

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“Regardless of these young teenagers’ pasts, many of them are looked upon as leaders in their communities and are at high risk for HIV/AIDS. The Brothers of Omicron Theta Lambda work diligently with these young men on a regular basis to ensure that they have the essential HIV/AIDS education as well as relationship skills to make a positive impact with their impressionable peers when they return to their communities”. Since our inception, the Fraternity has served as a guiding force in building the knowledge and self-efficacy of Pan-African people. Through our National Project Alpha efforts as well as community and government collaborations, we have strengthened the intellectual capacities of hundreds of thousands of Americans concerning their understanding of HIV/STI prevention and cessation. Nonetheless, because of the issues that place African Americans at heightened risk for the pandemic of HIV/AIDS, it is vital for us to accelerate our efforts within our communities. History has shown that if Alpha Phi Alpha shows the way, it will harvest behavioral change and healthy lifestyles for our Pan-African leaders of the future. Brother Ronald “Pepper” Peters, DrPH, MS, is Assistant Professor of Behavioral Sciences at the University of Texas Health Science Center; and Adjunct Professor of Health Education at Prairie View A&M University. He can be reached via email at: RPeters20@houston.rr.com

REFERENCES Andersen R., Crespo C., Bartlett S., et al. (1998). Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Journal of the American Medical Association. 279(12):938-942. Bonczar T. P. & Beck A. (1997). “Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison.” Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). “HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report,” 2004. Vol. 16. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Also available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats/hasrlink.htm.

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Cohen M., Deamant C., Barkan S., et al. (2000). “Domestic Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse in HIV-Infected Women and Women At Risk for HIV, American Journal of Public Health. 90:560-565.

Sabin K., Frey R., Horsley R., Greby S. (2001). “Characteristics and Trends of Newly Identified HIV Infections Among Incarcerated Populations: CDC HIV Voluntary Counseling, Testing, and Referral System,” 1992-1998, Journal of Urban Health. 78: 241-55.

Coid J., Petruckevitch A., Feder G., et al. (2001). “Relation Between Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Risk of Revictimisation in Women: A Cross-sectional Survey, The Lancet. 358:450-454

Shoptow S., Reback C., and Rawson R. (1998). “Stimulant Abuse Treatment as HIV Prevention,” Journal of Addictive Diseases. 17(4):19-32.

McClanahan S., McClelland G., Abram K., Teplin L. (1999). “Pathways into Prostitution Among Female Jail Detainees and their Implications for Mental Health Services, Psychiatric Services. 50(12):1606-1613. Miguez M., Page B., Baum M. (1997). “Illegal Drug Use and HIV-l Infection in Colombia,” The Lancet. 350:1635.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1997). “National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: The Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS),” 1997. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies. Wesley C. (1977). Henry Arthur Callis: Life and Legacy. The Foundation Publishers, Chicago IL.

HIV/AIDS in the African American Community: Moving Beyond the Myths By Dr. Stanley T. Lewis

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hile HIV has increased to become the number one killer of African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44, the myths that surround the topic continue as the most difficult barriers to curbing the disease. At a point when education and behavior modification should be the cornerstones of African American response to the HIV threat, myths instead appear to have paralyzed our response and are creating a distracting side show. Because these myths are so prevalent, so enticing, and impact the community’s participation in testing and treatment, an examination of some of the more common ones is warranted.

Examining the Myths Myths may have gotten a bad rap. A common misconception is that myths are by definition false. Myths are not necessarily true or false. As defined by Webster’s New World Dictionary, a myth is “a traditional story serving to explain some phenomenon, custom, etc.”

Whether a myth is true or not is not part of the definition. Because myths are an attempt to explain a phenomenon that is not otherwise explained, countering or confirming a myth is almost impossible. Those that believe an explanation to be true, have difficulty understanding how others do not see that truth. Meanwhile, those that believe an explanation to be false do not understand how anyone could believe it to be true. Both fail to understand that myths have nothing to do with truth. Four common myths that surround HIV are: (1) HIV is not an epidemic; (2) HIV does not cause AIDS; (3) HIV is a man-made weapon designed to kill blacks and gays; and (4) a cure exists and is given to certain people. While other myths exist, these four are frequently expressed in the black community. Statements such as HIV is transmitted by contact with a dirty toilet seat or HIV is cured by sleeping with a virgin are not myths. Beliefs such as these are actually disproved by scientific fact. This examination of myths is not meant to confront truth or

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falsity but instead to provide a context for moving beyond the myths and no longer allowing myths to paralyze the response to the HIV threat.

