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Socrates Almanac

2014


ISSN 2053-4736.(Print)

Socrates Almanac Publisher: Europe Business Assembly

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ISSN 2053-4736.(Print)

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Socrates Almanac Innovative City of the Future


Excerpts from the report "STATE OF THE WORLD'S CITIES 2012/2013" Prosperity of Cities

STATE OF THE WORLD’S CITIES 2012/2013 PROSPERITY OF CITIES

Urban and Regional Trends

More than Half of the World Population is Now Urban It is really remarkable that only one century ago, two out of 10 people in the world were living in urban areas. In the least developed countries, this proportion was as low as five per cent, as the overwhelming majority was living in rural areas. The world has been rapidly urbanizing since then and, in some countries and regions, at an unprecedented pace. It was only two years ago that humankind took a landmark step when, for the first time in history, urban outnumbered rural populations. This milestone marked the advent of a new ‘urban millennium’ and, by the middle of this century, it is expected that out of every 10 people on the planet, seven will be living in urban areas. Interestingly, only 60 years ago or so (1950), the number of people living in urban centres was slightly higher in developed (54 per cent, or 442 million) as compared with developing countries. Today, of every 10 urban residents in the world more than seven are found in developing countries, which are also hosts to an overwhelming (82 per cent) proportion of humankind. Moreover, it is estimated that, between 2010 and 2015, some 200,000 people on average will be added to the world’s urban population every day. Worth noting is that 91 per cent of this daily increase (or 183,000) is expected to take place in developing countries. In the last quarter of 2011, the world population reached the seven billion mark. This historic event took place 12 years after the six billion mark. It took 123 years to double fromone to two billion but ‘only’ 33 years to cross the three-billion threshold. Although demographic growth is slowing down across the world as a whole, it remains that the ever-shorter time it has taken to add one extra billion signals a major shift in both the pace and scale of global demographics. It is almost certain that at some point in late 2011, the seven-billionth human was born in a developing country. This is where virtually all (93 per cent) of the world’s population growth is 4

Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

happening today. Moreover, all future population growth is expected to take place in urban areas, and again nearly all of it in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Therefore, it is highly probable that the seven-billionth human was born in a city in any of these three regions. These numbers highlight the extent to which the world population has increasingly come to live in urban areas. For all the clarity of these trends and the benefits that come with urbanization, too many governments still maintain ambivalent if not hostile attitudes to this process. In 2009, slightly over two-thirds (67 per cent) of countries in the world reported that they had implemented policies to reduce or even reverse migrant flows from rural areas to cities. Of an average 10 African governments, slightly over eight were found trying to stem rural migration. However, contrary to common perception, migration from rural to urban areas is no longer the dominant determinant of urban population growth in developing countries. Today, natural increase accounts for some 60 per cent of that growth, and the transformation of rural settlements into urban places, a process known as ‘reclassification’, accounts for another 20 per cent or so. Understanding current and prospective trends in urban demographic growth is fundamental if appropriate policies and strategies are to be designed and deployed to maximize the benefits of urbanization. This includes taking advantage of opportunities, devising better regional and urban policies, and planning for the future. In this chapter, every major region of the world is shown to feature unique development patterns that are analysed against the background of current trends and projections.

Urban Change in Developed Countries Urban Population Growth is Next to Stagnant In the more advanced nations, urban population growth is next to stagnant (0.67 per cent on an annual average basis since 2010), which represents an additional six million or so every year. In Europe, the annual increase is only two million. By comparison, the aggregate annual population increase in six major developingcountry cities – New Delhi and Mumbai (India), Dhaka (Bangladesh), Lagos (Nigeria), Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) and Karachi (Pakistan) – is higher than Europe’s entire population. Population in North American cities was the least slow of all those


in the developed world between 2005 and 2010, particularly in the United States (one per cent on average). The growth, decline and prosperity of cities: There is no clear association between the demographic growth or decline of cities and their degrees of prosperity. Although population numbers have declined in a number of cities in Western Europe, Canada and New Zealand, this did not affect living standards, which in some cases even improved. On the other hand, and as might be expected, population declines in a number of cities in Eastern Europe and the United States of America are strongly associated with economic decay. The loss of economic momentum in Cleveland, Detroit and Buffalo (homes to the USA’sdeclining automobile, steel and heavy industries, respectively) and the deterioration of inner city conditions (deserted residential areas and crumbling infrastructure) have all gone hand in hand with population declines. Population decline in the city proper can very often go hand in hand with rapid growth in peripheral areas, a phenomenon known as the ‘doughnut effect’. For example, in Saskatoon, one of Canada’s most dynamic and affluent economic hubs, migration and natural increase caused a 15 per cent population increase in peripheral municipalities between 1996 and 2001. Likewise in the United States of America, there has been a continuous decline (minus 8.3 per cent between 2000 and 2010) in the population of affluent St. Louis, while neighbouring cities such as St. Charles and Jefferson increased their populations by 26.6 per cent and 10.8 per cent,respectively, during the same period. Growing cities are located in growing regions: Cities and the surrounding regions are typically interdependent economically and tend to share similar socioeconomic and demographic trends. In most North American cities, growing cities correspond to the most dynamic regions and those experiencing population losses are located in less dynamic regions. Canada is a case in point. Research found that between 1981 and 2001, two-thirds of smaller cities and towns with declining populations were located within declining regions, and 77 per cent of cities on a positive demographic trend were to be found in growing regions. In contrast, in Western Europe the prosperity of entire regions is largely dependent on a primate conurbation and the concentration of services and manufacturing that comes with it. A study

on the sustainability of 285 European regions conducted by the Berlin Institute in 2007/8, just prior to the financial crises, showed that cities like Reykjavik, Stockholm, Oslo, Zurich and Geneva were doing well, as did the regions where they are located. With their relatively unchanged, well-educated and well-nigh fully employed populations, these cities base their economic momentum on a combination of factors: they act as administrative and/or financial/economic as well as cultural capital cities, with high value added activities (including communications, business services, high technologies, research, etc.), and this momentum spills over across the (often largely urbanized) surrounding regions through manufacturing and ancillary (logistics, etc.) activities. Cities in the north will continue to attract migrants: European urban areas, in particular, will continue to feature low fertility rates and rapidly aging populations. These demographic trends are unmistakable and point to overall demographic decline. Between 2005 and 2010, net international migration counterbalanced the excess of deaths over births in 11 developed countries, while contributing twice as much to population growth in another nine countries. With the ongoing economic crisis, the aggregate flow of immigrants to developed countries has slowed down from an annual 2.3 per cent average rate in 2000–05 to 1.7 per cent in 2005–10. Rising unemployment in some of the host cities/countries may cause governments to impose restrictions on increased immigration. In Italy, the dynamic, affluent northern industrial cities of Brescia and Reggio Emilia saw the share of immigrants in their populations increase from five and six per cent respectively in 2002 to 19.3 and 17.2 per cent in 2010. Ireland’s economic boom caused Dublin’s foreign-born population to soar by over 300 per cent between 1991 and 2008. With the ongoing economic crisis, the aggregate flow of immigrants to developed countries has slowed down from an annual 2.3 per cent average rate in 2000–05 to 1.7 per cent in 2005–10.12 Despite these current trends, it looks like enduring demographic and economic asymmetries between the North and South will continue to fuel international migration, as developed nations require foreign workers to address labour shortages and counter the effects of population aging on welfare systems.

Foreword STATE OF THE WORLD’S CITIES 2012/2013

Ban Ki-moon Secretary-General’s

Our world today is predominantly urban. Cities can be prime driving forces of development and innovation. Yet the prosperity generated by cities has not been equitably shared, and a sizeable proportion of the urban population remains without access to the benefits that cities produce.The 2012/2013 State of the World’s Cities Report, “Prosperity of Cities”, introduces a notion of prosperity that looks beyond the confines of economic growth that have dominated development policy and agendas for many years.

Prosperity of Cities

It examines how cities can generate and equitably distribute the benefits and opportunities associated with prosperity, ensuring economic well being, social cohesion, environmental sustainability and a better quality of life in general. As the world continues to grapple with the impact of an economic crisis, which has triggered a series of other crises, we are also witnessing valiant and creative attempts at different levels, by different actors, to seek solutions. Despite the challenges they face and, indeed, the dysfunction that prevails in many urban areas, cities have a central role to play in contributing to national and global recovery. And as the world seeks a more people-centred, sustainable approach to development, cities can lead the way with local solutions to global problems. I commend the findings of this timely report to scholars, policy makers, development planners and all others interested in promoting prosperous towns and cities. Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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STATE OF THE WORLD’S CITIES 2012/2013 Prosperity of Cities

Foreword STATE OF THE WORLD’S CITIES 2012/2013

Joan Clos Under-SecretaryGeneral, United Nations Executive Director, UN-Habitat This is a time of crises. This is also a time for solutions. Indeed, the world is currently engulfed in waves of financial, economic, environmental, social and political crises. Amidst the turmoil, however, we are also witnessing valiant and creative attempts at different levels and by different actors to seek for solutions. The State of the World’s Cities Report 2012/2013 presents, with compelling evidence, some of the underlying factors behind these crises that have strongly impacted on cities. It shows that a lopsided focus on purely financial prosperity has led to growing inequalities between rich and poor, generated serious distortions in the form and functionality of cities, also causing serious damage to the environment – not to mention the unleashing of precarious financial systems that could not be sustained in the long run. The Report proposes a fresh approach to prosperity, one that is holistic and integrated and which is essential for the promotion of a collective well-being and fulfilment of all. This new approach does not only respond to the crises by providing safeguards against new risks, but it also helps cities to steer the world towards economically, socially, politically and environmentally prosperous urban futures. In order to measure present and future progress of cities towards the prosperity path, the Report introduces a new tool – the City Prosperity Index – together with a conceptual matrix, the Wheel of Urban Prosperity, both of which are meant to assist decision makers to design clear policy interventions. To varying degrees of intensity, cities have been hit by different crises. However, this Report tells us that cities can also be a remedy to the regional and global crises. When supported by different tiers of government, and in the quest to generate holistic prosperity, cities can become flexible and creative platforms to address these crises in a pragmatic and efficient manner. Prosperity, in this sense, can be seen as a Pharmakon – both a cause of the problem and a remedy. As per this ancient Greek construct, when used properly, it can help decision-makers to steer cities towards well-balanced and harmonious development. In this Report, UN-Habitat advocates for a new type of city – the city of the 21st century – that is a ‘good’, peoplecentred city, one that is capable of integrating the tangible and more intangible aspects of prosperity, and in the process shedding off the inefficient, unsustainable forms and functionalities of the city of the previous century. By doing this, UN-Habitat plays a pivotal role in ensuring that urban planning, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks become an instrument of prosperity and well-being. This is a time of solutions to the numerous challenges that confront today’s cities. If we are to take measures that will make a difference to the lives of the billions of people in the world’s cities, and to future generations, we need sound and solid knowledge and information. This Report provides some of these crucial ingredients. I am confident that it will serve as a useful tool in the necessary redefinition of the urban policy agenda at local, national and regional levels. I do believe also that it will provide valuable insights in the search for urban prosperity and related policy changes 6

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Prosperity of Cities

in the years ahead. The Report is a bridge between research and policy, with inputs from more than 50 cities, individual scientists and institutions, particularly the Directorate-General for Regional Policy from the European Commission, and other partner institutions around the world that participated actively in the preparation of this study. I would like to thank them for their immense contribution. I would also like to thank the Government of Norway for its financial support. The partnerships that have evolved during the preparation of this report are part and parcel of, as well as critically essential in, creating the building blocks of a more sustainable prosperity, one that is shared by all. UN-Habitat is determined to sustain and consolidate such partnerships as we collectively chart a better future. This is a time of crises. This is also a time for solutions. Indeed, the world is currently engulfed in waves of financial, economic, environmental, social and political crises. Amidst the turmoil, however, we are also witnessing valiant and creative attempts at different levels and by different actors to seek for solutions. The State of the World’s Cities Report 2012/2013 presents, with compelling evidence, some of the underlying factors behind these crises that have strongly impacted on cities. It shows that a lopsided focus on purely financial prosperity has led to growing inequalities between rich and poor, generated serious distortions in the form and functionality of cities, also causing serious damage to the environment – not to mention the unleashing of precarious financial systems that could not be sustained in the long run. The Report proposes a fresh approach to prosperity, one that is holistic and integrated and which is essential for the promotion of a collective well-being and fulfilment of all. This new approach does not only respond to the crises by providing safeguards against new risks, but it also helps cities to steer the world towards economically, socially, politically and environmentally prosperous urban futures. In order to measure present and future progress of cities towards the prosperity path, the Report introduces a new tool – the City Prosperity Index – together with a conceptual matrix, the Wheel of Urban Prosperity, both of which are meant to assist decision makers to design clear policy interventions. To varying degrees of intensity, cities have been hit by different crises. However, this Report tells us that cities can also be a remedy to the regional and global crises. When supported by different tiers of government, and in the quest to generate holistic prosperity, cities can become flexible and creative platforms to address these crises in a pragmatic and efficient manner. Prosperity, in this sense, can be seen as a Pharmakon – both a cause of the problem and a remedy. As per this ancient Greek construct, when used properly, it can help decision-makers to steer cities towards well-balanced and harmonious development. In this Report, UN-Habitat advocates for a new type of city – the city of the 21st century – that is a ‘good’, peoplecentred city, one that is capable of integrating the tangible and more intangible aspects of prosperity, and in the process shedding off the inefficient, unsustainable forms and functionalities of the city of the previous century. By doing this, UN-Habitat plays a pivotal role in ensuring that urban planning, legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks become an instrument of prosperity and well-being. This is a time of solutions to the numerous challenges that confront today’s cities. If we are to take measures that will make a difference to the lives of the billions of people in the world’s cities, and to future generations, we need sound and solid knowledge and information. This Report provides some of these crucial ingredients. I am confident


that it will serve as a useful tool in the necessary redefinition of the urban policy agenda at local, national and regional levels. I do believe also that it will provide valuable insights in the search for urban prosperity and related policy changes in the years ahead. The Report is a bridge between research and policy, with inputs from more than 50 cities, individual scientists and institutions, particularly the DirectorateGeneral for Regional Policy from the European Commission, and other partner institutions around the world that participated actively in the preparation of this study. I would like to thank them for their immense contribution. I would also like to thank the Government of Norway for its financial support. The partnerships that have evolved during the preparation of this report are part and parcel of, as well as critically essential in, creating the building blocks of a more sustainable prosperity, one that is shared by all. UN-Habitat is determined to sustain and consolidate such partnerships as we collectively chart a better future.


City Management Globalization and urbanization continue to fundamentally alter the way cities work. Growth means wider and more complex challenges to meet the needs of residents and businesses. This is as true for the mayor of a large urban metropolis as it is for a small town mayor suddenly attracting more people from rural areas. Those who share in the day-to-day life of a city – residents, commuters, workers, tourists – have a variety of expectations, from the basic requirements of housing and security to the more intellectual desires of the arts, theater, and science. A city must be attractive to keep its citizens. It must have resources – financial, human, and cultural – to sustain growth, vibrancy, and success. In a world where people, capital, and information are increasingly mobile, circulating freely and easily across borders, the traditional ties that bind are all but gone. When conditions seem better elsewhere, they relocate.


Urban management

Urban management "People need to be able to get to work, school, hospitals and places of recreation safely and quickly.  Getting mobility right can regenerate urban centres, boost productivity and make a city attractive for all users – from investors to visitors and residents." Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon  World Habitat Day, 2013


ASSOCIATION OF CITIES

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Urban management

United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) represents and defends the interests of local governments on the world stage, regardless of the size of the communities they serve. Headquartered in Barcelona, the organisation’s stated mission is: To be the united voice and world advocate of democratic local selfgovernment, promoting its values, objectives and interests, through cooperation between local governments, and within the wider international community. A targeted work programme UCLG’s work programme focuses on: – Increasing the role and influence of local government and its representative organisations in global governance; – Becoming the main source of support for democratic, effective, innovative local government close to the citizen; – Ensuring an effective and democratic global organisation. United Cities and Local Governments supports international cooperation between cities and their associations, and facilitates

programmes, networks and partnerships to build the capacity of local governments. It promotes the role of women in local decision-making, and is a gateway to relevant information on local government across the world. UCLG’s members represent over half of the world’s total population Present in 140 of the 191 UN members states in seven world regions, UCLG’s members include individual cities and national associations of local governments, which represent all the cities and local governments in a single country. Over 1000 cities across 95 countries are direct members of UCLG. 112 Local Government Associations (LGAs) are members of UCLG, representing almost every existing LGA in the world. See more at: www.uclg.org/en/organisation/ about#sthash.DvCw6GI4.dpuf

UCLG AFRICA The UCLG AFRICA is the umbrella organization and the united voice and representative of local government in Africa. It results from the unification of the three pre-existing continental groupings of local governments,namely the African Union of Local Authorities (AULA), the Union des Villes Africaines (UVA) and the Africa Chapter of the Unao dos Ciudades y Capitaes Lusofono Africana, (UCCL AFRICA). It is an institution that gathers 40 national associations of local governments from all regions of Africa as well as the 2000 cities that have more than 100.000 inhabitants. Therefore UCLG AFRICA represents nearly 350 million Africans citizens.

UCLG AFRICA is a founding member of the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) world organization, and its regional section for Africa. UCLG AFRICA is currently headquartered in the City of Rabat, The Kingdom of Morocco, where it enjoys a diplomatic status as a Pan-African International Organisation. www.afriquelocale.org/en

UCLG Eurasia World organization United cities and local governments (WO UCLG) is a voluntary international alliance of associations, unions and individual municipalities established in 2004 in order to represent rights of citizens at the level of local self-government. UCLG is the most powerful and influential institution in the field of interaction of local governments, their representation at the international level and implementation of democratic principles. At the moment UCLG unites more than 1000 cities and world associations and represents over half the world’s population. WO UCLG consists of 7 regional sections.

Eurasian section of UCLG is the youngest and the most dynamically developing, it consists of more than 100 cities and associations of local authorities of the CIS countries and Mongolia. Members of the Euro-Asian sections have hosted many events of national and international level. The headquarters of the Eurasian office is located in Kazan www.euroasia-uclg.ru/

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Association of Cities

Fonds Mondiale pour le developpement ` des villes The Global fund for cities development (FMDV) was created in October 2010 at the initiative of Metropolis, United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) and 34 founding members (cities and city networks). It is an international political organisation which aims to strengthen solidarity and financial capacity by and among local authorities and is complementary to existing mobilisation, coordination and advocacy networks. FMDV meets the need expressed by local governments to have their own instrument that is: ·· Operational and effective in order to help contracting authorities find expert, sustainable and viable financial solutions for projects and activities led by territorial authorities, ·· Tailored to the specific needs and realities of territories and to the capacity and competences of administrative teams and their local partners, applying a principle of subsidiarity, efficient management and know-how transfers, ·· Independent vis-à-vis governments, the private sector and the main international donors so that it can operate in line with the key directions defined by the local authorities themselves.

In this respect, FMDV provides technical expertise and financial engineering throughout the urban development project process (definition, fundraising and organisation). It facilitates territorial authorities’ access to financial resources which match the needs that they themselves have identified and under the best possible conditions: guarantees, loans, subsidies, grants, financial markets and endogenous mechanisms. This dual approach, based on technical assistance to re-think urban planning and appropriate financial engineering so that it can be sustainably financed, allows local authorities, elected officials and technical teams to design, develop and appraise their own development projects, in line with the coherence and potential of the territory and in consultation with local stakeholders. FMDV is based in Paris and is present in Africa, Asia and Latin America via its regional offices. This allows the organisation to work as closely as possible with its members and the territorial projects they are implementing. www.fmdv.net

International Assocition of French speaking Mayors The International Organisation of La Francophonie represents one of the biggest linguistic zones in the world. Its members share more than just a common language. They also share the humanist values promoted by the French language. The French language and its humanist values represent the two cornerstones on which the International Organisation of La Francophonie is based. The International Organisation of La Francophonie was created in 1970. Its mission is to embody the active solidarity between its 77 member states and governments (57 members and 20 observers),

which together represent over one-third of the United Nations’ member states and account for a population of over 890 million people, including 220 million French speakers. IOF organises political activities and actions of multilateral cooperation that benefit French-speaking populations. Its actions respect cultural and linguistic diversity and serve to promote the French language, peace and sustainable development. www.francophonie.org

UCLG Asia – Pacific United Cities and Local Governments Asia-Pacific (UCLG ASPAC), the regional section of UCLG, is based in Jakarta, Indonesia. The organisation is the key knowledge management hub on local government issues in the region. UCLG is a worldwide association of local government organisations that dates back to 1913. UCLG is the only local government organization recognised by the United Nations, and nominates 12

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10 out of 20 members of UNACLA, the first advisory body of local authorities affiliated with the UN. The Asia and Pacific region is the biggest of the eight sections in UCLG with linkages to more than 7.000 local governments. It represents well over 3.76 billion people – more than half of the world population – and incorporates economically fast developing countries such as China, India and Indonesia.


Urban management

Commonwealth Local Government Forum CLGF works to promote and strengthen democratic local government across the Commonwealth and to encourage the exchange of best practice – through conferences and events, projects and research. Working with national and local governments to support the development of democratic values and good local governance. As a Commonwealth organisation, CLGF draws on the influential network of the Commonwealth that provides a solid basis for its programmes and activities. As an associated organisation officially recognised by Commonwealth Heads of Government, CLGF is well-placed to influence policy development and lead on democracy and good governance at local level.

CLGF’s strength lies in its membership whose representatives are the key players in local government in the Commonwealth and can be drawn into CLGF’s work as experts and influencers. CLGF is unique in bringing together central, provincial and local spheres of government involved in local government policy and decisionmaking. CLGF has more than 160 members in 40 Commonwealth countries including local government associations, individual local authorities, ministries dealing with local government.  www.clgf.org.uk

Arab Town Organization The Arab Town Organization (ATO) is a regional, non-governmental and non-political organization specialized in municipal and town affairs in the Arab world. The ATO was established in 1967 with headquarters in Kuwait City. The membership of the organization is open to all Arab cities wishing to join it.

ATO counts more than 400 members in the following countries: Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Somalia, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Yemen, Tunisia, Comoros, Djibouti, Syria, Amman, Palestine, Qatar, Lebanon, Libya, Egypt and Mauritania. www.commed-cglu.org

International Council Environmental Initiatives ICLEI is the world’s leading association of cities and local governments dedicated to sustainable development. We are a powerful movement of 12 mega-cities, 100 super-cities and urban regions, 450 large cities as well as 450 medium-sized cities and towns in 86 countries. 

We promote local action for global sustainability and supports cities to become sustainable, resilient, resource-efficient, biodiverse, lowcarbon; to build a smart infrastructure; and to develop an inclusive, green urban economy with the ultimate aim to achieve healthy and happy communities. www.iclei.org

UCLG Middle East and Western Asia As one of the eight regional sections of UCLG World Organization, United Cities and Local Governments, Middle East and West Asia Section (UCLG-MEWA) continues its activities from its headquarters in Istanbul. International Union of Local Authorities, Section for the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East Region (IULA-EMME), as the predecessor of UCLG-MEWA, was established in Turkey in 1987 as one of the regional sections of International Union of Local Authorities (IULA). IULA-EMME

has been transformed into UCLG-MEWA in 2004, in parallel with the creation and restructuring of the UCLG World Organization. Since its establishment, UCLG-MEWA continues its activities for cities and local governments in the region, from its headquarters in Istanbul, Turkey, serving the main principles of democracy, human rights, local selfgovernment, international solidarity, accountability and transparency, and sustainable development. www.uclg-mewa.org

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Association of Cities

Metropolis Metropolis, World Association of the Major Metropolises, is the leading international organization that gathers cities and metropolitan regions with more than a million inhabitants. Created in 1985, the Metropolis Association is represented by more than 130 members from across the world and operates as an

international forum for exploring issues and concerns common to all big cities and metropolitan regions. Metropolis also manages the Metropolitan Section of United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG).  www.metropolis.org

Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CEMR) European section of United Cities and Local Governments The Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CEMR) is the oldest and broadest European association of local and regional government. We are the only organisation that brings together the national associations of local and regional authorities from 40 European countries and represents, through them, all levels of territories – local, intermediate and regional. Since its creation in 1951, CEMR promotes the construction of a united, peaceful and democratic Europe founded on local self-government, respect for the principle of subsidiarity and the participation of citizens. Our work is organised around two main pillars:

1. Influencing European policy and legislation in all areas having an impact on municipalities and regions; 1. Providing a forum for debate between local and regional authorities via their national representative associations. CEMR is also the European section of the world organisation United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG), through which we represent European local and regional government on the international stage. www.ccre.org/en

Network of Regional Governments for Sustainable Development Established in 2002 at the World Summit of Johannesburg, the Network of Regional Governments for Sustainable Development, nrg4SD is a non-profit international organization representing subnational governments and associations of subnational governments at global level in the field of sustainable development.

Since its creation, the Network has worked directly with and has been accredited to several entities of the United Nations, including UNEP, UNFCCC and CBF, as well as the different institutions of the European Union. www.nrg4sd.org

Regions United Paving the way to the Regions for a governance close to the citizens Because Regions are closer to their citizens, their voice should be heard at all levels of decision-making. This is the role of Regions United / FOGAR: bringing together Regions around the world and being their ambassador within international organisations promoting a global policy of balanced development and territorial cohesion. 14

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Thus, Regions United / FOGAR is the unique representative body of Regions seeking their recognition as major players of global governance. w w w . r e g i o n s u n i e s - f o g a r. o r g


Urban management

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WORLDS TOP 10 MOST MODERN CITIES

Technology and culture now progress at such astonishing pace that what was once considered cutting edge 5 years ago is now deemed obsolete. And so the same is true of cities, vast agglomerations of dynamic spaces, innovative businesses and imaginative, productive people that can transform their prospects in the space of a decade. Whereas Paris was the most modern city in the world during the glamorous fin-de-siecle era of the 1890s, it is now criticism for being not much more than a museum. Similarly, while Detroit was the king of the Motor Age, it is often characterised by many today as town in the aftermath of an economic apocalypse, ripped apart by twin forces of suburbanisation and the global economy. To keep you abreast of what’s hot and what’s not, here is a guide to the most modern cities in the world, showcasing the smart towns of tomorrow, culturally diverse conurbations, and those settlements known for relentless innovation.

www.eguidetravel.com/articles/worlds-top-10-most-modern-cities/

San Francisco Bay Area, USA Perhaps the most technologically advanced metropolis in the world, the greater San Francisco Bay Area is a hub for hi-tech, digital and online innovation. Companies such as Apple, Facebook, Google, Twitter, Electronic Arts and dozens of other world-leading innovators are based in this vibrant, forward-looking conurbation. Whether you are engaged in pioneering scientific research at prestigious universities like Stanford, liaising with the Wikimedia Foundation, launching an online start-up in Silicon Valley, or mingling with the likes of Sergei Brin and Mark Zuckerburg in Palo Alto, San Francisco is the place to be if you want to see the future first hand.

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Urban management

Helsinki, Finland Cool, calm and collected, the stylish and understated Scandinavian capitals all have solid claims for being amongst the most Modern cities in Europe. Yet it is Helsinki that comes out on top, with a free WiFi zone stretching across the entire city, mobile phone companies like Nokia basing their headquarters there, and design firms such as Marimekko conquering the world with avant-garde prints and textiles. Helsinki is also ahead of the curve culturally, recognising same-sex civil partnerships as early as 2002 and offering residents generous maternity and paternity leave to look after their newborns. A modern approach to life, indeed.

Abu Dhabi, UAE Though Dubai has grabbed the headlines in recent years for its overblown boom and bust development cycle, nearby Abu Dhabi has gone about things a little more quietly. Opting for smart, measured growth instead of the decadence and bombast of Dubai, the city has invested in green energy, technology, the arts and culture rather than trying to catch the fleeting tourist dollar. Along with plans for a zero-carbon settlement at Masdar City, Abu Dhabi will soon be able showcase sparkling cultural venues by architects like Zaha Hadid, Daniel Libeskind, Sir Norman Foster, Jean Nouvel and Frank Gehry, making this one of the most cutting edge architecture and art venues on earth.

Brasilia, Brazil There is a long tradition of building new National capitals from scratch, with St Petersburg, Canberra and New Delhi amongst the most famous. Yet the finest example amongst the more recent purpose-built capital cities remains Brasilia, a modernist set-piece par excellence. With an innovative Piloti Plan designed by radical planner Lucio Costa, and ethereal government buildings by centenarian Oscar Niemeyer, Brasilia is like a shimmering modernist mirage surrounded by the tropical savanna of central Brazil.

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Worlds Top 10 Most Modern Cities

Tel Aviv, Israel One of the youngest major cities in the world, Tel Aviv was founded as recently as 1909 by Jewish migrants to Palestine, who fashioned a city rich with more than 5000 pieces of Bauhaus architecture, slick beach-front high-rises and an enviable outdoor, cafe culture. Tel Aviv is also one of the most eco-friendly metropolises in the world, with an airport built on top of a disused garbage dump, solar power firms taking root in the city giving much needed energy to this vibrant 24 hour town.

Toronto, Canada If the city of the future is going to be far more diverse and multi-cultural than the cities we know today, then maybe Toronto is a first glimpse at what is to come. A veritable melting pot of cultures, Toronto is one of the most diverse major cities on the planet, with almost 50% of the population born outside of Canada, and plenty of the natives with at least one foreign-born parent. Major immigrant and ethnic groups include the British, Irish, Italian and French, who have long settled on this side of Lake Ontario, while newer arrivals include the Chinese, Filipinos, West Africans, the Vietnamese, Koreans, Greeks and Brazilians. In fact, you can find representation from just about every corner of the globe in Toronto, with over 140 languages spoken within the confines of the city. And while some places go down the route of enclaves and ghettoes, in this bustling town people of different races and creeds intermingle with one another, creating dynamic new hybrid cultures, and showing the rest of the world how to get along.

Hong Kong Many of the big cities of South East Asia could stake a claim to being amongst the most modern in the world. Singapore, self-fashioned out of a swamp to become one of the world’s leading financial and shipping centres, the hi-tech manufacturing claims of Seoul, or the incredible transformations of Shanghai are worthy contenders. Yet it is Hong Kong that really stands out. Dripping with ultra-modern technology, slick digital roadside displays, gravity defying skyscrapers and a savvy population seemingly glued to their mobile phones, Hong Kong is a successful fusion of Western entrepreneurship, a Chinese outlook on life and modern engineering prowess. Ascend to the 100th floor of the International Commerce Centre in Kowloon’s glitzy Union Square district to take in a bird’s eye view of modernity in built-form, and stick around until sunset to watch the nightly symphony of lights illuminate and dazzle buildings on both sides of Victoria Harbour.

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Urban management

London, UK While London is lumbered with Victorian relics for its train stations and some of the oldest railway tunnels in the world, in other ways the British capital couldn’t be any more advanced. Pioneering transport innovations such as the Oyster Card, a cashless payment system, and a well-regarded Bicycle Hire scheme, mark this out as one of the world’s most forward-looking transport cities. Even dingy, old Heathrow seems to have transformed itself, boasting the sleek and spacious Terminal 5, linked to the rest of the airport by automated trains. What’s more, the terminal even hosts the world’s first public Urban Light Transit system, a network of individual futuristic pods taking passengers from the airport’s carpark to a number of flight-side destinations.

Bangalore, India It should come as no surprise that an Indian city makes this list, with a burgeoning I.T. sector evolving in this polyglot Asian country. Bolstered by a raft of outsourcing moves from more expensive Western nations, and an irrepressible spirit of technological innovation, Bangalore now accounts for more than 35% of India’s IT professionals and more than half of the nation’s cutting-edge biotech industry. At the heart of Bangalore’s modern economy is the Bagmane Tech Park, a futuristic complex of offices, factories and research institutes home to companies such as Dell, Volvo, Motorola and LinkedIn.

Yokohama, Japan Once a down at heel port town full of sailors, disreputable bars and ladies of the night, Yokohama has reinvented itself in recent years and is finally climbing out of the shadow of nearby Tokyo.  At the centre of this modern renaissance has been the renovation of the old harbour district, Minato Mirai 21, full of glass and steel skyscrapers, including the 972 foot high Landmark Tower, Japan’s tallest building. Heavyweight conglomerations such as Nissan and JVC call this part of town home, while elsewhere in this cutting-edge city  the Sony Research Center exists to relentlessly push the boundaries of experimental electronics.

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INVESTMENT IN CITIES

The List of European Cities most attractive for investment according to the annual ranking "European cities and regions of the future 2012-2013" held by FDI Intelligence GLOBAL INSIGHT FROM THE FINANCIAL TIMES www.fdiintelligence.com/Rankings

Amsterdam

Amsterdam is the capital city of and the most populous within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the Dutch capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands though it is not the seat of the Dutch government, which is at The Hague (Den Haag).Amsterdam has a population of 810,084 within the cityproper, 1,569,300 in the urban region and 2.3 million in the greater metropolitan area.The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. It comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha world city by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) study

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group. The city is also the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and 7 of the world's top 500 companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked 2nd best city to live by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)  and 12th globally on quality of living by Mercer.The city was previously ranked 3rd in innovation by 2thinknow in the Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. Amsterdam's main attractions, including its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, Anne Frank House, Amsterdam Museum, its red-light district, and its many cannabis coffee shops draw more than 3.66 million international visitors annually.


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Investment in cities

Barcelona Barcelona has climbed positions in recent years to become one of the most attractive business destinations in Europe. Today the city is a very interesting place to live in and for new business. A series of international indicators and some testimonials about Barcelona confirm the excellent position of Barcelona as an attractive city for business. STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION

Barcelona is rated the sixth best city in Europe for business; attracts about 20% of the foreign investment in Spain every year; 2,700 foreign companies: 94% satisfied, 80% forecast to increase sales in the short term; more than 90% will make further investments in the short term. Barcelona has consolidated itself as a centre for the European division of multinationals.

Two hours from France by road and an average of one day by road from the main European cities. Southern gateway to Europe, a port, an airport, Zona Franca, logistics parks, international trade fair and a city centre with a radius of just 5km.

ORIENTED TOWARDS TECHNOLOGY

COMPLETE TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

HUMAN RESOURCES PREPARED FOR THE FUTURE

Network of motorways connected to Europe; fastest growing airport; biggest container port of the Mediterranean and first Spanish Port; comprehensive metro, train and bus network; arrival of the high speed train.

A major ethic of personal responsibility; a high level of productivity, Barcelona is one of the highest in Europe according to the OECD; 5 public universities; 2 private universities; 5 business schools: ESADE, IESE, EADA,IESKA and University of Chicago; high degree of penetration of new technologies, and a character inclined towards innovation and creativity.

DYNAMIC ECONOMY WITH SUSTAINABLE GROWTH 70% of the region’s GDP; 2.5% growth in GDP in 2011, above the Spanish and European average; fifth largest industrial agglomeration in Europe; one of the five European cities with greatest growth potential up to 2011. MARKET OF 40 MILLION CONSUMERS Catalonia has 6 million inhabitants and Spain over 40 million; Spain is the 5th largest consumer market within the EU and the 7th within the OECD; purchasing power per inhabitant higher than the European average. MAJOR PROJECTS OF THE FUTURE Transformation of 1,000 ha. and 7 million sqm of construction. Area of Llobregat: a commitment for logistics and internationalisation; Area of Besòs: sustainability, culture and diversity; La Sagrera-Sant Andreu: high speed train; Poblenou 22@BCN: a new urban planning for the new economy.

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SUCCESSFUL FOREIGN INVESTMENT

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The most modern fibre optic technology systems; 51% of the Internet users in Spain.

UNIQUE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS The City Council of Barcelona and the Catalan government have made a strong commitment to companies; the success of the public-private partnerships has been key to the transformation of Barcelona. EXCELLENT QUALITY OF LIFE The foremost city in Europe in terms of quality of life. Stable climate, sun, beaches, skiing; a splendid cultural and leisure offering, a network of 4,500 educational institutions, 24 international schools, a modern and accessible medical system. www.homesinbarcelona.com/about-barcelona


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Investment in cities

London sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world depending on measurement. London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world's largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic.London's 43 universities form the largest concentration of higher education in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to host the modern Summer Olympic Games three times.

London is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom. It is the most populous region, urban zone and metropolitan area in the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its founding by the Romans, who named it Londinium. London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) mediaevalboundaries and in 2011 had a resident population of 7,375, making it the smallest city in England. Since at least the 19th century, the term London has also referred to the metropolis developed around this core.The bulk of this conurbation forms the Londonregion and the Greater London administrative area, governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. London is a leading global city, with strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transport all contributing to its prominence. It is one of the world's leading financial centres and has the fifth- or

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London has a diverse range of peoples and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken within its boundaries. London had an official population of 8,308,369 in 2012,making it the most populous municipality in the European Union, and accounting for 12.5% of the UK population. The Greater London Urban Area is the secondlargest in the EU with a population of 9,787,426 according to the 2011 census.The London metropolitan area is the largest in the EU with a total population of 13,614,409, while the Greater London Authority puts the population of London metropolitan region at 21 million. London had the largest population of any city in the world from around 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement of Greenwich (in which the Royal Observatory, Greenwichmarks the Prime Meridian, 0° longitude, and GMT). Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. London is home to numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events and other cultural institutions, including the British Museum, National Gallery, Tate Modern, British Library and 40 West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world.


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Investment in cities

Paris Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It is situated on the River Seine, in the north of the country, at the heart of the Île-de-France region. Within its administrative limits (the 20arrondissements), the city had 2,234,105 inhabitants in 2009 while its metropolitan are ais one of the largest population centres in Europe with more than 12 million inhabitants. Today it is one of the world's leading business and cultural centres, and its influence in politics, education, entertainment, media, science, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major cities. The city has one of the largest GDPs in the world, €607 billion (US$845 billion) as of 2011, and as a result of its high concentration of national and international political, cultural and scientific institutions is one of the world's leading tourist destinations. The Paris Region hosts the world headquarters of 30 of the Fortune Global 500 companies in several business districts, notably La Défense, the largest dedicated business district in Europe. Centuries of cultural and political development have brought Paris a variety of museums, theatres, monuments and architectural styles. Many of its masterpieces such as the Louvre and the Arc de Triomphe are iconic buildings, especially its internationally recognized symbol, the Eiffel Tower. Long regarded as an international centre for the arts, works by history's most famous

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painters can be found in the Louvre, the Musée d'Orsay and its many other museums and galleries. Paris is a global hub of fashion and has been referred to as the "international capital of style", noted for its haute couturetailoring, its high-end boutiques, and the twice-yearly Paris Fashion Week. It is world renowned for its haute cuisine, attracting many of the world's leading chefs. Many of France's most prestigious universities and Grandes Écoles are in Paris or its suburbs, and France's major newspapers Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération are based in the city, and Le Parisien in SaintOuen near Paris. Paris is home to the association football club Paris SaintGermain FC and the rugby union club Stade Français. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located in Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slamtennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris played host to the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics, the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cup, and the 2007 Rugby World Cup. The city is a major rail, highway, and air-transport hub, served by the two international airports Paris-Charles de Gaulle and ParisOrly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 9 million passengers daily. Paris is the hub of the national road network, and is surrounded by three orbital roads: the Périphérique, the A86 motorway, and the Francilienne motorway in the outer suburbs.


