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Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce WSU School of Design and Construction Arch 301: Phase 2 Final


Subjects of Interest: The aim of our project was to create novel spatial conditions by utilizing relationships between light and shadow. These relationships manifest from properties of structure and material in the assembly of the pavilion. In conjuction with environmental factors, we create a negotiation between conditions of the site and properties of the pavilion to present a unique experience within the Saturday Market of Moscow, Idaho. Other factors taken into consideration include ease of assembly and transportation as well as cost to make the pavilion available to the average seller in the market.

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Component Explorations

3

Aggregation Explorations

4

Component Selection

5

Global Assembly

6

Material Selection and Testing

11

Finite Element Analysis

13

Site Analysis

16

Pavilion Functionality

22

Pavilion Section Details

25

Pavilion Solar Radiation

26

Pavilion Shadows

27

Conclusion

29

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Component Exploration Exploration We began experimentation with singular components that held the possiblity of aggregation. These components follow a rule of “strip conditions� in which they are created from a flat piece of material and held together through selfconnecting mechanisms of intersection. These methods allow for flat packing for transportation as well as minimizing material waste. Challenges faced predominantly revolved around how to aggregate singular components. Edge connections proved difficult due to the need of fasteners and instability. The outlined components proved themselves to follow our pattern of self-connection on a scale of aggregation while still being derived from flat sheets of material.

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Aggregation Exploration ation Studies on these aggregations showed strengths and limitations of different components. The three legged block held the strengths of making a self-interlocking wall with an interesting visual effect of legs. Its weaknesses were in its inability to create an enclosure beyond the wall form as well its thickness.

Three legged block

The three legged wall held the strengths of making a wall but we were not able to make an enclosure, similar to the three legged block. Three legged wall

The unfolded component is derived from the three legged components. Its strengths were in the structure we could create (the arch) and its selfconnection. It was bypassed due to its lack of visual complexity in terms of potential shadow conditions.

Unfolded

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Component Selection This component was selected due to the following properties: Strengths include the simplicity of form, ability to be aggregated, and selfconnection. This simpler form was chosen due to the grid lock we faced with complex components. We discovered complexity within the aggregation of the component through connection experiments. Though we had trouble moving beyond the wall condition at first, we saw potential in the spacer mechanism in that it could be altered to create a staggered structure.

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Selected component

Beginning idea of aggregation

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Aggregation Exploration The staggered relationship between components was created by experimenting with the placement of connection between components. A multitude of interlocking slits provided us with the needed opportunities to create an enclosing structure, overcoming our wall dilemma.

Beginning development of form

We used the arch as a guiding shape in the development of our aggregation to inform us of structural properties. We took into consideration our desire to continue with self-interlocking pieces and the idea of creating a novel spatial condition. The idea of a corbelled arch informed us of our need to find appropriate ratios in aggregation to create a large enough space to hold people as well as maintain structural integrity.

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Guiding shape in developing stable structure

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Aggregation Exploration Plans

From our first, basic aggregation, we knew we needed a larger space to be able to enclose people and market goods. We started with an aggregation that provided for this need by creating taller walls and a quick transition to the roof. We found this aggregation to be structurally weak and decided to change the ratio between sets of components.

Basic arch with “walls” and a “roof”

Beginning global aggregation

Within the process of finding our desired ratio, we also experimented with removing pieces in order to promote interaction with the interior of the pavilion. The combination of changing our ratio and removing pieces blurs the wallroof relationship, making a more intriguing structure. The final aggregation solved the ratio problem, creating an inhabitable, safe pavilion that decreases the thick wall between the public and the interior space. We included buttressing components in the the footing for structural integrity that also function as table for goods.

Perspectives

Removing density of walls

Changing relationship of four posts and roof Walkable openings

Blurring wall-roof relationship

Final global aggregation

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Adding table space and butressing

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Global Assembly

The full assembly has an 11 ft clearance and sits on a 25 foot by 25 foot plot. This includes enough room for people, tables, and merchandise. Three openings allow for movement of people and a transparency factor that attracts attention to the interior experience of the pavilion.