Myth: HIV is not an Epidemic At first glance, this myth seems to be quickly disproved by the definition of an epidemic. An epidemic is simply a situation in which the number of actual cases exceeds the number of expected ones. With over 40 million cases worldwide—and over half of the cases affecting blacks—there is no argument that HIV is a terrible burden on humanity. Since blacks do not make up half of the world’s population, the burden seems disproportionately concentrated in the black population. Furthermore, of the estimated one million infected individuals in the United States, half are black— even though blacks only make up only 12% of the U.S. population. After viewing this argument, we must conclude: yes, HIV qualifies as an epidemic amongst blacks. However, if the definition of an epidemic is that the number of actual cases exceeds the number of expected cases, we must also factor in what the number of expected cases is. If blacks lead in diseases like diabetes, hypertension, prostate cancer, etc., then why would blacks not lead in other diseases such as HIV? Is race really the issue? Or does poverty, lack of access, or other inequities in the healthcare system explain the disparity? Clearly, perspective really determines whether HIV is an epidemic or not. While HIV’s status as an epidemic or not may be academic, the apathy that has ensued is very alarming. We are left to wonder if the apparent helplessness seen in the black community is due to an acceptance that the number of actual cases of HIV is to be expected.

Myth: HIV does not cause AIDS When South Africa’s president, Thabo Mbeki, stated that he did not believe that HIV caused AIDS at the 13th International AIDS Conference, many believed that he was misinformed or simply in denial. His statements seemed ludicrous in the face of scientific fact. However, scientifically speaking, HIV and AIDS are distinct. While infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is required for an individual to get the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), in the era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), HIV does not have to result in AIDS. Indeed, if discovered early and therapy is instituted and maintained, the average life expectancy of an adult infected with HIV is normal. Where access is universal, HIV therapies should have transformed HIV into a chronic illness instead of a universally fatal infection as when therapy is not readily available. But in the U.S.

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where therapy is widely available, 60 percent of new AIDS cases are in blacks and over half of the deaths from AIDS are black people. If HIV does not cause AIDS, then what does? The answer may be the presence of one or more cofactors. Cofactors may be denial, depression, poverty, substance abuse, etc. Even with therapy, HIV continues to result in AIDS especially in the black community. Perhaps not HIV alone, but HIV plus a cofactor cause AIDS? Surely any plan to prevent HIV or to prevent HIV from causing AIDS, must address the virus and the cofactors.

Myth: HIV is a Man-Made Biological Weapon Designed to Kill Blacks and Gays? Conspiracy theories abound regarding the origins of HIV. For a society that has endured the atrocity of slavery and witnessed the cruelty of the Tuskegee syphilis trials, it is easy to see how a myth such as this could propagate. Because the disease initially was recognized in the gay community, an association with the gay lifestyle has lingered. Despite the fact that heterosexual contraction of the disease predominates as the mode of transmission worldwide, the identification with the gay community persists. Still, the disproportionate number of cases in the black community and amongst gays fuels the myth. Racism and homophobia continue to segregate people, and HIV simply highlights the underlying fear from whence racism and homophobia emanate. Where there is fear, a common ground of trust must be carved out to move beyond this myth. Questions regarding the origins of HIV must be moved to the periphery as origin does not factor into the spread of the disease

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in the present. Unlike conspiracy theories that suggest that cocaine is being brought into the black community by some sinister plot, HIV is not addictive. Even if HIV was introduced by design, the 40,000 new cases each year for the past several years is still baffling. Addictions like cocaine can physiologically and psychologically control the victim, but education alone can prevent the vast majority of HIV infections. The continued growth of HIV in the black community requires the participation of the victim. While the myth suggests genocide as an origin, perhaps suicide explains the continued spread of the disease in the present.