Urban management

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Investment in cities

Brussels Brussels officially the Brussels-Capital Region is the capital and largest city of Belgium and de facto the capital of the European Union (EU). It is also the largest urban area in Belgium, comprising 19 municipalities, including the municipality of the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium, in addition to the seat of the French Community of Belgium and of the Flemish Community. Brussels has grown from a 10th-century fortress town founded by a descendant of Charlemagne to a sizeable city.The city has a population of 1.2 million and a metropolitan area with a population of over 1.8 million, both of them the largest in Belgium.Since the end of the Second World War, Brussels has been a principal centre

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for international politics. Hosting principal EU institutions and the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the city has become the home of numerous international organisations, politicians, diplomats and civil servants. Historically Dutch-speaking, Brussels has seen a major shift to French since Belgian independence in 1830. Today, although the majority language is French, the city is officially bilingual. All road signs, street names, and many advertisements and services are shown in both languages. Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual with increasing numbers of migrants, expatriates and minority groups speaking their own languages.


Urban management

Warsaw Warsaw, known in Polish as Warszawa is the capital and largest city of Poland.Its population is estimated at 1.711 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 2.666 million residents, making Warsaw the 9th most populous city proper in the European Union.The area of the city covers 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the city’s agglomeration covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi). Warsaw is an Alpha– global city, a major international tourist destination and an important economic hub in Central Europe. It is also known as the “phoenix city” because it has survived so many wars throughout its history. Most notably, the city had to be painstakingly rebuilt after the extensive damage it suffered in World War II, during which 85% of its buildings were destroyed.Warsaw is also known as the city of palaces. Many aristocratic residences and mansions are located near the city center.

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Investment in cities

Stockholm Stockholm is the capital of Sweden. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden and Scandinavia, with 881,235 people living in the municipality and a total population of 2,127,006 in the metropolitan area, accounting for 22% of the Swedish population in 2012. Stockholm is an important global city, placed in the "alpha-" category by the GaWC, and ranked 27th in the world, 12th in Europe and first in Scandinavia by the Global Cities Index in 2012. In 2013, Stockholm was named the 8th most competitive city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit. Founded in c. 1250, possibly as early as 1187, Stockholm has long been one of Sweden's cultural, media, political, and economic centres. Its strategic location spread across 14 islands on the coast in the south-east of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago, has been historically important. The city is known for its beauty, its buildings and architecture, its abundant clean and open water, and its many parks. Stockholm is the seat of the Government of Sweden and most government agencies including the highest courts in the Judiciary, and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The Government has its seat in the Rosenbadbuilding, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at the Sager House. The Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while the Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence.

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Urban management

Vienna Vienna  is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria’s primary city, with a population of about 1.757 million (2.4 million within themetropolitan area, more than 20% of Austria’s population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre.Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

25 cities in the world “to make a base within” (up from sixth in 2011 and eighth in 2010).

In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first (in a tie with Vancouver, Canada) for the world’s most livable cities (in the 2012 survey of 140 cities Vienna was ranked number two, behind Melbourne). For four consecutive years (2009–2012), the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual “Quality of Living” survey of hundreds of cities around the world. Monocle’s 2012 “Quality of Life Survey” ranked Vienna fourth on a list of the top

Each year since 2005, Vienna has been the world’s number one destination for international congresses and conventions. It attracts about five million tourists a year.

The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, and fifth globally (out of 256 cities) in the 2011 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture, infrastructure and markets. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is often used as a case study by urban planners.

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Investment in cities

Moscow Moscow  is the capital city and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural and scientific center in Russia and in Eurasia. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has the largest community of billionaires in the world. Moscow is the northernmost megacity on Earth, the most populous city in Europe, and the 5th largest city proper in the world. It is the largest city in Russia, with a population, according to the 2010 Census, of 11,503,501. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the capital increased its area 2.5 times; from about 1,000 square kilometers (390 sq mi) up to 2,511 square kilometers (970 sq mi), and gained an additional population of 233,000 people. The city is served by an extensive transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, and one of the deepest underground metro systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, third to Tokyo and Seoul in terms of passenger numbers. It is recognized as one of the city’s landmarks due to the rich and varied architecture of its 188 stations.

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Urban management

Berlin Berlin is the capital city of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.4 million people,Berlin is Germany’s largest city and is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union. Located in northeastern Germany on the River Spree, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has about 4½ million residents from over 180 nations. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the city’s area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media, and science, hosting 147 foreign embassies.Its economy is primarily based on high-tech industries and the service sector, encompassing

a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations, and convention venues. Berlin also serves as a continental hub for air and rail transport and is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, electronics, traffic engineering, and renewable energy. Berlin is home to renowned universities, research institutes, orchestras, museums, and celebrities and is host to many sporting events. Its urban setting and historical legacy have made it a popular location for international film productions. The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts, public transportation networks, and an extremely high quality of living.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT

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Urban management

Public transport (North American English: public transportation or public transit) is a shared passenger transport service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from taxicabs, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by individuals without prior arrangement. Types of Public Transport include buses, trolleybuses, trams and trains, rapid transit(metro/subways/undergrounds etc) and ferries. Public transport between cities is largely dominated by airlines, coach and intercity rail services. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport runs to a scheduled timetable with the most frequent services running to major cities.  In many parts of the world Share taxis offers on-demand services and most services will wait until the vehicle is full before it starts.  Air transport is sometimes used in areas of low-demand and for people who need a door-to-door service.

There are distinct differences in how urban public transit services are administered between Asia, North America, and Europe. In Asia, mass transit operations are predominately run by profitdriven privately owned and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates. In North America, mass transit operations are predominately operated by municipal transit authorities. In Europe, mass transit operations are predominately run by outsourced private transport operators. Public transport services can maximize their revenues by charging by-the-distance higher ticket rates or can be supported by government subsidies in which lower flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can increase their profits through increasing their passenger numbers and increasing ticket prices, or can be regulated and subsidized from local or national tax revenue. Fully subsidized, zero-fare (free) services operate in some towns and cities. For historical and economic reasons, there are differences internationally regarding use and extent of public transport systems. While countries in the Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and compact cities, many cities of the New World have much larger geographical boundaries and a much less comprehensive public transport network.

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Public transport

Ecological city transport Rapid transit (Metropolitan Railway electric locomotives) Rapid transit is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. Unlike buses and trams, rapid transit systems operate on an exclusive right-of-way which is usually run in tunnels or on elevated railways. Modern services on rapid transit systems operate on designated lines between stations typically powered by electric contact points on the railway lines, although some systems use guided rubber tyres, magnetic levitation, or monorail. The stations typically have high platforms, without steps inside the trains, requiring custom-made trains designed to fit each network. They are typically integrated with the other public transport systems in the geographical area, and are often operated by the same public transport authorities, but in some instances fully independent light rail transit services do run alongside and compete with the other available services.

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In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Railway, initially a cable-hauled line using static steam engines. The world's largest rapid transit system by both length of track (including non-revenue track) and number of stations is the New York City Subway.

Rapid transit is unchallenged in its ability to transport large amounts of people quickly over short distances. Variations of rapid transit include people movers, small-scale light metro, and the commuter rail hybrid S-Bahn.

By length of its passenger lines, the largest are the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, Beijing Subway, Shanghai Metro and London Underground.

The first rapid-transit system was the partially underground Metropolitan Railway which opened in 1863, and now forms part of the London Underground.

The busiest metro systems in the world by daily and annual passenger numbers are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, and the Moscow Metro.

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Urban management

Trams and trains A tram-train is a light-rail public transport system where trams run both on an urban tramway network and main-line railway lines which are shared with conventional trains. This combines the tram's flexibility and accessibility with a train's greater speed, and bridges the distance between the main railway stations and city centers.

the Rijn GouweLijn in the Netherlands, at Mulhouse in France and in Kassel and Saarbrücken in Germany. Some transport networks operate train-trams, which are trains modified to also run on tramlines.

The tram-train concept was pioneered with the Karlsruhe model in Germany, and has since been adopted on projects such as

Trolleybus  A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or trolley) is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit. This differs from a tram or streetcar, which normally uses the track as the return part of the electrical path and therefore needs only one wire and one pole (or pantograph). They also are distinct from other kinds of electric buses, which usually rely on batteries.

Currently, around 300 trolleybus systems are in operation, in cities and towns in 43 countries. Historically trolleybus usage peaked at about 800 networks worldwide; this has now declined to around 400 networks worldwide.

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EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE

The European Capital of Culture is one of the most successful and high-profile cultural initiatives of the European Union. The cities are selected by an independent panel on the basis of a cultural programme that must have a strong European dimension, engage local people of all ages, and contribute to the long-term development of the city. In 1985, former actress Melina Mercouri, then Greece’s Minister of Culture, and her French counterpart Jack Lang came up with the idea of designating an annual Capital of Culture to bring Europeans closer together by highlighting the richness and diversity of European cultures and raising awareness of their common history and values. The Commission of the European Union manages the title and each year the Council of Ministers of the European Union formally designates European Capitals of Culture: more than 40 cities have been designated so far. The title has a long-term impact, not only on culture but also in social and economic terms, both for the city and for the surrounding region. For example, a study1 has shown that the number of tourists increases by 12% on average compared with the year before the city held the title.

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Urban management

Riga,Latvia

Umea, ° Sweden

Riga is already a venue for cultural events on an international scale, but in 2014 it will become the cultural epicenter of Europe. During its year as European Capital of Culture, hundreds of special events will take place – culture in the very broadest sense. 365 days a year, with a new understanding of culture as a positive force of change in people’s lives. This year, cultural personalities are already warming up for Riga as European Capital of Culture 2014 with a variety of interesting events.

Umeå has been appointed European Capital of Culture 2014. Preparations are in full swing. Umeå, the most northerly Capital of Culture ever, will treat audiences and visitors from all around Europe to a challenging and innovative year.

Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 693,064 inhabitants (January 2014), Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states and home to more than one third of Latvia’s population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial, cultural and financial centre of the Baltic Sea region. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the Daugava. Riga’s territory covers 307.17 km2 (118.60 sq mi) and lies between 1 and 10 meters (3.3 and 32.8 ft) above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain.

Umeå is the biggest city in Norrland and the twelfth biggest in Sweden, with 79,594 inhabitants in 2010. The municipality has 117 294 inhabitants as of 2013. Umeå is a centre of education, technical and medical research in Sweden, with two universities and over 39,000 students.

Umeå is a university town in northern Sweden. It is the seat of Umeå Municipality and the capital of Västerbotten County. The city is located on the Ume River.

Riga was founded in 1201 and is a former Hanseatic League member. Riga is a member of Eurocities, the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC) and Union of Capitals of the European Union (UCEU).

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EUROPEAN GREEN CAPITAL AWARD

Today more than two thirds of Europeans live in towns and cities. Urban areas concentrate most of the environmental challenges facing our society but also bring together commitment and innovation to resolve them. The European Green Capital Award has been conceived to promote and reward these efforts. Europe is an urban society, with many environmental challenges to face.  The European Commission has long recognised the important role that local authorities play in improving the environment, and their high level of commitment to genuine progress. The European Green Capital Award has been conceived as an initiative to promote and reward these efforts. Find out about:

It is important to reward cities which are making efforts to improve the urban environment and move towards healthier and sustainable living areas. Progress is its own reward, but the satisfaction involved in winning a prestigious European award spurs cities to invest in further efforts and boosts awareness within the city as well as in other cities. The award enables cities to inspire each other and share examples of good practices in situ. The overarching message that the award scheme aims to communicate to the local level is that Europeans have a right to live in healthy urban areas. Cities should therefore strive to improve the quality of life of their citizens and reduce their impact on the global environment. This message is brought together in the Award’s slogan “Green cities – fit for life”.

·· Background to the European Green Capital Award ·· Annual Award Process

Annual Award Process

·· Cities as role models

Starting in 2010, one European city is selected each year as the European Green Capital of the year. The award is given to a city that:

Background to the European Green Capital Award

·· Has a consistent record of achieving high environmental standards;

The European Green Capital Award is the result of an initiative taken by 15 European cities (Tallinn, Helsinki, Riga, Vilnius, Berlin, Warsaw, Madrid, Ljubljana, Prague, Vienna, Kiel, Kotka, Dartford, Tartu & Glasgow) and the Association of Estonian cities on 15 May 2006 in Tallinn, Estonia. Their green vision was translated into a joint Memorandum of Understanding establishing an award to recognise cities that are leading the way with environmentally friendly urban living. The initiative was launched by the European Commission in 2008.

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·· Is committed to ongoing and ambitious goals for further environmental improvement and sustainable development; ·· Can act as a role model to inspire other cities and promote best practices to all other European cities. The winning cities to date include: 


Urban management

Stockholm in 2010

Nantes in 2013

Clear and effective measures towards reducing noise pollution. A protection plan setting new standards for cleaner water. An innovative integrated waste system. 95 % of the population living less than 300 metres from green areas. These are just some of the reasons why Stockholm was the first city to be awarded the European Green Capital title.  In its year as European Green Capital, Stockholm pursued its aim to inspire other cities towards achieving a more sustainable environment, via international conferences, seminars, exhibitions and the official opening of  a new tramway, during 2010, demonstrated that Stockholm is greener than ever.  Traditionally known as ‘The Venice of the North’, Stockholm has added more fame to its name. Throughout 2010, Sweden’s capital will celebrated being Europe’s first Green Capital.

Situated on the Loire River, close to the Atlantic coast, Nantes is a green wonder of western France. It is France’s sixth largest city, and has a metropolitan area comprising some 600,000 inhabitants.

Goodbye to Fossil Fuels The City of Stockholm operates with a holistic vision, one which combines growth with sustainable development for the benefit of its almost 800,000 citizens. Transport emissions are relatively low, and all trains and inner city buses run on renewable fuels. Furthermore, green house gas emissions have been reduced by 25 % since 1990, and the city council has the ambitious target of becoming wholly independent of fossil fuels by 2050. Sustainable Staudy Visit Programme In early 2010, the City of Stockholm launched a new Professional Study Visits Programme in an effort to generate local and international environmental awareness and to strengthen networks with other European cities, organisations and research centres.

Stockholm The programme allowed visitors the opportunity to explore the solutions created by Stockholm in relation to a variety of themes. These included waste management, planning of new urban projects, combating climate change and ensuring an effective and sustainable transportation system…

In 2004, Time Magazine named Nantes ‘the most liveable city in Europe’ and in 2013 it held the title of European Green Capital.

Sustainable Transport Policy Over the past 10 years, Nantes has developed a sustainable transport policy with a focus on public transport and bicycles. Development within the city centre is planned to minimise car transport and to provide pedestrians with optimal conditions. Nantes was the first city in France to successfully reintroduce electric tramways. This effort will continue in the coming years and investments in new tramways, high quality buses service and bicycle infrastructure are foreseen.

Effect on Emissions The ambitious transport policy shows improvements in reduced air pollution and CO2 emissions. All air pollution indicators (NO2, PM10 and ozone) are below limit values. This transport policy, together with an ambitious climate plan, has reduced CO2 emissions to 4.77 tonnes per capita. See more at: ec.europa.eu/environment/ europeangreencapital/winning-cities/2013nantes/index.html#sthash.aK0oo1uc.dpuf

See more at: ec.europa.eu/environment/ europeangreencapital/winning-cities/stockholmeuropean-green-capital-2010/index.html#sthash. tl5w1RGJ.dpuf

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European Green Capital Award

Hamburg in 2011 The city of Hamburg, situated on the banks of the river Elbe, has a population of about 1.8 million and faces numerous metropolitan challenges. However Germany’s second largest city combines comprehensive approaches, policy -commitment and the necessary funding needed to resolve these challenges. On the whole, it has an integrated and participative planning strategy and a strong commitment towards a “green” vision. The quality of local ambient air is very good, and there are well defined targets, excellent results, future plans and structured monitoring with respect to climate change. Hamburg sought green answers to metropolitan challenges and, and had innovative ideas on how to share their experience and best practice as the European Green Capital of 2011.

Massive Energy Savings It should be mentioned that Hamburg has set ambitious climate protection goals such as reducing its CO2 emissions by 40% by 2020 and by 80% by the year 2050. CO2 emissions per person have been reduced by about 15% when compared to 1990, with annual energy savings of some 46,000 MWh, a major achievement for a big city.The Port of Hamburg on the river Elbe is Europe’s second largest in terms of number of containers handled. With a growing number of containers entering and leaving the port, expansion is a continuously discussed issue. However, geographical expansion into the surrounding area is, intentionally, just not pursued. Instead, the increasing need for greater capacity is met by making more efficient use of allocated land and by generating new areas through filling-up expendable harbour basins.

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Excellent Public Transport The city has also achieved high environmental standards and good performance levels in terms of cycling and public transport indicators. Almost all citizens have access to optimal public transport within 300 meters of their given location. There is also a systematic structure for green areas which allow citizens easy accessibility.

The Train of Ideas The City of Hamburg launched the “Train of Ideas” on the 15th April 2011. The Train of Ideas had seven carriages, each one looking at a different aspect of life in a green city such as mobility, energy, climate protection, nature, economy and consumption. Hamburg targeted the broadest international audience and presented its own best practices, as well as examples from other cities, from the local to the global perspective. Visitors to this mobile exhibition were able to see how cities can become more sustainable and environmentally friendly places where people enjoy a high quality of life. The Train was of interest to experts and visitors of all ages and stopped  in a number of cities including Warsaw, Malmö, Copenhagen, Brussels, Vienna, Barcelona and Marseilles.  A video blog from the train in all the cities visited can be viewed on our YouTube Channel. See more at: ec.europa.eu/environment/ europeangreencapital/winning-cities/2011-hamburg/ index.html#sthash.kOJD4GIp.dpuf


Urban management

Vitoria-Gastiez in 2012 The city has a high proportion of green public areas, ensuring that the entire population lives within 300m of an open green space. Numerous tangible measures are in place to assist and increase biodiversity and ecosystems services. Flora and fauna are monitored, habitat fragmentation is reduced wherever possible, and measures have been introduced to decrease light pollution. Besides being recreational areas and natural habitats for plant and animal life, the green areas also have an educational purpose: the community gardens, for example, enable the population to study horticulture at close range. Vitoria-Gasteiz, founded in 1181, is second in size (only to Bilbao) in the Basque Country, and has some 240,000 people currently inhabiting this gem in northern Spain Vitoria-Gasteiz is the capital of the Álava province and of the Basque Country.  The city will hold the title of European Green Capital in 2012.

Nature Brought into the City Vitoria-Gasteiz is comprised of concentric circles, with the city itself at centre. The “Green Belt”, a semi-natural green area partially reclaimed from degraded areas, surrounds the centre and brings nature into the city. The third circle is dominated by forestry and mountains.

Managing Water Scarcity Vitoria-Gasteiz has an ambitious objective of reducing domestic water consumption to below 100 litres per capita per day. Already today, water consumption has decreased steadily from 1999 to 2009. Water-related investments have been made within the context of the Agenda 21 environmental action plan for improved water supply, to reduce losses, work towards sustainable consumption and improve water quality. A citizen’s information office on water consumption and efficiency has also been set up. See more at: ec.europa.eu/environment/ europeangreencapital/winning-cities/2012-vitoriag a s t e i z / i n d e x . h t m l # s t h a s h . o p H 7 7 5 3 Y. d p u f

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European Green Capital Award

Copenhagen in 2014 Copenhagen covers an area of 74.4 km2, is the capital of Denmark and its most populous city, with a city population of 541,989 (2011). Copenhagen has placed public-private partnerships at the core of its approach to eco-innovation and sustainable employment. The city works with companies, universities and organisations in dedicated forums to develop and implement green growth. Its North Harbour project, for example, will include a “Green laboratory” that will focus on eco-technologies, a model that can be transferred to other towns and cities. This example of green economic development tackling environmental, economic and social concerns has high potential for replication in the region around the city and beyond. The jury singled out Copenhagen as a good model in terms of urban planning and design. It is also something of a transport pioneer, aiming to become the world’s most practicable city for cyclists. Its goal is to have 50 % of people cycling to their place of work or education by 2015 (35 % cycled to their workplace or school in 2010), helping the city reach an ambitious goal of being CO2 neutral by 2025. Communication actions to engage citizens are very effective, as Copenhageners feel they are part of the solution. The Jury concluded that Copenhagen is a highly successful role model for the green economy, with an efficient communication strategy and the commitment required to develop its role as a model for Europe and beyond. See more at: ec.europa.eu/environment/ europeangreencapital/winning-cities/2014c o p e n h a g e n / # s t h a s h . y P rd PA O 1 . d p u f

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Bristol in 2015 All are recognised for their consistent record of achieving high environmental standards and commitment to ambitious goals.

Cities as Role Models The award aims to provide an incentive for cities to inspire each other and share best practices, while at the same time engaging in friendly competition. In other words, the cities become role models for each other. “The finalists and winners of the European Green Capital Award provide us with valuable real-life examples of how respect for the environment, excellent quality of life and economic growth can all be successfully combined,” EU Commissioner for the Environment, Mr. Janez Potočnik. See more at: europeangreencapital.ie/about-theaward/#sthash.EFHsbFhi.dpuf


Urban management

EUROPEAN GREEN CAPITAL AWARD


Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

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UNION OF ARCHITECTS

International Union of Architects The International Union of Architects (UIA), is a non-governmental organisation, a global federation of national associations of architects, that are its members. The UIA’s goal is to unite the architects of the world without any form of discrimination. From the 27 delegations present at the founding assembly in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1948, the UIA has grown to encompass the key professional organisations of architects in 124 countries and territories, and now represents, through these organisations, close to one million three hundred thousand architects worldwide. www.uia-architectes.org

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Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

AIGA Founded in 1914 as the American Institute of Graphic Arts, AIGA remains the oldest and largest professional membership organization for design and is now known simply as “AIGA, the professional association for design.” AIGA brings design to the world, and the world to designers. As the profession’s largest community, we advance design as a respected craft, strategic advantage and vital cultural force. From content that defines the global practice to events that connect and catalyze, we work to enhance the value and deepen the impact of design on business, society and our collective future. AIGA advances design as a professional craft, strategic advantage and vital cultural force. As the largest community of design advocates, we bring together practitioners, enthusiasts and patrons to amplify the voice of design and create the vision for a collective future. We define global standards and ethical practices, guide design education, inspire designers and the public, enhance professional development, and make powerful tools and resources accessible to all. www.aiga.org

BEDA BEDA was founded in 1969 when there was little knowledge and poor awareness of the impact that designers could have in business. BEDA brought together the professional design associations from across Europe, typically providing signposting to information about the design industry, which was very young at that time. It also helped to promote the case for design in business. Today, BEDA boasts 42 members from 24 member states in Europe. Members can be design promotion centers and other publicly funded organisations that promote design nationally or regionally as well as professional and trade associations for designers from across Europe. Those professional associations represent some 400,000 designers from across Europe in every discipline of work from industrial design and interiors to digital design and branding. BEDA is a not-for-profit organisation funded in its entirity by its members. It is run by a board of directors elected by its membership every two years. It also elects a President and Vice President every two years. BEDA is headquartered in Brussels. www.beda.org

Icograda. Leading Creatively. Icograda is the world body for professional communication design. It is a non-profit, non-partisan, member-based network of independent organisations and stakeholders working within the multidisciplinary scope of communication design and expanded media. Founded in 1963, Icograda actively promotes the value of design practice, thinking, education, research and policy, representing more than 200 organisations in 67 countries and regions globally. As a partner of the International Design Alliance (IDA), Icograda’s members believe in interdisciplinary collaboration and the effectiveness of a collective voice to represent the design industry. www.icograda.org

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Graphic Design Organizations

GRAPHIC DESIGN ORGANIZATIONS Graphic Artists Guild A national union of illustrators, designers, web creators, production artists, surface designers and other creatives who have come together to pursue common goals, share their experience, raise industry standards, and improve the ability of visual creators to achieve satisfying and rewarding careers. www.graphicartistsguild.org

AGDA The Australian Graphic Design Association (AGDA) is the national association for professional graphic designers. It was founded in 1988 to facilitate the advancement of the graphic design profession in Australia. Our goal is the establishment of fair and productive working relationships between graphic designers and their clients. We do this by providing designers with the tools and information to take control of their professional lives. We also work on increasing awareness of the value of graphic design in business. www.agda.com.au

FIEC FIEC speaks for the European construction industry.  Through its 33 national member federations in 29 European countries (28 EU & EFTA and Turkey), it represents, without discrimination, construction enterprises ·· of all sizes (from one person craftsmen and SMEs through to large international firms),  ·· from all building and civil engineering specialities,  ·· engaged in all kinds of working methods (whether operating as general/ main contractors or as subcontractors). This wide-ranging representativeness was officially recognised in a study undertaken on behalf of the European Commission so that FIEC is the "Social Partner" representing employers in the European Sectoral Social Dialogue "Construction". www.fiec.eu/en

CMG Color Marketing Group, founded in 1962, is a not-for-profit, international Association of 1,000 Color Designers involved in the use of color as it applies to the profitable marketing of goods and services. CMG provides a forum for the exchange of non-competitive information on all phases of color marketing: color trends and combinations; design influences; merchandising and sales; and education and industry contacts.

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Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

JAGDA The Japan Graphic Designers Association Inc. (JAGDA) was established in 1978 under strong leadership of the late Yusaku Kamekura, who built the foundation for the postwar graphic design in Japan with such masterpieces as posters for Tokyo Olympics. Today it is the only nationwide graphic design organization in Japan with approximately 2,800 members. Its broad activities include the publication of yearbooks, the hosting of exhibitions and symposia, design education, regional development, and the protection of members’ rights and welfare. www.jagda.org

UCDA UCDA was founded in 1970 as the nations first and only association for professionals involved in the creation of visual communications for educational institutions. Over the years, it has grown to an organization comprised of more than 1000 members throughout the United States and Canada. The University & College Designers Association (UCDA) inspires designers working in academia in North America and around the world by delivering relevant programming and benefits in a personal and thoughtful way. The organization provides for the professional and personal growth of its members, and advocates for designer and educators roles within their institution. UCDA works to elevate the importance of design overall. www.jagda.org

RGD Representing close to 3,000 graphic designers, managers, educators and students, the Association of Registered Graphic Designers (RGD) is a hub for the graphic design community, promoting knowledge sharing, continuous learning, research, advocacy and mentorship. The RGD and Registered Graphic Designer designations are signals of quality and competence to the profession, public and government. Successful candidates have met a rigorous set of standards that includes documented levels of relevant, professional education and experience as well as competence in the areas of business, design principles, research and ethics demonstrated through the successful completion of the Registered Graphic Designers Qualification Examination, which includes a written test and portfolio interview. www.rgd.ca

Spark Design Professionals Spark is a group of independent graphic design business owners who meet monthly to enlighten each other on the business and creative issues that are relevant to design studios. Members come to share their experiences, knowledge, and inspire each other. Spark is a valuable support system for anyone who strives for excellence in business and design practices. Spark Design Professionals was founded in 2002 by Rebecca Brian, Marc S Levitt and Sheri L Koetting of MSLK, and Julia Reich – a group of designers who saw a need in the design community for a place to learn how to run an effective design business and share their experiences. www.sparkdesignprofessionals.org

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LIST OF PROFESSIONAL ARCHITECTURE ORGANIZATIONS

This is a list of professional architecture organizations  listed by country. Many of them are members of the International Union of Architects.

Architectural

Nigerian Institute

Association of Kenya

of Architects

The Architectural Association of Kenya (AAK) is a corporate body for professionals in the built and natural environments in Kenya. It draws its membership from seven major disciplines: •

Architects

The Nigerian Institute of Architects (NIA) was founded on the 1st of April 1960 as an association of independent professional architects with the aims and objectives of fostering friendships amongst members cater for their welfare and establish mutual support and cooperation amongst them.

Quantity surveyors

www.nigerianinstituteofarchitects.org

Town planners

Engineers

Landscape architects

Construction Project Managers

Environmental Design Consultants

Landscape architecture is a new practise in Kenya, first inaugurated in Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology. It deals with design of open spaces ranging from residential to public space. It entails design of plazas (foyers, street plazas, mixed and pedestrian malls), squares, parks (neighbourhood, mini, public parks), golf courses, town aesthetics. 52

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Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

South African Institute

Institute of

of Architects (SAIA)

Architects Bangladesh 

The South African Institute of Architects is a voluntary association of affiliated and regional institutes established in 1996.

Institute of Architects Bangladesh (IAB) was established on February 25, 1972 in Dhaka, immediately after the independence of Bangladesh in 1971. The Institute of Architects Bangladesh is a professional institution to safe guard, promote and develop the profession of architecture in Bangladesh. The members of the Institute of Architects are morally bound to practice the profession according to rules, regulation and ethics established by the IAB. It has the mandate of its members to represent them as the supreme authority to deal with any matter related to  the profession of architecture in Bangldesh. The Institute is run by a eleven-member Executive Committee that the members elect for a two years term.

The South African Institute of Architects is a voluntary association of affiliated and regional institutes established in 1996 and incorporates the previous national Institute of South African Architects (established in 1927) and the regional Institutes of Architects of the former Cape (founded 1899), Eastern Province (founded in 1900 as the Port Elizabeth Society of Architects), Border (founded in 1946 as the East London Chapter of the Cape Provincial Institute), KwaZulu-Natal (founded in 1901), Orange Free State (founded in 1921) and Transvaal (founded in 1909). The Pretoria Institute of Architects was established in 1993 and the following new regional institutes were established in 1996: Northern Cape, North West, Limpopo (founded as Northern Province) and Mpumalanga. The Institute is a member of the Africa Union of Architects, the Commonwealth Association of Architects, the International Union of Architects, the International Commission on Monuments and Sites, and the International Committee Documentation and Conservation of buildings, sites and neighbourhoods of the modern movement. Membership of the Institute is open to all architects, the only prerequisite being a recognised academic qualification, a minimum of 24 months practical experience and an examination in professional practice. Candidate membership is also open to those currently studying towards becoming a professional architect. The fundamental principles of equality and justice are implicit in the Constitution. In terms of the constitution the Institute is committed to the principle of striving to be an outstanding professional organisation, which upholds the dignity of the profession and its members. It aims to promote excellence in architecture and it seeks to contribute to the enhancement of society and the environment.

www.iab.com.bd

Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA)

Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA) is a professional body for architects in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 full members, 300 associates members and graduate members. It is an Allied Society of the Royal Institute of British Architects, and member of the International Union of Architects and the Commonwealth As­so­ ci­ation of Architects. www.hkia.net

Council of Architecture  (CoA)

www.facebook.com/SaiaArchitects/info

The Council of Architecture (COA) has been constituted by the Government of India under the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972, enacted by the Parliament of India, which came into force on 1st September, 1972. The Act provides for registration of Architects, standards of education, recognized qualifications and standards of practice to be complied with by the practicing architects. The Council of Architecture is charged with the responsibility to regulate the education and practice of profession throughout India besides maintaining the register of architects. For this purpose, the Government of India has framed Rules and Council of Architecture has framed Regulations as provided for in the Architects Act, with the approval of Government of India. www.coa.gov.in/events/events.htm

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List of professional architecture organizations

Indian Institute

Institute of Architecture at the

of Architects 

University of Applied Arts Vienna

The Indian Institute of Architects (IIA) is the national body of Architects in the country. Having started in the year 1917, the Institute today has more than 15000 members. The Institute has a major role to play in promoting the profession of architecture by organising and uniting in fellowship the Architects of India to promote aesthetic, scientific and practical efficiency of the profession both in Practice and in Education. IIA is represented on various national and international committees connected with architecture, art and the building industry and is also actively associated with International Union of Architects (UIA) Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA) and South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation of Architects (SAARCH). The Indian Institute of Architects (IIA) web site is intended to provide information of the Architectural scenario in  India  for the fellow architects, prospective clients, students and  people at large. Your valuable  suggestions are invited to make this site  user friendly and  informative. www.iia-india.org

Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) Founded in 1886, the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) has promoted the advancement and development of science, technology and art concerning architecture, with the mutual collaboration of its members. It was originally established as an institute for architects, with 26 founding architects. Mr. Josiah Conder, a British architect invited to teach at the Technical College in Tokyo (present the University of Tokyo) as a Professor of Architecture by the government, was elected as Honorary President of the Institute. The Institute was authorized by the Ministry of Education and changed its name to the Architectural Institute in 1905 and to the Architectural Institute of Japan in 1947. AIJ celebrated its centennial in 1986.  AIJ is an academic association with about 35,000 members. It is not a governmental organization but a non-profit organization for architects, building engineers and researchers in every field of architecture. AIJ publishes results of research and studies and spreads architectural culture through its programs such as exhibitions, symposia and distributes architectural information to the public. The main purpose of the Institute is to cultivate its members’ abilities and to heighten architectural quality in Japan. w w w . a i j . o r. j p / e n g

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The University of Applied Arts Vienna is an institution of higher education in Vienna, the capital of Austria. It has had university status since 1970. The goal of the Institute of Architecture at the University of Applied Arts Vienna and of its Dean Klaus Bollinger is to teach architecture as an all-inclusive thought process that puts the future architect in the position to define architecture as a threedimensional expression of culture. To achieve this, the three design studios of Zaha Hadid, Greg Lynn and Hani Rashid closely work together with specialists in the departments of technology, theory and editing within this institute, as well as with specialists from reputable external organizations. www.i-o-a.at

Union of Architects in Bulgaria The Union of Architects in Bulgaria is the only creative professional association of architects in Bulgaria. The UAB members participated in numerous national and international projects among which: Development of integrated plan of urban regeneration and development of Razgard and Kazanluk, Renewal and modernization of city environment through reconstruction of walk areas and alleys and rehabilitation of recreational zones in Karnobat, Prevention of city risks, Sofi. The Union participated as partner in the international project: Treasures of the Black Sea: The Discovery of the Giant Communist Monuments and Young Promising Artists; Programme Black Sea 2007-2013. www.bularch.eu

Croatian Architects Association Croatian Architects Association is a Non-profit and Non-government Association of regional architectural societies, active since 1878. CAA is a member of related international organisations such as UIA and UMAR. CAA co-ordinates the architects’ professional interests on the territory of the Republic of Croatia, encourages development and affirmation of Croatian architecture and urbanism, culture of space, regional planning and environment protection. CAA is a publisher of two magazines on architectural issues: Čovjek i prostor / Man and Space (issued since 1954) and Arhitektura / Architecture (issued since 1947). Also main activities are organisation of exhibitions, lecturers, conferences, researches, architectural competitions and promoting Croatian architecture internationally. www.uha.hr


Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

Czech Chamber

The Union of

Of Architects

Estonian Architects 

The Czech Chamber of Architects is a self-administrated professional association. It was established by Act No.360/1992 Coll. on the Practice of Certified Architects and Certified Engineers and Technicians active in Construction, as amended, as a public law entity with its official office in Prague and with authority throughout the Czech Republic. It is responsible for the professional, thus practical and ethical performance of the profession of architect profession in the Czech Republic. The main function of the CCA is to assist both architects and their clients and, ultimately, the general public. The CCA has always opposed any useless and unjustified curtailing of the rights of anybody on the market and has pursued the establishment of fair conditions on the architectural services market.

The Union of Estonian Architects (UEA) organizes architects, landscape architects and architecture researchers. The UEA is a legal successor of Estonian Association of Architects (EAA), established on October 8th, 1921. Among the founders there were Karl Burman sen, Ernst Ederberg, Eugen Habermann, Erich Jacoby, Herbert Johanson, Edgar Johan Kuusik, Ernst Kühnert, Anton Soans, Karl Tarvas, and Franz de Vries. The purpose of the association was to assemble Estonian architects for fostering Estonian architecture. www.arhliit.ee

SAFA (architecture)

Architects’ Association of Denmark  The Architects’ Association of Denmark  or simply AA, is an independent professional body for Danish architects. It was founded on 21 November 1879 with the prime duty to advance and promote architectural quality by influencing the planning and design of our physical environment in the widest possible context. Its main office, Arkitekternes Hus, is located on Christianshavn in Copenhagen. The Danish Architects’ Association works to promote the quality of planning and design of our physical environment and to improve and develop the conditions for the architect’s profession. www.arkitektforeningen.dk

The Danish Association of Architectural Firms

Finnish Association of Architects (SAFA) is a non-profit, professional organization open to all architects with a university degree from a Finnish university or equivalent qualification from another country. SAFA has approximately 3 100 members. This accounts for around 80 % of all Finnish architects with a university degree. Membership is voluntary, and is not a condition for practising in the profession. In Finland no registration is required. SAFA has also approx. 600 student members. The primary aim of all SAFA activities is to promote the quality of the built environment. At the national level, SAFA endeavours to influence legislation by presenting SAFA opinion in the form of statements and conducting discussions with politicians and various public authorities. Together with other organizations in the building sector, SAFA has defined the scope of work for architectural design. It also supervises professional standards and ethics among its members. www.safa.fi

The National Union of Established in 1960, the Danish Association of Architectural Firms (DANSKE ARK) is the Danish association of private firms of consulting architects. Danske Ark’s objective is to represent the commercial interests of practising architects and, in its capacity as impartial consultant to building clients, strengthen the position, quality level and professionalism of its member firms. DANSKE ARK has about 800 ordinary and associated member firms, which – combined – employ about 5000 persons and account for about 85-90% of the aggregate building contract sums in Denmark. www.danskeark.dk

Professional French Architects Unions UNSFA, the National Union of Professional French Architects Unions, is an apolitical union of professional unions organization that aims to enhance the role of architects and defend their moral and material interests. This commitment, serving all architects, aims to enable them to:

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• break the isolation to which the pursuit of their activity can lead by offering a wide range of opportunities to meet, talk and debate; • stay informed and receive training to update and broaden their skills; • be represented or to engage in direct dialogue with all partners and national, European and international institutions. Being actively involved in all matters that affect, direct and organize the role of the architect, UNSFA has for 40 years been working to improve working conditions. Its federal structure promotes democratic representation and local support for architects. www.syndicat-architectes.fr

The Bavarian Chamber of Civil Engineers

The Association of German Architects (BDA) Since its founding in 1903, the Association of German Architects (BDA) has been committed to elevating and improving the function and meaning of architecture in service of society and the environment. The BDA promotes a planning and building culture that aims to enrich residential space and improve quality of life through functionally and aesthetically designed buildings, squares and cities. The BDA mediates between clients and architects in order to support an autonomous planning culture free of outside influence and advocates for broader use of public architectural competitions. The association is also committed to assuring high-quality education for the next generation of architects and urban planners. www.en.bda-bund.de

Technical Chamber The Bavarian Chamber of Engineers – Civil is the public selfregulating body for civil engineers. It incorporates and represents consulting engineers as compulsory members and salaried employees, civil servants and commercially active engineers as voluntary members. The tasks of the Chamber: ·· Engineers’ parliament ·· Increasing the standing and influence of the profession ·· Protecting the professional title “Consulting Engineer”

of Greece The Technical Chamber of Greece is the Greek professional organization that serves as the official technical advisor of the Greek state and is responsible for awarding professional licenses to all practicing engineers in Greece. It is a public legal entity with elected administration, supervised by the Hellenic Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works. The Technical Chamber of Greece is a member of the European Council of Applied Sciences and Engineering. It was founded in 1923 by the alumni of the National Technical University of Athens. www.web.tee.gr

·· Maintaining lists of: – Compulsory members – Voluntary members – Experts ·· Engineers licensed to submit planning application ·· Engineers licensed to submit proof ·· Specialist group work

www.bayika.de

The Association of Hungarian Architects  Association of Hungarian Architects, (formerly Hungarian Architects Association) professional social organization based on voluntary membership, which the architecture professional, social, cultural, artistic, etc.. Aspects of the deal and the conditions of the occupation – planning permissions, policies, price calculation, etc. The number of members of the 1100th. A single organization, the members of approx. Budapest half and half rural. The members of the provincial liaison connecting the six major centers and identifies a number of PBX, which finds an E-mail, so they can keep in touch through increasingly electronic communication. www.meszorg.hu

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Royal Institute of the

Royal Institute

Architects of Ireland

of British Architects

The Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland founded in 1839, is the competent authority for architects and professional body for Architecture in the Republic of Ireland. The RIAI’s purpose is “to uphold the highest standards in architecture and to provide impartial and authoritative advice and information in issues affecting architects, the built environment and society.” The RIAI’s primary roles are in the areas of: Protecting the consumer; Promoting architecture; Supporting architects and architectural technologists; and Regulating architects.The Institute is governed by a 26-member council.