11 ft

25 ft

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Global Assembly

Transition components

Wall to ceiling component

Base component

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Common components

Ceiling component

Wall component

This arch was created by slightly altering the component based on its role in the structure. The base and wall components are larger and less spread apart in order to reach the necessary height. The transition and ceiling components are thinner and spread apart farther in order to let in light and make a lighter weight ceiling.

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Global Assembly

The pavilion is assembled in a layer by layer style, a method influence by the corbelled arch. This is the method envisioned for full assembly. In Step 1 the three bases are assembled and placed in their relative locations. In Steps 2 and 3 the walls are built up with components as they are assembled on site. In Step 1 order to complete the structures roof several stabilizing vertical members are used to hold the canopy in place as the final roof components are placed for completion.

Step 2

*Note: The method envisioned for butressing is to place 30lb sand bags in the base components prior to other levels being assembled and connected.

Step 3

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Step 4

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Material Selection and Testing

After testing several different plywood materials, 1/4” and 1/8” birch ply wood was choosen due to its ability to withstand the bending and stacking forces involved in the component construction and the global assembly. A template was created and layed out on a sheet of the plywood and the strips cut and notched. Through the testing process it was determined that rounded notched ends would be necessary to prevent cracking Cutting material at the interlocking seems. We also decreased our notch depth in the longer 1/8” bow members as they demonstrated weakness at this point.

Flat-packed version

This method of construction requires no fasteners and can be flat packed as shown for easy transportation and assembly on site. 1/4” birch @ $30 per 4x8 sheet 1/8” birch @ $17 per 5x5 sheet Rounded cuts helps integrity of wood

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Material Selection and Testing

The material testing was key in the design process. For example the flexure test above shoed that one 6”x 5’-3”x1/8” bow could be flexed upward of 25” before significant failure occured. This information allowed for only a 3’-0” span of the roof component, ultimately driving the dimentions of the entire project. In the testing process a 1:1 ratio component small assembly was made. In one test method, sitting on the aggregation of three assembled components was determined reasonable. Here we are aplying about 400lbs.

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Finite Element Analysis Computer modeling and analysis was used significantly throughout the project to gather information and improve the product. Intitialy the non-arched form produced results that showed excessive accumulation of forces in single or multiple adjacent members. Following the red, which indicates the accumulation of the highest pressures, a nice arch shape can be seen showing that we have solved this accumulation problem.

100 psi

0 psi

Max Stress- -500 lb load on top suraces, plus gravity

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Finite Element Analysis 0 psi

The analysis here confirms our previous result. The blue here shows the arched path the forces are accumulating in.

100 psi

Max Strain- -500 lb load on top suraces, plus gravity

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Finite Element Analysis

11.0 multiplier

One method of analysis produces deflection results. Because our component is stacked vertically and does not deform easily, it is necessary to apply a multiplication factor to the actual deflected shape. This enables the deflected shape to be seen. This analysis showed that only the suspended overhangingend members are subject to deflection.

0.0 multiplier

Max deflection exagerated by multiplier-500 lb load on top suraces, plus gravity

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Site Plan The market covers three blocks of downtown Moscow. These blocks are closed off to vehicular traffic for the duration of the market, 8 am to 1 pm. People can park on the streets and parking lots of the area, making all surrounding streets access points to the market.

General area of market E 4th St

Pavilion

S Washington St

Friendship Square

S Jackson St

The size of our pavilion creates a challenge of location because it needs more space than the 11 foot by 15 foot allocated lots. The 5th Street location is traditionally an overflow area, giving us the necessary space needed on an average weekend.

E 3rd St

E 5th St

E 6th St

N

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Site Shadows The market runs from May to October. We desired a sun touched plot for a maximum shadow effect. This shadow study informed us of different places in which we could place our pavilion to achieve this result. The study showed us that the roads perpendicular to Main Street caught the most sunlight throughout the hours of the market. We narrowed our options to Friendship Square and 5th Street. 5th Street provides the necessary space and sun conditions needed for our pavilion.