Myth: A Cure Exists but is Only Given to Certain People (Magic Johnson Doesn’t Have AIDS) Despite the technological and intellectual advances in medicine, very few cures exist. Indeed, just like no cure exists for most cancers, no cure is available for diabetes, hypertension, or even the common cold. HIV is only 25 years old. The medical progress has dramatically changed the face of AIDS in the developed world. To witness HIV in the U.S. and Western Europe, compared to the epidemic in Africa, might prompt one to believe that surely a cure exists for some—those with access to HAART. Indeed, the transmission of HIV from mother-to-child rarely occurs in the U.S. due to medications. Images of Magic Johnson 15 years after his historic announcement suggest that he is healthier than many noninfected individuals. In the mid-80s and early 90s, persons with advanced HIV disease often lost weight, developed visible skin lesions, and appeared ill. Medications today can frequently prevent the physical signs and symptoms of HIV disease as is the case with Magic Johnson. While these medications do not eradicate the disease, the progress toward a cure has been unprecedented in medical history. Clinical trials now are underway for new therapies and vaccines. But while hope abounds, HIV has proven itself to be a formidable foe. The virus reinvents itself by mutating in ways that defy efforts to control or eliminate it. The pharmaceutical industry has been both the hero and the goat. Companies have been rewarded with sales of antiretroviral medications, but those dollars pale in comparison to those seen in other therapeutic areas. The reward for finding a cure would be incredibly more valuable than continuing the current approaches, which fail within 2-5 years for most patients. The priorities for some companies have shifted since the first medications were introduced. With the declining death rate, other diseases have emerged to distract attention away from HIV. Nonetheless, curing HIV remains a humanitarian goal and most believe that the cure does exist; finding it is the

problem. In the meantime, getting tested and if positive, getting treatment should be foremost. Whether or not a cure is out there has absolutely nothing to do with avoiding the disease if possible and getting treatment if infected.

Moving Beyond the Myths These four myths are examples of commonly held beliefs within the black community. Like other communities defined by culture and shared experience, perspective matters. Not only is perspective relative and personal, it is important to note that it defines how one sees the world and how one explains the conditions that exist. When exploring myths, context matters far more than truth. Confronting myths as true or false is simply not helpful. Indeed, in the absence of scientific proof, attempts to dispel or confirm a myth can actually serve to foster defensiveness and obstruct communication. As for blacks and HIV disease, these myths are particularly problematic because they hamper the effort to stem the spread of the disease. Finding a way to move beyond the myths is imperative. As a race, blacks have found ways to overcome great social injustice and other threats to existence in the past. The resolve of a proud people has been demonstrated time and again against the most formidable of opposing forces. In the present, HIV is a new enemy and the stakes are once again survival. HIV has emerged as a force that has defied our prevention efforts and proven craftier than our treatments. Yet myths seem to have distracted from the fight to end this disease. While pondering over origins and conspiracy theories, blacks have allowed the disease to spread at alarming rates. To foil this threat, blacks must refocus on education and behavior modification. Blacks must find a way to move beyond the myths. Each of us has the right and responsibility to access the roads that lie ahead… If the future looms ominous or unpromising, we need to gather our resolve and carrying only the necessary baggage, step off that road into another direction. —Maya Angelou

Brother Stanley T. Lewis, MD, is Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Texas Medical School in Houston; Chief Medical Officer of the St. Hope Foundation; and Medical Director of Tanox, Inc.