The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects primarily in the United Kingdom, but also internationally, founded for the advancement of architecture under its charter granted in 1837 and Supplemental Charter granted in 1971. The RIBA is a member organisation, with 44,000 members. Chartered Members are entitled to call themselves chartered architects and to append the post-nominals RIBA after their name; Student Members are not permitted to do so. Formerly, fellowships of the institute were granted, although no longer; those who continue to hold this title instead add FRIBA. The RIBA has been recognised as a business Superbrand since 2008.

www.riai.ie

www.architecture.com

Superior council of the Spain Associations of Architects

Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland

The Consejo Superior de los Colegios de Arquitectos de España (CSCAE), is the higher council of Architects in Spain, and is the most established professional body of Spanish architects, located in the Paseo de la Castellana, Madrid. The current president is Carlos Hernández Pezzi. The foundation of the CSCAE was initialized by the council of architects in 1929, established by law by government decree of June 13, 1931, which was ratified by the Spanish constitutional court on November 4, 1931. www.cscae.com

BNA, the Royal Institute

The RIAS was founded in 1916 as the professional body for all chartered architects in Scotland and is the foremost institute in the country dealing with architecture and the built environment. The RIAS has charitable status and offers a wide range of services and products for architects, students of architecture, construction industry professionals and all those with an interest in the built environment and the design process. The membership of the RIAS numbers approximately 4,200, which includes Honorary Fellows, Fellows, Members, Students, Affiliates and Retired Members. Any architect who is registered with the Architects’ Registration Board (ARB) and is living and working in Scotland can apply to be a Member of the RIAS. www.rias.org.uk

of Dutch Architects Royal Society BNA, the Royal Institute of Dutch Architects, is the sole professional association for Dutch architects. The goal of BNA is to stimulate the development of architecture and to support the practice of its members. Some 1300 agencies are united in our sector association. BNA is a network promoting modern, creative entrepreneurship, inspired by the power of architecture with concern for society and the environment.  www.bna.nl

of Ulster Architects The Royal Society of Ulster Architects (RSUA) is the professional body for chartered architects in Northern Ireland with 900 members. It was established in 1901 and then its objectives included the general advancement of architecture and the promotion and

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maintenance of a high standard of qualification in the profession, both of which are every bit as relevant today. The RSUA is committed to a comprehensive continuing professional development strategy and is a vital information network for architects providing a support service on a wide range of issues including contract and legal matters, professional indemnity, changes in planning law, building regulations and government legislation. www.rsua.org.uk

Royal Architectural Institute of Canada Ontario Association The Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC), also known since 2012 as Architecture Canada, is a Canadian association representing over 3,600 architects, and faculty and graduates of Canadian Schools of Architecture. It was founded in 1907. RAIC is the voice for architecture and its practice in Canada. It provides the national framework for the development and recognition of architectural excellence. In 2006, the RAIC signed on for the 2030 °Challenge, which urges the global architecture community to adopt targets to ensure building practices are carbon-neutral by 2030. www.raic.org

Alberta Association of Architects The Alberta Association of Architects has proudly served the province for over 100 years. Established in 1906, the Association has grown with Alberta and helped shape our cities and towns. Alberta architects and licensed interior designers have been a part of the province’s collective history and success, and will continue contributing to our built environment as we face the future. www.aaa.ab.ca

of Architects The Ontario Association of Architects is a self-regulating organization governed by the Architects Act, which is a statute of the Government of Ontario. The Association is dedicated to promoting and increasing the knowledge, skill and proficiency of its members, and administering the Architects Act, in order that the public interest may be served and protected. It was founded in 1889. There are currently 3,389 architects, 1411 Intern Architects and 642 in other membership categories for a total of more than 5,000 people. There are 1,584 architectural practices in Ontario. www.oaa.on.ca

Australian Institute of Architects The Australian Institute of Architects is a professional body for architects in Australia. Until August 2008, the Institute traded as the “Royal Australian Institute of Architects”, which remains its official name. The Institute consists of 11,500 members across Australia and overseas. It was formed in 1930, when state architectural institutes combined to form a unified national association. The Institute is represented on many national and state industry and government bodies, and is affiliated with the International Union of Architects (UIA). www.architecture.com.au

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SCHOOLS OF ARCHITECTURE

University of Nairobi, Kenya College of Architecture and Engineering (CAE) The College of Architecture and Engineering (CAE) is one of the six Colleges of the University of Nairobi.  This College together with the other five colleges was established in the year 1984. However, the history of the College can be traced back to 1956 when it started as the Royal Technical College which used to admit students from the whole of the East African region.  Therefore the college is as old as the University of Nairobi. The College is constituted by the Schools of Engineering, the Built Environment, the Arts and Design and the Institute of Nuclear Science. The Principal’s office is located along the Harry Thuku Road, on the 2nd floor of the Administration block, Main Campus. The School of Engineering and the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology are also located along the Harry Thuku road, next to the Central Police Station. The School of the Built Environment and the School of the Arts and Design are located along the State House Road, opposite the YMCA hostels. The college has played a key role in the development of the nation and region both infrastructural and economically.  Students from most of the countries in this region have received training here and have applied their knowledge to solving practical problems for government departments and agencies, local authorities and private sector organizations. The College is constituted by the Schools of Engineering, the Built Environment, the Arts and Design and the Institute of Nuclear Science. www.uonbi.ac.ke

Ecole de Beaux Arts (Paris, France) The historically well known Ecole de Beaux Arts, where in both past and present the greatest architects have come to learn and to teach as was known that all great architects would pass through this school at least once in their life.

Tokyo Institute of Technology The Japanese are the grand masters of cultural design with a rich heritage in architecture. Today this is often still the case as well as being the leaders of future systems. This university gives you a chance to be a part of it.

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Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

Bartlett, University College London (England) Welcome to The Bartlett, UCL’s global faculty of the built environment. Individually, schools and sections lead their fields. In partnership, they develop new responses to pressing world issues. As a whole, they represent a world-leading, multidisciplinary faculty, united by the radical spirit of UCL. As one of the oldest but most radical faculties of its kind, The Bartlett has built a reputation for education and research that draws students and academics from across the world. www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk

School of Planning and Architecture (SPA) The School of Planning and Architecture is a specialized University, only one of its kind, which exclusively provides training at various levels, in different aspects of human habitat and environment. spa.ac.in/home.aspx

Gerrit Rietveld Academie(Rotterdam, The Netherlands) This institute provides a fascinating four year bachelor program. With a focus on arts and design set up by famous Dutch architect Gerrit Rietveld, a passionate architects in all fields of design and art.

Chinese University of Hong Kong, China Chinese University of Hong Kong, China. A terrific university offering several international programs at a relatively low cost. China is becoming an increasingly important country for architectural design as they continue to grow exponentially. It is a great time to discover the new possibilities.

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Schools of architecture

The Glasgow School of Art (Glasgow, Scotland) The Glasgow School of Art (GSA) is Scotland’s only independent art school offering university level programmes and research in architecture, fine art and design. Founded in 1845 as the Glasgow Government School of Design, it changed its name to The Glasgow School of Art in 1853. The School is organised into the three academic schools, the Mackintosh School of Architecture (named after Charles Rennie Mackintosh the GSA’s most famous alumnus), School of Design and School of Fine Art, each with their own academic programmes and research centres. The Schools, together with the Digital Design Studio, specialising in 3D visualisation and interaction, the Forum for Critical Inquiry which provides a range of non-studio based learning, teaching and research and the Graduate School, form the academic core. www.gsa.ac.uk

American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates College of Architecture, Art and Design With world-class facilities and a dynamic and highly qualified faculty, it is no wonder that the reputation of the College of Architecture, Art and Design has spread far beyond the shores of the UAE. The College of Architecture, Art and Design (CAAD), offers five undergraduate programs-architecture, interior design, visual communication, multimedia design and design management-and a graduate program in urban planning. The curriculum in all programs is based on the North American model, which integrates liberal studies with professional education. All undergraduate students begin their first-year studies in the college’s highly effective foundations program. www.aus.edu/info/200170/college_of_architecture_art_and_design

Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia The Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia is a cutting edge education and research centre dedicated to the development of an architecture capable of meeting the worldwide challenges in the construction of habitability in the early 21st century. Based in the 22 district of Barcelona, one of the world‘s capitals of architecture and urbanism, IAAC is a platform for the exchange of knowledge with faculty and students from over 40 countries, including USA, China. India, Poland, Italy, Mexico and Sudan. Students work simultaneously on multiple scales (city, building, manufacturing) and in different areas of expertise (ecology, energy, digital manufacturing, new technologies), pursuing their own lines of enquiry on the way to developing an integrated set of skills with which to act effectively in their home country or globally. IAAC has carried out research projects in Brazil, Taiwan, Croatia and Romania. In 2008 it was chosen to take part in the official section of the Venice Biennale with the project Hyperhabitat and in 2010 it presented a 1:1 scale house (entirely produced at IAAC) at the Solar Decathlon Europe in Madrid where it won the Peoples Choice Award. IAAC has the most advanced digital production laboratory of any educational institution in southern Europe, with laser cutters, 3D printers, milling machines and a platform for manufacturing chips. IAAC organizes a Masters course in Advanced Architecture in conjunction with the UPC Polytechnic University. The Open Thesis Fabrication course is open to Masters architect students from around the world. The Fab Academy is part of the global network of Fab Labs affiliated to MIT‘s Center for Bit and Atoms. www.iaac.net

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The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Copenhagen, Denmark) The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation – School of Architecture is one of the two Danish School of Architecture and one of the world’s oldest schools of architecture. Founded in 1754 as ’The Royal Danish Painting, Sculpture and Building Academy’, the academy’s purpose was to educate both artists and craftsmen in the three disciplines under the same roof.  In the 1960’s the school became an independent unit with its own management and achieved the status of an institution of higher learning, issuing a diploma equal to a university Master’s degree in architecture, while maintaining its artistic and professional status within the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts.  The school educates architects in the fields of architectural design and restoration, urban and landscape planning, and industrial, graphic, and furniture design. The tuition takes place within 9 study departments providing instruction on all levels, while the research is organized within 4 institutes.   On 2 June 2011, the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture merged with the Danish Design School and The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Conservation to become the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation. www.karch.dk/uk

University of Cape Town, South Africa. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING AND GEOMATICS Architecture & Planning The School offers a range of programmes concerned with the planning and design of our environment. The disciplines represented compliment one-another and create a learning environment that is rich and diverse: Architecture is concerned with buildings and their relationship to society’s spaces and places, Landscape Architecture is concerned with the natural environment and its interaction with human occupation, Urban Design is concerned with the quality of larger scale spaces and places, Planning is concerned ,with the design and management of change in the built and natural environment, and Conservation is concerned with our built heritage and its future existence. All the programmes represented share concerns around the quality of human settlement and the natural environment. The programmes in Architecture and Planning share a strong contextual approach and a commitment to engage with Cape Town as a locus with unique and important challenges. apg.uct.ac.za

Institution of Civil Engineers Founded on 2 January 1818, the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) is an independent professional association, headquartered in central London, representing civil engineers. Like its early membership, the majority of its current members are British engineers, but it also has members in more than 150 countries around the world. In 2012, its total membership stood at more than 80,000. In November 2012, Barry Clarke assumed office as president. www.ice.org.uk

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Architectural Association, AA(London, England) Unique, dynamic, independent and international, the Architectural Association School of Architecture was originally set up in 1847 as a public forum and learned society, in famously founded by 'a pack of troublesome students'. The AA is much more than the UK's oldest school of architecture; the school is the nexus of a global conglomeration of contemporary architectural culture, as well as its pasts. The AA’s incarnations include: ·· a professional association; ·· a vibrant membership organisation comprising more than 4500 members; ·· a registered charity; ·· AA Publications, publisher of books and journals; ·· AA Bookshop, one of London’s leading architectural booksellers; ·· a high-profile public events programme, including a wealth of exhibitions, lectures, symposia, seminars, conversations, research clusters and visits. All this takes place at the AA’s newly consolidated campus home on its historic site in Bedford Square in Bloomsbury, central London and its site in Dorset for the development of rural architectures and sustainable technologies. www.aaschool.ac.uk

ETH Zurich, DARCH (Zurich, Switzerland) As the leading Swiss institution of higher education in the technical and natural sciences, ETH Zurich has also proven itself at the highest international level. Its multi- and transdisciplinary orientation and its worldwide connections enable emphasise the main points within sustainable development and to serve as a reliable partner for business, politics and society. Within this context, the Department of Architecture (D-ARCH) is one of the most highly regarded faculties of architecture in the world. It owes its prominent position to both the high quality of the teaching and the outstanding results of the research. This well-established approach to teaching and research, representing a long tradition, manifests itself in the structure of flexible design studios that work in close cooperation with the institutes, and it is experienced throughout all phases of Bachelor and Master studies at the D-ARCH as a holistic and open programme. As the most important foundation for the Swiss building tradition, the architectural education owes its success to the fruitful intertwining of the teaching staff’s academic instruction and practical building activity. In its essential significance for the teaching at the D-ARCH, the experience gained by faculty members in their own architectural practices has a long tradition that goes back to the first director of the architecture faculty at ETH Zurich, the prominent intellectual architect and theorist Gottfried Semper. The teaching of design and construction draws its central impulses from building praxis as well as in-house research. Questions of building praxis and their validation in the context of the built environment, taken together with knowledge gained from basic research, combine to become inseparable themes of architectural education. The Department of Architecture sets the focus of its research on broadly defined issues pertaining to the built environment. It makes excellent contributions to ETH Zurich’s strategic positions with regard to this important subject from the perspective of architecture and urban design, particularly on the topics of future cities, energy, climate change and sustainability. At the same time, the D-ARCH actively champions: ·· studying the history of architecture to be able to provide information about future developments; ·· continual contemplation about design and building principles; ·· judicious treatment of available resources, beginning with the materials used and extending to efforts in dealing with macro-scale territories on a transnational level; ·· maintaining a dialogue with politicians, industry and professional associations; ·· ensuring a balanced treatment of the existing fabric; ·· and lastly, the Department’s defining task and one that clearly differentiates its teaching and research activities from those of the universities of applied sciences: general exploration of fundamental questions (basic research) in architecture, construction and urban design. www.arch.ethz.ch/en

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LEADING ARCHITECTURAL AND ENGINEERING UNIVERSITIES

POLAND Established: October 6, 1945 Location: Gdańsk, Poland Website: www.pg.edu.pl

The Gdańsk University of Technology is a technical university in Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz, and one of the oldest universities in Poland. It has nine faculties and more than 24 thousand undergraduate, as well as about 400 doctoral students. In 2004 it employed 2500 people, including 1200 academics.

΄ Gdansk

University of Technology Established: 1826 Location: Warsaw, Poland Website: www.pw.edu.pl

The Warsaw University of Technology is one of the leading institutes of technology in Poland, and one of the largest in Central Europe. It employs 2,453 teaching faculty, with 357 professors (including 145 titular professors). There are 19 faculties (divisions) covering almost all fields of science and technology.

Warsaw University of Technology Established: 1945 Location: Łódź, Poland Website: www.p.lodz.pl

Lodz University of Technology

The Lodz University of Technology has developed into one of the biggest in Poland. Originally located in an old factory building, today covering nearly 200,000 sq. meters in over 70 separate buildings, the majority of them situated in the main University area. Approximately 21,000 students are currently studying at the University. Educational and scientific tasks of the University are run by about 3,000 staff members.

BELGIUM Established: 1834 Location: Brussels, Belgium Website: www.vub.ac.be

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The Vrije University Brussel, a dynamic and modern university with two green campuses in the Brussels-Capital region, offers high-quality education and research.


Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

AUSTRIA Established: 1815 Location: Austria,Vienna Website: www.tuwien.ac.at

Vienna University of Technology Established: 2007 Location: Klosterneuburg, Austria

The Vienna University of Technology – TU Wien (TUW) – is located in the heart of Europe, in a cosmopolitan city of great cultural diversity. For nearly 200 years, the TU Wien has been a place of research, teaching and learning in the service of progress. The TU Wien is among the most successful technical universities in Europe and is Austria’s largest scientifictechnical research and educational institution.

 The draft concept was developed by the Austrian physicist Anton Zeilinger in 2002. Preparation work started in 2007. The concept includes a focus on science and technology an interdisciplinary approach an independent and long-term strategy the entitlement to award PhDs.

Website: www.ist.ac.at

Institute of Science and Technology Established: 1811 Location: Austria, Styria Website: www.portal.tugraz.at

Graz University of Technology

Established: 1840 Location: Austria, Leoben Website: www.unileoben.ac.at

University of Leoben

The Graz University of Technology is the second largest university in Styria, Austria. In world-wide competition with comparable institutions, Graz University of Technology pursues top teaching and research in the fields of the engineering sciences and the technical-natural sciences. An integral part of putting together excellent education and training programs is knowing about the needs of society and the economy. Ultimately, the quality of the education and training at Graz University of Technology is carried by the strength of its knowledge-oriented and applied research. Numerous competence centers, the Christian-Doppler laboratories, special research fields, research focuses, and large EU projects are only a few examples of the University’s extremely active and successful research. The University of Leoben is the country’s university for mining, metallurgy and materials. It was founded on 4 November 1840, as the SteiermärkischStändische Montanlehranstalt in Styria, Austria’s mining region. In 1848 Peter Tunner relocated the university to the nearby town of Leoben, where it is still located today. That year the university had a mere 48 students enrolled.

DENMARK Established: 1829 Location: Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

It was founded in 1829 at the initiative of Hans Christian Ørsted as Denmark’s first polytechnic, and is today ranked among Europe’s leading engineering institutions, and the best engineering university in the Nordic countries.

Website: www.dtu.dk

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Leading architectural and engineering universities

GERMANY Established: 1879 Location: Berlin, Germany Website: www.tu-berlin.de

The Technische Universität Berlin, known as TU Berlin  is a research university and one of the largest and most prestigious research and education institutions in Germany. The university alumni and professor list include National Academies elections, two National Medal of Science laureates and ten Nobel Prize winners.

Technical University of Berlin Established: 1828 Location: Dresden, Germany Website: www.tu-dresden.de

Dresden University of Technology Established: 1457 Location: Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany Website: www.uni-freiburg.de

University of Freiburg

The Technische Universität Dresden is the largest institute of higher education in the city of Dresden, the largest university in Saxony and one of the 10 largest universities in Germany with 36,066 students as of 2010. The university is one of the eleven German universities which succeeded in the Excellence Initiative in 2012, thus getting the title of a “University of Excellence”.

The University of Freiburg consistently achieves top positions in all university rankings. The university’s research and instruction received the “Excellence” seal in 2007 and again in 2009. More than 160 fields of study and a wide array of possible degrees attract a total of around 21,000 students to Freiburg, including many international students and junior researchers.

SWITZERLAND Established: 1853 Location: Écublens (near Lausanne), Switzerland Website: www.epfl.ch

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne

The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne is one of the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology and is located in Lausanne, Switzerland. The school was founded by the Swiss Federal Government with the stated mission to: ·· Educate engineers and scientists ·· Be a national center of excellence in science and technology ·· Provide a hub for interaction between the scientific community and industry

Established: 1855 Location: Zürich, Switzerland Website: www.ethz.ch

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Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich is an engineering, science, technology, mathematics and management university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. It is considered the best university in continental Europe by the Shanghai Ranking ARWU, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings Ranking and the QS World University Ranking. It is currently ranked 8th best university in the world in engineering, science and technology.


Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

ENGLAND Established: 1209 Location: Cambridge, England, United Kingdom Website: www.cam.ac.uk

University of Cambridge

Established: 8 July 1907  Location: London, United Kingdom

The University of Cambridge is a collegiate research university in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in English-speaking areas, and the world’s third-oldest surviving university. Today, Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions that include 31 constituent colleges and comprehensive academic departments which are organised into six Schools. It has nurtured many notable alumni, and 90 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the University,which is the highest in the world. Imperial College London is a public research, specialising in science, engineering, medicine and business. A former constituent college of the federal University of London, it became fully independent on 9 July 2007, as part of the celebrations of its centenary.

Website: www.imperial.ac.uk

Imperial College London Established: 1583 Location: Edinburgh, Scotland, UK  Website: www.ed.ac.uk

University of Edinburgh

The University of Edinburgh is the sixth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland’s ancient universities. The University is ranked 17th in the world by the 2013 QS rankings. It is ranked 11th in the world in arts and humanities by the 2012–13 Times Higher Education Ranking. It is ranked the 15th most employable university in the world by the 2013 Global Employability University Ranking. It is a member of both the Russell Group, and the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe.

THE CZECH REPUBLIC Established: 1707 Location: Prague, Czech Republic Website: www.cvut.cz

Czech Technical University in Prague Established: 1899 Location: Brno, Czech Republic

Czech Technical University in Prague is one of the largest universities in the Czech Republic, and is one of the oldest institutes of technology in Central Europe. It provides high-quality university education through an extensive portfolio of primarily engineering branches of study, conducts basic and applied research and numerous scientific projects with great emphasis on industrial use and applications. 

Brno University of Technology is a university located in Brno, Czech Republic. Being founded in 1899 and initially offering a single course in civil engineering, it grew to become a major Czech university with over 24,000 students enrolled at 8 faculties and 2 university institutes.

Website: www.vutbr.cz

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Leading architectural and engineering universities

HUNGARY Established: 1782 Location: Budapest, Hungary Website: www.bme.hu

Budapest University of Technology and Economics Established: 1920 Location: Budapest, Hungary Website: www.uni-corvinus.hu

The Budapest University of Technology and Economics is the most significant University of Technology in Hungary and is also one of the oldest Institutes of Technology in the world. More than 110 departments and institutes operate within the structure of eight faculties. About 1100 lecturers, 400 researchers and other degree holders and numerous invited lecturers and practising expert specialists participate in education and research.

Corvinus University of Budapest is one of the most prestigious universities in Budapest, Hungary. The university offers degrees in multiple disciplines, but it is characterised by its programmes in economics, management and social sciences. Corvinus University is consistently listed in the top 50 in the Financial Times European Masters in Management rankings.

Corvinus University of Budapest

ITALY Established: 29 November 1863 Location: Milan, Italy

Polytechnic University of Milan is the largest technical university in Italy, with about 38,700 students. It offers undergraduate, graduate and higher education courses in Engineering, Architecture and Design. It is the oldest university in Milan.

Website: www.polimi.it

Polytechnic University of Milan Established: 1303 Location: Rome, Italy Website: www.en.uniroma1.it

The Sapienza University of Rome is the largest European university by enrollments and the oldest of Rome’s four statefunded universities. In Italian, sapienza means “wisdom” or “knowledge”. Sapienza is present in all major international university rankings. It is among the best Italian universities

Sapienza University of Rome Established: 1321 Location: Florence, Italy Website: www.unifi.it

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The University of Florence is one of the oldest and biggest universities. It is an Italian public research university .It comprises 12 schools and has about 60,000 students enrolled.


Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

NETHERLANDS Established: 1842 Location: Delft, South Holland, Netherlands Website: www.tudelft.nl

Delft University of Technology also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technical university. With eight faculties and numerous research institutes it hosts over 19,000 students (undergraduate and postgraduate), more than 3,300 scientists and more than 2,200 people in the support and management staff.

Delft University of Technology Established: 23 June 1956 Location: Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands Website: www.tue.nl

Eindhoven University of Technology Established: 1614 Location: Groningen, Netherlands

The university was the second of its kind in the Netherlands, only Delft University of Technology existed previously. Until mid-1980 it was known as the Technische Hogeschool Eindhoven. In 2011 QS World University Rankings placed Eindhoven at 146th internationally, but 61st globally for Engineering & IT. Furthermore, in 2011 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) rankings, it was placed at the 52-75 bucket internationally in Engineering/Technology and Computer Science (ENG) category and at 34th place internationally in the Computer Science subject field. It is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands as well as one of its largest. Since its inception more than 200,000 students have graduated. It is a member of the distinguished international Coimbra Group of European universities.

Website: www.rug.nl

University of Groningen

NORWAY Established: 1993 Location: Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway

The University Centre in Svalbard is a Norwegian stateowned limited company that provides university-level education in arctic studies.

Website: www.unis.no

University Centre in Svalbard Established: 1996 Location: Trondheim, Norway

Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Website: www.ntnu.no

The Norwegian University of Science and Technology commonly known as NTNU, is the second largest of the eight universities in Norway, and, as its name suggests, has the main national responsibility for higher education in engineering and technology. In addition to engineering and the natural and physical sciences, the university offers advanced degrees in other academic disciplines ranging from the social sciences, the arts, medicine, architecture and fine art.

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Leading architectural and engineering universities

FRANCE Established: 1538 Location: Strasbourg, France Website: www.unistra.fr

University of Strasbourg Established: 4 April 1460 Location: Nantes, France Website: www.univ-nantes.fr

University of Nantes

The University of Strasbourg is the second largest university in France, with about 43,000 students and over 4,000 researchers. In the 1970s it was divided into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University, Marc Bloch University, and Robert Schuman University. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of these three universities recreated a united University of Strasbourg, which is now amongst Europe’s best in the League of European Research Universities. Founded in the XVth century, then closed for nearly 200 years, Université de Nantes reopened in 1962 and went on to become one of the top French universities. With its history and its dynamism, the University is ready to face the challenge of international competition. Today, University of Nantes is one of France’s top multidisciplinary universities. It is located in an attractive area boasting strong economic and demographic growth over the past two decades.

KAZAKHSTAN Established: 1975 Location: Almaty, Kazakhstan Website: www.aipet.kz

Almaty University of Power Engineering and Telecommunications (AUPET) is one of the most well-known universities in the field of power engineering and telecommunications in the Central Asian region. Students from all over central Asia study at AIPET.

Almaty University of Power Engineering and Telecommunications Established: 1934 Location: Almaty, Kazakhstan

Kazakh National Technical University named after Kanysh Satpayev is a leading technical university in Kazakhstan (Almaty).

Website: www.kazntu.kz

Satbayev Kazakh National Technical University Established: 2001 Location: Almaty, Kazakhstan Website: www.kbtu.kz

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Kazakh-British Technical University is an educational institution in Kazakhstan, which focuses on teaching Petroleum, Chemical and IT Engineering as well as Management & Economics. It is one of the leading universities of Kazakhstan for training specialists for the oil and gas sector of the Kazakhstan economy. KBTU staff includes 582 employees. Among them: 12% administrative management; 64% faculty members, scholars, and department staff; 24% service staff.


Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

IRLAND Established: 1592 Location: Dublin, Ireland Website: www.tcd.ie

University of Dublin

Established: 1 January 1972 Location: Limerick, Ireland Website: www.ul.ie

University of Limerick

Trinity College builds on its four-hundred-year-old tradition of scholarship to confirm its position as one of the great universities of the world, providing a liberal environment where independence of thought is highly valued and where staff and students are nurtured as individuals and are encouraged to achieve their full potential. The University of Dublin is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland. It is a member of the Irish Universities Association, Universities Ireland, and the Coimbra Group. It was established in 1972 as the National Institute for Higher Education, Limerick and became a university by statute in 1989 in accordance with the University of Limerick Act 1989. The university was the first university established since the foundation of the State in 1922. The university has currently in excess of 11,000 full-time undergraduate students and 1,500 part-time students.There are also over 800 research postgraduates and 1,300 taught postgraduate students at the university.

FINLAND Established: 1958 Location: Oulu, Finland Website: www.oulu.fi

The University of Oulu is one of the largest universities in Finland, located in the city of Oulu. The university has around 16,000 students and 3,000 staff. It is ranked in the Academic Ranking of World Universities as the second best university in Finland and between 303 and 401 worldwide.

University of Oulu Established: 1640 Location: Helsinki, Finland Website: www.helsinki.fi/ university

University of Helsinki

Established: 1969 Location: Lappeenranta, Finland Website: www.lut.fi

Lappeenranta University of Technology

It is the oldest and largest university in Finland with the widest range of disciplines available. Around 36,500 students are currently enrolled in the degree programs of the university spread across 11 faculties and 11 research institutes. The University of Helsinki places heavy emphasis on high-quality teaching and research of a top international standard. It is a member of various prominent international university networks, such as Europaeum, UNICA, the Utrecht Network, and is a founding member of the League of European Research Universities. Nowadays, LUT’s strategic focus areas are green energy and technology, the creation of sustainable competitiveness and operation as a hub of international Russian relations. Being located near the eastern boundary of Finland, the university also offers comprehensive know-how related to Russia. Its international community is comprised of approximately 6,500 students and experts engaged in scientific research and academic education.

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Leading architectural and engineering universities

JAPAN Established: 1877 Location: Tokyo, Japan Website: www.u-tokyo.ac.jp

The University of Tokyo is the first of Japan’s National Seven Universities, and is considered the most prestigious university in Japan. It ranks as the highest in Asia and 21st in the world according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities 2013. The University has 10 faculties with a total of around 30,000 students, 2,100 of whom are foreign.

University of Tokyo Established: 1869 Location: Kyoto, Japan Website: www.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Kyoto University

Established: 1724 Location: Suita, Osaka, Japan Website: www.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Kyoto University is a national university located in Kyoto, Japan. It is the second oldest Japanese university,one of the highest ranked universities in Asia and one of Japan’s National Seven Universities. One of Asia’s leading research-oriented institutions, Kyoto University is famed for producing worldclass researchers, including eight Nobel Prize laureates, two Fields medalists and one Gauss Prize. The university has been consistently ranked the second best institute in Japan since 2008 in various independent university ranking schemes. Osaka University is the sixth oldest university in Japan and one of Japan’s National Seven Universities. Numerous prominent scientists have worked at Osaka University such as the Nobel Laureate in Physics Hideki Yukawa. It has 11 faculties for undergraduate programs, 16 graduate schools, 21 research institutes, 4 libraries, and 2 university hospitals.

Osaka University Established: 1881 Location: Meguro Yokohama Tamach, Tokyo, Japan Website: www.titech.ac.jp

Tokyo Institute of Technology

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Tokyo Institute of Technology is the largest institution for higher education in Japan dedicated to science and technology. Tokyo Tech enrolled 4,850 undergraduates and 5,006 graduate students for 2009–2010.It employs around 1,400 faculty members.


Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

CHINA Established: 1902 Location: Nanjing, Jiangsu, Republic of China Website: www.nju.edu.cn

Nanjing University Established: 1898 Location: Haidian District, Beijing,China Website: www.pku.edu.cn

Peking University Established: 1911 Location: Beijing, China Website: www.tsinghua. edu.cn

Tsinghua University Established: 1958 Location: Hefei, Anhui, China Website: www.ustc.edu.cn

University of Science and Technology of China

Nanjing University, is one of the oldest and most prestigious institutions of higher learning in China. Following many changes through dynasties since CE 258, it was established as a modern new-type school in 1902 in the end period of Qing Dynasty, and became a modern university in the early 1920s, the early years of Republic of China, and is the first Chinese modern university with the combination of education and research. It is a major Chinese research university located in Beijing, and a member of the C9 League. Today, Peking University is frequently placed as one of the best universities in China by many domestic and international rankings. In addition to academics, Peking University is especially renowned for its campus grounds, and the beauty of its traditional Chinese architecture. Tsinghua University is a research university  and one of the nine members in the C9 League. With its motto of “SelfDiscipline and Social Commitment”, Tsinghua University describes itself as being dedicated to academic excellence, the well-being of Chinese society and to global development. It has been consistently regarded by most domestic and international university rankings as one of the top higher learning institutions in mainland China. The University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) is a national research university and is a member of the C9 League formed by nine top universities in China. The inception and mission of USTC was in response to the urgent need for the national economy, defense construction, and education in science and technology. It has been featured by its competence on scientific and technological research and expanded into humanities and management with a strong scientific and engineering emphasis.

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Leading architectural and engineering universities

RUSSIA Established: 1830 Location: Moscow, Russia Website: www.bmstu.ru

Bauman Moscow State Technical University

Established: 1899 Location: Saint Petersburg, Russia Website: www.spbstu.ru

Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University Established: 1920 Location: Yekaterinburg, Russia Website: www.urfu.ru

Ural Federal University

The Bauman Moscow State Technical University is a public technical university and it is always ranked the first among Russian engineering education institutions. BMSTU has 19 departments providing full-time education. University provides postgraduate and doctorate programs and has two affiliated secondary schools. More than 19,000 students study in BMSTU, and specialties cover all range of modern machine and instrument building. More than 320 doctors of science and 2000 candidates of science teach and do research in BMSTU. Main parts of the University are eight scientific and educational divisions. Each of them consists of scientific and educational branch. Several branch departments also exist, dealing with particular fields of industry. They are based on big factories and organizations, situated in Moscow, Moscow suburbs (Reutov, Krasnogorsk and Korolev) and in Kaluga. Also BMSTU has unique experience of teaching hearing-impaired students since 1934. Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University is a major Russian technical university situated in Saint Petersburg. The university is considered to be one of the top research facilities in Russian Federation and CIS member states and is a leading educational facility in the field of applied physics and mathematics, industrial engineering, chemical engineering, aerospace engineering and many other academic disciplines. 

The Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin is one of the leading educational institutions in the Ural region. Ural Federal University acts as a research and innovation center of the Ural region, has close cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences. Training of students is carried out in three main directions and 67 academic majors.

INDIA Established: 1857 Location: Kolkata, West Bengal, India Website: www.caluniv.ac.in

By foundation date, it is the first institution in South Asia to be established as a multidisciplinary and secular Western style university. Within India it is recognized as a Five Star University and a Centre with Potential for Excellence by the University Grants Commission and the National Assessment and Accreditation Council.

University of Calcutta Established: 1922 Location: Delhi, India Website: www.du.ac.in

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The University of Delhi is the premier university of the country and is known for its high standards in teaching and research and attracts eminent scholars to its faculty. It was established in 1922 as a unitary, teaching and residential university by an Act of the Central Legislative Assembly. The University has grown into one of the largest universities in India. At present, there are 16 faculties, 86 academic departments, 77 colleges and 5 other recognized institutes spread all over the city.


Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

UKRAINE Established: 1898 Location: Kiev, Ukraine Website: www.kpi.ua

Kyiv Polytechnic Institute Established: 1930 Location: Odessa, Ukraine Website: www.ogasa.org.ua

Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture Established: 1844 Location: Lviv, Ukraine Website: www.lp.edu.ua

Lviv Polytechnic

Today the National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” is the largest technical university of Ukraine research type universities, one of the leading universities in Europe and world. It has about 30,000 students, including foreign students. It consists of 30 teaching and research departments (9 institutes and 19 departments), 8 scientific research centers, 12 research institutes, 14 research centers and 1 design bureau. In January 2012 Webometrics Ranking KPI made it into top 1,000 – taking 957th place out of 20,300 universities. It is one of the leading technical universities of Ukraine. The Academy consist of the Architectural Institute, the Construction Technological Institute, the Civil Engineering Institute, the Institute of Engineering and Ecological Systems and has such faculties as Building, Economics and Construction Management, the Design of Industrial and Housing Construction, Hydro-technical and Transport Construction, the Centre of Post – Diploma Education, the Centre of specialists training for foreign countries, the centre of Pre – Academic Education that train specialists in such specialties as Painting, the Economy of Business, Marketing, Management, Building, Architecture, Hydro – techniques (Water – Supply), Geodesy, Card – Graphics and Land Cadastre. Lviv Polytechnic National University is the largest scientific university in Lviv. Since its foundation in 1844, it was one of the most important centres of science and technological development in Central Europe. In the interbellum period, the Polytechnic was one of the most important technical colleges in Poland, together with the Warsaw Polytechnic. Today the University is also the National Defense University (Military Institution).

PORTUGAL Established: 1290 Location: Coimbra, Portugal Website: www.uc.pt

University of Coimbra Established: 1911 Location: Porto, Portugal

The University of Coimbra is one of the oldest universities in continuous operation in the world, the oldest university of Portugal, and one of its largest higher education and research institutions. It is a founding member of the Coimbra Group, a group of leading European research universities, whose inaugural meeting it hosted. On June 22, 2013, UNESCO added the university to its World Heritage List. The University of Porto is the largest Portuguese university by number of enrolled students and has one of the most noted research outputs in Portugal. It is considered one of the 100 best Universities in Europe.

