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Free to be children

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EDITED BY ROBYN SALISBURY

Free to be children Preventing child sexual abuse in Aotearoa New Zealand

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For the children of Aotearoa New Zealand For every survivor of child sexual abuse finding their way over the hurdles And for those who love them and travel that journey with them

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Contents

Foreword

9

Preface

12

Introduction

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1. ‘Concrete baby’: A survivor’s story

30

— ANONYMOUS

2. Child sexual abuse: A paediatrician’s viewpoint —

PROFESSOR DAWN ELDER, UNIVERSITY OF OTAGO, WELLINGTON

3. Working therapeutically with children who have experienced sexual abuse —

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79

DETECTIVE SENIOR SERGEANT NEIL HOLDEN, CHILD PROTECTION TEAM, NEW ZEALAND POLICE

5. Underage sex work and the sex-trafficking of adolescents —

64

SUE GLANVILLE, RETIRED CLINICAL MANAGER, ORANGA TAMARIKI

4. Child sexual abuse: A police viewpoint —

47

95

DR NATALIE THORBURN, UNIVERSITY OF AUCKLAND

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6. Te Wairua O Tika —

109

CIARAN TORRINGTON, THERAPIST, SURVIVOR ADVOCATE

7. Sexuality education in New Zealand: What is (not) happening in schools and why you should care

122

KATIE FITZPATRICK, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF HEALTH EDUCATION AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF AUCKLAND

8.

Technology, new media and child sexual abuse: Time for a change 135

DAVID SHANKS, CHIEF CENSOR, OFFICE OF FILM AND LITERATURE CLASSIFICATION

9. Living next door to a sex offender: One woman’s viewpoint —

JUDY, MOTHER AND GRANDMOTHER

10. Kia Marama: Providing child sex offender treatment in prison —

180

DEANNA HOLLIS, MANAGER, WELLSTOP CENTRAL

13. The Good Lives Model of rehabilitation — —

167

HINEWIRANGI KOHU MORGAN, PSYCHOTHERAPIST, WAIKERIA PRISON

12. Hurt people hurt people —

154

ALEXANDRA GREEN, MANAGER PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES, KIA MARAMA

11. Singing my soul back into being —

150

193

DR MAYUMI PURVIS, UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE PROFESSOR TONY WARD, VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF WELLINGTON

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14. Assessing risk and treatment change, and the shift towards prevention —

206

SARAH BEGGS CHRISTOFFERSON, UNIVERSITY OF CANTERBURY

15. Restorative justice: Enabling a new ‘normal’ after sexual harm

217

— LISA MARKWICK, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, PROJECT RESTORE NZ

16. The development of constructive sexual behaviours —

ROBYN SALISBURY, CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST

17. The development of destructive sexual behaviours —

258

ROBYN SALISBURY

Afterword Acknowledgements Appendix: Children’s sexual behaviours Notes About the contributors Index

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241

ROBYN SALISBURY

18. The pathway forward —

227

274 276 279 290 300 305

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Foreword I was so brutalised inside, and then I had to live with that shame. — Survivor of child sexual abuse1

WE NEW ZEALANDERS ARE A compassionate and generous people. We want

nothing but the best for our young people. Our vision for childhood is one where its taonga — our children — are nourished and nurtured, and where they thrive. But child abuse, and in particular child sexual abuse, casts a sharp shadow across this vision. Increasingly we are aware of the power of this shadow and the price it demands from too many of our children. That cost is physical, emotional, psychological, indeed spiritual. It can leave children diminished and broken. The tragic fact is that New Zealand has had, and continues to have, a major problem with child sexual abuse. It is a crisis. No instance of abuse of a child is acceptable, but the rate of child sexual abuse in this country is profoundly concerning. Participants in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research Study of 1037 children were asked to report if they had experienced any kind of unwanted sexual activities that involved physical contact before the age of 16.2 The study indicated that 30 per cent of female and 9 per cent of male participants had experienced some form of sexual abuse. That is a shocking statistic. And given the inhibitions that discourage reporting, it is likely the actual level may be higher still. The level of concern about this issue within New Zealand has been evidenced by the insistent demand for a Royal Commission into historical abuse of children in state care, and the further call to ensure the inquiry be extended to include faith-based institutions.

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The original terms of reference proposed that the Royal Commission consider complaints up until the end of 1999. This implied the naïve assumption that abuse, including sexual abuse, is somehow a thing of the past. But this is little more than a convenient myth enabling us to shelve our concern about child sexual abuse. The Safety of Children in Care statistics,3 released by Oranga Tamariki — Ministry for Children in March 2019, give the lie to that myth. Not only do they demonstrate that the sexual abuse of children is still happening, they also further identify that children in the care of the state are experiencing a 10 per cent rate of repeat abuse in general. All this points to the timeliness of Free to Be Children: Preventing child sexual abuse in Aotearoa New Zealand. This book draws together significant contributions by writers and researchers from wide-ranging fields of expertise. Together they explore the nature of the problem and exhibit the value of a knowledgeable, informed, expert response. Free to Be Children also draws our attention to aspects of the issue that may be new to many: the reality of child sex trafficking in Aotearoa; the challenge of keeping children safe in the digital age; restorative justice for child victims and survivors. The Office of the Children’s Commissioner is committed to prioritising the best interests of children, as this book does. We also actively commit to consulting with children, to make their views known and to give them weight. Historically, as a country, we have done that remarkably badly. Government departments, ministries, local government and community groups have too readily privileged adult voices in decision-making. Fortunately, things are changing. Our legislation makes taking account of children’s voices essential. The Children’s Commissioner Act 2003 gives the commissioner a mandate to seek out children’s voices, to listen to them, and to give them serious consideration (sections 13 and 14). These sections of the Act provide the basis for how we discharge our specific statutory obligations to investigate, monitor, assess and help the work of Oranga Tamariki (section 14). Our determination to prioritise the voices of children has led us to revolutionise our approach to monitoring work. The voices of children and young people change the discussion. They rebalance emphases. They draw attention to assumptions that no longer hold. The recent student climate change strikes, demanding that attention

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Free to be children

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be focused on the global climate change crisis, provide an excellent example. The distinctive value children’s voices add to our kōrero is a field that would benefit from further research and exploration. This is true also in respect of children’s experience of abuse. Free to Be Children makes an excellent and contemporary contribution to the discussion of child sexual abuse. It will provoke thought on this crisis. It will broaden readers’ understanding of the key issues at play. It will contribute to a better response and encourage a more professional and effective practice across all disciplines. It should be required reading for anyone working in the field, and it will richly repay careful reading. Judge Andrew Becroft Children’s Commissioner

Foreword

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Profile for Massey University Press

Free to be Children: Preventing child sexual abuse in Aotearoa New Zealand  

Sexual abuse of children wrecks lives, families and communities. In this landmark book, well-known registered clinical psychologist Robyn Sa...

Free to be Children: Preventing child sexual abuse in Aotearoa New Zealand  

Sexual abuse of children wrecks lives, families and communities. In this landmark book, well-known registered clinical psychologist Robyn Sa...

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