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College Days Don’t Have To Be Penniless, NBC’s The Apprentice Winner Says in New Book, Campus CEO

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rawing on his undergraduate experience at Rutgers, The and policy consulting firm based in Newark, New Jersey. The minorState University of New Jersey, the season-four winner of ity-owned and operated 8(a) firm works with corporations and govNBC Television Network’s The Apprentice tells students in ernment agencies, as well as nonprofit and philanthropic organizahis new book, Campus CEO, how to generate income while on tions in the areas of housing and community development, economcampus by launching their own businesses. ic development, human services, nonprofit and community technolBrother Dr. Randal Pinkett, who was chosen over 17 other ogy, healthcare and education. candidates to become the first African American winner of the Prior to co-founding BCT Partners, Brother Pinkett held posireality TV show, began his first business while at Rutgers, selling tions at General Electric, AT&T Bell Laboratories and Lucent compact discs and cassette tapes out of his dormitory. He and his Technologies. In addition to MBS Enterprises, he co-founded three co-founder of the MBS Enterprises business venture used part of other business ventures, including MBS Educational Services and the proceeds to fund high school outreach activities. Training, a firm that provided training and development for emergIn Campus CEO: The Student ing and seasoned professionals; the Entrepreneur’s Guide to Launching a Inner City Consulting Group, which speMulti-Million Dollar Business, Brother cialized in the unique needs of inner city Pinkett walks would-be entrepreneurs communities; and Access One through the necessary steps to launching Corporation, which ensured that afforda profitable campus-based business able housing was equipped for the 21st while simultaneously achieving academcentury via broadband network and ic success. The Apprentice winner prestelecommunications solutions. ents the concept that students do not Prior to the release this past have to go through a penniless college February of Campus CEO, Brother existence, nor wait until after graduation Pinkett had authored chapters in four to find a career and make money. The other books, including Managing undergraduate period is viewed as a IT/Community Partnerships in the 21st time in which a number of once-in-aCentury; Journey to the Ph.D.: How to lifetime perks and resources are readily Navigate the Process as Africanavailable to students. Americans; Community Practice in the Brother Pinkett has gained recogniNetwork Society: Local Action/Global tion as an entrepreneur, speaker, author Interaction; and The Network Society: and community servant. As The A Cross-cultural Perspective. He is curBrother Randal Pinkett Apprentice show winner, he oversaw rently co-authoring a book with his both renovation and information technolRutgers roommate and business partner, ogy projects for Trump Entertainment Resorts in Atlantic City, New Dr. Jeffrey Robinson and Sakina Spruell-Cole, tentatively entitled, Jersey. Since completion of his first year, he has extended his relaBlack Faces in White Places, which chronicles their experiences tionship with the Trump organization and is currently managing a as African Americans educated in predominantly white institutions. computer systems upgrade in Atlantic City and a community relaBorn in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and raised in East Windsor, tions project in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Brother Pinkett also is New Jersey, Brother Pinkett and his wife currently reside in a national spokesperson for the Trump Institute, which offers Somerset, New Jersey. He was initiated into the Fraternity through wealth-building seminars that teach the real estate and business Kappa Phi Lambda Chapter in Columbia, Maryland along with strategies used by Donald Trump. Brothers Dr. John Williams, Master Chief Warrant Officer Julius In addition, Brother Pinkett is the co-founder, President and Harris, Attorney Quinton Seay, Dr. William Jelani Cobb and his colCEO of BCT Partners, a multimillion dollar management, technology lege roommate, Dr. Jeffrey Robinson.

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Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco and General President Darryl Matthews discuss the Fraternity’s response efforts to Hurricane Katrina.

General President Darryl Matthews addresses the Louisiana House of Representatives.

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Alpha Day at the Legislature participants gather for a group photo on the Capitol steps. Pictured on the front row (l-r) are: Brothers Senator Donald Cravins, Jr., Representative Roy Burrell, LA District Director Wayne E. Woods, General President Darryl Matthews, Southwestern Regional VP Arthur McDade, Southwestern AVP Maurice Gipson, Assistant District Director Barry Whittington, Brother Todd Sterling and former LA District Director Shawn D. Wilson.