Website: www.up.pt

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PRIZES AND GRANTS OF ARCHITECTS

Gold Medal The Gold Medal is the highest honor The American Institute of Architects can bestow on an individual. It is conferred by the Board of Directors in recognition of a significant body of work of lasting influence on the theory and practice of architecture. www.aia.org

Alvar Aalto Medal The Alvar Aalto Medal was established in 1967 by the Museum of Finnish Architecture and the Finnish Association of Architects (SAFA). The Medal has been awarded intermittently since 1967 when the medal was created in honour of Alvar Aalto. The award is given in recognition of a significant contribution to creative architecture. The award is often made at the Alvar Aalto Symposium, held every four years in Jyväskylä, Aalto’s home town. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dedalo Minosse International Prize for commissioning a building Dedalo Minosse International Prize for commissioning a building, is promoted by ALA – Assoarchitetti and Regione del Veneto. The Prize, founded in 1997, is biennial and is currently in its eighth edition. The Prize would boost the quality of architecture looking at final result, analysing and focusing on project and constructive plan process and giving a special attention to people who determine the success of the work: the architect and the client, supported by the project executors (the building firms) and the public administrations. www.dedalominosse.org/eng/premio.php

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Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

Erich Schelling Architecture Award The Schelling Architecture Foundation is a foundation under German law, being recognized as such on 21.12.2005 by the State Council Karlsruhe. Trude Schelling-Karrer (1919-2009) was the founder. The foundation’s mission is the promotion of and awarding of prizes for seminal design ideas and projects, even those, that have not until now been realized, as well as the promotion of and awarding of prizes for contributions to the theory and history of architecture. The foundation’s mission is also the remembrance of Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Erich Schelling and the care of his work. schelling-architekturpreis.org

Praemium Imperiale The Praemium Imperiale is a global arts prize awarded annually by the Japan Art Association. Since its inauguration in 1989, it has become a mark of the arts. Six nomination committees, each chaired by an International Advisor, propose candidates in five fields: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Music and Theatre/Film. This Site gives you a detailed introduction to Praemium Imperiale and its laureates in words, image, audio and video. www.praemiumimperiale.org

Pritzker Architecture Prize To honor a living architect/s whose built work demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision, and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture. The international prize, which is awarded each year to a living architect/s for significant achievement, was established by the Pritzker family of Chicago through their Hyatt Foundation in 1979. It is granted annually and is often referred to as “architecture’s Nobel” and “the profession’s highest honor.” The award consists of $100,000 (US) and a bronze medallion. The award is conferred on the laureate/s at a ceremony held at an architecturally significant site throughout the world. www.pritzkerprize.com

Royal Gold Medal Established in 1848, the Royal Gold Medal is still celebrated today. The Royal Medal online exhibition was especially created to coincide with the RIBA’s 175th anniversary and takes you through the history, winners and more. Given in recognition of a lifetime’s work, the Royal Gold Medal is approved personally by Her Majesty the Queen and is awarded annually to a person or group of people whose influence on architecture has had a truly international effect. The award is for a body of work, rather than for one building or for an architect who is currently fashionable. www.architecture.com

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Prizes and grants of architects

European Prize for Architecture The European Prize for Architecture is an architecture prize awarded annually by the European Centre for Architecture Art Design and Urban Studies and Chicago Athenaeum: Museum of Architecture. The annual awards ceremony takes place in changing architectural landmarks around Europe as a celebration of the continent’s rich heritage and tradition in the history of architecture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture “Mies van der Rohe award” The European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture or Mies van der Rohe Award is a prize given biennially by the European Union and the Fundació Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona, ‘to acknowledge and reward quality architectural production in Europe’. The prize was created in 1987 as equal partnerships between the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Fundació Mies van der Rohe. The contest is open to all the works completed in Europe within the two-year period before the granting of the Prize. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Emirates Glass LEAF Award Arena International hosts a prestigious annual awards ceremony to celebrate the international architecture community. The LEAF Awards recognise the architects who are designing the buildings and solutions that are setting the benchmark for the international architectural community. www.arena-international.com

Heinrich Tessenow Medal The Heinrich Tessenow Gold Medal (Heinrich-Tessenow-Medaille) is an architecture prize established in 1963 by the Alfred Toepfer Stiftung F.V.S. of Hamburg in the honour of Heinrich Tessenow. It is awarded annually by the Heinrich-Tessenow-Gesellschaft e.V. “to honour people who have achieved distinction in craft and industrial formmaking and in the teaching of the culture of living and building, and who have through their life’s work acted in the spirit of Heinrich Tessenow”. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

European Prize for Urban Public Space The European Prize for Urban Public Space is a biennial award established in 2000 to recognise public space projects. It is organised by the Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona together with six other European institutions: The Architecture Foundation, Cité de l’Architecture et du Patrimoine, Architekturzentrum Wien, Netherlands Architecture Institute, German Architecture Museum and the Museum of Finnish Architecture.The number of nominations for the prize increased from 81 projects in 2000 to 347 projects in 2012, while the number of countries participating increased form 14 in the first year to 36 in 2012. Most entries have been received from Spain and only few from Central Europe. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aga Khan Award for Architecture The Aga Khan Award for Architecture (AKAA) is an architectural prize established by Aga Khan IV in 1977. It aims to identify and reward architectural concepts that successfully address the needs and aspirations of Islamic societies in the fields of contemporary design, social housing, community development and improvement, restoration, reuse and area conservation, as well as landscape design and improvement of the environment. It is presented in three-year cycles to multiple projects and has a monetary award, with prizes totalling US$ 1 million. Uniquely among architectural awards, it recognizes projects, teams, and stakeholders in addition to buildings and people. The award is associated with the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC), an agency of the Aga Khan Development Network(AKDN). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thomas Jefferson Medal in Architecture The Thomas Jefferson Foundation Medal in Architecture is presented for notable achievement in design or for distinguished contributions to the field of architecture. The award has been given every year since the establishment of the foundation in 1966. The award is granted jointly by the Thomas Jefferson Foundation and the University of Virginia School of Architecture. Along with the Thomas Jefferson Medal in Law, the awards are the highest outside honors offered by the University, which does not grant honorary degrees. Its recipients are not required to be architects. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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AWARDED ARCHITECTS

Richard Rogers AA Dipl, M Arch (Yale), RIBA, RA (Hon), FAIA (Hon), Dr RCA (Hon), BDA (Hon) Richard’s ability to bring together the best team for a job, coupled with a clear design focus and intuitive understanding of how cities and people interact have ensured a string of successful commissions and projects and made a major impact on contemporary architecture. Key projects include the Centre Pompidou, Paris, Lloyd’s of London and Terminal 4 Madrid Barajas Airport.

Jean Nouvel

Since founding the practice in 1977, Richard Rogers has gained international reknown as an architect and urbanist. He is the 2007 Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate, recipient of the 1985 RIBA Gold Medal and the 2006 Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement (La Biennale di Venezia). He was knighted in 1991, made a life peer in 1996 and a Member of the Order of the Companions of Honour (CH) in 2008. In 1995, he was the first architect to be invited to give the BBC Reith Lectures – a series entitled ‘Cities for a Small Planet’ – and in 1998 was appointed by the Deputy Prime Minister to chair the UK Government’s Urban Task Force on the state of our cities. He was Chief Advisor on Architecture and Urbanism to the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone and a design advisor to the current Mayor of London, Boris Johnson. He has also been an Advisor to the Mayor of Barcelona’s Urban Strategies Council.  http://www.richardrogers.co.uk/practice/team/ richard_rogers

Jean Nouvel (born 12 August 1945) is a French architect. Nouvel studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and was a founding member of Mars 1976 and Syndicat de l’Architecture. He has obtained a number of prestigious distinctions over the course of his career, including the Aga Khan Award for Architecture (technically, the prize was awarded for the Institut du Monde Arabe which Nouvel designed), the Wolf Prize in Arts in 2005 and the Pritzker Prize in 2008. A number of museums and architectural centres have presented retrospectives of his work. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Peter Zumthor

Peter Zumthor (born 26 April 1943) is a Swiss architect and winner of the 2009 Pritzker Prize and 2013 RIBA Royal Gold Medal. Known for running a small yet powerful and uncompromising practice, Peter Zumthor founded his own firm in 1979 in Switzerland. His projects include the Kunsthaus Bregenz in Austria, the Therme vals (thermal baths) in Vals, Switzerland, and the Kolumba Art  Museum in Cologne. He designed the 2011 Serpentine Pavilion and is currently designing a house in the Devon for Alain de Botton’s Living Architecture scheme. He is exceptionally talented at creating highly atmospheric spaces through his mastery of light and choice of materials. Zumthor’s buildings, such as his small rural chapels and the Thermal Baths at Vals, are an experience for all the senses, with every detail reinforcing the essence of the building and its surroundings. www.architecture.com From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants

Kazuyo Sejima

Kazuyo Sejima (Sejima Kazuyo, born 1956, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan) is a Japanese architect. After studying at Japan Women’s University and working at the office of ToyoIto, in 1987, she founded Kazuyo Sejima and Associates. In 1995, she founded the Tokyo-based firm SANAA (Sejima and Nishizawa and Associates) together with her former employee Ryue Nishizawa. In 2010, Sejima was appointed director of architecture sector for the Venice Biennale, which she curated for the 12th Annual International Architecture Exhibition. She was the first woman ever selected for this position. In 2010, she was awarded the Pritzker Prize, together with Ryue Nishizawa. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eduardo Souto de Moura

Eduardo Elísio Machado Souto de Moura (born 25 July 1952), better known as Eduardo Souto de Moura, is a Portuguese architect. Son of medical doctor José Alberto Souto de Moura and wife Maria Teresa Ramos Machado, he is the brother of José Souto de Moura, former 9th Attorney-General of Portugal. Along with Fernando Távora and Álvaro Siza, he is one of the references of the Porto School of Architecture, where he was appointed Professor. Souto de Moura was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2011 and the Wolf Prize in Arts in 2013. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wang Shu

Wang Shu (born 4 November 1963), is a Chinese architect based in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. He is the dean of the School of Architecture of the China Academy of Art. In 2012, Wang became the first Chinese citizen to win the Pritzker Prize, the world’s top prize in architecture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

΄ Alvaro Siza Vieira University of Porto

Álvaro Joaquim de Melo Siza Vieira, GOSE, GCIH, is a Portuguese architect, and Architectural educator, born 25 June 1933 in Matosinhos a small coastal town by Porto. He is internationally known as Álvaro Siza.

Pritzker Prize (1992), Royal Gold Medal (2009), UIA Gold Medal (2011), Golden Lion for lifetime achievement (2012) Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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ARCHITECTURAL COMPANIES AND THEIR PROJECTS

China Life Tower (Shenzhen, CN) China Life Insurance Tower is located in Central business zone of Shenzhen at South Zone of Futian downtown with an over ground construction area of 60,000m2. The building height amounts to 150 meters. The area of the Central Business District is characterized by the orthogonal layout of the city blocks and buildings. There is a high density of buildings and a diverse fabric of green spaces, plazas, shops, cafes and restaurants. The base shape of the tower is a rectilinear cube. In contrast to the conventional building envelopes of Shenzhen (strong, hard edges) the appearance of the tower is softer and more inviting. The curved edges of the tower smoothly dissolve into continuous surfaces and thus create an alive and impressing effect in the skyline of downtown Shenzhen. The goal was to create a strong link between the nature and the inner space of the building.

Sinfonia Varsovia (Warsaw, PL) Since its founding in Warsaw in 1984, the Polish symphony orchestra “Sinfonia Varsovia” has had to practice in rented rooms. It was only in 2009, the year of the orchestra’s 25th jubilee, that the musicians gained their own base in the old veterinary building of Warsaw University. An international design competition for the design of a new concert hall on this site was held in 2010.The design envisaged a large concert chamber seating 1,600 and a practice room with space for 400. Six concave-convex curved rows of seating are arranged like a vineyard principle around the stage to provide perfect acoustics and a good view of the players from every seat. The large, oval concert hall was designed from the inside out to be sure of creating a concert venue with world-class acoustic and aesthetic qualities. The building opens to the adjacent park with a perforated facade and a foyer, from which building users can enjoy a view into green space.

Henn Architekten (Deutschland) HENN is an international architectural consultancy with 65 years of expertise in the design and realisation of buildings, masterplans and interior spaces in the fields of culture, administration, teaching and research, development and production as well as urban design. The office is led by Gunter Henn and twelve partners with offices in Munich, Berlin, Beijing and Shanghai. 350 employees from 25 countries are able to draw upon a wealth of knowledge collected over three generations of building experience in addition to a worldwide network of partners and experts in a variety of disciplines. www.henn.com

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Allies and Morrison (UK) Allies and Morrison is an architecture and planning practice based in London. It operates from its own studios in Southwark Street, the RIBA London Building of the Year 2004. Allies and Morrison has completed projects throughout the UK and is currently undertaking work in Germany, Holland, India, Qatar and the Lebanon. The practice is formed of two parts, Allies and Morrison Architects and Allies and Morrison Urban Practitioners, the former focused on architecture and design, the latter on planning, masterplanning consultation, conservation and research. On large-scale projects, the two sides of the practice combine their respective expertise and experience and work together. The practice has been shortlisted twice for the Stirling Prize, for the Royal Festival Hall in 2008 and New Court Rothschild Bank with OMA in 2012. www.alliesandmorrison.com

Royal Albert Memorial Museum

South Place Hotel

Exeter

City of London

The Royal Albert Memorial Museum and Art Gallery is located within Exeter's historic city centre. The project for its expansion, enhancement and refurbishment allows the creation of a new entrance, shop and double-height reception within its garden setting, and provides new gallery space for temporary exhibitions.

South Place Hotel is a new City hotel located between Liverpool Street Station and Moorgate. It provides 80 generously-sized guest bedrooms and a range of public spaces including bars, a destination rooftop restaurant and terrace, dining and meeting rooms, a gym and a resident’s games room.

An existing courtyard is covered to form a new space at the heart of the building, and an existing linear route through the museum is roof-lit and extended by a new link bridge which makes new pedestrian connections with the adjacent visitor route along the Roman city wall.

The facade is made up of two interplaying layers of glass and anodised aluminium panels which fold inwards at the eaves level of the neighbouring buildings. The scheme is designed to achieve a BREEAM rating of Excellent and provide CO2 savings of 40% below Part L 2006 requirements. Signature interiors are designed by Conran and Partners, with whom we have liaised closely throughout.

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Architectural companies and their projects

Liverpool Waters (UK) The masterplanning of some 62ha of redundant docks, historically the lifeblood of the city which became in its prime the UK’s second city. Their challenge is to create a mixed-use development that will transform these docks into a new commercial core whilst respecting the heritage and uniqueness of the site. The docks must become a natural extension of the city centre whilst remaining an integral part of their immediate surroundings.

Baku Palace Hotel Azerbaijan The site of Azerbaijan’s principal hotel is immediately opposite the Parliament and facing the Remembrance Gardens. The 250 room tower is designed as a symbolic flame, which responds to the importance of oil to the nation, as well as exploiting the exceptional views from all the rooms to the Caspian Sea. The tower sits on a podium containing the public facilities of the hotel and a 30,000m² office building.

Glasgow Harbour, UK One of the UK’s largest and most prestigious regeneration projects, this £1.2 billion scheme will create a new city district, providing major benefits including access to the riverside for the first time in more than 100 years. The scheme will provide an outstanding waterside retail, leisure, commercial and residential destination.

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Chapman Taylor Chapman Taylor is an international practice of architects, masterplanners and interior designers operating from 17 regional offices and with experience of working in over 80 countries around the world. The practice was established in the UK in 1959 and developed an early reputation as the designers of many prestigious office and residential developments in Central London, as well as working on the masterplanning of some of the major London estates. During the 1970s and 1980s the practice was at the forefront of the dramatic expansion of the retail sector in the UK and designed the majority of the many successful shopping centres built at that time. In the early 1990s Chapman Taylor commenced its growth internationally, designing many projects outside the UK and opening its first offices on mainland Europe. w w w . c h a p m a n t a y l o r. c o m

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Architectural companies and their projects

Henning Larsen Architects (Denmark) Henning Larsen Architects is an international architecture firm based in Copenhagen, Denmark. Founded in 1959 by noted Danish architect and namesake Henning Larsen, it has around 200 employees. In 2011 the company worked on projects in more than 20 countries. In 2008 Henning Larsen Architects opened an office in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia named Henning Larsen Middle East and in 2011 an office in Munich,Germany were inaugurated. Most recently Henning Larsen Architects opened two offices. One in Oslo, Norway and one in Istanbul, Turkey. www.henninglarsen.com

HERLEV HOSPITAL

BATUMI AQUARIUM

The building complex as a whole will go from being a very ”large house” situated on a plot without outdoor spaces to becoming a ”built-up area” offering a variety of distinctive elements and eventful outdoor spaces. A hospital structure constitutes an organisation of a large number of small spaces which – in this project – are spatially contrasted by the near outdoor environment, inner gardens and courtyards.

The formation constitutes four self-supporting exhibition areas where each of the four stones represents a unique marine biotype – the Mediterranean, the Black Sea/Red Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Indian Ocean. The four dispersed aquarium exhibitions are connected by a central, multipurpose space including café, auditorium and retail functions with views of the black sea and Batumi beach as scenic backdrop. Visitors gather in the central space to convene, play, eat, shop and relax before continuing their adventures through the exhibitions.

A number of separate building volumes with contrasting geometries form an inspiring contrast to the existing structuralist building and contribute to considerately adapting the area as a whole to the scale of the surroundings.

MEDIACORP SINGAPORE The building is designed as a self-sufficient carbon neutral building. With optimal daylight conditions and adding productivity gains, less sick days and better indoor climate for its people. Architecture can deliver functionality in an innovative way and become the working environment of choice. The building is iconic in its character; it is designed as a strong gesture that embraces space and the future. This gesture is about openness. 88

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Batumi Aquarium will become a modern, cultural aquarium offering visitors an educational, entertaining and visually stimulating journey through the different seas. Unfolding around the aquarium, a landscape of different sea archipelagos provides attractive opportunities for innovative outdoor research and learning, public space and meeting places along the beach.


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Wilson Associates (USA) Internationally acclaimed design firm, Wilson Associates was founded in 1971 by Trisha Wilson, who built the brand around creating interiors for hotels, restaurants, clubs, casinos, and high-end residential properties. The firm’s design philosophy is simple: design for the market. No specific “style” or “look” is attributed to the firm. Instead, Wilson Associates creates custom interiors for each client, conducting extensive research to fulfill each owner and operator’s unique vision. Each project is brought to life through the incorporation of architectural details and décor positioned by local craftsmen to enhance geographical flavor and add value, while setting a global design standard. www.wilsonassociates.com

Armani Hotel

Conrad Bangkok Hotel

Dubai A unique collaboration between Wilson Associates and Giorgio Armani, the Armani Dubai debuts in the Burj Khalifa tower as the first of Mr. Armani’s minimally opulent properties. Each space religiously adheres to the Armani aesthetic.

At the Conrad Bangkok the design goal for Wilson Associates was to create a contemporary Asian hotel which would cater to the business traveler’s every need in terms of comfort, function and technology. The luxury guestrooms and suites reveal the contemporary style of Thailand with the use of rich silks and natural wood.

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Architectural companies and their projects

DP Architects (Singapore) DPA is a home-grown architectural practice evolving in tandem with the building of nationhood since the independence of Singapore. Founded in 1967 with a deep concern for the built environment and the need to create architecture of excellence, it aims to enrich the human experience and spirit through its planning and architectural works. Growing from a single office of a dozen to 1,200 strong in twelve offices worldwide, they have generated many significant projects over more than 40 years of continued operation. Through a strong commitment to design excellence, they aspire to make our mark on the global stage by making significant contributions to the field of architecture and to the design environment. www.dpa.com.sg

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Marina Centre

The Singapore Flyer

Marina Centre is a development on the single largest site in downtown Singapore, a massive region of reclaimed land that links the city’s Central Business District with its eastern coastline, and an enormously important moment of transition and connectivity within the city. The project situates a collection of public spaces within a region previously inaccessible to pedestrians and generates a number of urban linkages which include two Mass Rapid Transit stations. All these factors make the site an inherent metropolitan focal point and urban centre of gravity. The commercial complex consists of three interwoven projects completed by DP Architects over a period spanning 1986-1997: Marina Square, Millenia Singapore, and Suntec City, the largest single privately-owned commercial project in Singapore.

The Singapore Flyer is designed as a means for Singapore to express itself as a magnet for tourism. A notable addition to the nation’s entertainment industry, the project is endorsed by the Singapore Tourism Board and supported by foreign investment. It represents a major public destination at the heart of the business and commercial centre of Singapore, marking the southeastern corner of the city on a stretch of reclaimed land at the confluence of the Kallang and the Singapore Rivers. At 170m in height, the Singapore Flyer is the world’s tallest Ferris wheel. Its design follows the structural logic of a bicycle wheel assembly, comprised by a trussed rim supported by tension cables affixed to the 150m-diameter hoop and central hub. The hub, in turn, is held by twin forks also stabilised by tension cables anchored to the ground. Each of 28 air-conditioned suspended glass capsules can accommodate 30 people, and the wheel makes one complete revolution every 37 minutes. Views from this man-made site offer an unprecedented perspective of downtown Singapore.

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Atkins (UK) WS Atkins plc (commonly known as Atkins) is a multinational engineering, design, planning, project management and consulting services company headquartered in Epsom, United Kingdom. It was founded in 1938 by Sir William Atkins. As of 2012, Atkins is the largest engineering consultancy in the UK and the world’s fourteenth largest design firm by revenue. It employs approximately 18,000 staff based in 300 offices across 29 countries and has undertaken projects in over 150 countries. Its motto is “Plan, Design, Enable”. Atkins is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. www.atkinsglobal.com

Bahrain World Trade Center

Lotus Hotel

Atkins provided multidisciplinary services for the twin 240m high office towers and shopping mall of the Bahrain World Trade Center.

Atkins provided architecture and landscape design for this low rise 355-room, five-star business and resort hotel located on an island in a perfectly circular lake in Lin Gang new town, Shanghai.

Atkins achieved a world first by aesthetically incorporating commercial wind turbines into the fabric of the building. The three 29m diameter wind turbines and the shape of the paired towers have a direct and tangible relationship via wind dynamics. The Carbon Critical Design of the Bahrain World Trade Center meant it was fully tenanted by major regional businesses from day one. Atkins also received a number of accolades for the design including a Best Tall Building award from The Council for Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, a Construction Week award and an Innovation award from The Building Exchange.

Our international competition winning project is the first completed building on a new island in an artificial lake and forms the centrepiece of the new port city. The three-dimensional design superimposes an ideal natural form of a five-leafed lotus flower on the irregularly shaped island. Each of the ‘leaves’ contains either wings of hotel rooms or guest facilities. These leaf forms challenge the typical hotel layout plan by introducing atrium gardens, bringing natural light into each area.

Meixi Lake Eco City Meixi Lake represents a sustainable city model, now in its implementation phase. Located to the west of Changsha City, Meixi Lake is positioned to be 'the future centre of Hexi City' with an expected population of 206,000 people. Atkins’ masterplan embodies the spirit and objectives of an ecological city, maximising opportunities through transport infrastructure, promoting a development strategy of high density core areas (TOD – Transit Oriented Development), a new CBD, as well as seven character districts, all to be implemented over the evolutionary life of the development. Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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Architectural companies and their projects

B+H Architects (Canada) B+H Architects (formerly known as Bregman + Hamann Architects), founded in 1953, is an international architecture, interior design and urban planning firm working from offices in Toronto, Vancouver, Calgary, Seattle, Shanghai, Beijing, Hong Kong, Singapore, Ho Chi Minh City, Delhi, Doha, and Dubai. With over 450 architects, designers, planners, and practice support teams working in 12 offices around the world. B+H’s body of work spans all sectors including commercial, entertainment, healthcare, hospitality, industrial, institutional, residential, retail, sports, and transportation. www.bharchitects.com

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Ozdilek Centre

Four Seasons Hotel Gresham Palace

Istanbul, Turkey

Budapest, Hungary

The location for this project called for a contemporary mixed-use complex to transform the constricted urban site into multi-layered development. Site geometry and the significant difference in levels between its eastern and western edge suggested the concept which was also inspired by the mountain river cascading between two hills. Two public plazas at opposite ends of the site are anchored by a 38-storey hotel/office tower and 37-storey condominium tower. A glazed skylit pedestrian circulation element meanders and bends like a river between the plazas, cascading down to a shopping area and effectively accommodating the difference in levels between the plazas.

This hotel was designed by Patrick Fejér, founder and principal of Formanyelv, now a Principal at B+H. He oversaw the conversion of an Art Nouveau Palace into a luxury hotel, which was featured in Condé Nast Magazine and won Best New Hotel in Europe.

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The project involved reconstructing the old structure, a three-storey underground parking garage, and the addition of an upper guest room floor and rooftop spa. The diverse palette of new and original materials ranged from gold mosaic to bronze structural fittings. Formanyelv was responsible interior design as well as architecture for the spa. Interior design for the rest of the project was provided by Richmond International.


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RNL Architecture (USA) RNL Design is a Denver based multidisciplinary design firm offering services in architecture, interior design, planning and urban design, landscape architecture, lighting design and facilities master planning. Founded in 1956, a oneman operation in Denver known as John B. Rogers, Architect. Rogers, the “R” in RNL Design, studied architectural engineering at Kansas State University. Rogers came to Denver in 1947 to work for the architectural firm Smith, Hegner and Moore. After working in Denver, he attended the University of Texas, earning a bachelor of architecture degree in 1951, and an MBA from the University of Colorado in 1984.Rogers joined forces with Jerome Nagel in 1961 to form Rogers Nagel Architects. In 1966 Rogers Nagel Architects joined with Victor Langhart to form Rogers Nagel Langhart Architects and Engineers. www.rnldesign.com

Ocean Journey Aquarium

The Cable Center

Colorado’s Ocean Journey is an interactive aquarium, presenting the story of water and its journey from the mountains to the sea through various fragile ecosystems and climactic zones. The facility, which holds roughly one million gallons of water, incorporates modern interactive exhibitry, hands-on displays, explanatory wayfinding and elements of sight, sound, temperature and humidity to create immersive experiences. Exhibits range from traditional jewel tanks to large acrylic-windowed ocean tanks that replicate mountain, aviary and marine mammal habitats. These presentations are represented as dynamic environments, with immense rock canyons and waterfalls, surprise flash floods and dense rain forests.

The Cable Center establishes a powerful architectural image for the cable television industry. The building consists of four quadrants with one “missing.” In its place is a monumental glazed atrium, the center’s lobby and principal space. This Great Hall is approached through an adjacent garden that holds an outdoor movie theater; inside, exhibit and other spaces are arranged in linear, multi-level blocks. The center’s central theme – the “Power of the Coaxial Cable” – is articulated by the Great Hall’s central feature: a multiscreened video wall connected to a world map on the floor. Glass exterior walls reflect the industry’s sophistication and high-tech nature; granite and limestone cladding mimics the texture of adjacent buildings.

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Architectural companies and their projects

Geometrica Geometrica has designed, manufactured and installed domes and space frame structures since 1992. The company has developed unique technology to build stunning long-span structures for architectural and industrial buildings. With facilities in Houston, Texas and Monterrey, Mexico, Geometrica supports its clients with a global network of representatives, and has delivered domes and space frames in over 25 countries. Our structures are used in sports venues, convention centers, houses of worship, offices, industrial plants and domes for environmental protection. The construction is based on an advanced structural system, either in steel or aluminum, and covered in materials such as glass, wood or metal. Geometrica generates value on the following: ·· Customer first. Every Geometrica building is custom-engineered to meet our client’s requirements. Wiki workspaces enable agile project collaboration and timely completion. ·· Dependable organization. Its long history of successful deliveries make Geometrica the preferred and trusted solution. ·· Environmental awareness. Geometrica structures are milestones in their localities, enhance our customer’s image, and protect the environment. ·· Cost. Technology based products make Geometrica solutions competitive with conventional systems. ·· Certified Quality. BSI, the largest ISO 9001 registrar in the world, certifies that Geometrica’s Quality Management System complies with ISO 9001:2008 standard. Considering its customers’ needs, Geometrica offers: ·· Architectural Solutions. ·· Industrial Buildings. ·· Bulk Material Storage. www.geometrica.com/en/about

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~ Puerto Rico’s Museo del Nino brings the outdoors in When you live on an island, blue skies and sunshine are a normal and natural part of your life. So when architect René Acosta Jr. was appointed to create the new Children’s Museum building in Carolina, Puerto Rico, he chose to make natural light and an ever-present view of the sky the signature for his breathtaking design.

Keeping Coal Clean This article details the background and construction of a coal storage circular dome for Indonesia’s largest fertilizer producer, PT Pupuk Kalimantan Timur (Pupuk-Kaltim).

Omnimax Theater

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Urban engineering construction and communications


10 BIGGEST ENGINEERING PROJECTS IN THE WORLD

Exploring the 10 biggest engineering projects in the world is a study in enormous ideas ranging from transportation solutions to an oasis paradise in a once-barren desert. Some of these projects will take you to subzero temperatures, and others will transport you miles above the Earth. What they all have in common – in addition to their gigantic scope and size – are hefty price tags. And while some have yet to come to fruition (and others have been nixed on the drawing table), each of these projects will leave you in awe of what we're capable of when equipped with some tools and sheer ingenuity. www.sciencechannel.com/science-technology/10-biggest-engineering-projects.htm From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository The Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository as designated by the NWPA Amendments of 1987, was to be a deep geological repository storage facility for spent nuclear reactor fuel and other high level radioactive waste. Federal funding ended in 2010. It was to be located on federal land adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada, about 80 mi (130 km) northwest of the Las Vegas Valley. The proposed repository was within Yucca Mountain, a ridge line in the south-central part of Nevada near its border with California.

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Although the location has been highly contested by both environmentalists and non-local residents in Las Vegas, which is over 100 miles (160 km) away, it was approved in 2002 by the United States Congress. However, under the Obama Administration funding for development of Yucca Mountain waste site was terminated effective via amendment to the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, passed by Congress on April 14, 2011. The US GAO stated that the closure was for political, not technical or safety reasons.This leaves United States civilians without any long term storage site for high level radioactive waste, currently stored on-site at various nuclear facilities around the country, although the United States government can dispose of its waste at WIPP, in rooms 2,150 feet (660 m) underground. The Department of Energy is reviewing other options for a high-level waste repository. The Blue Ribbon Commission established by the Secretary of Energy released its final report on January 26, 2012. It expressed urgency to find a consolidated, geological repository, but also that any future facility should have input from the citizens around it.


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Three Gorges Dam The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China. The Three Gorges Dam is the world’s largest power station in terms of installed capacity (22,500 MW). In 2012, the amount of electricity the dam generated was similar to the amount generated by the Itaipu Dam.  Except for a ship lift, the dam project was completed and fully functional as of July 4, 2012, when the last of the main turbines in the underground plant began production. Each main turbine has a capacity of 700 MW.The dam body was completed in 2006. Coupling the dam’s 32 main turbines with two smaller generators (50 MW each) to power the plant itself, the total electric generating capacity of the dam is 22,500 MW.

Big Dig The Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), known unofficially as the Big Dig, was a megaproject in Boston that rerouted the Central Artery (Interstate 93), the chief highway through the heart of the city, into a 3.5-mile (5.6-km) tunnel. The project also included the construction of the Ted Williams Tunnel (extending Interstate 90 to Logan International Airport), the Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge over the Charles River, and the Rose Kennedy Greenway in the space vacated by the previous I-93 elevated roadway. Initially, the plan was also to include a rail connection between Boston’s two major train terminals. The official planning phase started in 1982; the construction work was done between 1991 and 2006; and the project concluded on December 31, 2007, when the partnership between the program manager and the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority ended.

International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellitein low Earth orbit. It is a modular structure whose first component was launched in 1998.Now the largest artificial body in orbit, it can often be seen at the appropriate time with thenaked eye from Earth.The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays and other components. ISS components have been launched by American Space Shuttles as well as Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets.In 1984 the ESA was invited to participate in Space Station Freedom.In 1993, after the USSR ended, the United States and Russia merged Mir-2 and Freedom together. The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorologyand other fields. The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars. Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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10 Biggest Engineering Projects in the World

Dubai Canal In terms of engineering, most things having to do with Dubai are spectacular, and the Arabian Canal is no exception. Some sources claim it will be the world’s longest man-made canal, measuring 46.6 miles (75 kilometers) long. Also known as the Dubai Canal, this waterway brings water inland to the vast desert from the Arabian Gulf. The elaborate plan includes creating a desert oasis along the entire stretch of the canal. In terms of engineering, most things having to do with Dubai are spectacular, and the Arabian Canal is no exception. Some sources claim it will be the world’s longest man-made canal, measuring 46.6 miles (75 kilometers) long. Also known as the Dubai Canal, this waterway brings water inland to the vast desert from the Arabian Gulf. The elaborate plan includes creating a desert oasis along the entire stretch of the canal.

Pathway Through the Bering Strait Bering Strait crossing is a hypothetical bridge or tunnel spanning the relatively narrow and shallow Bering Strait between the Chukotka Peninsula in Russia and the Seward Peninsula in the U.S. state of Alaska. In principle, the bridge or tunnel would provide an overland connection linking Asia with North America, although there is little infrastructure in the nearby parts of Alaska and Russia.

Transatlantic Train A transatlantic tunnel is a theoretical tunnel that would span the Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe possibly for such purposes as mass transit. Some proposals envision technologically advanced trains reaching speeds of 500 to 8,000 kilometres per hour (310 to 5,000 mph). Most conceptions of the tunnel envision it between the United States and the United Kingdom – or more specifically between New York City and London. Advantages compared to air travel could be increased speed, and use of electricity instead of scarce oil based fuel, considering a future time long after peak oil. The main barriers to constructing such a tunnel are cost with estimates of between $175 billion to $12 trillion as well as the limits of current materials science.Existing major tunnels, such as the Channel Tunnel, Seikan Tunnel and the Gotthard Base Tunnel, despite using less expensive technology than any yet proposed for the transatlantic tunnel, struggle financially.

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Sky Cities Sky City (Chine), or Sky City One, is an 838 m (2,749 ft) tall planned skyscraper in the city of Changsha, Hunan in southcentral China.

Panama Canal The Panama Canal (Spanish: Canal de Panamá) is a 77.1-kilometre (48 mi) ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) to the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. There are locks at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 26 metres (85 ft) above sea level. The current locks are 33.5 metres (110 ft) wide. A third, wider lane of locks is currently under construction and is due to open in 2015.

New York Subway System The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority,a subsidiary agency of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. It is the most extensive public transportation system in the world by number of stations, with 468 stations in operation (421, if stations connected by transfers are counted as single stations).The New York City Subway is also one of the world’s oldest public transit systems. Overall, the system contains 209 mi (337 km) of routes, translating into 656 miles (1,056 km) of revenue track; and a total of 842 miles (1,355 km) including nonrevenue trackage. In 2012, the subway delivered over 1.65 billion rides, averaging approximately 5.4 million rides on weekdays, about 3.2 million rides on Saturdays, and about 2.5 million rides on Sundays. By annual ridership, the New York City Subway is the busiest rapid transit rail system in the United States and in the Americas, as well as the seventh busiest rapid transit rail system in the world; the metro (subway) systems in Tokyo, Seoul, Moscow, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou record a higher annual ridership. It offers rail service 24 hours per day and every day of the year. Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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TOP 10 FEATS OF ENGINEERING

It's easy to take good engineering for granted. After all, it's the bad engineering that gets the headlines: bridges falling down, buildings falling apart, tunnels collapsing. When done right, good engineering can be beautiful to look at or beautifully functional or just amazing in its scale. Here's our tribute to a few projects that did more than just get the job done. www.sciencechannel.com/science-technology/10-biggest-engineering-projects.htm

The Pyramids The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt. There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008.Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdomperiods. The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. The earliest among these is the Pyramid of Djoser (constructed 2630 BCE–2611 BCE) which was built during the third dynasty. This pyramid and its surrounding complex were designed by the architect Imhotep, and are generally considered to be the world's oldest monumental structures constructed of dressed masonry. The estimate of the number of workers to build the pyramids range from a few thousand, twenty thousand, and up to 100,000. The most famous Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Several of the Giza pyramids are counted among the largest structures ever built. The Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the largest Egyptian pyramid. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence. 102

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Hoover Dam (and Three Gorges Dam) It’s not the world’s biggest dam, but it was the one that changed the way we build them. The first of the large concrete arch dams that dominated the 20th century, Hoover also marked the birth of America’s dam-building boom. Its Depression-era construction cost &36;49 million and used so much concrete that engineers had to pipe cooled river water through the dam face to help the concrete cool faster. The sweeping, 60-story-high concrete arch, along with its water works, power station and intake towers, were all designed in classic art deco style, reminding us of the days when plans for public works projects included intricate stone and metalwork, ornate plaques, and elegant statues of massive seraphs guarding the gates. They just don’t build them like they used to.

Panama Canal The Panama Canal (Spanish: Canal de Panamá) is a 77.1-kilometre (48 mi) ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) to the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. There are locks at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 26 metres (85 ft) above sea level. The current locks are 33.5 metres (110 ft) wide. A third, wider lane of locks is currently under construction and is due to open in 2015.

Burj Dubai (Dubai Tower) Burj Khalifa (Arabic: “Khalifa Tower”), known as Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is the tallest man-made structure in the world, at 829.8 m (2,722 ft). Construction began on 21 September 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010,and is part of the new 2 km2 (490-acre) development called Downtown Dubai at the ‘First Interchange’ along Sheikh Zayed Road, near Dubai’s main business district. The tower’s architecture and engineering were performed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill of Chicago, with Adrian Smith as chief architect, and Bill Baker as chief structural engineer. The primary contractor was Samsung C&T of South Korea.

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Top 10 Feats of Engineering

Large Hadron Collider The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the highest-energy particle collider ever made and is considered as “one of the great engineering milestones of mankind”. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) from 1998 to 2008, with the aim of allowing physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics and high-energy physics, and particularly prove or disprove the existence of the theorized Higgsparticle and of the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories. The Higgs particle was confirmed by data from the LHC in 2013. The LHC is expected to address some of the unsolved questions of physics, advancing human understanding of physical laws. It contains seven detectors each designed for specific kinds of exploration.

The LHC was built in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries, as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories.

the Franco-Swiss border

It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference, as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the FrancoSwiss border near  Geneva,  Switzerland.

The Chunnel The Channel Tunnel (French: Le tunnel sous la Manche; also referred to as the Chunnel) is a 50.5-kilometre (31.4 mi) rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover. At its lowest point, it is 75 m (250 ft) deep. At 37.9 kilometres (23.5 mi), the tunnel has the longest undersea portion of any tunnel in the world, although the Seikan Tunnel in Japan is both longer overall at 53.85 kilometres (33.46 mi) and deeper at 240 metres (790 ft) below sea level. The tunnel carries high-speed Eurostar passenger trains, Eurotunnel Shuttle roll-on/roll-offvehicle transport – the largest in the world – and international rail freight trains.The tunnel connects end-to-end with the LGV Nord and High Speed 1 highspeed railway lines.

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Qingzang-Tibet Railway The Qinghai–Tibet railway, Qinghai–Xizang railway or Qingzang railway , is a high-elevation railway that connects Xining, Qinghai Province, to Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, in the People’s Republic of China. The length of the railway is 1,956 km (1,215 mi). Construction of the 815 km (506 mi) section between Xining and Golmud was completed by 1984. The 1,142 km (710 mi) section between Golmud and Lhasa was inaugurated on July 1, 2006 by Chinese President Hu Jintao: the first two passenger trains were “Qing 1” (Q1) from Golmud to Lhasa, and “Zang 2” (J2) from Lhasa. This railway is the first to connect the Tibet Autonomous Region to any other province, which, due to its elevation and terrain, is the last province-level entity in mainland China to have a railway. Testing of the line and equipment started on 1 May 2006.Passenger trains run from Beijing, Chengdu, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Xining and Lanzhou.

The line includes the Tanggula Pass, which, at 5,072 m (16,640 feet) above sea level, is the world’s highest railway. 

Tanggula railway station at 5,068 m (16,627 feet) 33°00΄18.50˝N  91°38΄57.70˝E  is the world’s highest railway station.

1,338 m (4,390 ft) Fenghuoshan tunnel is the highest rail tunnel in the world at 4,905 m (16,093 ft) above sea level.

The 4,010 m (13,160 ft) Guanjiao tunnel is the longest tunnel and culminating point (3,700 m) between Xining and Golmud and 3,345 m (10,974 ft) Yangbajing tunnel is the longest tunnel between Golmud and Lhasa.

There are 675 bridges, totalling 159.88 km (99.34 mi), and about 550 km (340 mi) is laid on permafrost.

Millau Viaduct The Millau Viaduct (French: le Viaduc de Millau, IPA: [vjadyk də mijo]) is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France. Designed by the French structural engineer Michel Virlogeux and British architect Norman Foster, it is the tallest bridge in the world with one mast’s summit at 343.0 metres (1,125 ft) above the base of the structure. It is the 12th highest bridge deck in the world, being 270 metres (890 ft) between the road deck and the ground below.Millau Viaduct is part of the A75-A71 autoroute axis from Paris to Montpellier. Construction cost was approximately €400 million. It was formally inaugurated on 14 December 2004, and opened to traffic on 16 December. The bridge has been consistently ranked as one of the great engineering achievements of all time. The bridge received the 2006 International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Outstanding Structure Award.

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Netherlands Delta Works The Delta Works is a series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt deltafrom the sea. The works consist of dams, sluices, locks, dykes, levees, and storm surge barriers. The aim of the dams, sluices, and storm surge barriers was to shorten the Dutch coastline, thus reducing the number of dikes that had to be raised. Along with the Zuiderzee Works, Delta Works have been declared one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers.

The Great Wall stretches from Shanhaiguan in the east, to Lop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia.

A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the Ming walls measure 8,850 km (5,500 mi). 

This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi) sections of actual wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km (1,387 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers.

Another archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measure out to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi).

Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China in part to protect the Chinese Empire or its prototypical states against intrusions by various nomadic groups or military incursions by various warlike peoples or forces. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC; these, later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are now collectively referred to as the Great Wall. Especially famous is the wall built between 220–206 BC by the first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang. Little of that wall remains. Since then, the Great Wall has on and off been rebuilt, maintained, and enhanced; the majority of the existing wall was reconstructed during the Ming Dynasty. Other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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THE MOST INTERESTING HOTEL DESIGN

www.escapenormal.com/2012/12/05/the-100-mostamazing-unique-and-beautiful-hotels-in-the-world/

Atholl Palace Hotel Scotland A majestic castle hotel overlooking the highlands.

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Nhow Berlin

The Oberoi

Germany

India

A vibrant and colorful hotel dedicated to celebrating music.

