The City of MalmĂśâ€™s transformation from industrial to sustainable and its reflection upon society.
Dissertation 2014/2015 London Metropolitan University Critical & Contextual Studies 3: Dissertation (Architecture) Martins Silins ID: 11017246
CONTENT 1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………..3 - 5 p 2. Chapter 1 - Bo01 and foundations for sustainable city Malmö……………6 – 14p 3. Chapter 2 - Malmö Reflection on society and climate in nowadays….…...15 – 2 p 4. Chapter 3 - Future projects and ambitions ………………………………. 22 – 26p 5. Conclusion………………………………………………………………….27 – 30p 6. Time-line……………………………………………………………………31p 7. Bibliography………………………………………………………...............32 – 33p 8. Photography ………………………………………………………..……...34– 36p
Introduction The planet is slowly, but constantly changing, but we have adapted to live and survive on it. The changes around us are hard to notice, living day by day, but by over the course of centuries, things seem slightly different. In the last one hundred years we have learned and improved our technology to the level, that we are able perfectly see what’s actually happening around us and with the exact changes we are dealing with, and we have even given it a name. In the twenty-first century we are facing this problem called, global warming. The water levels are rising and the temperature globally is increasing. To fight it, people must first learn about it and Figure 1 Location of Malmo decide what is more important; the way in which we live now, or the way we will live in the future. People like to think, that one-person can’t change anything, but you would think twice if you made the whole city to change. One of the places in world like that is located in Sweden called the city of Malmö. Located by the sea with a quarter of a million habitants, it’s the third largest city in Sweden after Gothenburg and Stockholm. Together with Copenhagen it creates the most densely populated area in Scandinavia. It’s also known for being one of the world’s most global cities and seventh most bicycle friendly place in the world. It has oceanic, mild climate, despite northern location. In summers It’s around 18-21*C and winters -3 *C average, but it faces often strong condition temperature days for several days. Rainfall is average and 169 wet days with 600mm rainfall a year. Malmö owns the post-industrial centre called Western Harbour area that was home for industries of shipping and car manufacturing companies, but now it’s part of a housing development. In 1970 there was a recession for the ship building industry that brought the city one problem after another - huge municipal budget deficits, social disintegration and large unemployment levels. In this crisis, 6000 shipyard dockworkers lost their jobs. After that, a car manufacturing company bought the site, but did not last long and shut down in 1991. In the same year Malmö city council bought the docks and gave it to the Swedish Figure 2 Location of Bo01 exhibition company called 3
Figure 3 Solar panels and wind turbines located around Malmo
‘Svensa Bostadsmassa' in regards of thinking about the cities future. This department was created in 1978 and its goal was to instigate debate on matters regarding housing architecture and technology, in an effort to combine them together and propose new possibilities for future cities. However, meanwhile, the shipyard dock stayed quite for many years. Eventually, while the city council were working on proposing the projects in 1995, Sweden had reached its highest unemployment level and it seemed to find itself close to bankruptcy. But with support of Svensa Bostadsmassa, in few years’ time things were about to change dramatically. Very soon the land of old industrial dock, that use to be the strongest source of employment in the whole city, changed and became unrecognisable. The old industry was gone, and modern, sustainable housing exhibitions had brightened up the seaside region. The exhibition was known as ‘Bo01’. The name of the exhibition came from the Swedish word “Bo” meaning “life”. The exhibitions target was to solve cities environmental problems and become leading sustainability example internationally. Most major issues were poor water conditions, sewage system floods, aggregation, low energy system and overuse of materials in land. Not forgetting the social issues with unemployment and high crime rate. In order to deal with it the exhibition was focused on providing self-sufficient housing units, which run on low energy and largely reduce GES emissions. The place gave positive area aspects, as it’s located by the sea, and is walk-able distance from the city centre. The exhibition sparked discussion about how everyone lives now and how we will live in future. As well as how well it transformed from shipyard docks and industrial wastelands to an eco-district with renewable energy, waste recycling, green buses and water storm systems. The question arose as to how the city went from near bankruptcy, to becoming a shining example of sustainability and what was the cost for this sort of transformation. The exhibition space could generate enough energy for itself and use the rest of it for the city. The exhibition took place in 2001 and created 600 dwellings, around 60 different housing styles. The land is typical of urban redundant industrial land and is also contaminated and an affected environment (Roland Zinkernage, 2008). With this exhibition the whole city became a forward thinking modern city. A new future goal was born, the idea and example was given, and it started to become an example also for the rest of the world. Reading Malmö council presentations strategy now is to continue development of the city; it will face many serious challenges in the coming year. It’s vital to develop this socially balanced city, with great living conditions. The growth continues with very little environmental impact, both globally and locally. Eventually, the city is to become socially, economically and environmentally sustainable, attracting young and old to live and work and grow their families. 4