Elected Officials Recognize Fraternity’s Centennial Anniversary During Alpha Day at the Louisiana Legislature

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ouisiana Brothers demonstrated their impact on the state when they gathered at the State Capital in Baton Rouge for their annual Alpha Day at the Legislature as part of their celebration of the Fraternity’s 100th Anniversary. The Brothers were joined at the State Capital by General President Darryl R. Matthews, Sr. who met with Louisiana Governor Kathleen Babineaux Blanco and addressed the State Senate and House, speaking about the Fraternity’s Centennial Celebration and Alpha Phi Alpha’s work over the past 100 years to uplift the community. Brother Matthews received a standing and roaring ovation from state legislators following his address. Also in the capital city with the Brothers for the Alpha Day at the Legislature were members of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority

from around the state. Brother Matthews addressed the sister organization and received an award from the Alpha Kappa Alpha members who recognized the Fraternity’s 100 years of leadership and service. Alpha Phi Alpha’s presence has long been felt in Louisiana with Brothers serving in leadership roles, covering every aspect of society. The current State Senators there are Brothers Charles Jones, Donald Cravins, Sr. and Derrick Shepherd who serve alongside Representatives Brothers Wilfred Pierre, Roy Burrell and Donald Cravins, Jr. Alpha Brothers who formerly served in highly visible positions in the state include Brothers Marc Morial, Dr. C.O. Simpkins, Alphonse Jackson, Wilson Fields, Kip Holden, the late George “Nick” Connor, the late Dr. Charles Hudson and the Continued on next page late Ernest “Dutch” Morial.

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Above: The Brothers and Sisters of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity and Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority pause for a group photo during the Alpha Day activities.

At Right: Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority members present the Fraternity with an award, recognizing Alpha Phi Alpha’s Centennial Anniversary. Pictured are (l-r): Soror Joycelyn Green, Brother Matthews and AKA South Central Regional Director Tari Bradford.

Other Brothers who have had a huge impact in the state, while not serving as elected-officials, include faith-based leader and activist T.J. Jemison, football legend Coach Eddie Robinson and University President Dr. Norman Francis. Also, a number of Brothers in the state have served in advisory roles to the current and previous Louisiana Governors and enjoyed appointments to Boards sanctioned by the state. In addition, the state’s colleges and universities have enjoyed the leadership of Alpha Phi Alpha Brothers who served as Student Government presidents and vice presidents. In Louisiana, every four-year college or university has a chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity on its campus and every major city is home to one or more active Alumni chapters. Together the

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chapters represent the best of Alpha Phi Alpha and the Talented Tenth of Louisiana. In recent years, Alpha Brothers in Louisiana have awarded over $75,000 a year in academic scholarships. Also, Brothers there are heavily involved with the Fraternity’s national programs, serving as mentors to young men in need of guidance as part of the organization’s partnership with Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, contributing thousands of dollars to March of Dimes and participating with Habitat for Humanity. In addition to the national service efforts, Louisiana Brothers across the state contribute greatly to local levels of the community by being active in churches, school PTAs, working with neighborhood associations and helping to build the community.

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2006 Distinguished Collegians Brother Kerry Jones Texas Lutheran University A Tau Tau Chapter initiate, Brother Jones is a junior at Texas Lutheran University in Seguin, TX. He is majoring in Kinesiology and Mathematics. Brother Jones is member of the Black Student Union, Alpha Delta Lambda and Delta Epsilon Iota Honor Societies.

Brother Kaku Barkoh Texas A&M University A rising senior of the Pi Omicron Chapter at the Texas A & M University in College Station, Brother Barkoh is a native of Kerryville, Texas. He is a biology major who maintains a GPA of 3.9/4.0 and is both a University and President’s Endowed Scholar. Brother Barkoh is a member of Golden Key and Sigma Xi Honoraries, and Vice President of the Black Student Advisory Council. Brother Barkoh was named a 2006 Alpha Phi Alpha Scholar and received a scholarship award from the Education Foundation.

Brother Brandon Lewis Texas A&M University A senior civil engineering and mathematics major at Texas A & M University in College Station, Texas, Brother Lewis is from Pearland, TX. The Pi Omicron initiate maintains a GPA 3.0/4.0. He is a member of the National Society of Black Engineers and Service Chair of the National Pan Hellenic Council.

Brother Royce McAllister The College of William and Mary A Kappa Pi initiate at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, Brother McAllister is a senior finance major and art history minor who maintains a 3.4/4.0 GPA. He hails from Hampton, Virginia and is a member of the Mortar Board Senior and Order of Omega Greek Honor Societies; and is Orientation Aide Director.