Udaipur, in the heart of Rajasthan, is a city of majestic palaces and beautiful lakes. Here, adorning the banks of Lake Pichola and standing witness to the historic City Palace, The Oberoi Udaivilas captures the romance and splendour of a royal era.

Hotel Villa Honegg

Fairy Chimney Hotel

Switzerland

Turkey

Comes with an amazing view of the Swiss Alps from a steamy infinity pool.

Hotel built into an alien landscape.

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The most interesting hotel design

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Barin Ski Resort

Jade Screen Hotel

Iran

China

A futuristic resort with modern comforts.

A hotel built into the mind bogglingly beautiful cliffs of China.

Crazy Bear Hotel

Kolarbyn

United Kingdom

Sweden

There is a fine line between extravagant and kitsch, but this hotel is go big or go home. And it looks awesome.

Traditional forest huts in the woods, like little fairy houses.

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U r b a n e n g i n e e r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s

Quinta Real Zacatecas Mexico Built around an old bullring and updated to be grand and elegant.


TOP 10 ALL‑INCLUSIVE RESORTS – WORLD

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Iberostar Grand Hotel Paraiso Playa Paraiso Mexico Hotel of hotels, the award winning Grand Hotel Paraíso, part of the ‘Grand Collection’ set of IBEROSTAR, is the most select of the Riviera Maya (Mexico), a majestic enclave in the midst of the most beautiful nature, to enjoy not only a dream vacation but also business combined with a variety of sports, relaxation, beach, parties, exquisite service and great restaurants. www.thegrandcollection.com/en/hotels/riviera-maya/ iberostar-grand-hotel-paraiso/introduction

Adler Thermae Spa & Relax Resort Bagno Vignoni Italy At the Adler Thermae Spa & Relax Resort the combination of nature with modern architecture, Italian nonchalance and international luxury creates a stylish-casual holiday atmosphere. www.adler-thermae.com

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Royalton Cayo Santa Maria Cayo Santa Maria Cuba Royalton Cayo Santa Maria unites its top quality product, outstanding hospitality services, as well as luxury amenities with the spirit and soul of the Cuban community. The first Royalton hotel built in the Caribbean, Royalton Cayo Santa Maria quickly became one of the best all inclusive resorts in the region. Cayo Santa Maria resort is conveniently located approximately 116 km from Santa Clara International Airport. www.royaltonresorts.com/en/cayo-santa-maria.aspx

The Reserve at Paradisus Palma Real Punta Cana Dominican Republic Located in Punta Cana (Bávaro Beach), The Reserve is surrounded by stunning tropical gardens with access to an exclusive private beach with concierge service. Exclusive Boutique Hotel offers exclusive access to separate, sparkling new pools for kids and adults, a private lounge, and other facilities. www.paradisus.com/the-reserve-overview.php

Voyage Belek Golf & Spa Belek Turkey The Voyage Belek Golf & Spabeach consists of fine sand without any pebbles or rocks, which is rarely found in the Belek region. Also, the coastline is home to the caretta turtles and the resort hosts these lovely guests with exclusive conservation areas. www.voyagehotel.com/Voyage-Belek-Spa-EN

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Top 10 all‑inclusive resorts

world

Hotel Andilana Beach Nosy Be Antsiranana Province, Madagascar Sports resort on the shores of Northern Nosy-Be. Hotel Andilana Beach Resort is located on the northern side of the island, 35 km from Hell City. There are a wide range of outdoor sports available for the guests as well as a massage centre. Facilities include a swimming pool, health and fitness centre, tennis court, disco, and dive centre. www.andilanaresort.com

Sandals Royal Plantation Ocho Rios Jamaica Sandals Royal Plantation hotel is made up entirely of suites, and is the most elegant of Jamaica's all-inclusive resorts. Sandals Royal Plantation – an intimate all-butler resort of just 74 ocean view suites tucked into a magnificent coral bluff. www.sandals.com/main/plantation/rp-home

Club Med Egypt – Sinai Bay Taba Egypt The Resort is located at the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba, at the crossroads of Sinaï and Israel, across from Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Take advantage of this strategic location to explore the region: Taba Heights is a village with a few restaurants and shops, 5 minutes from Club Med. www.facebook.com/pages/Welcome-CLUB-MED-TABASinai-Bay/153545828040611

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The BodyHoliday LeSport Castries, St. Lucia The BodyHoliday Le Sport in St. Lucia is an adult-only, all-inclusive luxury resort and wellness retreat. The BodyHoliday is a unique combination of one of the world's most beautiful islands, a resort that provides caring personal service, a Wellness Centre and a range of activities. www.thebodyholiday.com/ poshbrood.com/ destinations/detail/the_bodyholiday_le_sport

Cozumel Palace Cozumel, Mexico Cozumel Palace, a premiere choice of All-Inclusive resorts in Cozumel for families offers an unforgettable vacation. Resort amenities include four swimming pools, an amazing Infinity pool, activities pool, Kiddy pool, diving pool and swim-up bar. www.cancunpalaceresorts.com/cozumelpalace/ default-en.html

www.thebeachfrontclub.com/beach-hotel/africa/madagascar/nosy-be/andilana-northern-nosy-be/resortandilana/?ref=featured

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THE BEST UNIVERSITY DESIGN

The University of Toronto Canada

The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, situated on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in Upper Canada. Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution. As a collegiate university, it comprises twelve colleges that differ in character and history, each retaining substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School. The university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, and was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of multi-touch technology, the identification of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole, and the theory of NP completeness. By a significant margin, it receives the most annual research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities located outside the United States. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Toronto

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Stanford University California, USA Stanford University is one of the world's leading research universities. Stanford is known for its entrepreneurial character, drawn from the legacy of its founders, Jane and Leland Stanford, and its relationship to Silicon Valley. Research and teaching emphasize interdisciplinary approaches to problem solving. Areas of excellence range from the humanities to social sciences to engineering and the sciences. Stanford is located in California's Bay Area, one of the most intellectually dynamic and culturally diverse areas of the nation. www.facts.stanford.edu

The University of Oxford England, United Kingdom The University of Oxford (informally referred to as Oxford University or simply Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England, United Kingdom. While Oxford has no known date of foundation, there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world, and the world's second-oldest surviving university. The University is made up from a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges and a full range of academic departments which are organized into four Divisions. Most undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organized around weekly tutorials at the selfgoverning colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. Oxford has nurtured many prominent alumni, and 58 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university. It regularly contends with Cambridge for the first place in the UK league tables. It has also been the home of two of the most prestigious graduate scholarships, the Rhodes Scholarship, which has brought international students to read at the university for more than a century, and the Clarendon Scholarships. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Oxford

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The best university design

The University of Edinburgh Scotland

The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583, is the sixth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university. The University of Edinburgh is ranked 17th in the world by the 2013 QS rankings. It is ranked 11th in the world in arts and humanities by the 2012–13 Times Higher Education Ranking. It is ranked the 15th most employable university in the world by the 2013 Global Employability University Ranking. It is a member of both the Russell Group, and the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Edinburgh

The Australian National University (ANU) Australia

The Australian National University (ANU) is a celebrated place of intensive research, education and policy engagement. ANU is home to an interconnected community of scholars. The University is located in the heart of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. ANU counts six Nobel laureates among its faculty and alumni. Students entering ANU in 2013 had a median Australian Tertiary Admission Rank of 93, the equal-highest among Australian universities. In the 2013 Global Employability University Ranking, an annual ranking of university graduates' employability, ANU was ranked 1st nationally (20th in the world). ANU is a member of the Group of Eight and the International Alliance of Research Universities. As Australia’s only member of this prestigious association, ANU enjoys close relationships and exchange partnerships with the University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, University of California, Berkeley, Yale University, Peking University, National University of Singapore, University of Tokyo, University of Copenhagen and ETH Zurich. www.about.anu.edu.au

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The University of Massachusetts USA The University of Massachusetts is the five-campus public university system of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The system includes four universities and a medical school. Across its campuses, the University of Massachusetts enrolls about 71,000 students. The UMass system was ranked 56th in the world in 2010 by the Times World University Rankings. It was also ranked as the 19th best university in the world in the Times of London's 2011 World Reputation Rankings. In 2012, the state of Massachusetts introduced $607 million in new bond funding to advance highquality instructional and research facility projects throughout the UMass system. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Massachusetts

Nanyang Technological University (NTU) Singapore A research-intensive public university, Nanyang Technological University (NTU) has 33,500 undergraduate and postgraduate students in the colleges of Engineering, Business, Science, and Humanities, Arts, & Social Sciences. With Singapore being a cosmopolitan nation with Asian sensibilities, the School of Art, Design and Media (ADM) seeks to play a weighty role in transforming the island state into a global media city. ADM inter-disciplinary courses are designed to mould creative individuals into outstanding artists, designers, animators, new media performers and even business leaders. www.adm.ntu.edu.sg/AboutADM/Pages/AboutADM.aspx

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The best university design

Tel Aviv University (TAU) Israel Tel Aviv University (TAU) – Israel's largest and most comprehensive institution of higher learning – is home to over 30,000 students studying in nine faculties and over 125 schools and departments across the spectrum of sciences, humanities and the arts. Situated in Israel's cultural, financial and technological capital, TAU shares Tel Aviv's unshakable spirit of openness and innovation – and boasts a campus life as dynamic and pluralistic as the metropolis itself. Tel Aviv the city and Tel Aviv the university are one and the same – a thriving Mediterranean center of diversity and discovery. The construction of a new futuristic building has begun – The Institute for Environmental Research. It is a unique project in the country. The new building will be located on the territory of Tel Aviv University and has excellent prospects in the direction of amenity planting. www.english.tau.ac.il/about_tau

Tietgenkollegiet Danmark Tietgenkollegiet – a strange round building of dormitory, situated in Orestad, not far from Copenhagen. Orestad Gymnasium is an upper secondary school leaving examination with a special profile focusing on media, communications, and culture. The gymnasium offers specialized study programmes within the natural sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities. www.oerestadgym.dk/en/about_us

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Yale University New Haven, Connecticut Yale University is a private Ivy League research university located in New Haven, Connecticut. Yale employs over 1,100 faculty to teach and advise about 5,300 undergraduate and 6,100 graduate and professional students. Almost all tenured professors teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. The University's assets include an endowment valued at $20.80 billion as of 2013, the second-largest of any academic institution in the world. Yale's system of more than two dozen libraries holds 12.5 million volumes. Fifty-one Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the University as students, faculty, or staff. Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, and many foreign heads of state. Yale students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I Ivy League. The oldest intercollegiate athletic event in the United States is the Yale-Harvard regatta. e n . w i k i p e d i a . o r g / w i k i / Ya l e _ U n i v e r s i t y

Sorbonne University Paris Sorbonne University is a Research and Higher Education Cluster (PRES), created in 2010, which regroups eight major institutions: ·· 2 universities : Paris-Sorbonne (art, humanities and social science), Pierre et Marie Curie (science and engineering) ·· one engineering school : UTC (University of Technology of Compiègne) ·· one business school : INSEAD ·· one museum: Muséum national d’histoire naturelle (National Museum of Natural History) ·· 3 public research organisations: CNRS, Inserm (National Institute of Health and Medical Research), IRD (Institute of research for development). www.sorbonne-university.com

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The best university design

Harvard University USA Harvard University is devoted to excellence in teaching, learning, and research, and to developing leaders in many disciplines who make a difference globally. Harvard faculty are engaged with teaching and research to push the boundaries of human knowledge. For students who are excited to investigate the biggest issues of the 21st century, Harvard offers an unparalleled student experience and a generous financial aid program, with over $160 million awarded to more than 60% of our undergraduate students. The University has twelve degree-granting Schools in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, offering a truly global education. Established in 1636, Harvard is the oldest institution of higher education in the United States. The University, which is based in Cambridge and Boston, Massachusetts, has an enrollment of over 20,000 degree candidates, including undergraduate, graduate, and professional students. Harvard has more than 360,000 alumni around the world. www.harvard.edu/about-harvard

Moscow State University Russia Moscow State University was established in 1755. ·· More than 40 000 students (graduate and postgraduate) and about 7 000 undergraduates study at the university, and over 5 000 specialists do the refresher course here. More than 6 000 professors and lecturers, and about 5 000 researchers work for the faculties and research institutes. ·· Every year Moscow University enrolls about 4000 international students and postgraduates from all over the world. ·· Moscow University campus is an extremely complex system, with its 1 000 000 m2 floor area in 1 000 buildings and structures, with its 8 dormitories housing over 12 000 students and 300 km of utility lines. ·· MSU library system is one of the largest in Russia, with its 9,000,000 books, 2,000,000 of them in foreign languages, and the average number of readers 55,000, using 5,500,000 books a year. www.msu.ru/en

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The United States Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel USA The United States Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel, completed in 1962, is the distinguishing feature of the Cadet Area at the United States Air Force Academy north of Colorado Springs. It was designed by Walter Netsch of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill of Chicago. Construction was accomplished by Robert E. McKee, Inc., of Santa Fe, New Mexico. Originally controversial in its design, the Cadet Chapel has become a classic and highly regarded example of modernist architecture. The Cadet Chapel was awarded the American Institute of Architects' National Twenty-five Year Award in 1996 and, as part of the Cadet Area, was named a U.S. National Historic Landmark in 2004. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Air_Force_ Academy_Cadet_Chapel

The Moscow School of Management SKOLKOVO Russia The Moscow School of Management SKOLKOVO is the largest private business school in Russia established in 2006, when a number of Russian and international business leaders joined their effort to create a next generation business school. It was founded by 18 Russian and exterior companies and individuals, all of which are recognized industry leaders in their fields: oil and gas industry, metal industry, energy sector, investment, banking and insurance. www.skolkovo.ru/public/en

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BEST SHOPS DESIGN

Livraria Lello Livraria Lello & Irm達o, also known as Livraria Chardron or simply Livraria Lello (Lello Bookstore) is a bookstore located in central Porto, Portugal. Along with Bertrand in Lisbon, it is one of the oldest bookstores in Portugal. In 2011, the travel publishing company Lonely Planet classified Livraria Lello as the third best bookstore in the world. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livraria_Lello_%26_Irm達o


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Kid’s Republic Book Store in Beijing, China Designed by SAKO, Kid’s Republic is a children’s bookstore in Beijing, China. The store aims to provide children and parents with the very best children’s books, as well as a relaxing reading environment. It boasts bold colors, cozy reading spaces and hundreds of stories to inspire big imaginations. w w w . d e s i g n r u l z . c o m / a r c h i t e c t u r e / 2 0 1 1 / 1 0 / ki d ’s republic-book-store

Livraria da Vila Out of a narrow two-story house, architect Isay Weinfeld designed a bookstore called Livraria da Vila. Every corner of this fantastic bookstore invites shoppers to spend time reading and exploring. Weinfeld took the idea of an “open concept” floor plan to an extreme, creating atriums on the ground floor so that visitors can peek at the other floors in the store. The basement was converted into a children’s reading area and theater for lectures and classe. www.livrariadavila.com.br/Home/default.aspx

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Best shops design

10 Corso Como 10 Corso Como is a shopping and dining complex in Milan, Italy. It combines outlets that show and sell works of art, fashion, music, design, cuisine and culture. It was founded in 1990 in Milan, Italy, by gallerist and publisher Carla Sozzani. 10 Corso Como and the 10 Corso Como logo are designed by American artist Kris Ruhs. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10_Corso_Como

Selexyz Dominicanen Bookstore A 13th century Dominican church converted into an impressive contemporary bookstore. 13th century gothic architecture becomes a bookstore through continuos dialogue between history and modernity. In Maastricht, Selexyz Dominicanen is a project with multiple souls, where tradition and innovative solutions come together over a good book and a good cup of coffee. In the Classical world, Mercury, the god of merchants, was also considered the messenger of the gods and the protector of swindlers. Since then, trade has been traditionally labeled as “amoral,” a notion that gained ground during Christianity, when St. Nicholas was named the patron saint of thieves and merchants and St. Thomas Aquinas concluded that traders would be kept from entering the Kingdom of Heaven seeing that temptation figured as an integral part of their profession. The disorientation visitors encounter upon entering the Selexyz Dominicanen bookstore in Maastricht is likely atavic in nature. The building that houses the store is in fact a Gothic church consecrated in 1294 by the Order of Predicators founded by St. Dominic. The church has not hosted a religious function since 1794, when the church was confiscated by Napoleon’s army for military purposes. Since then, the space has been used as a town archive, warehouse and even an inglorious site for bike storage. In 2005, Boekhandels Groep Nederland (BGN) decided to give new life to the building by transforming it into what is now one of the world’s most incredible bookstores. w w w . n a t i o n a l t ra ve l l e r. c o m / i n d e x . p h p ? o p t i o n = c o m _ k2&view=item&id=251:selexyz-dominicanen-bookstore

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The HIT Gallery The HIT Gallery chain is meant to feature several of the lines represented by Ittierre and proposes itself as a global unique customer-service centred shopping experience, whereby brand logos and signposts are discarded to give the space an elegant, uncluttered feel, placing emphasis on the aesthetic immersion in a high-fashion reality. The highlights of the spaces are strongly neon-lit ceilings, a perimetre of illuminated arches enclosing a sparse assortment of apparel, walls painted by an indefinable tone of light-blue, ideally neutral so as to provide an optimal backdrop for the stock, and blackand-white striped floors presenting a somewhat optical effect. www.design42day.com/news/architecture/30269/hitgallery-hong-kong-by-fabio-novembre

Harrods Harrods is an upmarket department store located in Brompton Road in Knightsbridge, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London. The Harrods brand also applies to other enterprises undertaken by the Harrods group of companies including Harrods Bank, Harrods Estates, Harrods Aviation and Air Harrods, and to Harrods Buenos Aires, sold by Harrods in 1922 and closed as of 2011, with plans announced to reopen in 2013. The store occupies a 5-acre (20,000 m2) site and has over one million square feet (90,000 m2) of selling space in over 330 departments making it the biggest department store in Europe. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harrods

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Best shops design

Leadenhall Market Leadenhall Market is a covered market in London, located on Gracechurch Street but with vehicular access also available via Whittington Avenue to the north and Lime Street to the south and east, and additional pedestrian access via a number of narrow passageways. It is one of the oldest markets in London, dating back to the 14th century, and is located in the historic centre of the City of London. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadenhall_Market

Burberry boutique Burberry Group plc is a British luxury fashion house, distributing clothing, fashion accessories, fragrances and cosmetics. Its distinctive tartan pattern has become one of its most widely copied trademarks. Burberry is most famous for its trench coat, which was designed by founder Thomas Burberry. The company has branded stores and franchises around the world and also sells through concessions in third-party stores. Queen Elizabeth II and the Prince of Wales have granted the company Royal Warrants. The Chief Creative Officer is Christopher Bailey. The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burberry

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Pfunds Molkerei The most beautiful dairy shop in the world is confirmed by an entry in the Guinness Book of Records. The interior decoration of the dairy shop founded by the Pfund brothers in 1880 comprises fantastically embellished tile paintings in the style of neo-Renaissance. The hand-painted motifs on the walls, floor and shop counter were produced in the art department of the Dresden stoneware factory Villeroy and Boch. www.pfunds.de


TOP 10 TALLEST BUILDINGS IN THE WORLD

List of tallest buildings and structures in the world From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The world's tallest man-made structure is the 829.8 m (2,722 ft) tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai,United Arab Emirates. The building gained the official title of "Tallest Building in the World" at its opening on January 4, 2010. The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, an organization that certifies buildings as the "World’s Tallest", recognizes a building only if at least fifty percent of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area. Structures that do not meet this criterion, such as the CN Tower, are defined as "towers". There are dozens of radio and television broadcasting towers which measure over 600 metres (about 2,000 ft) in height, and only the tallest are recorded in publicly available information sources.


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Inspiring Business

Zifeng Tower

London

Nanjing, China

The idea was simple and strong; working round transport infrastructure that cuts down journey times, offers people precious time and the city more space and less pollution. This meant acknowledging as a key asset the fact that 54 million people a year travel through London Bridge Quarter and can move straight from train to desk in The Shard.

Zifeng Tower (a.k.a. Greenland Center-Zifeng Tower or Greenland Square Zifeng Tower, formerly Nanjing Greenland Financial Center) is a 450-metre (1,480 ft) skyscraper completed in 2010 in Nanjing, China. The 89-story building comprises retail and office space in the lower section, and restaurants, a hotel, and a public observatory near the top. The tower’s stepping is functional, helping separate these sections.

Its success will inspire businesses to expect a higher quality of working environment, architects to approach commercial projects with a more open mind, local business to reset their sights at a higher level and international business to understand where the true heart of London lies.

Architectural firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill designed the building led by Adrian Smith.

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Top 10 Tallest Buildings in the World

Willis Tower

Petronas Towers

Chicago, Illinois

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Willis Tower (formerly named and still commonly referred to as Sears Tower) is a 108-story, 1,451-foot (442 m) skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. At the time of its completion in 1973, it was the tallest building in the world, surpassing the World Trade Centertowers in New York, and it held this rank for nearly 25 years. Willis Tower is the second-tallest building in the United States and the eighth-tallest freestanding structure in the world. The skyscraper is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Chicago, and over one million people visit its observation deck each year. Named the Sears Tower throughout its history, in 2009 the Willis Group obtained the right to rename the building, as part of their lease on a portion of its offices. On July 16, 2009, the building was officially renamed Willis Tower.

The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas) are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 until surpassed by Taipei 101, but they remain the tallest twin buildings in the world. The buildings are the landmark of Kuala Lumpur with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.

United Airlines moved its corporate headquarters to Willis Tower from the United Building at 77 West Wacker Drive in August 2012. As of December 2013, United is the Willis Tower's largest tenant, with its headquarters and operations center occupying around 20 floors of the tower

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International Commerce Centre

Jin Mao Tower

Hong Kong, China

China

The International Commerce Centre (abbr. ICC Tower) is a 118-storey (see below), 484 m (1,588 ft) commercial skyscraper completed in 2010 in West Kowloon, Hong Kong. It is a part of the Union Squareproject built on top of Kowloon Station. As of 2013, it is the world's seventh tallest building by height, world's third tallest building by number of floors, as well as the tallest building in Hong Kong.

The Jin Mao Tower is an 88-story landmark skyscraper in the Lujiazui area of the Pudong district of Shanghai, People's Republic of China. It contains offices and the Shanghai Grand Hyatt hotel. Until 2007 it was the tallest building in the PRC, the fifth tallest in the world by roof height and the seventh tallest by pinnacle height. Along with the Oriental Pearl Tower, it is part of the Pudong skyline. Its height was surpassed on September 14, 2007 by the Shanghai World Financial Center which is next to the building. The Shanghai Tower, a 128-story building located next to these two buildings and now under construction, will be even taller.

Notable amenities include The Ritz-Carlton, Hong Kong hotel and an observatory called Sky100. The ICC Tower faces the second-tallest skyscraper in Hong Kong, the 2 International Finance Centre (abbr. IFC), located directly across Victoria Harbour in Central, Hong Kong Island. The IFC Tower was also developed by Sun Hung Kai Properties, along with another major Hong Kong developer, Henderson Land.

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Top 10 Tallest Buildings in the World

Taipei 101

One World Trade Center

Taipei, Taiwan

New York, NY

Taipei 101 , formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a landmark skyscraper located in Xinyi District, Taipei, Taiwan. The building ranked officially as the world's tallest from 2004 until the opening of the Burj Khalifa in Dubai in 2010. In July 2011, the building was awarded LEED Platinum certification, the highest award in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system and became the tallest and largest green building in the world.Taipei 101 was designed by C.Y. Lee & partners and constructed primarily by KTRT Joint Venture. The construction was finished in 2004. The tower has served as an icon of modern Taiwan ever since its opening. Fireworks launched from Taipei 101 feature prominently in international New Year's Eve broadcasts and the structure appears frequently in travel literature and international media.

One World Trade Center (also 1 World Trade Center or 1 WTC, formerly the Freedom Tower) is the primary building of the new World Trade Center complex in New York City's Lower Manhattan and is the tallest building in the United States. The 104-story supertall skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, on the site of the original 6 World Trade Center. The building is bordered to the west by West Street, to the north by Vesey Street, to the south by Fulton Street, and to the east by Washington Street. Construction on below-ground utility relocations, footings, and foundations for the building began on April 27, 2006.On March 30, 2009, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey confirmed that the building would be known by its legal name, One World Trade Center, rather than the colloquial name, Freedom Tower.

Taipei 101 comprises 101 floors above ground and 5 floors underground. The building was architecturally created as a symbol of the evolution of technology and Asian tradition (see Symbolism). Its postmodernist approach to style incorporates traditional design elements and gives them modern treatments. The tower is designed to withstand typhoons and earthquakes. A multi-level shopping mall adjoining the tower houses hundreds of fashionable stores, restaurants and clubs. Taipei 101 is owned by the TFCC and managed by the International division of Urban Retail Properties Corporation based in Chicago. The name originally planned for the building, Taipei World Financial Center, until 2003, was derived from the name of the owner. The original name in Chinese was literally, Taipei International Financial Center.

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The tower's steel structure topped out on August 30, 2012. On May 10, 2013, the final component of the skyscraper's spire was installed, making One World Trade Center the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth-tallest skyscraper in the world by pinnacle height. Its spire reaches a symbolic height of 1,776 feet (541 m) in reference to the year of the United States Declaration of Independence.It has been the tallest structure in New York City since April 30, 2012, when it surpassed the height of the Empire State Building. The new World Trade Center complex will also feature three other high-rise office buildings, located along Greenwich Street, and the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, located just south of One World Trade Center, where the Twin Towers once stood. The construction is part of an effort to memorialize and rebuild following the destruction of the original World Trade Center complex during the attacks of September 11, 2001.


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Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai, China The Shanghai World Financial Center (SWFC) is a supertall skyscraper located in the Pudong district of Shanghai, China. It was designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox and developed by the Mori Building Company, with Leslie E. Robertson Associates as its structural engineer and China State Construction Engineering Corp and Shanghai Construction (Group) General Co. as its main contractor. It is a mixeduse skyscraper, consisting of offices, hotels, conference rooms, observation decks, and ground-floor shopping malls. Park Hyatt Shanghai is the tower's hotel component, comprising 174 rooms and suites. Occupying the 79th to the 93rd floors, it is the second-highest hotel in the world, surpassing the Grand Hyatt Shanghai on the 53rd to 87th floors of the neighboring Jin Mao Tower. On 14 September 2007, the skyscraper was topped out at 492.0 meters (1,614.2 ft), making it, at the time, the second-tallest building in the world and the tallest structure in Mainland China. It also had the highest occupied floor and the highest height to roof, two categories used to determine the title of "world’s tallest building". The SWFC opened on 28 August 2008, with its observation deck opening on 30 August. This observation deck, the world's tallest at the time of its completion, offers views from 474 m (1,555 ft) above ground level. The SWFC has been lauded for its design, and in 2008 it was named by architects as the year's best completed skyscraper. In 2013, the SWFC was exceeded in height by the adjacent Shanghai Tower, which is due for completion in 2014. Together, the SWFC, Shanghai Tower and Jin Mao Tower form the world's first adjacent grouping of three supertall skyscrapers.

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Top 10 Tallest Buildings in the World

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Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel

Burj Khalifa

Mecca, Saudi Arabia

Dubai, United Arab Emirates

The Abraj Al-Bait Towers, also known as the Mecca Royal Hotel Clock Tower, is a government-owned building complex in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. These towers are a part of the King Abdulaziz Endowment Project that strives to modernize the city in catering to its pilgrims. The complex holds several world records, the tallest clock tower in the world and the world's largest clock face. The complex's hotel tower became the second tallest building in the world in 2012, surpassing Taiwan's Taipei 101, and is currently the third tallest building in the world, surpassed only by Dubai's Burj Khalifa and Shanghai's Shanghai Tower. The building complex is metres away from the world's largest mosqueand Islam's most sacred site, the Masjid al-Haram. The developer and contractor of the complex is the Saudi Binladin Group, the Kingdom's largest construction company.The complex was built after the demolition of the Ajyad Fortress, the 18th century Ottoman citadel which stood atop a hill overlooking the Grand Mosque. The destruction of the fort in 2002 by the Saudi government sparked Turkish and international outcry.

Burj Khalifa  known as Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is the tallest manmade structure in the world, at 829.8 m (2,722 ft).

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Construction began on 21 September 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010,and is part of the new 2 km2 (490-acre) development called Downtown Dubai at the 'First Interchange' along Sheikh Zayed Road, near Dubai's main business district. The tower's architecture and engineering were performed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill of Chicago, with Adrian Smith as chief architect, and Bill Baker as chief structural engineer.The primary contractor was Samsung C&T of South Korea.


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WORLD MOST BEAUTIFUL LIVING SPACES

www.ultrahome.org/top-20-world-most-beautiful-living-spaces

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The Heinz Julen Penthouse in Zermatt

The Clock Tower Apartment in Brooklyn

Switzerland

NY

The Igloo Village in Kakslauttanen

Chalet Brickell in the Rhone‑Alpes

Finland

France

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The Yellowstone Club in Big Sky

The Tree House

Montana

Costa Rica

The Southern Ocean Lodge on Kangaroo Island

The Pretty Beach House on the Bouddi Peninsula

Australia

Australia

The Firefly ski chalet in Zermatt

The Over Water Bungalow

Switzerland

Le Meridien in Bora Bora

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World most beautiful living spaces

Resort in St. Lucia, Castries

Converted cathedral

The Garden House

The Chalet Zermatt Peak

Brazil

Switzerland

The Ladera Resort in St. Lucia Resort West Indies

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Jade Mountain in St. Lucia

The One Room Glass Igloo House

West Indies

Finland

The Underwater bedroom

The Redwood grove cabin

The Maldives

California

The Royal Loft Suite aboard the Oasis of the Seas

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WORLD’S BEST STADIUMS

Wembley Stadium Location: London, UK Capacity: 90000 The Wembley Stadium is probably the most important stadium in all football. At least, it’s one of those with the most remarkable history. After seven years and the spending of about $1.7 billions, "New Wembley" was opened. The main element is a 133m high arch.

AAMI Park Location: Melbourne, Australia Capacity: 30000 The exterior of the stadium is covered in thousands of LED lights, which can be programmed to display a variety of patterns and images, setting it on par with the Beijing National Aquatics Center and Allianz Arena.

Allianz Arena Location: Munich, Germany Capacity: 70000 Allianz Arena is owned by Germany’s biggest soccer club, FC Bayern München. After it was opened in 2005, the colors of the unique outwall switched very often. Because Allianz Arena is visible very well from highways, every day happened ten accidents more than usual, just because of the astonishing outside. Because of this, Allianz Arena may only be enligthened half an hour every night. 142

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Soccer City Location: Johannesburg, South Africa Capacity: 94700 Soccer City is Africa’s biggest stadium. The shape and appearance of Soccer City was inspired by a traditional African pot. Its capacity was extended due to the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, whose final also took place there.

Moses Mabhida Stadium Location: Durban, South Africa Capacity: 70000 From the bird’s eye view, you can see a big arch which splits into two other, so-called spliced arches. So, all the arches together symbolize the flag of South Africa.

Camp Nou Location: Barcelona, Spain Capacity: 98900 Camp Nou is Europe’s biggest stadium. Also, one of Europe’s biggest clubs plays there: FC Barcelona. It was built in 1957 by the architects Francesc Mitjans Miró, Josep Soteras Mauri and Lorenzo García Barbón. The planned reconstruction will be even bigger, and even more spectacular. Sir Norman Foster has designed a stadium that is going to have a capacity of 116000.

~ Maracana Location: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Capacity: now 88000 When it comes to stadium legends, Maracanã is often mentioned. Especially the world cup match Brazil vs Uruguay in 1950 may be the best known match there. It’s said that over 200000 persons were watching the match in the stadium, which is a world record.

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Wo r l d ’s b e s t s t a d i u m s

Beijing National Stadium Location: Beijing, China Capacity: 91000 The Beijing National Stadium was built for the 2008 Olympic Games in China. It was designed by the internationally renowed Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron, who said they would wish that the Beijing National Stadium has a meaning to Beijing comparable with the one the Eiffel tower has to Paris. Because of its unique steel architecture, the stadium got nicknamed "Bird’s Nest".

Olympic Stadium Munich Location: Munich, Germany Capacity: 69200 The Olympic Stadium was built for the 1972 Olympic games. It is part of the Olympic parc, whose roof architecture reminds one of many bubbles. Until FC Bayern München built Allianz Arena, they played there. Since then, the Olympic Stadium is only used for athletics and cultural events.

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~ ΄ Estadio do Dragao Location: Porto, Portugal Capacity: 51000 The english translation of Estádio do Dragão means “stadium of the dragon”. This is referring to FC Porto, which play there. The dragon is kind of their heraldic animal. Some say that from the bird’s eye view, the stadium looks like a dragon’s back. It was designed by the internationally renowed Portuguese architect Manuel Salgado. Some games of the Euro 2004 took also place there.

Amsterdam Arena Location: Amsterdam, Netherlands Capacity: 53,052 It is the largest stadium in the country and it was built from 1993 to 1996. The Amsterdam Arena was the first football stadium in Europe with a retractable roof. It takes about 20 minutes to open or close the roof. The stadium is the home of the association football club AFC Ajax (since 1996) and was the home of the now-defunct American football club Amsterdam Admirals (1996–2007). A relatively new stadium, the Amsterdam Arena encapsulates all of the tradition, success and ingenuity that is so often associated with Holland's finest club.

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BUSIEST AIRPORTS IN THE WORLD

In this modern world, airway is the most convent medium of travel in terms of time and safety and its global presence. The number of people travelling by air is constantly rising every day and so is the number of aircraft and airports. There are more than 40,000 thousands airports around the globe used for civilian and cargo transport.


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Tokyo International Airport

O’Hare International Airport

Japan

Chicago

Los Angeles International Airport

Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport

USA

France

Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport

USA

Indonesia

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Busiest airports in the world

Dubai International Airport

Frankfurt Main

United Arab Emirates

Germany

Madrid International Airport Barajas (MAD)

London Heathrow Airport UK

Spain

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Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport

Beijing Capital International Airport

USA

China

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STRANGELY SHAPED BUILDINGS IN THE WORLD www.toptentop.com/bizarre/top10-strangely-shaped-buildingsin-the-world

Modern architectures and designers have reached the top of professional perfection. You can hear in the latest news or read in a best sold journal about the construction of a bizarre building somewhere in the world. In ancient times, constructors only focused on the fact, that the building should be strong enough with a thoroughly built fundament, to survive any hurricane, earthquake or other surprises of the nature. Today architectures have another task: to design a building that will become a masterpiece. There are dozens of bizarre buildings worldwide, but in this article we will introduce you only the top 10 strangely shaped buildings in the world.

Stone House in Portugal This stone house is located in the Fafe Mountains, in Portugal. The house is built between 2 stones. Although the appearance of this house is an unusual one, the prehistoric-looking residence is gifted with several features of a modern dwelling, having a roof, front door, as well as windows. It may sound strange, but the building is visited by thousands tourists each year.

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Cathedral of Brasilia Among traditional cathedrals, there is one that differs from the rest for its unusual design. It is the Cathedral of Brasilia, designed by Oscar Niemeyer in 1970. The hyperboloid structure includes 16 identical assembled concrete columns, weighing 90 tones that represent two hands moving upwards to heaven. The cathedral is dedicated to Blessed Virgin Mary. The construction of the building took several years. However, the cathedral is currently not being fully utilized, since acoustics echo and make the homilies hardly be heard.

Mind House in Barcelona One of the works of the famous architect Gaudi is Park GĂźell, which is located on a hill in Vallcarca. Initially it was planned that an English styled private garden city should be built on the hill. However, the plan did not work, since for those who wanted to live outside Barcelona, the park was too close to it. So it was useless buying a mansion there. Later the park opened to public representing two gingerbread houses, one of which is the Mind House. The three-story building serves as a gallery. Gaudi lived in one of the houses himself till his death. The Mind House museum of Gaudi is open to public, exhibiting his personal belongings, including sketches of the houses that, alas, did not appear in the park.

Atomium in Brussels Built in 1958, Atomium is a monument in Brussels. The monument was designed by Andre Waterkeyn in a way that it looks like a unit cell of an iron crystal, consisting of 9 steel spheres. The top sphere allows the visitors have a view of the city of Brussels. The entire height of the building is 102 meters. The monument was closed for renovation for two years from 20042006. The reason for the renovation was replacing the aluminum sheets with stainless steel. The old sheets, however, were sold as souvenirs to gather money for the renovation expenditures.

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Strangely shaped buildings in the world

Kansas City Library in Missouri A modern library that looks like shelves of books is located in Kansas City, USA. Most influential books of the city (total number 22) were chosen to serve as fundament for the building. The main aim of the construction was to inspire citizens use the City library on frequent basis. Actually, this part of the library covers the area of the Central Library Parking Garage.

Piano House in China The Piano House was built in 2007 in China. The Piano and Violin Building was designed to display the plans and projects that were to be carried out for the development of the new district of Shannon in Huainan City. The creative idea of this building belongs to Hefei University of Technology students, who used black and transparent glass basically to create this unusually shaped masterpiece. There are escalators and a staircase on the Violin to move to the main piano building. The building was constructed in order to focus attention of the public onto this newly developing area. Thanks to its unusual shape the Piano House is a favorite tourist attraction. It can be the pride of music lovers from all over the world. Thousands of pictures are taken outside the building each day. Everyone wants to take a piece of memory from this heavenly beauty.

Montreal Biosphere in Canada This Environment Museum, that is 62 meters in height, was built in Montreal by Richard Buckminster Fuller. The museum building had an escalator measuring 37 meters, which was the longest one ever built during that period. Unfortunately in 1976 the building’s transparent acrylic bubble was damaged by fire when the building was involved in renovation procedure; however the steel truss structure was not damaged. The site was not functioning until 1990. Later, Architect Eric Gauthier redesigned the interior in the style that Fuller did. It opened again to public in 1995.

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Kunsthaus in Graz Built in 2003 in Graz, Austria, this architectural landmark specializes in contemporary art. Its architecture, of course, differs from traditional white cube context. Peter Cook and Colin Fournier used Innovative style known as blob architecture in construction of this site. It looks like an ameba. Here you can see a bar, function rooms and a moving walkway. Another name for the building is “Friendly Alien”. This popular Austrian landmark is home to numerous exhibitions and events about contemporary art.

Torre Galatea Figueras in Spain Constructed in 1849-1850, the bizarre building was a Municipal Theatre of Figueres. Unfortunately, it became a victim during a fire at the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939. A museum opened instead, in 1974. The Torre Galatea or Dali Theatre-Museum (named after his wife and muse Gala) now attracts visitors from all the parts of the world. You can see giant egg sculptures along the roofline. Dali is now buried in an unmarked crypt in the main exhibition hall of the museum.

The Basket Building in Ohio This unusual building can be seen in Ohio, USA. The construction of the building, belonging to American Longaberger Company, manufacturer of baskets, was completed in 1997. The building is the exact copy of the company product. The building is a real attraction for most tourists in America. The handles of this picnic basket are heated in wintertime to avoid ice deposits on them. The founder of the company initially thought of building all of its company buildings in the same shape. But managed to realize his goal for the headquarter building only. After his death his daughters did not approve the idea of continuing in the same style.

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MOST BEAUTIFUL BRIDGES

Although the bridges are constructed in order to offer a quick way to get from point A to point B, they are also incredible architectural achievements as well as pieces of history kept over the years. Below you’ll find a collection of bridges of all shapes and sizes. Some of them are new and destined to become modern wonders of the world, while others are nearly ancient and part of their appeal can be found in the way they have become such an important part of that destination, in addition to being architectural masterpieces.