Pavilion

Shadows from May 1st: 8 am to 1 pm

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

N

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Block Details This diagram shows access routes to the pavilion. These access points are important for the exposure of the pavilion to the public. The shape and orientation of the pavilion are conducive to the corner because the openings relate to the access points. Shoppers entering through the east entrance are drawn into the pavilion through the convergent leg in the street. The north entrance of the pavilion opens the space to the sidewalk and people that may not have meant to join the market, but the stores in the area. The west entrance arch is a feature of attraction for people browsing the stores and market stalls along Main Street.

La Casa Lopez

Prichard Art Gallergy

The Breakfast Club

Old Peking

Allegra Print and Imaging

Scott’s House of Flowers

Hansel and Gretel

Paradise Creek Bicycles

Book People

Access routes

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

The Storm Cellar Clothing Store

Kenworthy Theater

N

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Block Details The 5th Street plots provide a wide open space for movement of people. With the given access points and large space, the window of opportunity grows for exposure of the pavilion. As people naturally browse the market, the panoramic view of this corner has a high chance of catching peoples’ attention.

La Casa Lopez

Prichard Art Gallergy

The Breakfast Club

Old Peking

Allegra Print and Imaging

Scott’s House of Flowers

Hansel and Gretel

Paradise Creek Bicycles

Book People

Circulation

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

The Storm Cellar Clothing Store

Kenworthy Theater

N

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Block Details The proximity of the pavilion to restaurants and stores in the market area also provides exposure. This corner offers a potential to attract people eating out for breakfast or visiting the local flower and art shops.

La Casa Lopez

Prichard Art Gallergy

The Breakfast Club

Old Peking

Allegra Print and Imaging

Scott’s House of Flowers

Hansel and Gretel

Paradise Creek Bicycles

Book People

Local store attractions

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

The Storm Cellar Clothing Store

Kenworthy Theater

N

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Block Details A closer view of the shadow diagram shows major shadows from 8 am to 1 pm on May first as well as local features that may interfere with the pavilion. The tree east of the pavilion may be an object of interference in that it will cast a shadow and filter light to the pavilion. This is a strength and a weakness in that it may filter too much light but it will also provide shade on hot summer days. The shadows of the leaves may also provide an interesting experience in conjunction with the pavilion shadows.

La Casa Lopez

Prichard Art Gallergy

The Breakfast Club

Peking Old P eking

Allegra Print and Imaging

Scott’s House of Flowers

Hansel and Gretel

Paradise P aradise Creek Bicycles

People Book P eople

Shadows

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

The Storm Cellar Clothing Store

Kenworthy Theater

May 1: 8am-1pm

N

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Pavilion Functionality A section cut above the tables shows the available space for merchandise. The integrated approach for tables contributes to the structural buttressing of the form and aesthetic flow. Integration also makes the tables less intrusive into the available space for occupation of people.

Display Tables

Plan view

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

N

North elevation Section cut at table height

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Pavilion Functionality Available space for circulation into the space and within the space is shown. People have space to move around, even with multiple people inside of the structure.

Circulation

Plan view

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

N

North elevation Section cut at table height

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Pavilion Functionality Browsing space is shown to prove people can not only move through the pavilion, but have time and space to comfortably look through merchandise.

Browsing space

Plan view

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

N

North elevation Section cut at table height

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Section Details This series of section details show the way a person may move through the pavilion. The density changes as one moves through the space; the three legs and corbelling may seem heavy from afar when a person sees the full accumulation of the components, but the structure lightens from within. The orientation of the legs and shell-like property of the component is revealed within the pavilion. This diversity of form attracts people and provides that desired spatial condition within.