Brother Christopher G. Binns Virginia State University A Brooklyn, New York native and Beta Gamma initiate, Brother Binns is a rising senior majoring in history at the Virginia State University in Petersburg, Virginia. He was a National Dean’s List scholar in 2004-2006 and served as Freshman and Sophomore Class president.

Eddie Morrow Alabama A&M University A junior accounting major, Brother Morrow is from Trussville, Alabama and was initiated through Delta Gamma Chapter at the Alabama A & M University in Huntsville. He is a member of Future Business Leaders of America-Phi Beta Lambda.

Brother Paul Griffith University of California A Gamma Xi initiate, Brother Griffith is a 2006 cum laude graduate of the University of California at Los Angeles. The Oakland, California native majored in African American Studies and will pursue a Master’s degree in Secondary Social Studies Education at Tufts University. Brother Griffith is a member of Phi Eta Sigma and Golden Key Honoraries and served as President of the National Pan Hellenic Council. Brother Griffith was named a 2006 Alpha Phi Alpha Scholar and received a scholarship award from the Education Foundation.

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Brother Albert Oseloka Okagbue University of Missouri A senior accounting major at the University of Missouri in Kansas City, Brother Okagbue is a Kansas City native and maintains a

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DARE TO BE AN ALPHA MAN Excerpt from a poem by Brother J.W. Wiley ‘83

Brother Jeremy Austin Scruggs

Dare, collegiate men of dreams to go well armed in all your schemes, and pay no heed to distracting things that would have your patience tried; for seven men did found one year a vision they saw as crystal clear, through trials and tribulations, sweat and tears a Brotherhood could not be denied.

University of Tennessee A senior Pre-K-4 education major at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Brother Scruggs is a native of Chattanooga, Tennessee and serves as Eta Phi chapter president. He also is a resident advisor and NAACP member.

Brother Brettney DaSean Smith 3.78/4.0. The Delta Rho Chapter initiate is a member of Beta Alpha Psi, a national accounting honorary. He plans to become a CPA and earn a MBA following his college graduation. Brother Okagbue was named a 2006 Alpha Phi Alpha Scholar and received a scholarship award from the Education Foundation.

Hampden-Sydney College A rising senior of Xi Zeta Chapter, Brother Smith is pursuing a dual major in psychology and Spanish at Hampden-Sydney College in Hampden-Sydney, Virginia. Brother Smith is a native of Charlotte, North Carolina. He maintains a 3.8/4.0 GPA and is a member of Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership, Phi Sigma Iota and Chi Psi Honor Societies. Upon graduation, he plans to pursue doctoral studies in industrial and organizational psychology. Brother Brettney Smith was named a 2006 Alpha Phi Alpha Scholar and received a scholarship award from the Education Foundation.

Brother Ayodeji Olojo Tennessee State University A senior supply chain management major at the Tennessee State University in Nashville, Brother Olojo is a native of Detroit, Michigan. He is SGA president and a member of the Student Union Board of Governors at Tennessee State.

Jerome Price, Jr. University of California at Los Angeles A 2006 political science graduate of the University of California at Los Angeles, Brother Price was initiated through Gamma Xi Chapter where he served as chapter president and Southern California Assistant District Director. He was a UCLA Law Fellow and the African Student Union Vice-Chair.

Brother Christopher Lloyd Smith Massachusetts Institute of Technology A 2006 chemical/biological engineering graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Brother Smith hails from Murfreesboro, Tennessee and maintained a 4.6/5.0 GPA. The Rho Nu Chapter initiate planned to enter the Ph.D. program in biomedical engineering at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. Also, Brother Christopher Smith was named a 2006 Alpha Phi Alpha Scholar and received a scholarship award from the Education Foundation.

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2006 Distinguished Collegians

Brother James Smith

Brother Mahder Tewolde

Tennessee State University A member of the Beta Omicron Chapter, Brother Smith is a rising senior at the Tennessee State University in Nashville. He is majoring in criminal justice with minors in sociology and psychology. The Memphis, Tennessee native maintains a GPA of 3.8/4.0. Brother Smith plans to pursue law school and graduate studies in business administration upon graduation. Brother James Smith was named a 2006 Alpha Phi Alpha Scholar and received a scholarship award from the Education Foundation.