Figure 4 Dismantling Kockums Crane
But even after the large transformations that seem to awaken the city, in Malmö social reviews, written by local journalists or analytics you could read, that city still faced some serious social problems. Large musses of people were still not satisfied. Over the decade the city had to face a large Immigrant population increase, and have suffered some communal separation problems. At present, the ‘city’ aspect of the design with in the new social housings is threatened, by the separation of different social levels, which would create unpleasant streets and cause crime rates to rise. It begs the question, where did they go wrong with exhibition and rest of the master plan? Cities council focus was on future, leaving industry and everything with it behind, but global warming wasn’t the main problem over 3 decades; it was the crime rate and unemployment level rising. Were they working against social will In terms of future, or they just expected that society will grow with the city, is hard to tell yet. The project, which was a great example for sustainability, somehow became a negative example for society. It was mainly too focused on sustainability and seemingly forgot the market it was in, creating over-priced flats, which only the wealthy could afford. The city today in 2015 is facing the highest crime rate in the whole of Sweden. But its worth of going back in time and taking a look how this all started and what will happen if it will keep going like this. Figure 6 Photo with children standing by graffiti 5
Chapter 1 - Bo01 and foundations for sustainable city Malmö (1275-2001) Malmö was first mentioned back in 1275 and later on received its own coat of arms. When the Danes (Danish citizens) came to Malmö about 700 years ago, they called it Malmhaug, ‘a pile of gravel or sand’(Tricia Wang, 2013). Then the Swedes conquered Skane in 1658 and by then the pile of gravel had become an important city of trade during the early expansion of mercantile capitalism. Later the trading locations became bigger and reached more than one ocean. The period was called the Industrial Revolution and Malmö was not one to get forgotten. Malmö kept growing and in 1840 Figure 5 Kockums Crane the Kockums shipyard came to life, making it one of the possibly largest shipyard docks in Sweden and whole world.. For about 100 years it was creating large ships, the size of monsters, to travel the oceans for nations and merchants. Malmö was stable and a leading city of industry in which, the shipyard docks employed around 10, 000 people. Unfortunately, things changed in 1970. When in same time they had received the largest shipbuilding crane in the world, Kockums Crane(137 metres), all what it had chance to do Is to squeeze few more ships out, but not even all the mass of the steel they produced could defend itself from forces of financial capitalism that no longer depended on ships to fuel expansion for profit (Tricia Wang 2013). The crane was built in 1973-74 from gantry and it could lift 1.5 tonnes. The sizes were 175 m in width and a length of 710 m. The upper plate of the crane is 11.5 m wide and 14.6 m high, large enough for four buses to simultaneously drive through (Tricia Wang, 2013). Together the crane built around 75 ships, but the gantry crane was meant for heavy lifting, but was never really used to lifting anything because of the shipyard crisis in Sweden during the late seventies and eighties, which it was actually meant to do in the first place. In the 80’s, Kockrums shipyard closed and Malmö lost its primary industry and tasted the deep recession. Everyone was waiting as no ships were built. Workers had no work and eventually the crane was sold to the Danish company. They used the crane to create foundation pillars in the construction works of the Oresund Bridge, connecting Copenhagen and Malmö. Later on the Danish company went bankrupt and sold it to South Koreans for 1$ to be dismantled by a British company a few years later (Tricia Wang 2013). It was an emotional moment for the city of Malmö. The once beloved crane had to leave for its new home in South Korea. They called this day the ‘Tears of Malmö’. It all had very symbolic meaning being the death of industry of Malmö, but it also symbolized a new Malmö that would reinvent itself for the new post-industrial age. The tears of Malmö travelled around the world to bring the world back to Malmö. The invisible crane still oversees the city and if you will just walk around a bit longer you will feel its presence (Tricia Wang 2013). “The disappearance of traditional industries was so fast and so complete that we had nothing to be defensive about. We simply had to come up with a new approach. And we decided that the way forward was to create a modern city which was at the very top when it came to environmental issues.” (Anders Rubin, Deputy Mayor for housing and Urban Environment) (Kate Givan, 2011). 6