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Anghel Saligny Bridge

Bosphorus Bridge

Cernavoda, Romania

Istanbul, Turkey

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Brooklyn Bridge

Bridge of Sighs (Ponte dei Sospiri)

New York, USA

Venice, Italy

΄ ΄ ΄Id) Chain Bridge (Szechenyi lanch

Chapel Bridge

Budapest, Hungary

Lucerne, Switzerland

Charles Bridge

Erasmusbrug

Prague, Czech Republic

Rotterdam, Netherlands

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Most beautiful bridges

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Golden Gate Bridge

Akashi Kaikyo Bridge

USA

Japan

Langkawi Sky Bridge

London Tower Bridge

Langkawi Island, Malaysia

England

Millau Viaduct (Le Viaduc de Millau)

Rialto Bridge (Ponte di Rialto)

France

Venice, Italy

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Ponte Vecchio

Pont Neuf

Florence, Italy

Paris, France

Pythonbrug

The Old Bridge (Stari Most)

Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Helix Bridge Marina Bay, Singapore

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WORLD’S BEST THEATERS

Entertainment is a cornerstone of modern culture and the presentation of plays, operas as well as movies has been highly important to societies throughout the world. Taking a look at the different kinds of theatres can tell us a little about the culture itself and the values they hold dear. Most of the theatres throughout the world have been ornately decorated to lend even more credence to the importance of the arts. Some feel this simply shows our willingness to engage in opulence by attending shows that only the richest can enjoy but the reality is these palaces created to celebrate art and the presentation of the art form. Here are the most famous theatres in the world today.


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Paris Opera France The Paris Opera is the primary opera company of France. It was founded in 1669 by Louis XIV as the Académie d'Opéra, and shortly thereafter was placed under the leadership of Jean-Baptiste Lully and officially renamed the Académie Royale de Musique, but continued to be known more simply as the Opéra. Classical ballet as we know it today arose within the Paris Opera as the Paris Opera Ballet and has remained an integral and important part of the company. Each year, the Opéra presents about 380 performances of opera, ballet and other concerts, to a total audience of about 800,000 people (of which 17% come from abroad), which is a very good average seat occupancy rate of 94%.

Vienna Staatsoper Vienna, Austria Built in 1869, the Staatsoper was inaugurated with a performance of Mozart’s Don Giovanni. Its reputation as the center of Viennese musical life has long been established, and the Staatsoper remains one of the world’s top opera houses. Although much of it was destroyed on March 12, 1945, when the Allies bombed the city toward the end of World War II, the grand staircase and some of the other public areas miraculously survived. For an idea of how things looked before the air raid, walk through the main doors into the box office foyer. The theater you see now reopened, and the first piece performed there was Ludwig van Beethoven’s Fidelio, a hymn to freedom.

Royal Opera House London, England The Royal Opera House is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is often referred to as simply "Covent Garden", after a previous use of the site of the opera house's original construction in 1732. It is the home of The Royal Opera, The Royal Ballet, and the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House. In 1734, the first ballet was presented. A year later, Handel's first season of operas began. Many of his operas and oratorios were specifically written for Covent Garden and had their premieres there.

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Metropolitan Opera New York The Metropolitan Opera is an opera company based in New York City, resident at the Metropolitan Opera House, located at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. The company is operated by the non-profit Metropolitan Opera Association, with Peter Gelb as general manager. The music director is James Levine. The company's origins were in the late 19th century as an alternative to the previously established Academy of Music opera house. The Metropolitan Opera is the largest classical music organization in North America. It presents about 27 different operas each year in a season which lasts from late September through May.

Bolshoi Theatre Moscow, Russia One of Russia’s premier theaters, coupled with one of the best symphony orchestras in the world, the Bolshoi in Moscow has survived fire, war, and revolution. Its stunning neoclassic portico, topped by a statue of Apollo in his chariot, is a precursor to the magnificent splendor visitors will find when they venture inside. The Bolshoi closed in 2005 for extensive interior renovations and reopened in the fall of 2011. Four balconies and a top gallery surround the orchestra, where the seats are Chippendale chairs upholstered in red damask. The great stage is known for its celebrated ballet company. Here, Yuri Grigorovich choreographed memorable productions of Swan Lake, The Golden Age, and Romanda.

La Scala Milan, Italy Milan’s Teatro alla Scala is perhaps the most famous opera house in the world, the one most associated with “opera.” Built in 1778 with four tiers with separate loges, it is the home of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, and Verdi. One of La Scala’s most ingenious features is the concave channel under the wooden floor of the orchestra; this is credited with giving the theater superb acoustics.

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Broadway theatre New York Broadway theatre commonly called simply Broadway, is theatrical performances presented in one of the 40 professional theatres with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in the Manhattan borough of New York City. Along with London's West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Broadway Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City.

Verona Arena Italy The Verona Arena is a Roman amphitheatre in Piazza Bra in Verona, Italy, which is internationally famous for the large-scale opera performances given there. It is one of the best preserved ancient structures of its kind. The building itself was built in AD 30 on a site which was then beyond the city walls. The ludi (shows and games) staged there were so famous that spectators came from many other places, often far away, to witness them. The amphitheatre could host more than 30,000 spectators in ancient times.

Sydney Opera House Australia Situated on a spit of land that juts out into Sydney’s harbor, the spectacularly contemporary Sydney Opera House has wonderful views of the sailboat-dotted water. Even if attending a performance doesn’t suit your plans, you might want to visit the opera house just to see the building; tours are offered frequently. The structure was designed by Jørn Utzon to suggest a series of overlapping shells and sails. The grand opening took place in 1973; the first public performance was Prokofiev’s War and Peace.

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WORLD’S BEST MUSEUMS

The urge to collect things of beauty and significance goes deep into history. Museums not only exhibit but also safeguard these art objects for future generations. The following museums are among the most popular and important museums in the world due to the importance of their collections, their famous works of art or their architecture.


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Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, the Netherlands About 900,000 objects fill the Rijksmuseum, the largest collection of art and history in the Netherlands. It is most famous for its paintings by 17th-century Dutch masters, including Ruysdael, Frans Hals, Johannes Vermeer, and Rembrandt van Rijn. Established in 1800, the museum also displays art from the Middle Ages and the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as a vast collection of sculptures and applied art. 

The Prado Madrid, Spain Despite the fact that its collection is relatively less impressive, The Prado is one of the most respected and visited museums in the world. The greatest strength of The Prado is Spanish art; it houses works by Velasquez, Goya, Murillo, El Greco, and many other notables. Although it specializes in paintings, it also exhibits large collections of drawings, coins, medals, and decorative art. The neoclassical façade of the museum is typical of the city's 18th century architecture.

The Vatican Museums Vatican City, Italy The impressive Vatican Museums contain 22 separate collections, ranging from Etruscan and Egyptian art to maps and modern religious art. Even if you aren't religious in the least, you will undoubtedly be blown away by the sheer beauty and grandeur of Michelangelo's dome and Bernini's spiral columns.

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The British Museum London, England Founded in 1753, The British Museum is now one of the greatest museums in the world. With its large collection of ancient art from all points of the compass it attracts more than six million visitors each year. There are more than eight million objects ranging from prehistoric bones to chunks of Athens’ Parthenon, from whole Assyrian palace rooms to exquisite gold jewels.

The State Hermitage St. Petersburg, Russia Despite Russia's isolation from the great art centers of Europe, the Hermitage has acquired a stunning collection composed of three million objects over the past three centuries. In fact, it presents the development of world culture and art from the Stone Age to the 20th century. In its Western European Art section alone, it covers French, English, Italian, Dutch, Spanish, German, and Flemish art. In particular, the Hermitage possesses two of the ten or twelve original works by Leonardo da Vinci known in the world today (Madonna with a Flower and Madonna Litta).

The Smithsonian Washington, the District of Columbia The Smithsonian Institute is the world's largest museum complex and research organization. Composed of 16 museums and galleries, as well as the National Zoo, it has over 142 million objects representing the country's most important memories. There’s so much to see that, if you spent one minute day and night looking at each object on exhibit, in ten years you’d see only ten percent of the whole.

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The Acropolis Museum Athens, Greece The stunning ground floor gallery houses finds from the slopes of the Acropolis. Its amazing transparent glass floor provides a walk over history, with a view of the archaeological excavation, while sloping upward to the Acropolis with sanctuaries of the Athenians from each historic period nearby. Smaller settlements have been excavated, yielding glimpses of Athenian life. For the first time, the exhibits in the Archaic Gallery allow visitors to take in all sides of the objects, which are displayed in open spaces characterized by changing natural light.

The Uffizi Gallery Florence, Italy UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) estimates that 60% of the world's most popular artworks are in Italy, with over half of them located in Florence. It is definitely one of the finest collections of paintings and sculptures on the planet, boasting works by Renaissance masters like da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Caravaggio, and many more.

Le Louvre Paris, France Without a doubt the most famous museum in the world, the Louvre was a medieval fortress and the palace of the kings of France before it became a museum two centuries ago. Even the modernization of the plaza with the addition of a glass pyramid in its centre takes nothing away from the historical allure of the Louvre Palace. The museum's collections, which range from the birth of the great antique civilizations to the first half of the 19th century, are among the most important on the planet. You will find pieces by some of the most famous artists in history, such as da Vinci and Rembrandt.

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LANDSCAPE DESIGN

Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practised by landscape designers, combining nature and culture. In contemporary practice landscape design bridges between landscape architecture and garden design

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History of ornamental The history of ornamental gardening may be considered as aesthetic expressions of beauty through art and nature, a display of taste or style in civilized life, an expression of an individual's or culture's philosophy, and sometimes as a display of private status or national pride – in private and public landscapes.

Garden design

The White Garden at Sissinghurst Castle Garden, designed by Vita Sackville-West

Garden design is the art and process of designing and creating plans for layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Garden design may be done by the garden owner themselves, or by professionals of varying levels of experience and expertise. Most professional garden designers have some training in horticulture and the principles of design, and some are also landscape architects, a more formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree and often a state license. Amateur gardeners may also attain a high level of experience from extensive hours working in their own gardens, through casual study, serious study in Master Gardener Programs, or by joining gardening clubs.

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Landscape design

Lawn A lawn is an area of land planted with grasses or (rarely) other durable plants, which are maintained at a short height and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes. Common characteristics of a lawn are that it is composed only of grass species, it is subject to weed and pest control, it is subject to practices aimed at maintaining its green color, and it is regularly mowed to ensure an acceptable length, although these characteristics are not binding as a definition. In recreational contexts, the specialised names turf, pitch, field or green may be used, depending on the sport and the continent. The term lawn, referring to a managed grass space, dates to no earlier than the 16th century. Tied to suburban expansion and the creation of the household aesthetic, the lawn is an important aspect of the interaction between the natural environment and the constructed urban and suburban space.

Welcome to the Emerald Necklace In the heart of Boston and extending to Brookline, the historic Emerald Necklace park system serves as the backyard for city residents and a destination for more than one million visitors each year. Stretching from Back Bay to Dorchester, this inviting green space connects people and nature, just as landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted intended when he designed it more than 100 years ago. Today, the six parks under the Emerald Necklace Conservancy’s stewardship offer a range of experiences – from quiet time on a shaded bench to recreational activities like sailing, hiking, golf or softball. With an arboretum and a zoo, the Emerald Necklace’s attractions are as diverse as the New England seasons. Come explore the many things to do in Boston! www.emeraldnecklace.org/park-overview

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Landscape planning Landscape planning is a branch of landscape architecture. According to Erv Zube (1931–2002) landscape planning is defined as an activity concerned with reconciling competing land uses while protecting natural processes and significant cultural and natural resources. Urban park systems and greenways of the type planned by Frederick Law Olmsted are key examples of urban landscape planning. Landscape designers tend to work for clients who wish to commission construction work. Landscape planners can look beyond the 'closely drawn technical limits' and 'narrowly drawn territorial boundaries' which constrain design projects. Landscape planners tend to work on projects which: ·· are of broad geographical scope ·· concern many land uses or many clients ·· are implemented over a long period of time In rural areas, the damage caused by unplanned mineral extraction was one of the early reasons for a public demand for landscape planning.

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ARTFUL LANDSCAPES: 10 MODERN LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE DESIGNS

Landscape Architecture Designs – Long before green was good and sustainable was sexy, the world’s landscape architects understood and practiced the discipline of environmental custodianship. Still today, they work to restore life to a polluted world, doing so in our homes, our parks, our offices and even our cities. To celebrate the good work of today’s landscape architects, here are 10 truly amazing landscape architecture designs that work to make this a better world. www.thecoolist.com/landscape-architecturedesigns-10-modern-masterpieces/#sthash. P J h 2 p l L P. d p u f


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HIGHLINE PARK New York Manhattan’s Highline Park is an exercise in eco-friendly urban reclamation, the rescue of an abandoned raised freight line for the common good of the city. After traffic through these raised rails ceased in the 1980s, the line sat abandoned waiting for demolition. The neighborhood of Manhattan’s west side rallied to save the raised line to create a public park with a green roof as an escape to the busy pace of the streets below. James Corner Field Operations and Diller Scofidio + Renfro cooperated to turn this aging eye sore into a green place of peace for Manhattan residents. The resulting park stretches across nine city blocks, featuring a contemporary design that fits well with the forward thinking people it was built to serve. Highline Park is a prime example of the old adage that “one man’s trash is another man’s treasure”.

VULCANO BUONO Nola Italy In an homage to the tragic history of nearby Pompei, Vulcano Buono in Nola, Italy is a giant structure with a green heartbeat thanks to a green-roofed landscape designed by Renzo Piano. Vulcano Buono is a truly massive structure, designed as a point of commerce and tourism for one of Italy’s prime freight cities. The structure features a shopping mall, an outdoor theater and a hotel with a 150 square meter open market within. The landscape architecture designs for this building include 2,500 plants which wrap around the eye of the volcano. Designer Renzo Piano and his partners are no strangers to landscape architecture, as their work is featured twice in this list.

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Artful Landscapes: 10 Modern Landscape Architecture Designs

SHANGHAI HOUTAN PARK There is more than meets the eye in this marvel of landscape architecture design.  Shanghai’s Houtan Park is both a place for public relaxation and a complex ecological system that naturally cleanses the local environment.  This park has replaced a mile-long stretch of industrial space that had fallen into disrepair, located alongside the almost terminally-polluted Huangpu River.  But through a series of cascading terraces and plant-based filtering, the waters of the Huangpu cycle through Houtan Park to the point that they can once again support aquatic life.  Beside the water is a long stretch of local flora and even an urban farm, giving a new natural outlet to the citizens of this busy city.  During the Shanghai Expo 2010, Houtan Park provided recycled water from the Huangpu River to be used for non-potable purposes.

MILL VALLEY RESIDENCE’S GREEN ROOF A feature on landscape architecture designs wouldn’t be complete without a gem of residential green roof design. The Mill Valley Residence by Scott McGlashan, also featured on our list of green roof designs, is a multi-generational home built in a terraced manner on a sloping plot in California. Its many roofs are lined with rows of plants, encouraging the local nature to thrive in its environment. Even without the green roof, this home is an achievement in modern, sustainable design, but it is a gem of landscape architecture that must be admired.

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TREE MUSEUM OF ZURICH SWITZERLAND The famed Swiss landscape architect Enzo Anea designed this stunning salute to the tree just outside of Lake Zurich.  The Tree Museum of Switzerland is a serene retreat lined with lush green grass, punctuated with rising stone columns.  The columns are a canvas upon which the shape of a collection of trees from around the world are showcased.  In this 2.5 acre “museum”, 2,000 species of trees have been carefully curated and cultivated to honor one of nature’s most majestic works of art– the tree.

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Renzo Piano returns to this list of landscape architecture designs with his brilliant work for the California Academy of Sciences building.  This massive temple of science features a dynamic green roof above with living plants below, fed by a series of skylights that dot the building’s green canvas.  From a distance, the Academy and its landscape are what immediately seizes the eye, a continuous green expanse of trees, grass and other plant life that the building alone does not interrupt.

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Artful Landscapes: 10 Modern Landscape Architecture Designs

CROSSWATERS ECOLODGE GUANGDONG PROVINCE, CHINA Education is an important focus of China’s green movement, and the Crosswaters Ecolodge endears eco-education with a retreat where visitors can experience the green power of nature firsthand.  Chinese eco-tourism at its finest, Crosswaters Ecolodge provides its guests with a greater understanding of its environment while giving back to the locals living in Guangdong Province.  The compound includes terraced farming which feeds its restaurant and the local villagers alike, while a wild bamboo-sourced structural habitat wows its visitors while they enjoy their stay.  Still path-side ponds, a high-reaching observation tower and a beautiful bamboo bridge merge traditional Chinese architecture with sound landscape design techniques.

YOUTH CENTER ROOF GARDEN IN CHICAGO ILLINOIS While eco-education is an important focus for the Chinese, it’s of equal importance in the United States as well. The Youth Center Roof Garden in Chicago Illinois is a large and plentiful roof-top garden designed to both educate and feed those it serves. The expansive, concrete-grid of the city of Chicago leaves little room for farming, but the Gary Comer center carves a niche by making it’s roof a wide, long and deep garden sewed by the local youth. This rooftop landscape architecture design is the latest amongst a healthy green movement in Chicago, and this one succeeds in both its design and the education it provides to the wide-eyed youth that tend to its plant life.

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QINHUANGDAO BEACH RESTORATION QINHUANGDAO CHINA That lush, dreamy environment above was a scarred wasteland before this recent project. The Qinhuangdao Beach Restoration is not just a work of landscape architecture design, but one of magnificent eco engineering. Turinscape and China’s Peking University collaborated on a massive campaign to turn a deserted, eroding and garbage-ridden beach into a serene place of beauty for the locals, both human and animal. This 60 hectare strip of land has been reborn with the seeding of native plants to protect against erosion and provide a stunning visual backdrop to the beach’s visitors. The renewed beach also features a recovered wetland that will encourage wildlife to return and use the new habitat. This project is an example of hope for the scars of industrialism and neglect. Through encouraging nature, scars like these can be healed.

BRIDLE ROAD RESIDENCE CAPE TOWN While the modern design of this home is worthy of its own respect, it is the landscape architecture designs about this plot that are truly unique. The Bridle Road Residence in Cape Town, South Africa is located at the base of the Table Mountain with panoramic views of the ocean bay below. The local environment is amongst the most ecologically diverse regions throughout the world, home to a collection of brush species that exist nowhere else. These fine native bushes, called Fynbos, have been endangered by the development of Cape Town over the centuries, so the landscape architects of this home covered the grounds with these rare and beautiful bushes. This home is not just a living space for its inhabitants, it is designed to preserve and protect one of the most rare native species of plants in the world. (beyond that, the natural swimming pool is a stunning touch as well).

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RANKING OF BEACHES

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Beaches can be popular on warm sunny days. In the Victorian era, many popular beach resorts were equipped with bathing machines because even the all-covering beachwear of the period was considered immodest. This social standard still prevails in many Muslim countries. At the other end of the spectrum are topfree beaches and nude beaches where clothing is optional or not allowed. In most countries social norms are significantly different on a beach in hot weather, compared to adjacent areas where similar behaviour might not be tolerated and might even be prosecuted. In more than thirty countries in Europe, South Africa, New Zealand, Canada, Costa Rica, South America and the Caribbean, the best recreational beaches are awarded Blue Flag status, based on such criteria as water quality and safety provision. Subsequent loss of this status can have a severe effect on tourism revenues. 176

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Rabbit Beach

Grace Bay

Lampedusa, Islands of Sicily

Providenciales, Turks and Caicos

Lampedusa is the largest island of the Italian Pelagie Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The Isola dei Conigli (literally "Rabbit Island"), close to the south coast of Lampedusa.

The resorts on Providenciales are primarily centered on 8 km long Grace Bay. Grace Bay has grown to be a major tourist destination with many hotels and condominiums built on the beach front.

Playa Paraiso Beach

Horseshoe Bay Beach

Cayo Largo, Cuba

Southampton Parish, Bermuda

Cayo Largo del Sur, also known simply as Cayo Largo (cayo largo means long island), is a small resort island belonging to Cuba, in the Caribbean Sea. One of the major tourist attractions is the beach Playo Paraiso.

Horseshoe Bay is perhaps the most famous beach in Bermuda. A very popular tourist spot, it lies on the main island's south (Atlantic Ocean) coast, in the parish of Southampton.

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Ranking of beaches

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Whitehaven Beach

Baia do Sancho

Airlie Beach, Australia

Fernando de Noronha, Brazil

Whitehaven Beach is a 7 km stretch along Whitsunday Island. The island is accessible by boat from the mainland tourist ports of Airlie Beach and Shute Harbour, as well as Hamilton Island.

Baía do Sancho is the beach located west of Hill Brothers and east of Dolphin Bay, in the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, State of Pernambuco. Beach offers crystal clear blue water with areas for swimming and snorkeling.

Woolacombe Beach

Rhossili Bay

United Kingdom

Swansea, United Kingdom

Woolacombe is a seaside resort on the coast of North Devon, which lies at the mouth of a valley (or 'combe') in the parish of Mortehoe. It is a popular destination for surfing and family holidays and is part of the North Devon Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Rhossili is a small village and community on the southwestern tip of the Gower Peninsula in Swansea. Rhossili Bay curves along an arc running northwards from the village. The sandy beach is 5 km long and is backed with sand dunes.

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Playa de las Catedrales

Eagle Beach

Ribadeo, Spain

Aruba

The Spanish beach is located in the Ribadeo municipality, in the province of Lugo (Galicia), on the Cantabric coast, and it lies about 10 km to the west from the town of Ribadeo. Its name is derived from the formations of its cliffs.

Eagle Beach is a beach and neighborhood of Oranjestad, Aruba. The neighborhood is famous for its many low-rise resorts and wide public beach. It is one of two beaches in Aruba that allow nudity, the other being Baby Beach.

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10 BEST HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS

Johns Hopkins Hospital Baltimore, USA The Johns Hopkins Hospital is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland. The hospital was opened in 1889 by the will of Johns Hopkins, a Baltimore merchant and banker. In his will he asked to use the money he left for opening of two institutions that would bear his name: ‘Johns Hopkins University’ and ‘The Johns Hopkins Hospital’. At that time, Hopkins's gift was the largest philanthropic bequest in the history of the United States. The Johns Hopkins Hospital was the first hospital to perform the male-to-female sex reassignment surgery in the United States that took place in 1966 at the Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic. www.hopkinsmedicine.org/the_johns_hopkins_ hospital/index.html


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Mediclinic City Hospital Dubai, UAE Mediclinic City Hospital is part of Mediclinic Middle East and wholly owned by Mediclinic International, one of the 10 largest listed private hospital groups in the world. Upon opening in 2008, Mediclinic City Hospital was the first multi-disciplinary hospital in Dubai Healthcare City. The hospital offers specialist-focused treatment in the areas of cardiology, radiology, gynaecology, trauma, nuclear medicine, endocrinology, obstetrics, neonatal care and many others. www.mediclinic.ae/cityhospital/PageContent. aspx?pageid=131&groupid=1

Gleneagles Hospital Singapore Gleneagles Hospital provides a wide range of medical and surgical services. Founded in 1957as a 45-bed nursing home under the name ‘Gleneagles Nursing Home’ and was later incorporated as Gleneagles Hospital Limited (officially opened on 8th of June, 1959). In 1987, Gleneagles Hospital was acquired by Parkway Holdings. The hospital’s key specialties are Cardiology, Gastroenterology, Liver Transplant, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Oncology and Orthopaedics. www.gleneagles.com.sg/en/default.aspx

Great Ormond Street Hospital London, UK Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) is an international centre of excellence in child healthcare. The hospital was founded on 14 February 1852 by Dr. Charles West. Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) was opened with just 10 beds, and was the first hospital in the UK to offer dedicated inpatient care to children. On 1st of March, 2012 it became a foundation trust. Diana, Princess of Wales, served as president of the Hospital from 1989 until her death. A plaque at the entrance of the hospital commemorates her services, as well as a bust in the lobby of the hospital chapel. www.gosh.nhs.uk Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sweden Karolinska University Hospital (Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset) is one of Scandinavia’s premier health facilities. The hospital has a close collaboration with Karolinska Institute (Karolinska Institutet), one of the largest medical universities in Europe. Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, has the only department specializing in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the Nordic region. The hospital has provided services to both children and adults since 1975. Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, has the biggest thyroid surgery unit in Sweden. www.karolinska.se/en

Bumrungrad Hospital Bangkok, Thailand Bumrungrad International Hospital is a multiple-specialty medical centre located in Bangkok, Thailand. In Thai language its name, ‘Bumrungrad’ means ‘care for the people’. Founded in 1980, today it is the largest private hospital in Southeast Asia, with 554 beds and over 30 specialty centres. Bumrungrad offers state-or-the-art diagnostic, therapeutic and intensive care facilities in a one-stop medical centre. Bumrungrad International Hospital is regularly featured in the world press as a leading medical tourism destination. The hospital serves over a million patients annually. Over 400,000 are internationals. www.bumrungrad.com

Shouldice Hospital Thornhill, Canada Shouldice Hospital is known for its specialization in external abdominal hernia operations. The hospital was established in 1945 by Dr. Edward Earle Shouldice, inventor of the Shouldice repair. With the support and guidance of the founder’s son and daughter and their respective families, Shouldice has developed into a modern, 89-bed facility, with five specialized operating suites, an expert team of hernia surgeons and nurses, and a dedicated staff of about 150 people, all working to meet the needs of patients with hernias. www.shouldice.com

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Asklepios Klinik Barmbek Hamburg, Germany The Asklepios Clinic Barmbek is the teaching hospital. The hospital offers a wide range of medical and therapeutic services. The hospital utilizes the most modern and cutting-edge medical equipment, serving as a laboratory for innovative medical technology companies that make their products available to Asklepios before it is even released to the rest of the world. The Barmbek clinic is part of a group of 22 Asklepios clinics across Germany providing services from psychiatry to rehab and general hospital treatments. www.asklepios.com/barmbek

Anadolu Medical Center Istambul, Turkey Anadolu Medical Center is a general acute care hospital with center of excellence programs in: oncology, general surgery, cardiac care, neurosciences, women's health, IVF and orthopedics. The hospital was opened on 12th of February, 2005. Anadolu Medical Center is sheltered by Anadolu Foundation. The specialist physicians have continuous access to second opinion from Johns Hopkins Medicine. www.anadolusaglik.org/en

Fortis Healthcare Limited Fortis Healthcare Limited is a leading, pan Asia-Pacific, integrated healthcare delivery provider with headquarter in Delhi, India. The first hospital was established at Mohali, Punjab in 2001. Currently, the company operates its healthcare delivery services in India, Singapore, Dubai, Mauritius and Sri Lanka with 65 healthcare facilities (including projects under development), over 10,000 potential beds, over 240 diagnostic centres and a team strength of more than 17,000 people. In 2012 launched the first Colorectal hospital in Singapore, becoming the first Indian hospital chain with a greenfield hospital abroad. www.fortishealthcare.com

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Future Cities: New Technologies & Designing Cities of The Future… CATHERINE BOWEN Plascon Trends Editor We’ve all gotten lost in the futuristic worlds and future cities of cult movie epics like “The Minority Report”, “Star Wars”, “I, Robot”, “Tron Legacy” and many, many more titles that tap into the ambition of the human collective unconsciousness for life beyond 2020. We’ve marvelled at the giant buildings that sit amongst the clouds, and the flying machines/”cars” that navigate the skies and in which the lead characters zoot around these worlds. We’ve speculated about the robots and artificial life forms that will exist in years to come, to assist humans with their daily chores and tasks.

F u t u r e C i t i e s : C i t y S c a p e S t a r Wa r s Image Source: starwarsaficionado.com

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Global Warming and the melting of the polar ice-caps have many people feeling exceptionally uncomfortable, not least of which because it would see more than half the world’s population and cities submerged under water. But what if floating cities were a real possibility…? Well, enter the visionary figure of Dutch architect Koen Olthuis and his firm “Waterstudio“. Now the potential to create buildings that quite literally float around on water – the potential for transient suburbs and cities becomes a reality. I’m doing a bad job of explaining a truly ingenious solution to some of the 21st century challenges to urban planning, perhaps I should let you see for yourself. “i, ROBOT” Movie Poster Image Source www.moviesbestownload.blogspot.com

“Life beyond 2020” has been a concept that has tapped into so many fantasies and daydreamers’ hopes for a better future, but none of us have perhaps realised quite how close we are to having these technologies come into being. We don’t quite realise that we are actually on the cusp of developments in all manner of fields – science, medicine, engineering, architecture, etc – that will quite literally see us entering into completely new ways of living within the next decade, that will forever change the way we live and conduct business within our cities!

Any of you ever come across the CCTV building (China Central Television Building) in Beijing? Well, this building defies previously held conventions of architecture – it’s an anti-skyscraper. Before this building came into being, our solution to the challenge of shrinking urban areas had been to build upwards with ever more vast buildings dominating our skylines. But with this building we see the for the first time the possibility of building horizontally; never before had it been possible to suspend such large structures above our skyline. At an impressive 4 million square feet, it is the largest office building in the world! This daring vision of architecture is largely the work of architect Ole Sheeren (Buro Ole Sheeren).

I certainly didn’t; not until I watched a fascinating documentary called “Next World – Future Life On Earth”. These are just a few of the revolutionary ideas that are being realised.

Innovative Designs for Future Cities

China Central TV Building (Beijing) Image Source www.beijing2008.cn Citadel Floating Apartment Complex Koen Olthuis, Image Source www.cubeme.com

Citadel Floating Apartment Complex Koen Olthuis, Image Source www.cubeme.com China Central TV Building (Beijing) Image Source www.darinhirst.wordpress.com

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Then, of course, there are some ideas that are less new to us – like rooftop and vertical gardens – but which are thankfully reaching a tipping point. For example, there is the thinking of figures like Dickson D. Despommier who just may propel our world into a new age of food production… An age in which food is not necessarily being grown in farmlands and in the countryside but right in the heart of urban developments…

Despommier is a microbiologist, ecologist and Professor of Public Health in Environmental Health Sciences at Columbia University, and most recently he has been receiving considerable media coverage for his ideas on vertical farming (Source: Wikipedia). But again, don’t just take my word for it, why don’t you watch this YouTube clip on his big idea, “The Vertical Farm”: Like I said, “vertical gardens” are not so much a ground-breaking concept – Plascon Trends has done one or two posts on this before – but it is fascinating to see just how far this is being implemented in cities like New York. In the future, maybe there will be more stores like that of Eli Zabar’s which is a department store in Manhattan where much of the fresh produce is grown on top of the building itself! Wouldn’t that be something interesting to implement at our local Woolies or Pick n’ Pay?!

Vertical Building Farms of the Future Image Source www.inspirationgreen.com

Eli Zabar Roof Garden Image Source www.verticalfarmblog.com

Vertical Building Farms of the Future Image Source www.yogizendude.com

E l i Z a b a r R o o f G a rd e n , I m a g e S o u r c e f ra u n h o f e r. d e

These are just 3 ways in which urban living is being re-imagined by visionaries amongst us, and I encourage you to watch the documentary to see other ideas for nanotechnologies, inventions and energy efficiency that are in development as I type; not “pie in the sky” stuff, but real tangible solutions for problems that our world is facing. I m a g e S o u r c e w w w . t r e e h u g g e r. c o m

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www.plascontrends.co.za


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Solar projects:eco-energy solution or blot on the landscape? By ROB CLYMO editor, MSN Innovation They might generate electricity but are solar projects ruining the countryside we live in?

You may not have heard of Rjukan in Norway, but the village has put itself on the map with an innovative solution to six long winter months of darkness. A bank of three mirrors, covering 51 square metres in total, has been installed high up on the mountains around Rjukan to bring sunlight to the bottom of the valley. For the first time, its 3,500 residents can enjoy the warmth of the sun all year round, rather than living in the dusky gloom that normally cloaks the area between September and March.

Nothing new The idea itself wasn't Andersen's though – the concept of using mirrors has been around almost as long as Rjukan itself. Sam Eyde, the same engineer and industrialist who founded the power plant back in 1913, suggested reflecting sunlight into the valley in the belief that it would improve the productivity of his workers. Back at the start of the 20th century, however, the technology wasn't available to put his plans into reality. Instead, villagers had to make do with a cable car ride, set up by Eyde, if they wanted their fix of winter sun. Andersen, one of Rjukan's residents, revived the plan back in 2005. Through a combination of private and public money he was able to draw together the 5m Norwegian krone (roughly £494,000) required to manufacture and install the wall of mirrors. Brought in by helicopter, the mirrors sit 450m above Rjukan and are controlled remotely via computers. Webcams monitor the machinery and make sure everything is working as it should.

100 years ago Rjukan was significantly expanded to provide workers for a nearby power plant, which makes use of the towering waterfalls in the area. The same 1,500-metre-high mountain ridge that blocks the sunshine for half the year has now been used to bring light down into the village, and the project is almost entirely thanks to Norwegian artist Martin Andersen, who spent years promoting the idea before anyone began to listen to him. Solar farms are controversial due to the amount of space they take up

Caught in the spotlight Andersen's installation works like a spotlight, and the reflections it generates are much more concentrated than those produced by a similar mirror system in the Italian village of Viganella, which was one of the inspirations for the scheme in Rjukan. "I wanted a smaller, concentrated patch of sunlight: a special sunlit spot in the middle of town where people could come for a quick five minutes in the sun," Andersen told the Guardian. Rjukan's market square now enjoys its own special 600 sq ms ray of sunlight that's 80-90 percent as strong as the original it's reflecting. Are solar mirrors and panels the future?

Despite some initial opposition to the plans, most are now very happy with Rjukan's second-hand sunlight, and the bank of mirrors have already attracted tourists to the area. Berlin-based artist Daniel Paida Larsen was born in Rjukan and is a close friend of Andersen's, and he sees the mirrors as an art installation rather

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than technical machinery: "I don't know how exactly I'd define it. An installation? A sculpture? It makes me think about how we need the sun, what happens to light when you reflect it. But what's really special is that it goes so deep into the public sphere. It touches something absolutely fundamental in this town."

The renewable future The British government has already highlighted photovoltaic power (converting sunlight into electricity) as a key part of reaching its renewable energy targets in 2020, and it's aiming for an eight-fold increase in solar energy production between now and then. With solar panels dropping in price, they're appearing on more and more residential rooftops, but huge swathes of land are being converted too. The UK's largest solar farm, on an abandoned RAF airfield in Leicestershire, was sold for £43.7 million back in November. The counties of Dorset, Devon and Cornwall have seen a huge increase in the number and size of photovoltaic panel installation applications as farmers and developers are tempted by the green subsidies put in place by the government. In Dorset alone, 14 largescale solar parks are in the pipeline, with most of them to be built on farmland.

An aerial view of a UK solar farm

A positive step Karin Roe, from Rjukan's local tourist office, explained the benefits of the new mountain-top equipment: "Before when it was a fine day, you would see that the sky was blue and you knew that the sun was shining. But you couldn't quite see it. It was very frustrating. This feels warm. When there is no time to get to the top of the mountains on weekdays, it will be lovely to come out for an hour and feel this warmth on my face." The Solspeil ("sun mirror") is powered by the solar energy it can absorb from the sun, and back here in the UK solar energy is also experiencing a boom in popularity. While Britain doesn't have a problem with six months' worth of shadow, an increasing number of solar farms are being built to take the strain of the National Grid and produce energy in the most environmentally friendly way possible.

Can there be a compromise between green projects and preserving the environment?

According to Lightsource Renewable Energy, which operates some of the biggest photovoltaic plants in Britain, solar energy can ultimately power four million homes using just 0.29 percent of Britain's agricultural land. Others aren't so sure of the benefits: Penny Mills, from the Campaign to Protect Rural England, says that the solar farms are spreading too quickly and on too grand a scale. "Instead of the odd acre, we are now getting these big schemes coming in for a hundred acres at a time. It is dramatically industrialising our countryside," she told the BBC. You can read the government's roadmap for solar energy here, while the UK's first Solar PV Strategy is expected to be published in the spring. www.innovation.uk.msn.com/planet/solar-projectseco-energy-solution-or-blot-on-the-landscape

Another angle of the UK solar farm

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See more at www.propertyoz.com.au/sa/Article/Resource.aspx?p=21&media=2324

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Monitoring as an element of city administration system, providing its sustainable development (based on the example of Saint-Petersburg) ©S.ERSHOVA Dr.Sci. Ec., Professor (State «Research and Design Center of St. Petersburg Master Plan») ershova_sa@mail.ru

©T.ORLOVSKAYIA PhD in Sci.Ec., Associate Professor (Saint-Petersburg State of Economic University) Abstract: the article is devoted to issues of monitoring of spatial development of city for the purposes of its sustainable and safe development. As in the Russian Federation the urban development plan is the main document of spatial planning, monitoring of its realisation must be considered as a function of public control over the effective use of city land resources. Since in Russian practice urban development plan is drawn up on the basis of strategy and prognosis of social and economic development of the city, monitoring of urban development plan is a part of public strategy of social and economic development of metropolis. Understanding the importance of adequacy of perception of this subject matter by foreign experts, we consider that it is essential to elucidate that in Eastern Europe the synonym for the Russian term «strategy of social and economic development of metropolis» is the term «strategic economic planning of metropolis». The important result of the survey, conducted by the authors, is the exposure of the essence of urban planning in the Russian Federation. In contrast to Eastern European countries, at the current moment in Russian metropolises there is a problem of absence of the system of record keeping and control over the development of urbanisation processes. In Saint-Petersburg, largest Russian city, there is understanding amongst experts and specialists of the necessity of keeping a record of results of spatial planning processes. And in this context the urban planning element arises much interest – the dynamic of reproportioning of functional zones, of which the most comfortable for living (residential, mixed residential-commercial, and recreational) determine the strategic priority for city development in different time periods. In contrast to highly developed systems of real property inventory which exist in Eastern Europe and The United Kingdom, the Russian system of keeping a record of results of spatial planning processes is now in embryo. However, the system of monitoring of urban development plan which helps to provide the data support for urbanisation processes, is essential for effective city administration and making deliberate decisions in setting the courses of city development and investing plans. Key words: spatial planning in the Russian Federation; monitoring of urban development plan; essence, purposes and tasks of monitoring in metropolis.