SUNY Maritime College A junior at the SUNY Maritime College in Throgs Neck, New York, Brother Tewolde is a Bronx, NY native who was initiated into Iota Xi Chapter at Truman State University in Kirksville, Missouri. He is majoring in mechanical engineering. Brother Tewolde maintains a 3.8/4.0 GPA, is a Dean’s List student and a member of the National Society of Black Engineers.

2006 Alpha Phi Alpha Scholars

Brother Bradford Washington

In addition to the scholarship recipients named above, the following Brothers were named as 2006 Alpha Phi Alpha Scholars and awarded scholarships by the Education Foundation.

Morehouse College A 2006 magna cum laude graduate of Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, Brother Washington is an Alpha Rho Chapter initiate. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry with a concentration in Mathematics and Chemical Engineering. Brother Washington, a Phi Beta Kappa scholar, is a native of Byron, Georgia and planned to enter the Harvard University Dental School.

Brother Nickolas McFowland

Brother Edward James William II

University of Missouri A rising sophomore at the University of Missouri at Rolla, Brother McFowland was initiated through the Epsilon Psi Chapter. He is an electrical engineering major who maintains a 3.7/4.0 GPA. Brother McFowland is a native of Ferguson, MO. He is Vice President of the Association of Black Students and finance chair of the National Society of Black Engineers.

University of Idaho A member of Nu Epsilon Lambda Chapter, Brother William is a native of San Diego, California. He is currently a graduate student at the University of Idaho pursuing a Master of Science degree in electrical and computer engineering. He maintains a 3.5 GPA/4.0 GPA. Brother William is a member of the Eta Kappa Nu engineering honorary.

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Congressman Charlie Rangel Chairs House Ways and Means Committee Becomes Most Powerful African American Legislator Ever Brother Charlie Rangel

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hen the sun rose the day after the November 2006 General Elections, Brother Charlie Rangel was the presumptive chairman of the powerful House Ways and Means Committee. That meant the New York City Democratic Congressman would wield power in the highest chambers of the U.S. government, dealing with issues that affect every single American, such as Social Security, Medicare, trade with foreign countries and taxes. In January, Brother Charles Bernard Rangel assumed chairmanship of the Committee, making him the most powerful African American legislator ever. Social Security and Medicare are only two of the issues that are on his agenda, Brother Rangel says. He sees poverty and the lack of education as threats to the country’s national security. He also recognizes that Americans are frustrated with the war in Iraq, the way Hurricane Katrina was handled, and with government corruption in Washington, D.C. Brother Rangel, 76, represents Harlem, the historic neighborhood on Manhattan Island that gave the world such noted African American figures as James Baldwin, James Weldon Johnson, Alice Dunbar-Nelson, Countee Cullen, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. and Father Divine. Now the dean of New York’s congressional delegation, Brother Rangel’s experiences as a youth led him in a different direction. He was as a high school drop out and dead-end kid

before he put on a military uniform and fought in the Korean War. He returned home from the War with a couple of medals and set himself on a course to college and law school. Brother Rangel first received national attention when he took on the legendary Brother Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. in 1970 and defeated him in the Democratic primary. He was appointed an assistant U.S. attorney for the Southern District of New York in 1961. Later he was elected to the New York State Assembly. Brother Powell was a bulwark on behalf of President Johnson’s War on Poverty legislation in the 1960s but had been expelled from Congress in 1967 for ethics violations—a cataclysmic fall. The Supreme Court later overturned the House action. During 35 years in the House, Brother Rangel has himself become a Harlem institution. He helped change the tax laws to punish U.S. companies that continued to do business with the South African apartheid regime. He also worked with Republican lawmaker Jack Kemp to create federal business development opportunities to distressed inner-city areas.

EDITOR’S NOTE: Brother Charlie Rangel and the Fraternity’s other members in Congress will be featured in the next edition of The Sphinx Magazine

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The Sphinx Magazine Fall/Winter 2006 part 1  

The official organ of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

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