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The World That Created MassArt and The Worlds That MassArt Created Mary Ann Stankiewicz Professor of Art Education Penn State University

November 6, 1873, Massachusetts Normal Art School opened in rented rooms on Pemberton Square, Boston

Massachusetts Normal Art School •  Was it a school preparing young women to teach basic elements of visual art? •  Was it a preparatory school for technical drawing? •  Was the state teaching fine arts to students for free?

S.  Edward  Warren  

Varieties of Drawing Le#:  Projec+on  of  Shades   &  Shadows   Right:  Representa+onal   Drawing   Bo=om:  Design  from   Nature    

Lucas  Baker    

George  H.  Bartle=  

Normal Art School Founders

John  Dudley  Philbrick   (1818-­‐1886)  

Charles  Callahan  Perkins   (1823-­‐1886)   Walter  Smith  (1836-­‐1886)  

•  Based  on  lecture  given  in  Boston,     December  1872.     •  Published  in  October  1873.     •  Dr.  Clarke  argued  that  women’s  minds     were  at  the  mercy  of  their  bodies.     •  A  woman  could  vote,  or  engage  in  any     professional  occupa+ons  that  men  did—   as  long  as  the  laws  of  her  bodily     organiza+on  were  recognized.       •  Female  bodies  were  created     to  bear  children  and  women  had     a  responsibility  to  conduct  their   lives  with  that  end  in  mind.      

Women  suffrage  mee+ng  in  Worcester,     Massachuse=s,  November  7-­‐9,  1873.     Henry  B.  Blackwell  presided  at  the     Sunday  a#ernoon  session,  November  9.     Lucy  Stone  gave  the  concluding  address,   repor+ng  progress  since  she  became   involved  with  the  suffrage  movement   In  1847.     Stone  and  Blackwell  were  leaders  of     the  American  Women  Suffrage     Associa+on  (1869-­‐1890),  which     published  the  Woman’s  Journal     beginning  in  January  1870.    

Harmony in Difference •  "My  own  belief  is,  that  we   have  no  grounds  for  and   no  right  in  making  any   difference  whatsoever  in   human  beings  on  account   of  sex,  either  in  their   educa+on  or  occupa+ons,   more  than  Nature  has   done."  (Smith,  1872,  p.   165)     Walter  Smith  (1836-­‐1886)    

Abolitionists and Feminists on MNAS Board of Visitors, 1880s Thomas  Wentworth  Higginson  (1823-­‐1911)  

Abby  W.  May    (1829-­‐1888)  

First MNAS Board of Visitors Hon.  Joseph  White    (1811-­‐1890)  

Gardiner  G.  Hubbard   (1822-­‐1897)    

Rev.  Alonzo  A.  Miner     (1814-­‐1895),  Chair  

Phillips  Brooks  (1835-­‐1893)  

John  Dudley  Philbrick   (1818-­‐1886)  

Boston Artists in MNAS’s First Classes

Charles  Dickens  as  he  appears  when     reading,  1867  wood  engraving  from   drawing  by  Charles  A.  Barry   (1830-­‐1892)   Hunter  on  Horseback  (nd),   Pain+ng  by  Henry  Hitchings    (1824-­‐1902)  

Boston’s  Great  Fire  started   in  a  five-­‐story  warehouse   just  a#er  7:00  p.m.  on   Saturday,  November  9,   1872.  

Pemberton Square had been developed in 1835, combining private residences and businesses.

Original Mission of Massachusetts Normal Art School “as  a  Training  School  for  the  purpose  of  qualifying   teachers  and  masters  of  industrial  drawing.  Its  specific   aim  at  present  is  to  prepare  teachers  for  the  industrial   drawing  schools  of  the  State,  who  shall  also  be  able  to   direct  and  superintend  the  instruc+on  in  this  branch  in   the  public  schools.”  (Massachuse=s  Normal  Art  School,   1873,  p.  3)      

June 23, 1876 •  First  ceremony  to  award   cer+ficates,  MNAS   •  At  28  School  Street  where   the  school  rented  rooms   •  64  students  were   recognized   –  28 men –  36 women

•  Not  all  had  completed  the   full  program;  some  had   only  passed  one  or  two   cer+ficates  

28  School  Street  was  across  from     Boston’s  City  Hall.    

First MNAS Commencement Speakers Gov.  Alexander  H.  Rice     (1818-­‐1895))    

Rev.  Alonzo  A.  Miner     (1814-­‐1895)  

John  Dudley  Philbrick   (1818-­‐1886)  

Walter  Smith     (1836-­‐1886)  

What did the first graduates do? •  Teaching  in  Free  Evening  Drawing  Schools   –  11 men: 9 in Boston, 2 in Cambridge

•  Teaching  in  Boston  Public  Schools   –  9 graduates •  3 men, including Henry Hitchings •  6 women

•  Teaching  in  Other  Massachuse=s  Ci+es/Towns   –  1 man and 5 women

What did the first graduates do? •  Teaching  in  State  Normal  Schools  (9)   –  5 at MNAS •  3 women, including Mercy A. Bailey and Deristhe “Rissie” L. Hoyt •  2 men, including Arthur C. Patten, first to complete the full program, receiving his diploma and title of Art Master in 1877

–  Others at Boston, Framingham, Salem, Westfield, and Worcester

•  Mrs.  Leah  N.  Wellington  taught  at  Wellesley   College  

What did the first graduates do? •  7  graduates  taught  in  public  schools  in:   –  Chicago –  Columbus, Ohio (2) –  Portsmouth & Amherst, NH –  Newport & Providence, RI

•  3  graduates  taught  in  post-­‐secondary  educa+on:   –  Purdue University, IN –  Winona Normal School, MN –  Trenton Normal School, NJ

Leaders in Art + Design •  Charles  A.  Barry  (1830-­‐1892),  first  headmaster,   Rhode  Island  School  of  Design,  1878-­‐80   •  Eugene  C.  Colby  (1846-­‐1930),  first  teacher  and   principal  of  Rochester  Mechanics  Ins+tute  (now   RIT)   •  William  A.  Mason  (1855-­‐1923),  created  Art   Department,  The  Ohio  State  University   •  Leslie  W.  Miller  (1848-­‐1931),  A.M.  1880,   Principal,  Pennsylvania  School  of  Industrial  Arts   (now  University  of  the  Arts)   •  Walter  Sco=  Perry  (1855-­‐1934),  Director,  School   of  Fine  and  Applied  Arts,  Pra=  Ins+tute  

Inventors, Engineers, & Painters •  A.  Hun  Berry  studied  at   MIT  before  MNAS  and   held  several  patents,   some  for  fans   •  George  A.  Loring  first   taught  in  Free  Evening   Drawing  Schools,  later   became  a  Mechanical   and  Civil  Engineer    

•  Walter  L.  Dean   (1852-­‐1912)  became  a   well-­‐known  marine   painter   •  John  N.  Marble   (1855-­‐1918)  studied  at   Academie  Julian  and   became  a  portrait   painter  in  New  York    

William Ladd Taylor (1854-1926)

Eleanor Norcross (1854-1923)

E.  A.  Norcross,  1871  

“In  My  Studio”   1891  

According to Walter Smith, quoted in the 36th annual Board of Education report:

“The school should be to artisans what the university is to the professional man; and to such professions as those of the architect and engineer it should be a professional school also.”  

The World that Created MassArt and the Worlds that MassArt Created