INTRODUCTION The research in the field of city administration, spatial planning and urban planning is extremely topical for Saint-Petersburg. Since

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restructuring processes in 1980s the economic and administrative aspect of the theory of city administration in Russia was out of the subjects being analysed by leading experts and scientists. The situation has changed in recent years, when the necessity of drafting new urban planning standards appeared, and this research area has again become requested. In Europe, The United Kingdom and the Russian Federation the metropolises are of crucial importance since they appear to be the centers for resources (both human and material technical) and capital concentration, educational, research and cultural potential. It is mentioned by Russian and foreign scientists [1-5]. Moreover, metropolises exert considerable influence on national economy and this hypothesis is proved, in particular, by research of Peter Karl Kresl [1]. At the same time the revealed similarity between foreign and Russian scientists in their appraisal of the role and importance of metropolises and their influence on economy of the country does not contradict assertion that there exist peculiarities of development of each metropolis. In our view, the decisive factor exerting influence over the current urbanisation processes, is the existence of legal and urban-planning restrictions which can be found in any country, region or city. And definitely, this assertion does not contradict the factor of necessity of taking account of historic and cultural legacy of the city and its historically existing architectural and planning site in documents of spatial planning. Obviously, at the present time the research on provision of the social infrastructure for the population is extremely important from both scientific and practical standpoints. For investment and construction processes it is important to understand to what extent the city is provided with utility and transport infrastructure, and so on. In the aggregate, all these questions concentrate in the focus of concern – the necessity of provision of monitoring of urbanisation processes. The subject of monitoring of real property is familiar to European countries. In Russia, however, taking into account its scale, increasing pressure of urbanisation processes, development of new city territories, rural development, and fairly recent restoration of such legal concepts as title to the land and the ownership of real property, the issues of establishment of monitoring system tend to acquire new significance. Let us consider one of the main aspects of effective administration of urbanisation process – establishment of the system of monitoring of urban development plan realisation, based on the


Publications and research. Scientific articles and publications

example of Saint-Petersburg – biggest Russian metropolis and one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. At the present time there is the underestimation of the role and significance of documents in the sphere of spatial planning in Russia. Urban development plan is the main document determining long-term development of the city. It sets out fundamental courses of city development, highlights key points and targets established in strategic documents, provides the balance of city territories, determines functional zones and graphically portrays them. As the result, it gives the opportunity to set uniform rules, equally applicable to all people involved in investment and construction processes, and constrain the activities of those who like to reap the benefits. Essentially, the functional zoning of territories, determined in urban development plan, formulates the territorial strategy in metropolis and helps to understand its urban orientation – whether it is planned to develop «city-park» or «city-plant». Social priorities of city development can be revealed using the factual data on provision of the social infrastructure for the population. These are also the indicators used as standards in urban planning, including provision of objects of culture and art, education, health care, physical training and sport and so on. The specific characteristic of the document of spatial planning – urban development plan, is that its practical application, analytical research as well as the conclusions on the point of whether it is efficient, rational and realistic, are impossible without understanding the peculiarities of urban planning in Russia, legislation and documents which are drafted on the basis of urban development plan and are essentially its part. These documents, based on the core principals of urban development plan, supplement it with the amount of investment funds in real property. Exactly the ignorance of specific character of Russian urban planning and design as well as peculiarities of planning, law and land policy is the main cause for the failure of foreign architects and famous Eastern European architectural studios in their attempt to become a part of urban-planning process in Saint-Petersburg at the stage of devising the design documentation. Therefore, the scientific explanation of fundamental principles of monitoring of urban development plan realisation and its targets is a necessary condition for sustainable development of metropolis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS In the research on the establishment of the system of monitoring in the process of administration of metropolis the authors applied the methods of logical analysis, synthesis and comparison. The adoption of systematic approach allowed to reveal the fundamental principles of the system. Application of pure virtual method and the Delphi technique gave the opportunity to show the targets and tasks of monitoring of urban development plan and develop concrete indicators which will be examined within the complex Russian system of urban-planning data support and the operation of local government agency of public statistics.

The main part. The modern theory of administration of metropolis development must be based on revealed and well-founded regularity which determine the key elements of the system and describe their interrelations. The reliable information on urbanisation processes

(including social and economic element) is the main factor in devising the evidential data base which helps to make correct, well founded and expedient decisions [7]. At the same time the understanding of importance of establishment of such data base by all the participants of urban planning activity does not entirely exclude the possibility of making mistakes in determining the targets, tasks and set of indicators being monitored. First of all, to capture the essence of monitoring of urbanisation processes it is of vital importance to reveal the stages of urban planning activity, clarify its aims and tasks performed in each stage, determine the main directions and indices subject to monitoring. Let us form the hierarchy of urban-planning tasks being accomplished in Russia. The stage of spatial planning is the largest and most «schematic» part of urban-planning system. It includes the scheme of spatial planning of the Russian Federation and its federal subjects, municipal regions, municipal districts and development plans of urban settlements and urban districts. In Saint-Petersburg and Moscow – major Russian cities, the federal subjects of the Russian Federation and federal cities the document of spatial planning is the urban development plan [8]. The part of urban-planning zoning details the regulations and guidelines of the documents of spatial planning, determining the conditions for investment and constructional business in local areas within the boundaries of territorial zone. The main document of this element of spatial planning is land use and development rules in which the categories of territorial zones and the parameters of their planning development are determined. The next phase in the hierarchy is the territory planification with the core documentation produced in the process are the draft area plan and area demarcation plan. The final stage of urban-planning activity is architectural and building design, construction and renovation of the capital construction objects. At this stage the participant of urban-planning process conducts geotechnical survey to make design documentation and architectural and building design in accordance with this document. Afterwards the developer must obtain a construction permit, carry out the construction or renovation and thereafter receive a use permit. In this hierarchy the data base, the part of which is the monitoring of urban development plan, provides the basis for executive decisionmaking on the matters of spatial development of metropolis and courses of investment in capital construction objects [9-10]. This is extremely important in such a large city as Saint-Petersburg. The main aim of the system of monitoring of urban development plan is to assess whether the actual urban-planning situation is compliant with spatial development plans. To achieve this goal the system of administration of urbanisation processes should meet the following requirements: 1. purposefulness of monitoring system, which means the system must be directed to accomplishment of tasks and functions of city development; Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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2. all-embracing development of city area. This means the system must record interrelations and interdependence of site elements and comfortable living area which can help in assessment of necessity of functional zones development in order to provide favourable living environment; 3. continuity of observation on the urbanisation processes as an element of control over the city development and possibility to response immediately to changes taking place; 4. comparable figures for the time period as a condition for setting trends and making prognosis of processes development in order to assess the possibility of achieving the aims and accomplishing the set tasks. The foregoing does not contradict the key principles and aims of administration of investment in creation of comfortable living area in metropolis, described in research [5, 6], including the formation of a living territory which meets the statutory requirements of provision of social infrastructure; the accumulation of resources in order to develop investment activity; provision of conditions for mutually beneficial cooperation between participants of investment and construction activity. A logical consequence of this is that the tasks of monitoring of urban development plan include not only control over the urbanplanning processes in Saint-Petersburg and revelation of trends, but also the assessment of these processes for urban-planning data support in executive decision-making.

CONCLUSIONS The necessity of establishment of system of urban-planning monitoring in Saint-Petersburg – biggest Russian metropolis, is obvious. Modern methods of administration of urbanisation processes cannot be applied without data support. At the sane time, detailed analyses of modern data support of the urbanplanning process in Saint-Petersburg has confirmed the need for establishment of scientifically-based system of monitoring of urban development plan. To summarise, the efforts of experts, conducting research in the field if city development, must be directed to establishment of modern monitoring system giving the opportunity to trace territory development and coordinate processes of creating favourable living conditions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank Natalia Kosinova for professional help in preparing the material for publication.

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REFERENCES 1. Kresl, Peter Karl, 2007. Planning cities for the future: the successes and failures of urban economic strategies in Europe. Cheltenham UK and Northampton, MA, USA, pp: 168. 2. Fistola, R., 2011. The unsustainable city. Urban entropy and social capital: The needing of a new urban planning. Procedia Engineering, 21: 976-984. Fistola, R., 2011, Urban entropy vs sustainability: A new town planning perspective. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, Volume 155: 195-204. 3. Rondinelly, D.A., Johnson, J.H. and J.D. Kassandra, 1998. The Changing Forces of Urban Economic Development: Globalization and City Competitiveness in the 21st Century. A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 3(3): 71-105. 4. Ershova S.A., Mityagin S.D., Osipova N.V., 2011. Theoretical and practical aspects of provision of territory for population in the largest Russian cities. Industrial and civil construction, 11: 38-40. 5. Ershova S.A., Agafonova E.Y., 2011. Monitoring of the living areas of metropolis as an element of administrative and economic mechanism for managing investment in all-embracing construction. Economic renewal of Russia, 3 (29): 114-122. 6. Ershova S.A., Agafonova E.Y., 2011. Methods and criteria of assessment of the complex of metropolis living site. The Bulletin of civil engineers, 4(211):130-135. 7. Asaul A.N. Structure of Transactional Costs of Business Entities in Construction / A .N. Asaul, S. N. Ivanov // World Applied Sciences Journal 23 (Problems of Architecture and Construction) – 2013. pp.80-83 8. Urban-planning Code of the Russian Federation (date 29.12.2004, № 190-FЗ). 9. The Decree of the Government of Saint-Petersburg «About Conception of Social and Economic Development of SaintPetersburg with Perspective till 2020» (date 28.03.2012, № 275). 10. The Law of Saint-Petersburg «About the Urban development Plan of Saint-Petersburg» (date 22.12.2005, № 728-99).


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Associations as a New Form of Institutional Interaction within Civil Engineering Industry of Saint-Petersburg ANATOLII ASAUL Director of the Institute of Economy Renovation Problems, the Autonomous Non-Commercial Organization 16 Domostroitelnaya str., SaintPetersburg, Russia, 194292 e-mail: asaul@yandex.ru Structural abstract: This article enunciates a scientific theory related point of view on the association genesis and evolution of the forms of its activities. It examines current trends and prospects of development and strengthening the role of associations in the field of civil engineering in St. Petersburg. The article proves institutional viability of the professional association of organizations, which position themselves as technical employers. It offers a development potential analysis of the institute of technical employer in the field of civil engineering as a result of the formation of a specialized professional association. Four areas of activity are identified and the structure of interaction of the association of technical employers in the field of civil engineering is described. Keywords: association, technical employer, civil engineering, branch consolidation, specialism, balance, self-regulation.

Introduction The role of associations in the development of subjects operating in the field of civil engineering and value of the Institute of technical employer may be disclosed in the context of discussing the nature (genesis) of unification of the investment and construction process subjects into professional unions. In the most general sense the word “Association”* (from Latin associo, uniting) means an amalgamated union, a club, a partnership – a form of association, established by agreement between the organizations themselves, in order to coordinate activities and to represent and protect their collective interests. Neoclassical economic theory is limited to the study of associations as an element of market infrastructure: their functions and interactions, i.e. associations are described as an element of the system. Moreover, the proposed point of view, in which ”... the state should initiate development of market infrastructure,” “... to initiate industry associations, to actively participate in their activities...» [1] This interpretation brings associations in their activities to the role of the inner and external controller of industry, industry liaison to the external environment (the state), which excludes the understanding of such as a subject of the main technological process. While discussing the role of associations the author discloses his position from a different *  In the scientific and journalistic contexts, this term is used synonymously to the terms “industry branch union”, “professional association”, “nonprofit association of industry participants”.

perspective – institutional. In the works of D. Nort [2], O. Williamson [3], T. Eggertson [4] associations (as well as other elements of industrial infrastructure) are considered as elements of natural self-organization of industry or complex. Disclosure of institutional perspective on the role of associations in the development of interaction of subjects of investment and construction process, including civil engineering is suggested in relation to the processes of specialization and consolidation of regional investment construction complex [5].

Strategy Within the context of this article discussion about the forming of associations of technical employers on the one hand demonstrates the institutional status of the technical employer, but on the other hand, confirms the views on the development of professional associations within the industry consolidation. Research of the institutional nature of technical employer clearly demonstrates that this subject has a well-established integrity functions within the civil engineering, it is expressed as the discipline of interaction where the bounds of its economic activity are delineated as an independent business entity. However, in modern day Russia the practice of self-positioning of such activity is just emerging, which is welcomed at the initial stage of consolidation (see Fig. 1). This determines the primary purpose of the association – a positioning of the technical employer as an institute of civil engineering. At this stage, the institutional development of the investment construction sector has a trend of separating technical employer services into independent management units. The structure of the Association of technical employers (ATE) members is institutional, because the totality of construction companies is clearly positioned by their activity. As such, they can be divided into [6]: ·· private engineering companies with narrowly specialized functions of technical employer; ·· public and private organizations that act as technical employer for the chief budget controllers in St. Petersburg and at the federal level, as well as for the engineering bodies of the city; ·· investment and construction companies of St. Petersburg operating in the field of civil engineering and for which the functions of technical employer constitute only one part of their activities. In this case one should specifically state that the interests of the Association will be represented by a competent person directly engaged in the activities of technical employer. The activity of the ATE can be divided into four main areas, which are relevant to the positional and functional (second) stages of professional associations development [7]:

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Solution

·· establishing a close cooperation between the organizations (services) of technical employer in St. Petersburg, which carry out their activity in the field of civil engineering, exchange of experience in resolving certain issues within the competence of the technical employer;

In order to elaborate on this statement the author is using a methodological approach, based on the interpretation of the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) ratio, developed by the consulting group AT Kerney. The method, which was proposed in the works of Graham Deans, Fritz Kroeger and Stefan Zeisel [8], is based on the allocation of four phases of industry consolidation. O. Williamson [9] considers the trend growth of the infrastructure industry organizations (TA, Fig. 1), which also include associations, to the specialization and balance stages. He defines the nature of their appearance as self-organizing. At the specialization stage the subjects of investment and construction activity are concentrated within their primary activity (the specialization takes place). A strong pool of competitors is being formed, the economy of the activity is recognized, and this raises awareness of the common tasks of subjects in interaction with the environment.

·· providing a day-to-day relationship between the Association and government agencies, institutions and organizations that affect investment and construction processes in St. Petersburg, in order to receive timely information about current and projected changes in legislation, that might affect the work of the technical employers; ·· implementing the measures aimed at improving the skills of organizations – technical employers operating in the field of civil engineering; ·· developing proposals for the improvement of administrative regulation of investment and construction sector, submitting related proposals to the largest professional construction associations of St. Petersburg, which perform their activities in the area of civil engineering, and conducting a dialogue with their support at the highest professional level with city agencies and governing bodies.

The formalization of association activities borders The first stage of creation and development of associations (1, Fig.1) is when a group of subjects is striving to position their activity in relation to the external environment, first and foremost, to the customers. The aim of positioning (within the association formed) is defined by the subjects as the formalization of their activities boundaries in order to “... secure in the mind of the consumer a consumption standard” [10], intercomparison of the content and price of goods (services, products). That means, than at the first stage the association is seen as a tool of professional selfdetermination of the subjects.

ATE activity focuses on the expert coordination of subjects, functioning as a technical employer, in order to jointly position a technology service standards, the economic principle of creating added value, as well as strengthening civil activities in Russia.

Beginning

Growth

Specialization

Balance

Time Fig. 1. Number of infrastructure development organizations (TA) and the involvement of subjects in the industry associations (NA) relative to the phases of industry consolidation.

Note: The designations comply with Section F, Construction of the Russian National Classifier of Economic Activities (OKVED) 45.1. – Construction Site Preparation

45.4. – Finishing works

45.2. – Construction of buildings and facilities

45.5. – Rental of construction machinery and equipment with operating personnel

45.3. – Engineering equipment installation in buildings and facilities

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Association as an infrastructure subject of the investment and construction complex in St. Petersburg With regard to the activity of associations, the second stage is described as functional (2, Fig. 21). At this stage, the subjects are aware of the overhead functions defined by their specific activity  – interaction with the authorities, protection of industry interests, maintenance of industry strategic prospects (substitutes, etc.), promotion of industry product, etc. The possibility of redistribution of overhead functions, which can be transferred to industry unions on the terms of equity financing, is conceptualized and implemented [11]. During the second stage the association becomes the subject of infrastructure investment and construction complex of St. Petersburg, demonstrating a strong institutional activity and functioning as a nonprofit organization (the way the law describes it). At this stage, subjects recognize “associations as an effective tool for interaction between industry participants with an environment“ [3], which leads to a significant increase in the proportion of subjects included in the industry unions and associations (NA, Fig. 1). A characteristic feature of the association is the development of industry standards in accordance with the Federal Law No. 184- FZ “On Technical Regulation" (dated December 27, 2002). Attempts to implement the standards demonstrate the evidence of the associations readiness to realize their potential as self-regulatory organizations at the third stage [12].

Institutional viability of the association subject The third stage (3, Fig.1) is characterized by maturity of industry associations institute – within the industry consolidation it can be compared to the balance stage. Associations, as well as other subjects in industry, are upsized into confederations, nonprofit conglomerates. For instance, the Builders of Russia Union and associations (unions) of regional builders [13] consist of 85% of the associations and other forms of non-commercial partnerships. At this stage, the association is able to influence the industry to regulate the behavior of individual entities, provided that they have obtained respective legislative powers. Recently adopted Federal Law No. 315-FZ “On the self-regulatory organizations” and Federal Law No. 232-FZ “On Amendments in the Town-Planning Code of the Russian Federation and Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation” provide such power to the associations. Many associations within the investment and construction sector, which previously acted as nonprofit partnerships, have become selfregulatory organizations. Abolition of licensing in the building sector and the transfer of appropriate rights to the self-regulatory organizations on the one hand demonstrate the recognition by the authorities of the formation of the construction industry, and institutional viability of the association subject, on the other. Delegation of authorities to regulate the industry is the highest form of evolutionary development of the association subject under the condition of institutional development of regional investment construction complexes.

Search for new forms of institutional interaction The scientific theory on the genesis of associations and their activities evolution, which was described above, gives grounds to consider current trends and prospects of development and strengthening the role of associations in the field of civil engineering of St. Petersburg and to discuss the institutional

viability of the professional association of organizations positioning themselves as a technical employer. Not a single sector in the investment and construction industry can compete with the civil engineering, where there are associations of almost any type, including general and more specific, for instance associations on a particular construction product (bridge building associations, road builders associations, etc.). Before the crisis all associations in the construction industry were created as “positional” (stage 1) or as ”functional” (stage 2) associations, whereas after the 2008 crisis the investment and construction industry “...experienced a boom in registration of nonprofit partnerships aimed at getting functions of selfregulatory organizations”[14]. The primary issue in industry publications of 2008-2009 concerned self-regulatory organizations (SROs). The growing competition between the SROs for new members has become the subject of widespread speculation. However, it’s not something unusual – a new significant flow of direct (fees and salary packages) and indirect (the ability to influence and control) financial resources always attracts those who would like to take advantage of this opportunity. This trend was especially negative against the backdrop of the construction industry crisis [15]. Those associations that during the crisis ”...were seeking new forms of institutional cooperation, and integration of resources” [16], switched to outright struggle for leadership in the field of self-regulation. However, the fledging period is always characterized by similar trends. In general, the transition to self-regulation in the construction industry is due to both objective evolutionary trends and the unique features of ”Construction” activity. (F45). A positive trend would be the process of creating an association of technical employers in the area of civil engineering in St. Petersburg, the founders of which did not only immediately refrain from the obtaining the status of a self-regulatory organization, but also quite clearly outlined their objectives within the institutional situation on provided activity.

Association of technical employers in the area of civil engineering in St. Petersburg Solution of construction tasks defined at the establishing of the association of technical employers in the area of civil engineering relies on networking in the area of civil engineering. Communication with other professional associations and infrastructure elements is the foundation of such networking (see Fig. 2). A significant factor in the creation of associations is to promote the establishment of proactive civil groups formed on the grounds of professional occupation and to involve these associations in the management of social processes, thus weakening state paternalism. The structure of interaction of the association reflects the current cluster model of organization of investment and construction complex in St. Petersburg. ATE interacts with associations uniting investors and primary contractors in the field of civil engineering – the subjects which in the first place require creating a position of technical employer. Its mission is to position a managerial role of the customer towards investors, and, with respect to primary contractors – to divide competences. That is, the institutional

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Specialized educational institutions Specialized public service

Investors Association of investors Association of technical customers

Specialized industry media Technical customers

Association of primary contractors Primary contractors

Fig.2. The structure of interaction within the association of technical employers in the area of civil engineering.

position of technical employer is formed primarily towards the investor, who must foresee and recognize the appropriate status of technical employer.

Conclusion ”Association” as an element of information and communication infrastructure, develops proportionally in regards to the stages of industry consolidation, consistently solves problems of activity positioning, and problems of functional interaction with the external environment and regulatory bodies (in the status of a self-regulatory organization). Implementation of this procedure involves the following steps on behalf of ATE: ·· formalization of cluster model of the organization of investment and construction project at the technology standard level (business scheme), of business case, set of model contracts “investor – technical employer – primary contractor”, and of project presentation; ·· promotion of a new model of relationship in specialized industry media, in specialized civil services;

Statements The author described his vision of the purpose and content of the “association” subject in the investment and construction complex, as well as tasks of the Association of technical employers in the field of civil engineering. This allowed to make the following statements: 1. the subject of “association”, as an element of information and communication infrastructure in the civil engineering field of St. Petersburg, is developing proportionally in regards to the stages of industry consolidation; it consistently solves problems of its activity positioning, and problems of functional interaction with the external environment and regulatory bodies (in the status of a self-regulatory organization); 2. the role of the “association” subject from a scientific point of view can be described as an instrument of institutional formation of entities, which are operating in the area of civil engineering; 3. ”associations” might be considered as an effective tool of introducing new models of organizational and economic cooperation in the regional investment and construction sector, and in civil engineering, in particular; 4. the actual aim of the Association of technical employers in the field of civil engineering in St. Petersburg is determined by setting the appropriate institutional status and technical employer.

Acknowledgements This article was prepared within a framework of a fellowship granted by the Russian Humanities Research Foundation 13-0200065/13 “Research on Investment and Construction Complex: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Aspects.”

References

·· creation and distribution of case studies for specialized educational institutions;

1. Nureev R. M. Institutsionalism: proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee [Institutionalism: past, present and future]. // Voprosy ekonomiki. 1999. № 1.

·· indirect presentation of the model to primary contractors and investors through relevant associations, operating in the civil engineering sector.

2. Nort D. Instituty, institutsionalnye izmeneniya i funktsionirovanie ekonomiki [Institutions, institutional changes and economic performance]. M., 1997.

Establishment and functioning of ATE can not only strengthen the cluster model of the relationship between investment and construction complex subjects of St. Petersburg, but also contribute to the establishment of the Institute of technical employer in the civil engineering sector.

3. Williamson, O. Economy institutions of capitalism. Firms, markets, and relational contracting. SPb, 1996.

Thus, associations as professional unions are a part of information and communication infrastructure of investment and construction complex and serve as a tool of internal relationship in the civil engineering sector, and, from a scientific standpoint, the purpose

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of the ”association” subject may be defined as an instrument of institutional formation of subjects, investment and construction complex, which operate in the field of civil engineering.

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4. Eggertson, T. Economic behavior and institutions. M., 2001. 5. Asaul A. and Ivanov S., 2013. Structure of Transactional Costs of Business Entities in Construction. World Applied Sciences Journal, 23 (Problems of Architecture and Construction), pp: 80-83. 6. Asaul A.N., Lobanov A.V. Evolutsiya otnoshenii tekhnicheskogo


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zakazchika, generalnogo podryadchika i investora v regionalnom investitsionno-stroitelnom komplekse [An evolution of relationships between technical employer, general contractor and investor in a regional investment construction complex]. // Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. – 2010. -№ 2(23). –pp. 161-166. 7. Asaul A.N., Lobanov A.V. Ekonomicheskaya positsiya tekhnicheskogo zakazchika v investitsionno-stroitelnom komplekse [Economical position of technical employer in investment construction complex]. // Regionalnaya ekonomika. -2010. -№2(56). -pp.158-168 8. Graeme Deans, Fritz Kroeger, Stefan Zeisel. Winning the Merger Endgame: A. Playbook for Profiting from Industry Consolidation. M.: printed by Alpina Business Books, 2004. 9. Williamson, O. Economy institutions of capitalism. Firms, markets, and relational contracting. SPb, 1996. 10. Coase R. The nature of the firm. / Edited by O.Williamson, S.J.Winter. Translated by J.Kazhdan. Scientific editorship by V.Grebennikov. M.: Academy of National Economy under the Government of the Russian Federation: Delo, 2001. 11. Vakhmistrov A. I., Asaul N. A. Rol korporativnykh obyedinenii v sisteme upravleniya regionalnym stroitelnym kompleksom [The role of corporate unions in the administration system of regional investment construction complex]. – SPb.: Stroyizdat SPb, 2003. -296 pages.

12. Statistic building & construction industry/ National association of realtors // Germany, 2007. 13. Chirkova D.S., Grakhov V.P., Taranukha N.L. “Soyuz stroitelei Udmurtii” kak osnova klasternoi samoorganizatsii uchastnikov investitsionno-stroitelnoi deyatelnosti [«Udmurtia Builders Union» as basis of cluster self-organization of investment construction activity participants] // Vestnik Izhevskogo gosudarstvennogo technicheskogo universiteta. – 2013. – № 3 (59). – pp. 78-81 14. Zaguskin N. N. Metodologicheskie podkhody k traktovke mechanizma samoregulirovaniya i ego soderzhaniya [A methodological approach to the interpretation of the selfregulation mechanism and its contents] // Ekonomika i upravleniye. – 2013. – № 2(88). – pp. 45-51 15. Sevek V. K. Obosnovanie printsipov effektivnogo upravleniya razvitiem organizatsii regionalnogo investitsionno-stroitelnogo kompleksa [Justification of the principles of effective management of organizations’ development in regional investment construction complex] // Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. 2012.- № 3(32). –pp. 359-365 16. Asaul N.A. Institutsionalnyi podkhod k razvitiu investitsionnosroitelnogo kompleksa [Institutional approach to the development of investment construction complex] // Ekonomicheskoye vozrozhdeniye Rossii. – 2005. -№1(3). – pp. 37-43.

Digital Projects: Defining Digital Architecture The author: KEVIN R. KLINGER Architecture is presently engaged in an impatient search for solutions to critical questions about the nature and the identity of the discipline, and digital technology is a key agent for prevailing innovations in architecture. Although, this is really nothing new, as new technology has always been a catalyst for new ideas in architecture. A positive digital future in architecture requires a clearer definition of principles and skills necessary to maintain a rigor in emerging digital projects What is digital architecture? Architectural ideas have found new forms of digital representations, as information reconfigures into digital visualizations, and projects evolve further as digital fabrications. However, using digital technology doesn't necessarily constitute creating digital architecture. Ideas are still scrutinized by the author(s). Thus, a responsibility for a critical dimension still falls upon the author(s). Any new categorizations of architecture must connect equally with the critical as well as the technological skill base of the authors. Just as there is a difference between building and architecture, there is also a distinct difference between digitally generated projects and digital architecture.

wake of these new toot driven terminologies. I submit that digital architecture projects still come to life through the lens of a familiar architectural process – as a critical problem solving activity that results in projects represented with a rigor and depth of idea and intention, albeit with a highly sophisticated digital tool skill set. Without new principles, many projects remain impenetrable and thus intimidating, or merely "interesting." Without a rigor and critical dimension, the projects will remain only exercises in software. Digital skills: Digital architecture requires proficiency with a specific foundation set of digital skills such as: 2D composition, vector graphics, image manipulation, 3D modeling: surface modeling, solid modeling, video editing, motion graphics, rendering, animation, parametrics, drafting, communications, layout, printing, presentation, database operations, web interface, CAM-based fabrication, performance analysis: lighting, structures, systems, etc. However, innovative digital projects will not sacrifice the development of this skill set at the expense a critical problemsolving dimension. Thus, we must carefully consider the guidelines for what truly constitutes a digital architecture" project.

Digital principles+rigor. Does the tool path limit the density of the ripple? Did I choose a suitable algorithm for that surface? ...A clear and critical definition of new principles has yet to materialize in the Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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SYSTEM ANALYSE OF MODELS OF GROUND BASE HAVING 2 ELASTIC CHARACTERISTIC MAMMADLI R.A. The scientific research institute for building and architecture. Abstract. They studied 2-parametered models of ground base. They considered the models of V.Z. Vlasov, M.M. Philonenko-Borodin, R.Jonse and others. They point out the effectiveness of V.Z.Vlasovs model. Which is based on the variational method. This model is more exact than Winklers one and has simpler decisions than the model of semispace does.

The models offered by M.M. Philonenko-Borodich [5] may be shown as simpliest, membrane and laminar ones. The simpliest model is corresponding to a system of sylindric sprines connected with non-tensile horizontal thread over the surface . The displacement of such a base is found by means of formula (5)

Key words: model, ground, base, coefficient of bed, load, variational method, stress, displacement, elasticness, compressed layer. The two – parametered model of the ground base admitting various interpretations are considered in V.Z.Vlasov and N.N.Leontyev’s [1], R.Jonts’s [2, 3] , P.L.Pasternak’s [4] and M.M.Philonenko-Borodich’s [5] works. According to its properties this model may be considered as an intermediate one between Vinkler’s and elastic semispace ones. In spite of some differencies in the initial suppositions of their mechanical base the models considered in the works mentioned above are described by the same differential equation

here a2=c/H (c – cufficent of bed, H – constant horizontal projection of streching thread ); p (x) – vertical component of lord forcing ground base. Constant model doesn’t let find tension-deformation state of ground base. In case of space problem they offer membrane model. Substitute of membranes for elastic plates, thread-elastic sticks turn it into laminar model. The models considered in work [5] take into account distribution ability of ground base and also its limit thickness and multlayerness.

and differ from each other only by physical using parameter k1. Later on the model of ground base described by equation (1) will be called Vlasov’s model.

The common variation method of V.Z.Vlasov [1, 6] was used in V.Z.Vlasov’s 2-parametered model and R.Jonts’s one [2]. V.Z.Vlasov’s model is more detailed than Vinkler’s model [7], and gives simpler decisions than a model of elastic semispace. Elastic and in common case non-homogenous ground base is considered as one layer or multlayer model properties of which are described by means of 2 or several common caracteristics .

In the work [ 4 ] ground base is characterized by parameters: c1‑cufficient of compression, linking reactive pressure to displacement of surface of ground base, by means of formula analogous to Vinkler’s model

Let us consider the flat model of elastic ground base of V.Z.VlasovN.N.Leontyev. In this case compressed ground layer with thickness H serves as elastic ground base (fig. 1) and its displacements may approximately be shown as follows:

(1)

(2) here c- coefficient of bed, c2- coefficient of displacement linking the intensiveness of vertical moving force T to derivative of displacement of ground base in the corresponding direction , (3)

(6) here generalized displacement considers with the bending of upper edge of ground base and function of cross distribution of displacements along the height of base of displacements along the height of base φ(z) is chosen according to conditions of problem; horizontal displacement u (x,z) are not taken into consideration .

which are linked to each other by formula (4) here r – radius of stamp; ξ – quantity from tests of the stamp. The part with c2 gives an opportunity to find the displacement of surface of ground base beyond the applied load, which makes the results of calculation and experimental data considerably close. 206

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Fig.1. Model elastic ground base V.Z.Vlasov – N.N.Leontyev ‘s.


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If within compressed ground layer thin enough normal tensions are constant, (7) function of cross distribution of settling may be shown as follows (8) Diferrential equatuion

To settle the problem (9) it is necessary to consider its boundary conditions which must be in integral form: in common tensions or displacements. Normal and tangent tentions in ground base are found according to [1] by means of formulas : (14) (15) and common along and cross tensions in cross section x=const by means of formulas:

(9) (16) where (10) (11) expresses corelation between vertical displacements of ground base and load p applied to its surface. In conidered case (12)

V.Z.Vlavov’s model of elastic ground base allow to find varios schemes of elastic ground base by choosing functions φ(z) and this way make calculation scheme be extremely close to the work of real ground base. Values of deformations of the surface of ground base found taking into account its distributive property are very close to the results of tests. In monography by M.I.GorbunovPosadov, T.A.Malikova and V.I.Solomin [8] they represent results of tests of deformations of elastic ground base while resting it by means of rigid round stamps which may be used to choose a calculation model of ground base. Comparative analyse in fig.3 shows that deformation calculated for 2 parametered model coincide with results satisfactory .

here E, ν-module of elasticness and Puasson’s coefficient of ground base. Equation (9) differs from equation (2) because of having in member with second derivative from common displacement w (x), with the help of which they take into consideration the influence of tangent tensions appearing in ground base, which gives an opportunity to “distribute” load, in other words, ground base will have settlings not only in the place of action of load, but also beyond its boundaries (fig. 2). Coefficient k (analog of coefficient of bed) defines the work of elastic ground base under compressing . Coefficient 2t defines the words , its “distributive” property . Function of cross distribution of settlings for compressed layer H with enough height can be found according to formula (13) here γ-constant coefficient showing the speed of damping of settlings along the height of ground base . The model can be shown schematically as system of elastic springs between which internal friction and cohesion forces appear (fig. 2).

Fig 3. Deformation of surface of ground base found according to: 1-data of tests; 2- P.L.Pasternak’s model, 3-model of elastic semispace. Defect of considered model is that characteristics of known function φ(z) which as a rule is known beforehand, so in each case they cannot be found as a single value. One of the ways of finding values of k and t comparing solutions of some model problem describing the work of base by means of model of elastic semispace and V.Z.Vlasov’s model is represented in N.M.Borodachov’s work [8].

Fig. 2. Scheme of settling of ground base of concentrated load according too V.Z.Vlasov-N.N.Leontyev’s model.

Using V.Z.Vlasov’s model in contact problems allow to study loading constructions with only vertical forces. In case when horizontal and vertical displacements have the same it is necessary to consider models of elastic ground base with 3 or more characteristics basing on V.Z.Vlasov’s common variation. Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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M. Levonson’s base may be an example of such a model, described by differential equation of fourth squence. (17) which was found meaning that vertical and horizontal displacement in elastic grond base have the same sequence horizontal and are shown follows:

3. Levinson M. Generalized Vlason-Jones foundation model: a foundation of grade 4 Int. J. Mtch. Sci.1983. 25. №6, pp.149-154. Basing on V.Z.Vlasov’s model calculation of complex contructions of buildings and structures may be conducted taking into account elastic pliability and distributive property of ground base.

LITERATURE 1. Vlasov V.Z., Leontyev N.N. Balki,

(18) For linear charge of functions q(z) and f(z) (19) formulas of elastic cufficients are the following: (20)

4. Pasternak P.L. Osnovi novogo metoda raschota fundamentov na uprugom osnovanii pri pomoshi dvuch koeffisientov posteli. M/: gosstroyizdat, 1964, 105 pp. 5. Philonenko-Borodich M.M. Prosteysheya model uprugogo osnovaniya, sposobnogo raspredelyat nagruzki. Trudi Moskovskogo Instituta Ingenerov Transporta. M/: Transjeldorizdat, 1945, Vipusr 543, pp. 92-130.

(21)

6. Vlasov V.Z. Obshaya teoriya obolochek i yego prilojeniya v texnike. M/: gostexizdat, 1949, 796 pp.

(22)

7. Winckler E. Die Lerne von der Elasticitat und Festigkeit// Dominicus/ Prag, 1867.

(23) 1. Pliti i obolochki na uprugom osnovanmii. M.: Fizmatiz, 1960, 491 p.

8. Borodachev N.M. O vozmojnosti zameni slojnich modeley uprugogo osnovaniya bolyeye prostimi. “Stroitelnaya mechanika i raschet soorujeniy”, №4, 1975, pp.29-31.

2. Jonts R., Zenophontos J. The Vlasov foundation model. J. Appl. Mech. 1977, 19. pp.317-321.

RADIATION IN THE CITY: NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIATION, REALITY AND MYTHS VLADIMIR GRACHEV President of the V.Vernadsky Nongovernmental Ecological Foundation, Russia; D.Sc., Professor, Corr. Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Prof. Grachev started his career in 1960s as an engineer, then as a lecturer at the Penza State Polytechnical Institute. In 1990 he was elected a People’s Deputy, Deputy Chairman of the Committee on higher Education and Training at the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation. In 1993 – 1999 V. Grachev was the Chief of the Federation Council’s Committee on Science, Culture, Education, Health and Ecology. In 1997 – 1999 he was elected a deputy of the State Duma, the Chairman of the Committee on Ecology. Prof. Grachev is an honorary member of the PACE. Since 2011 he has been the President of the Vernadsky Foundation. Prof. Grachev is the author of 242 inventions, 625 published works, 29 monographs, 10 textbooks, 15 manuals. 208

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RAFAEL ARUTYUNYAN Deputy Director on Science and Coordination of Advanced Development of the Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAN), Russia D.Sci. in Physics & Math., Full Professor Prof. Arutyunyan graduated from the Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1978. He started his scientific career as a researcher at the Branch of Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy. From 1989 till present, he occupies the position of the Deputy Director at IBRAE RAN, Russia. His basic scientific activity relates to the study of the Chernobyl accident consequences, scientific grounds for radiation emergency response and development of computer systems to model NPP severe accidents. Prof. Arutyunyan is a member of the Expert Council of the Government of the RF. He was awarded an order of Courage for the selflessness and courage demonstrated during liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences. Prof.Arutyunyan is the author of more than 170 scientific publications. Typical background radiation in a contemporary city is 8-12 µR/hr (microroentgens per hour). Radionuclides are scattered in the environment and are present in any surroundings, no matter organic or inorganic. This radionuclides radiation together with cosmic radiation creates a natural radiation background. We are not surprised with the radiation level of 1014 µR/hr (0.10-0.14 µSv/hr (microsieverts per hour), and we know this is a norm for the most areas. We also know that the atmosphere is more permeable to cosmic rays at the height of 10 km (civil airplanes flight altitude) and therefore, the background therein is 200250 µR/hr (2,0-2,5 µSv/hr). However, we are unaware of the places on Earth, where the natural background is increased significantly, not causing any problems for the inhabitants. Let us investigate the causes of this phenomenon. Earth`s sources of radiation are more than 60 natural radionuclides. The main contribution to the external radiation dose is made by gammaemitting nuclides of uranium and thorium radioactive series, as well as of potassium-40. There are radiation anomalies in those areas, where thorium and uranium content in the soil is increased. Here are some examples:

France The average background runs up to 2 µSv/hr (20 times more than “typical” background) in a number of regions. On average, 7 million French people receive an annual natural radiation dose that is 1.5-2 times more than the world average one. There are areas with the same radiation level in Italy, the USA, Sweden, Madagascar, volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean. There are regions with the increased natural background in Russia as well – for example, some regions of Altai and Karelia.

India (Kerala State) 7 000 people live in the area with an average background of 0.43 µSv/hr. There are monazite sand seeps along the coastal strip where thorium-232 and decay products content is approx. 10% by weight. More than 100 thousand residents of Kerala and Madras states live under the annual average background of 0.14-3.2 µSv/hr.

Brazil (Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro States) The radiation dose ranges from 1 to 10 µSv/hr along the Atlantic coast, running up to 20 µSv/hr at the sea beaches.

Iran (Ramsar) There are areas where the dose rate ranges from 0.7 to 50 µSv/hr due to high uranium content in the water. In other words, the radiation background can be 500 times higher than typical one. However, at the same time, “according to the scientists of the Pan American Health Organization: “...the influence of the relatively increased background on the mortality because of oncopathology, frequency of congenital anomalies, physical development disorders, fertility rate, frequency of congenital pathology, child mortality rate, sex ratio and spontaneous abortion frequency is not ascertained» in these cities [1]. Natural radioactive background accompanies the biosphere through all its evolution. The radiation sources are: external radiation (cosmic radiation and radiation from the radioactive elements, present in the Earth`s interior, atmosphere, water, and living things) and internal irradiation (from natural radionuclides, penetrating into organism with air, food and water). The internal radiation accounts for 60%, the external one – 40% of the natural radiation. Average irradiation per capita is 3 800 µSv/yr. The medical examination accounts for 600 µSv/yr, nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere and past accidents – approx. 10 µSv/yr, nuclear power – approx. 2 µSv/yr. Radon – a colorless, odorless and tasteless dense gas (7.5 times denser than air) – accounts for a half of the annual natural radiation dose from the natural sources of radiation. Radon is a decay product of thorium radioactive series. Person gets a significant part of doses from radon while being in enclosed, unventilated spaces where radon seeps through the foundation and floor from the ground, via inhaled air. A man receives the highest radiation dose in bathrooms when taking a shower, where the radon content is 40 times higher than in other rooms.