NW Elevation C B

A Section A Plan showing section cuts

N

Section B

Section C

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Solar Radiation Analysis

(BTU/ft^2) A solar radiation analysis shows the levels of heat the pavilion plot experiences. 808.3 The yellow shows the most exposed spots, the red shows medium exposed spots, and blue shows the least radiation. From this information, we gathered that the pavilion allows medium radiation within the space. This shows us there should be plenty of sun to cast 404.1 shadows and these shadows provide protection during the summer months of the market, as well as providing our desired spatial experience.

0.0 Accumulation of thermal radiation throughout one market period, at summer solstice.

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Pavilion Shadows An analysis of the pavilion shadows shows the results of our collaboration of properties of the site and the structure. A variety of shadow conditions are displayed by throughout the day, improving the diversity and potential experiences for shoppers.

Study showing shadows during the summer solstice. (7am-4pm)

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Pavilion Shadows The model shows possible shadow conditions and properties of the structure of the pavilion. Inside photo shots show how the density changes from the base to the top of the arch. The volume of the space is seen as well in terms of how the structure of the pavilion interacts with the people. People are free to move around the space, enveloped by the shadow experience.

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Final Model

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Conclusion Through the exploration of study models using digital and physical methods, we were able to design a unique component that suited our functional and experiential aims. The negotiation between the properties of the environment, the assembly of the pavilion, the material usage, and building techniques leads to the novel spatial condition desired, while also meeting the needs of disassembly for flat packing transportation and cost effectiveness. Environmental conditions include sun exposure, shadows, local stores, and flow of people. The shape and location of the pavilion strive to utilize but not inhibit the flow of the market. We endeavor to attract people through the shadow condition of a functionable market stall and the location and orientation provide the necessary exposure while the open walls allow for the wandering of people through the market. The structural and material properties of the pavilion give us the strengths of an inexpensive and widely available material and ease of assembly and disassembly while the global aggregation creates the intriguing structure. The simplicity of the single component makes it universally understandable, the interlocking connection mechanism allows for an easier assembly, and the components are easy to fabricate from birch plywood (and replaceable). While we feel that we completed our aims in general, we realize points of concern in the reality of the construction of the pavilion. We encountered brittleness in the slots in the wood in which it may break if assembled and disassembled many times. The wood components are also unwieldy in that it may not be realistic to expect people to be able to lift them to their place in the pavilion and fit them in their slots. The variety in components may prove difficult as well to put in their right places, though proper labeling could solve this. The other concern is the size of the pavilion. Though it is in the overflow area, it infringes on the fire lane and may not be lawfully allowed.

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce


Critical Remarks Our review with Darrin Greichen and John Abell provided us with more information in the continuation of our exploration: A major construction concern lies in the connection points, which we experienced ourselves with the brittleness of the wood. A way to combat this is creating baffles at connection points, which could provide the necessary strength needed at that point. Another concern regarded the amount of slack that may occur in the structure, which could compromise the integrity of the pavilion. Baffles and attention to detail could help with this too in that the connection points could be designed to be much tighter. Much attention was also paid to the variation in components that make up the pavilion. Opinions over how the individual components create the whole led to the discussion of creating a smoother transition between the base and the ceiling. This would be an interesting avenue to explore in that it could lead to intriguing forms of the arch. We have already tailored the components to suit our needs so perfecting the layers of the components could help us reach the “subliminal form� Professor Abel mentioned, a term when applied to our pavilion could mean creating a streamline form that exists in unexpected ways. In other words, a smoother form could be intriguing in that it may be unexpected when created from a series of block shaped pieces. Concerns about the reality of construction and timing were also raised. The more components are altered, the more difficult it will be to set up. In addition to its size, a change in location and life span could be warranted to make the most of the pavilion. If the pavilion was set up for the duration of the market (May to October) and placed in a semi-permanent location that also reaches the sun, it could become a multipurpose structure for the entirety of the week and summer.

Kaleidoscope Pavilion

Teal Delys I Forest Bishop I Kyle McKernan I Jon Younce

Kaleidoscope Pavilion  
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