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The natural radiation background is one of the conditions for biota normal functioning. It is believed that it is necessary for the evolution of life on Earth, for maintaining active self-regulation of the living. That is probably why people live much longer in the mountains, at the sites of granite abruption where the background is of 0.3-0.5 µSv/hr. There are resorts in Brazil and India where irradiation exceeds several times the annual permissible levels. Hard cosmic radiation, gamma-radiation from potassium-40 of the earth's crust and alpha-radiation from radon-220 and radon-222, which is a product of all three series decay, make the greatest contribution to the irradiation. A radioactive background dose depends on such factors as altitude, quantity and type of radionuclides, present rocks and soil. For example, people living at the sea level, receive an average equivalent dose from cosmic radiation of approx. 300 µSv/yr. External irradiation is several times more for people living 2 km above the sea level. Notably, 5 km are the maximum height where human constructions are present (Peru and Bolivia). Crews and passengers of airplanes are exposed to quite intensive irradiation. At the height of 12 km (maximum flight altitude of transcontinental airplanes) the cosmic radiation dose is 25 times higher. Besides radon there other sources of internal irradiation – potassium-40, which is absorbed by organism along with nonradioactive isotopes of potassium, vital to the organism functioning. Person receives significantly larger dose of internal irradiation from the nuclides, which are the products of uranium-238 and thorium-232 series radioactive decay. Some of them, e.g. lead-210 and polonium-210 nuclides, are absorbed along with food. They are accumulated in fish and shellfish. There is quite high concentration of isotopes in the reindeer meat, of polonium-210 in particular. Deer absorb these isotopes during winter, when they eat lichen where both isotopes are accumulated. People living in Western Australia, in places with increased concentration of uranium, receive higher irradiation doses when eating sheep and kangaroo meat.

1. Share of various radiation sources in the total irradiation dose received by human per year

Thus, tens of millions of people, including women and children, are constantly exposed to the natural radiation background due to the natural radioactive gas radon, receiving dose of 5-10 mSv/yr (microsievert per year), and in certain areas with the increased natural radiation background – 15-30 mSv/yr throughout the ages, with the average world irradiation dose for human at the level of 2.5 mSv/ yr. At the same time, the lifetime dose may run up to 700-1000 mSv without any negative health effects identified through epidemiological examinations in areas with the increased radiation background.

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The experience of the past radiation accidents and incidents shows, however, that a high perception of radiation risks by society causes serious socio-economic consequences, even in the case of expected extra irradiation lifetime doses at the level of 100-300 mSv. Such doses are expected for the population across the most part of the socalled Chernobyl areas, legally referred to as “aggrieved” in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Legislative and statutory regulation of radiation influence of nuclear power facilities and when using ionizing radiation sources in industry, medicine and other spheres of human activity on human beings at the level of doses several and 10 times lower than natural background irradiation doses is a factor of socio-economic risk, especially in the case of megalopolis. Extensive use of radioisotope technologies, the threat of radiological terrorism are inevitably accompanied by the potential risks of radiation pollution in the metropolitan areas and infrastructure facilities, supporting life activities. The current radiation protection system of reference for the intervention, at the expected annual doses lower than the variability of exposure from natural background, despite the absence of any proven health risks, can and does lead to large-scale socio-economic consequences; even in the case of small and insignificant doses of the additional exposure. The most recent striking example of such a situation is the introduction in Japan, as a criterion for the planned evacuation after the accident at the NPP Fukushima-1, the radiation dose for the first year at the level of 20 mSv. The expected life dose in such areas does not exceed 150-300 mSv without any interference and cannot be a significant factor of negative impact on the health conditions. We carried out the analysis of unintentional and intentional dispersion of radioactive substances at the level of gram (this corresponds to the activity in the order of 100-1000 Curie, depending on the isotopic composition ) in the metropolis and resulting socio-economic consequences in the case of implementation of the existing in Russia and other countries criteria of rehabilitation or introduction of various protective measures in annual doses of 0.15 mSv per year (criterion protection Agency U.S. Environmental ), criterion 1 curie/km2 for Cs- 137 or 1 mSv per year extra dose in accordance with Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian Chernobyl legislation on which nearly 8 million people were classified as “affected”. In such a situation, the application of such intervention criteria in the case of dispersion of radioactivity in the metropolis over dozens of square kilometers with a population of hundreds of thousands of people and a huge economic potential, restrictions will be imposed that would lead to a large-scale socio-psychological and economic damage and could destabilize the economy of the metropolis in general, in the absence of any significant health risks. Findings of the similar analysis conducted by experts of the U.S. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are demonstrated as an example of deliberate dispersion with a radioisotope source of Cs-137 in New York. [1] The results of this analysis are presented in Figure 1; they also demonstrate the dependence of the economic impact of the application of different territory radiation rehabilitation criteria. Such terrorist act could lead to a small number of overexposed people, however, the cost of rehabilitation, and restoration of buildings is quite substantial (up to half of U.S. GDP), the most conservative standard for the rehabilitation of contaminated areas to the level of residual annual dose of 0.15 mSv (Fig. 1).


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Thus, the existing super-rigid rating system, which is not based on the actual identified effects of radiation on human health in small doses, becomes a factor of a very high social vulnerability. Given the exacerbated perception of radiation by people and society as a whole, the obvious relation by mass-media – and any radiation accident, any incident with the release of radioactivity, especially in areas with a high population density and economic potential, regardless of the scale of emission, and even in the cases with negligible radiological consequences, are fraught with a large-scale social and economic damage.

Without any doubts, in the public interest the radiation protection standards must be harmonized with the socio-acceptable risk and should be based on the real scientific values ​​of the impact of the radiation on human health and the environment, but not on the unsubstantiated extensive research hypotheses.

Literature 1. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF RADIOLOGICAL / NUCLEAR TERRORIST ACT: REHABILITATION STANDARDS HAVE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON COST, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING SUPERCRITICAL WATER OXIDATION by Prof. V.A. Grachev, Prof. A. Ye. Rozen, Ye. V. Vorobyev

VLADIMIR GRACHEV President of the V.Vernadsky Nongovernmental Ecological Foundation, Russia; D.Sc., Professor, Corr. Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Prof. Grachev started his career in 1960s as an engineer, then as a lecturer at the Penza State Polytechnical Institute. In 1990 he was elected a People’s Deputy, Deputy Chairman of the Committee on higher Education and Training at the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation. In 1993 – 1999 V. Grachev was the Chief of the Federation Council’s Committee on Science, Culture, Education, Health and Ecology. In 1997 – 1999 he was elected a deputy of the State Duma, the Chairman of the Committee on Ecology. Prof. Grachev is an honorary member of the PACE. Since 2011 he has been the President of the Vernadsky Foundation. Prof. Grachev is the author of 242 inventions, 625 published works, 29 monographs, 10 textbooks, 15 manuals.

ANDREY ROZEN Andrey Rozen is a D. Sc. in Engineering, the Head of “Welding, Foundry and Materials Chair at the Penza State University, Professor since 2003. Prof. Rozen is the Head of “Machine Engineering” Academic board at the Ministry of Education and Science of the RF. He has been an academic advisor of 10 research and development projects. Prof. Andrey Rozen’s biography was included by the Swedish International Center into the bibliographic encyclopedia of Russia’s high achievers “Who is Who in Russia” (2007). In 2010, Prof. A. Rozen was a holder of the Golden Galaxy diploma and golden medal awarded by the American Scientific Society for the development in the field of corrosion-proof materials.

YEVGENIY VOROBYEV Yevgeniy Vorobyev was born in Penza, Russia, in 1955. In 1977 he graduated from the Penza Polytechnic Institute with the degree in radiotechnics. Upon graduation he worked at the Penza radio manufacturing plant. In 1995 he graduated from the All-Russia Correspondence Finance and Economics Institute. In 2002 Y.Vorobyev defended his dissertation and was awarded the Cand. Sc. degree (PhD equivalent). He offered a verbal operation method for the systems analysis of complex sociotechnical systems. From 2009 to 2013 he was a principal investigator of “Sverkhkrit” research and development work (the Federal targeted program “Khimbiobezopasnost” (Chemical and Biological Safety). Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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The issue of wastewater treatment is highly relevant especially for metropolises and cities with the developed industrial infrastructure. In particular, effluents of industrial enterprises, using hydrocarbon materials or being engaged in their thermal processing, contain cyclic and aromatic compounds that have a very negative impact on the ecological environment. The technology of wastewater treatment by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is believed to be very promising. By its dissolving capacity the supercritical water (T = 647.1 K; Pk = 22.06 MPa) is similar to the non-polar organic compounds, it hardly dissolves inorganics of the ionic nature and it completely miscibles with organic compounds, air and gaseous reaction products. In supercritical water organic toxicants can be oxidized by atmospheric oxygen to simple products, such as CO2, N2, etc. For all the tested toxicants the degree of their convertibility into simple products, as a result of oxidation, is more than 99.99 %, which is significantly higher than for the indicator of toxic combustion processes waste. Low temperature and the closure of the process eliminate the emission of hazardous substances into the atmosphere and the formation of dangerous oxides NOx and SO2. Peculiarity of "supercritical" fluids is a continuous increase in their density (from the gas phase to the liquid-like one) without occurrence of heterogeneous equilibrium "liquid-gas" with increasing pressure. The boundary for the existence of the cluster of associated fluid molecules outlines the critical isotherm, which coincides with the percolation threshold.

the division of the working mixture decay products with separation of solid and liquid phases, the recirculation system, and the ACS module . The estimated annual performance of the raw materials recycling complex is 1,200 tons per year. The estimated time of the annual operation of the reactor is 300 working days. The daily productivity of raw material processing is up to 4 tons per day; The installation has a receiver unit for injection of the mixture into the reactor. One container is intended for storing the oxidant in the case it is needed, whereas another one is for storing the water used to provide the desired concentration of the mixture and compressing the working reactor. The pump unit provides pre-feeding of the mixture into the waste receptacle tank. The main oxidation processes take place in the reactor. The processed products are proceeded from the reactor into the separator and then to the receiver, and the capacity discharge tank. Cable channels (ducts) for the control and power of communication modules are laid along the perimeter. The reactor unit design has: heating elements ensuring creation and support (if necessary) supercritical temperature, 18 kW, working mixture feeding injectors, a thermocouple for controlling the temperature inside the reactor and the temperature of the reactor vessel nozzle cover for supplying a gaseous oxidizing agent or withdrawing gaseous reaction products in the lower fitting part to output the reaction product condensed.

An essential condition for the practical application of the method of supercritical water oxidation is a process automation, providing stability of the homogeneity multicomponent system boundaries. In addition, the development of technology is associated with the need to increase the service life of the reactor. At the temperatures and pressures used in the SCWO technology, under the influence of ionized halogen reactor materials corrode. Making the reactor ​​of titanium alloys and bimetals of chromium-nickel alloys, tantalum cladded, is a significant obstacle to commercialization of the technology because of high cost of materials and limited resources in operational life. However, the activities in this direction are constantly going on, both in the U.S. (Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, General Atomics), Japan (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD), and Russia in the field of basic and applied research, which laid the foundation for the engineering technological calculations. A hardware solution of the SCWO installation has been implemented under the conditions of the following process flow diagram (Figure 1). Developed technical solutions have been implemented in a pilot SCWO installation. The technological part of the installation was comprised of the reactor and preparatory modules. The installation includes the following technological systems: the raw materials and neutralized oxidant supply system, the preparation and mixture injection system, the SCWO mixture reactor system, the multistage system of gaseous products discharge, 212

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Fig. 1. Process flow diagram of SCWO processing Units and components of the installation are connected to the process piping circuit, providing: ·· Submission of the initial components for processing;


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·· Vapor-air mixture efficiency;

reactor and from there it is injected into the SCWO reactor, providing the necessary pressure air, oxygen or an oxidizing agent solution.

·· Output of solid waste; ·· Connection of the check valve; ·· Connection of thermocouples – temperature sensors; ·· Connection of remote strain gauges; ·· Connection of the shut-off valves; ·· Connection of the safety valves. As the results of the calculations show, the composition and physico-chemical properties of the SCWO processing products vary depending on the time, temperature and pressure of the medium within the reactor zone. In this regard, an instrumental solution that provides control and stabilization process parameters is important. It is ensured by an automated control system. The installation is shown in Fig. 2, 3, 4.

Two reactors work in a parallel way. Release of the gaseous products from the reactor is done into a three-stage reactor condenser – separator. Dumping of solid waste from the separators and reactors is carried out into two receivers. In the final container condensation is formed, being recycled through the waste recovery (recuperation) line. The valve system is operated by pneumatics. Since the process proceeds at high temperatures and pressures, its energy requirements in the time of starting and preparation of the equipment are relatively high (up to 75 kW). However, in the process of processing of the material with hydrocarbon groups, their heating up to the supercritical temperatures is possible due to the exothermic oxidation reactions without additional energy input. Constructive-wise, the process module is placed in a standardized 40-foot container, High Cube Class, and meets all the requirements for transportation on public roads in a road trailer. The reactor and process module can be mounted separately and upgraded for specialized tasks. The automatic control system unit is made as ​​a separate module and is located at a distance of 25-30 meters from the hi-tech process module, providing comfort and safety and security for the operator, as well as protection of the management system hardware from an accidental exposure to the corrosive factors.

Fig.2 Preparation module

Fig. 3 Reactor module

The operating process module is installed inside a closed container, in which the inputs are blocked when switching-in takes place, in order to avoid a possibility of admission of the operating personnel into the working area. The operating module is equipped with standardized communication pipeline connections for external loading of processed materials and unloading of recycled products from the process module. The process of loading and unloading of the module is controlled by the ACS unit in the automated mode. The modular design of the SCWO installation allows applying it both in the fixed configuration, and in the mobile option. Time of deployment of the process unit does not exceed one shift. Feeding of neutralized waste can be done by universal tankers. Technical specifications of the installation are given in Table 1.

Fig.4 Process modules transportation conditions The installation consists of an automated control system (AMCS). Control signals are transmitted from the system unit through the electropneumatic controllers that transmit the pneumatic control action to the pneumatic shutoff valve. The installation scheme provides for loading of up to 300 liters of waste at once. A processed product may have a viscosity up to 20 centistokes and contain up to 20% of suspended solids. In the waste receiving tank the stuff is heated till 80°C, dilution and supply of reagents are possible. Then the mixture is fed into the preparation

The SCWO reactor is made of the materials resistant to corrosion caused by ionized halogen. Multilayer materials were developed by the authors of this article. As a result of conducting extensive research, a multilayered metallic material with a "sacrificial pitting protection" is applied as a SCWO reactor material. The expected life of the reactor can be increased by 8 times. Stability tests were conducted at the Penza State University. Initial assessment of toxicity and processed products was performed on Daphnia magna Straus, Scenedesmus quadricauda, on the "Ecolum" test system. Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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SCWO installation technical specifications

Table 1

Technical Specifications

Value

The volume of recyclables, m3/day

up to 5.0

Operating mode

Long-term, cyclical

Cycle time (depending on the initial moisture content and calorific capacity of wastes) min.

0.3-4.0

The initial heating time of the reactor up to operating temperature, hour

no more than 6

The primary source of heat energy

heating element

Consumption of diesel fuel, kg/hour

2-5

Power consumption, kW × h

no more than 100

Installation weight, kg

14635

Overall dimensions, m (W×H×L)

2.5×2.7×8.2

Operating personnel

3 persons per shift

Experiments, conducted by bioassays, showed that the initial 10% aqueous emulsions of benzene, toluene, phenol require more than 10,000-fold dilution and belong to the hazard class 1 (extremely dangerous) for the environment. Products of these emulsions on dilution harmless multiplicity (RBB) test objects is, in particular, for safe concentration dilution (SCD)1096 for benzene is 51.14, phenol – 48.70, toluene – 47.96 times. This corresponds to the hazard class 4 (low hazard), which indicates a higher degree of environmental efficiency. Bioassay results are shown in Table 2. Experimental measurements of the total content of polychlorinated dibenzo-n-dioxins and dibenzofurans in terms of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-n-dioxin in samples of technological emissions into the ambient air were performed by gas

chromatography-mass spectrometry [PND F 13.1.65-08] . Analyses chromatography-mass spectrometer Thermo Finnigan MAT 95XP. The resulting total content ( TEQ and WHO-TEF toxicity coefficients) of polychlorinated dibenzo -n- dioxins and dibenzofurans in terms of 2,3,7,8 – tetrachlorodibenzo -n- dioxin samples industrial emissions SCWO – processing products equal to 3.9 pg/m3 do not exceed the maximum permissible concentration introduced by the EU – "TEQ/ Nm3" 0.1 nanogramm/m3 [" GN 2.1.6.014-94 . 2.1.6. Communal Hygiene. Atmospheric Air and Indoor Air , Sanitary Protection of Air . The maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in air of residential areas. Hygienic standards " (approved by the State Committee on Sanitary and Epidemiological Inspectorate of the Russian Federation from 22.07.1994 N 7) Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans in Ambient Air]. Table 2

Dependence of mortality of Daphnia from dilution of waste samples (test object Daphnia magna Straus) benzene

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Dependence of mortality of algae from dilution of waste (test object Scenedesmus quadricauda)


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Results of bioassay of the baseline 10% aqueous emulsion of benzene, toluene, phenol and products of their recycling using the SCWO installation Substance

Condition

Test object

Test object

“Ecolum” test system

Daphnia magna Straus

Scenedesmus quadricauda

Hazard Class

Safe concentration dilution (SCD) SCD10-96 Benzene

Toluene

Phenol

SCD20-72

for fluorescent bacteria

initial emulsion

more than 10000 times more than 10000 times

all dilutions

Class 1 (extremely dangerous, SCD – more than 10000)

emulsion derivatives

51.14 times

1:100

Class 4 (low-hazard, SCD – less than 100)

initial emulsion

more than 10000 times more than 10000 times

all dilutions

Class 1 (extremely dangerous, SCD – more than 10000)

emulsion derivatives

47.96 times

1:100

Class 4 (low-hazard, SCD – less than 100)

initial emulsion

more than 10000 times more than 10000 times

all dilutions

Class 1 (extremely dangerous, SCD – more than 10000)

emulsion derivatives

48.70 times

1:100

Class 4 (low-hazard, SCD – less than 100)

39.65 times

37.93 times

24.92 times

Notes:

SCD10-96 – harmless multiple dilution of water extracts, causing the death of more than 10% of test objects during 96-hour exposure

SCD20-72 –harmless multiple dilution of water extracts, causing the death of more than 20% of test objects during 72-hour exposure

Architecture Marketing: At What Cost? LAURA ILONIEMI Marketing companies and publicists working for architects have certainly adapted to increasingly hard-nosed commercial trends. They have embraced, for example, the latest trade shows, no matter how brash, along with high-profile international property conferences and moneymaking awards events (with apparent relish), hoping to place their clients in front of new, and ever more commercial, audiences. But marketing folk sell only what they know from their own experience – experience that may or may not be relevant to architectural practice. If they do not have an intuitive or trained eye for architecture itself, or a feel for its rightful place in our culture, they can never produce a worthwhile strategy for ensuring its true relevance in society. Over the years, I have noticed that many practices focus so heavily on a bread and butter marketing approach, that they find it difficult to even think about jam, the special ingredient, that is, that turns everyday building projects into the art and science of architecture. The fact is that the rules of the corporate world seldom apply to buildings that are, or should be, of real cultural value. Some corporate buildings do embody such value, yet these – like Mies

van der Rohe’s justly celebrated Seagram Building on New York’s Park Avenue – have been conceived from ideas and values that go far beyond “branding” and “bottom line” commerce. The buildings that compel us to think about architecture as embodiments of the ideals of an era or social phenonema, from cathedrals and civic libraries to munificent corporate headquarters and intelligent skyscrapers, are works of art – not machines purely for making money. Promoting architecture should be, I think, more the job of what I might call a “cultural attaché” rather than an account director. This is a role that, at its best, requires editorial and curatorial skills together with visual sophistication. I admire practices that stick to their vision of what good architecture should be and quietly refuse to lower professional, and design, standards in the hope of appealing to the press and potential clients. They may be called the “high priests” or “prima donnas” of the profession, yet their unremittingly high standards hold them firmly above the rest. Even so, many PRs will tell such architects that they are somehow naive: they should be thinking of events, like the international

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property shows, where the big spenders are supposedly looking to invest in the best design. They say: “it’s all very nice being in the likes of Casabella, but it doesn’t get your clients anywhere”. But, architects who do get their work published in highly-regarded publications are often those who have adopted a more considered approach to their PR, helping them to win reputation – and the jobs that so many in the profession covet. If architects play their cards more subtly, and aim high in terms of design, developers may well run after them with good money – and not vice versa. I always tell clients that it is easier to dilute what they do in the eyes of the press and potential clients, but if they lack a position of artistic and intellectual credibility, ultimately no amount of industry awards and industry events will prop them up. The challenge today is: how to communicate intelligent design ideas effectively? Architects need to escape the job-pitching mentality and engage instead with an altogether bigger picture of design issues in public. Architects share and debate many intelligent and valuable ideas among themselves, and it is these ideas, rather than their “brands” or marketing strategies, that should see the light of day in public. This is where blogs, comment pieces and social media can be highly effective tools. Too often these are used as a very narrow medium for self-promotion; project-based books that look and read like catalogues or corporate brochures also fail to inspire. The profession could raise its image by whole-heartedly embracing the very things it ought to be doing well. Architects should occupy offices, for example, that they are proud of in terms of design. Architecture is an inherently visual medium, and so architects should produce the best possible visuals of their work – be it CGIs, sketches or models. They should work with photographers capable of catching and expressing the essence of their work. They should increasingly look at film. The right presentation tools need to convey a practice’s true strengths. Of course, architecture is also a medium embracing a huge range of ideas, including issues concerning global threats to our well-being. It is only by investing in compelling presentation materials that such

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wide-ranging interests can be brought to public attention – and potential clients, too. This may all seem obvious but visitors to architects’ studios are often disappointed at the lack of stimulating visuals on offer – particularly when it comes to showing current projects. In the increasingly crude, commercialised communication of architecture in recent years, the very essence – the poetry or meaning of buildings – has been little expressed, marketed, and much less celebrated. However, the so-called “star architects” – such as Rem Koolhaas, Herzog de Meuron, and David Chipperfield – have achieved this marriage between medium and message. Their “brand” is their design talent, idealism and visual sensibility – not a corporate-style or “brand” meant to appeal to developers and commercial clients. I would encourage young architects to think carefully about how they wish to be seen, and whom they want to be associated with both professionally, through the media, and as clients, as they build up their studios and portfolios. The strength of a practice’s early ideas, and the opportunity to build on these for the future, are what really matters; ultimately, these are what they will be judged by. Architects who understand this, and use every visual medium at their disposal to transmit their intellectual and cultural stance, as well as their practical skills, will always be – even in an increasingly ruthless commercial global economy – a long way ahead of the pack. This is provided, of course, that they are also blessed with something no amount of publicity can buy: talent. Laura Iloniemi has been working in architectural PR for over fifteen years. She wrote a book on the subject -Is It All About Imagepublished by Academy & Wiley. Iloniemi studied architectural philosophy at The University Cambridge and arts promotion at The Ecole du Louvr. www.archdaily.com/457977/architecture-marketingat-what-cost/#more-457977


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Cities are for People: Turning Underused Spaces into Public Places BROOKS RAINWATER Metrocable, architect Urban-Think Tank. It begins with a fundamental premise: Buildings occupy only a fraction of land in cities. Just as important as physical structures, are the public spaces in between. In many cities these spaces have long been disregarded. Today, however, we are witnessing bold experimentation and innovation coming forth from cities across the globe: cities re-using and re-imagining previously underused spaces in order to uplift communities and transform lives. The AIA’s Cities as a Lab: Designing the Innovation Economy initiative explores the role that cities are playing as the inventive and forward-looking leaders on a range of design and policy choices. Consider, for example, Medellin, Colombia. For many years Medellin, was viewed as one of the most dangerous cities in the world. City leaders knew Medellin had more to offer than what the rest of the world was being shown…but how could they change the reputation of a place that at one time recorded over 3,000 murders in one year? Through innovative efforts focused on placemaking and the creation of lively public space, Medellin has demonstrated how a greater understanding of the value of public spaces, and the power unleashed by bringing people together within those places, can turn the most violent blighted cities into thriving vibrant communities. The City of Medellin began by instituting policy solutions that focused on revitalizing the city’s poorest areas. New transit links were brought in to connect the slums on hillsides to the formal jobs below. Because the hills were too steep for bus rapid transit, gondolas and escalators were installed to provide creative mobility solutions for the residents. The city’s former mayor, Sergio Fajardo, championed these and many other programs, some of which used striking architectural design, primarily created by local architecture firms, to create a strong sense of place. Transit terminals, libraries, and sports centers were upgraded and built with forward-looking designs. Mayor Fajardo’s agenda, “architecture as social program,” captured the overall goal of creating transformative architecture and open spaces for the residents of the city while at the same time driving strong economic growth. Although all its problems have certainly not been solved, Medellin has experienced a transformation; it recently won the Wall Street Journal/ULI/CITI City of the Year award for most innovative city.

But city-wide transformation is not necessary, as even small scale projects can make a big difference. For example, Katherine Darnstadt, AIA, the founder of Chicago’s Latent Design, has worked with Alex Gilliam of Public Workshop to empower 11 teenage girls to improve a vacant lot on Chicago’s Far South Side. Through the application of design and science these young women were able to create a peaceful and imaginative play area for neighborhood children. The Femme 2 STEM summer camp was the platform for this transformation to take place, but design thinking was the impetus to make it happen. Over a two-week period the participants spent time on site collaborating with one another and gathering ideas from passersby to elicit greater community input. They measured, designed, tested, engineered, and built the “Climb, Jump, Leap, Imagine” playground, which included a rope course, decking, and a sandbox. Community members joined in and spent evenings helping out, providing donations, and even cleaning a nearby vacant lot. The outcome of this project was a community space built by the community for the community. Design was the key connector, but the people – both those who took part in the program and the neighborhood members who got involved – made it happen. The relationships people form with one another and the space around them are what make cities work. The opportunities and challenges in urban areas are manifest, but political will, far-reaching policy choices, and community engagement can, if allowed, come together in a melting pot of innovation. Only in this way can we create places that are inclusive of all people; that social equity can be a key impetus, and not an afterthought; that architecture can move beyond the building and help to transform the streetscapes and in-between places that can better the lives of people in the community as a whole. Brooks Rainwater is the American Institute of Architect’s Director of Public Policy. Brooks leads the AIA’s Public Policy program, focused on design centered policy at the key intersection of cities, sustainability, and health. As a strong advocate for vibrant and successful cities, Brooks frequently speaks and writes on the subject, and is the lead author of Local Leaders, a national research series that examines sustainable, livable, and healthy communities. Cite: Brooks Rainwater. "Cities are for People: Turning Underused Spaces into Public Places" 01 Nov 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 18 Jan 2014. www.archdaily.com/?p=443679

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Publications and research. Scientific articles and publications

E-COMMERCE: PROGRESS OF UKRAINE AND WORLD TREND TATIANA DUBOVYK Candidate of Economics, Associate Professor, Kiev National University of Trade and Economics, Department of Marketing and Advertising, Kioto 19 St., Kiev, Ukraine, tel.+0380445314837 e-mail: Tatiana_dubovik@i.ua

The world economy felt the effects of the financial crisis that started in late 2007 and took place in September 2008. It has not been able to restore the growth of previous decades. Conditions, in which there was growth, were formed particularly due to the socioeconomic development of developing countries. This tendency was formed thanks to them and used by some large developing countries. It has helped to lay the foundation for global recovery and the most devastating crisis processes were taken under the control. For the leading countries of Western Europe and the United States share of e-commerce in 2012 was about 7 %, by 2017 the share of retail e-commerce will reach 10 %. World leader in the proportion of e-commerce in total retail trade – is the United Kingdom (13% in 2012. ). As to Russia and Ukraine, for these countries, the share of e-commerce in total retail sales is still small – 1.8 % and 1.5 % correspondingly, but the growth potential is enormous. Rapid growth is projected in online sales from 10% at present to about 20% in 2020 [1]. In the nearest 5-10 years, the market of e-commerce in the region of Central and Eastern Europe will undergo changes that will lead to greater concentration and globalization. Simultaneously with above-mentioned trends another trends are observed. These trends are not very positive: human labor is gradually being replaced by machine, enterprises reduse jobs. So in Russia today in GDP- Internet commerce has a share that is like a half of power engineering. In terms of revenue per employee leading e-commerce companies are much more efficient than companies in other sectors of the economy. Thus authorities should pay attention to this trend otherwise the scale of the economic disaster can be quite significant. It is necessary to look undivertedly at this situation from social point of view, effectiveness of new technologies. The attention should be paid to the necessity of the economy and education restructuring according to the new reality. Thus, in recent years in the retail sector, there are constant changes. Macroeconomic factors determine the dynamics of purchasing power and the new consumer behavior. Trade became respond to these changes in the environment by the creation of new business concepts, using experiments with new forms of customer relationships, manufacturing private labels and brands. Business has no geographical boundaries; the online store can sell products on a global scale. Competitive advantage will be the companies that will benefit from the latest features: optimize their proposals, will 218

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target new audiences, provide better communication with constant customers and implement fundamentally new forms of activity. To set up the trends, analyzes at some statistics, courtesy of Trend Watching, that show us the projected growth, across the globe, in the e-commerce world [2]: ·· US e-commerce sales will grow 62% by 2016, to USD 327 billion (Source: Forrester, February 2012). ·· European e-commerce sales will grow by 78% by 2016, to USD 230 billion (Source: Forrester, February 2012). ·· Brazilian e-commerce sales will grow 21.9% in 2012 to USD 18.7 billion (Source: eMarketer, January 2012). ·· Chinese e-commerce sales were CNY 780 billion (USD 124 billion) in 2011, an increase of 66% from 2010. E-commerce is expected to rise from 3% of consumption to 7% by 2015 (Source: IDC, March 2012). ·· India’s e-commerce market is expected to grow to USD 70 billion by 2020, from just USD 600 million in 2011 (Source: Technopak Advisors, February 2012). ·· Indonesian e-commerce sales are forecast to grow from USD 120 million in 2010 to USD 650 million by 2015 (Source: Frost & Sullivan, February 2012). E-commerce is one of the fastest growing markets in Europe. The statistics are problematic, as state statistical research organizations tend to underestimate the size of the sector. Research firm Forrester Research predicts growth in sales of food and non-food products through the Internet in Europe by 2015. Share of retail sales of goods over the Internet in total will increase in the UK to 15%, in France – up to 6%, and in Germany – up to 5%. Analyzing the status and trends of e-commerce in the world and Ukraine, while waiting the crisis, were discovered the strategic direction of e-commerce in Ukraine (Table 2) Deficit of the state regulation in Ukraine does not mean that the Internet market sales in a mess. This market can be called semiorganized – in view of the fact that the elements of regulation are trying to develop and implement its own members. Another


Publications and research. Scientific articles and publications

Table 2

Impact of the crisis and expected long-term tendencies of e-commerce in Ukraine (authoring) Indexes

Tendencies in e-commerce during the crisis

Expected medium-and long-term trends in e-commerce after the crisis

The overall growth of e-commerce

Stagnation and even decline in e-commerce in the The overall growth and recovery of e-commerce current crisis

Profitability

Reductions due to price dumping

Participants of e-commerce increasingly focused on the growth of profitability

Level loss

Rising losses due to the weakening of the hryvnia

Loss rate stable \ decreases in retail e-commerce

The level of expenditure

Increase the size of the commission to bring the best communication agencies

The overall reduction in costs due to the normalization of market

In geographical terms Kyiv

The period of intensive growth of e-commerce

Period convergence of electronic and traditional retailers

Oblasts of Ukraine

A small development of e-commerce in other cities in comparison with Kyiv and Kyiv region

A slow development of e-commerce in other cities in comparison with Kyiv and Kyiv region

Forms of selling goods through E-commerce

Relatively stable sales growth

Сombination of electronic Passive development and traditional retailers characteristic feature of this market is the absence of pronounced branch policies on e-commerce and the body, which would take over the development of this policy. Thus, it is important to coordinate the actions of large and mediumsized trading companies interested in the legalization of the market and the replacement of the "gray" goods and unscrupulous market participants to strengthen state control over the perpetrators, to develop new forms of regulation in the form of laws and regulations, including a law "On the Internet (E-commerce) trade", to control the content of sites with the requirements of all regulatory conditions and to close websites offenders. Taken into consideration this, and the experience of the countries of Europe and America, we can conclude that some of the largest retail shops now may not need to work as hard as will be necessary to work in the future. The last decade was a period of intensive expansion and a relatively low rate of innovation, while on the next decade we can expect fewer new areas, but more ambitious innovations.

Powerful development of e-commerce Sustainable development

Retailers can expect the reduce of costs through the use of new technologies, not just focusing on the major network providers like in the last 10 years. Costs will be reduced to the extent that more and more companies will outsource functions that are not their core. In addition, certain operating expenses, which rose in a stable period in the deteriorating economic situation, could be reduced. The most likely tendencies of development of marketing in trading companies, taking into consideration the influence of various factors are: the policy of low prices, adaptation to the diverse needs of consumers and expanding services.

References [1] www.kelkoo.co.uk [2] Top eCommerce Sales Trends for 2013 – Mode of access: http:// outright.com/blog/top-ecommerce-sales-trends-for-2013/

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Publications and research. Scientific articles and publications

Company: ECOPAINT ANGOLA

Project: OctoBuilding Mr. RUI AMORIM Director Projecto Morar, casa 4, Viana II Luanda Angola Phone: +244 928 113 351, +244 919 981 301 Email: geral@ecopaint-angola.com Website: www.ecopaint-angola.com The need for rappid and cheaper building, for rational use of materials and their recycling, and for rational use of energy and water, together with the expected decrease on imports and materials global circulation, due to auto-sufficiency and autonomy general principles, leads ECOPAINT ANGOLA to create a concept of cargo containers recycling in construction of buildings, with the name of OctoBuilding. This concept is based on logic modular grouping of standard 40 feet containers, oriented 45 degrees between each other, 8 axels total, achiving equilibrium and symmetry.

Materials being used have environment concerns. The metal from the conteiners is recycled using it on the same main purpose: structure and surfasse convering. The outsider elements are covered with recicled glass, solar panels, insulation made of cork matrix, and natural grass on rooftops. As a modular and dynamic construction, it can be adapted to diferente locations and solar orientations, as it differs from region to region. The main concept stablishes 3 containers in height, 24 total, representing an average of 72 persons by block. For low solar profile regions, and in order to maximize solar energy capture on surfaces covered with solar panels, the block facing the sun can have only one floor, in the middle two, and on the back can have tree.

In terms of variations, comercial, service and recreational buildings can be designed, taking the main concept by reference, and adapting the modules and its surroundings. Private households can also be created.

Each external element is covered with different materials, depending on its solar orientation. East and West orientations will have glass, South orientation maximizes solar energy capture through solar panels, and North is covered with ecologic insulation – cork. Rooftop gets protected with grass, abling water capture and filtration.

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Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

The multiplication factor of OctoBuilding can be stablished on One building code, on One City Masterplan, where rational infrastrucutres and costs can be planned. The One way construction, based on OctoBulding, is the Solution.


Publications and research. Scientific articles and publications

EVENTS 2014 In 2014, there will be held different exhibitions, conferences and seminars in the field of architecture, urban planning, management, environment and transport.

May

September

Gulf Wastewater Conference

EcoTech 2014

United Arab Emirates

Astana, Kazakhstan

Astana Build 2014

Eco-Architecture Conference 2014

May 19-20, 2014

May 20-22, 2014

Astana, Kazakhstan

June SUSI 2014 (Conference) June 3-5, 2014

The New Forest United Kingdom

HPSM/OPTI Conference 2014

June 9-11, 2014

Ostend, Belgium

MARAS Conference 2014

September 17 -19, 2014

September 24-26, 2014

Siena, Italy

October Zambia Build International Building Material and Construction Technology Show  October 2-3, 2014

Lusaka, Zambia

24 hours of Architecture October 17-18, 2014

Marseille, France

June 11-13, 2014

Ostend, Belgium

August 25th UIA World Congress UIA Durban 2014 August 2-7, 2014

Durban, South Africa

November Rail Signalling and Control Fundamentals 2014 November 26-27, 2014

Sydney, Australia Socrates Almanac ‘Innovative City of the Future’

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Tamara Silina Head of the Center of distant education, the Ural State Mining University Place of birth: Chelyabinsk, Russia Associate professor (the candidate of geological and mineralogical Sciences) Published: Silina T.S. Methodological aspects of information and communication technologies in mountain high school// Mining journal. -2009. -№ 8. Silina T.S. About how information and communication technologies in the environmental education of subsoil users// Alternative energy and ecology. -2009.-№ 12. Distance education Сentre of the Ural State Mining University created in 2007 year. The Center provides educational programs for professional postgraduate education in the field of geology, geophysics, mining, environment, computer science, automation, mining engineering. In the Centre of the extensive use of remote sensing technology in the preparation of professional and scientific personnel training courses for the geological and mining industry. Credo: «Always shine, shine everywhere»

Colm McLoughlin Executive Vice Chairman Dubai Duty Free P.O. Box 831 Dubai United Arab Emirates Colm McLoughlin was born in Ballinasloe, Co. Galway, Ireland in 1943. Colm began his retailing career in London in the 1960’s working for the popular high-street chain of Woolworths, before moving back to Ireland to work for Shannon Duty Free. As General Manager of Shannon Duty Free, Colm was one of a team of ten from AerRianta (the Irish Airport Authority) who moved to Dubai in 1983 at the request of the Dubai Government, to set up Dubai Duty Free. Following the successful opening of Dubai Duty Free in 1983, Colm was asked to remain as General Manager of the start-up operation, which in its opening year had a turnover of US$20 million. Colm later became the Managing Director of Dubai Duty Free, which is one of the leading airport retailers in the world with sales turnover of US$1.8 billion in 2013. Employing 6,000 staff, Dubai Duty Free is widely regarded for having set the benchmark for the duty free industry in the region. In July 2011, Colm was named Executive Vice Chairman of Dubai Duty Free and its subsidiary businesses, which include The Irish Village, The Century Village and the Dubai Duty Free Tennis Stadium, home to the Dubai Duty Free Tennis Championships. Under Colm’s direction, Dubai Duty Free has become a retailing giant with sales turnover of US$1.8 billion in 2013 and the recipient of some 300 industry awards presented by international, regional and local entities, which bear testimony to the operation’s retail success.


Table of contents STATE OF THE WORLD’S CITIES 2012/2013 Prosperity of Cities�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������4 Urban management������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Association of Cities���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������10 Worlds Top 10 Most Modern Cities�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������16 Investment in cities�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 Public transport�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������34 European Capital of Culture��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������38 European Green Capital Award ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������40 Professional unions of architects, profile education, awards and grants������������������������������������������������47 Union of architects �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������48 Graphic Design Organizations����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������50 List of professional architecture organizations���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������52 Schools of architecture����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������60 Leading architectural and engineering universities��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������66 Prizes and grants of architects �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������78 Awarded architects�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������82 Architectural companies and their projects����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������84 Urban engineering construction and communications���������������������������������������������������������������������������97 10 Biggest Engineering Projects in the World������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������98 Top 10 Feats of Engineering���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 102 The most interesting hotel design����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 108 Top 10 all‑inclusive resorts – world����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 112 The best university design������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 116 Best shops design���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 124 Top 10 Tallest Buildings in the World������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 130 World most beautiful living spaces��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 138 World’s best stadiums�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 142 Busiest airports in the world��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 146 Strangely shaped buildings in the world ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 150 Most beautiful bridges ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 154 World’s Best Theaters��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 158 World’s Best Museums������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 162 Landscape design���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 166 Artful Landscapes: 10 Modern Landscape Architecture Designs���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 170 Ranking of beaches������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 176 10 best healthcare providers�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 180 Publications and research. Scientific articles and publications�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 184 Events 2014��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 221 Garth Coates�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 223


Socrates Almanac 2014 'Innovative City of the Future'  

The Socrates Almanac 2014 'Innovative City of the Future'

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