Unfortunately that was not all for Malmö. By recent industrial changes the town was in debt of 1 billion SEK. It had a very high unemployment level and the percentages of pensioners in Malmö were higher than the average of Sweden. The city also had a heavy immigration influx. Different types of ethnicities from all over the world made their presence perfectly could fell in market trading places. The shop owners come from all over the world. The labour movement gained tremendous influence here. Mollevangen is one of Malmö's archetypical multicultural districts. This is hinted at by the epithet colourfulness and in the description of how the shops and restaurants have roots all over the world (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). Most ethnic differenced you could notice highly in parks, the first folkets Park in Sweden opened in 1893 and has always been a popular park and entertainment for Malmö (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). At first it was a political connection tool for the social democratic party and it was a good model for the communities parks all over Sweden (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). Today it’s mainly oriented towards family activities. But what is actually interesting is the relationship between the contemporary, multicultural and post-industrial Malmö as is seen today, with the city’s industrial and working-class heritage. The cities levels of immigration were already high before 1990, and large middle and lower class immigrants would find the jobs in the docks where more than 6000 people were employed. After the industry got shut down, people had to find a new way to survive, but it certainly increased the crime level around 90s and until now. There are some good diagrams to look at about employment sectors over the time in Malmö. (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). The large unemployed immigrant level in the 90s had Employment 1960 2003 strong connection with city social problems. In 1995 the Industry 50% Less than 20% Malmö had the highest unemployment rate and the lowest Public service 5% 30% relative employment rate in the country (Christian Private sector 0% 25% Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). At the Same time, (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010) local authority struggled with the enormous economic deficit and rapidly decreasing tax base. Eventually together with another Swedish city Sodertalie, they both were known for giving more refuge to Iraqis than the entire United States and they are experiencing the same social economic difficulties (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). But it being such a big problem was not just because there were immigration, but their education level or basic knowledge didn’t meet the requested state. A large number of immigrants could not speak either English or Swedish, and that would make it nearly impossible to find a job. The city was flourishing and co-operation between the social democrats and the non-socialists parties grew. The run-down workers housing areas inside the inner part of the city that were so hated by the social democrats were demolished (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). At one point all what was left was high multifamily housing blocks that nobody wanted to live in. All the middle class started to move out to single-family housing communities outside of Malmö. The whole city was thereby drained of a section of its inhabitants with good tax-paying capacity, from its still slightly recovering (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). Starting in the 1990s, the city government worked on a new vision. It was proposed to build Oresund Bridge from Malmö to Copenhagen, and the most excited part was about a regeneration project of remediating an industrial/landfill area, to make it an environmentally sustainable part of the city vision and profile.
The Orebo region where Malmö is located had around 3.2 million inhabitant, and it has important potential for a common labour and housing market. Eventually in the 2000 Oresund link road and Rail Bridge was built. The 8km long bridge connected Sweden to Denmark. It directly connected the Malmö with the rest of the European mainland, and provided access for a 40-minute journey to Copenhagen, brining new potential population increases and business opportunities, whilst allowing the city to re-imagine its image. It raised Malmö’s profile. The city became an overnight sensation and has since enjoyed every minute of its graduation from c-list obscurity to celebrity status. (Kate Givan, unknown) But Swedes are not one of those to wallow in smug glory, instead of cashing in with Disneyland as Americans would probably do or build useless tourist attractions like the Brits. Sweden had something else in their mind. Malmö council from already early 90s had vision to transform Malmö from working city to a ‘knowledge city’. “A radical vision of modern eco city” (Hambleton, 2009, p24-25). The focus was on the reclaiming industrial
Figure 7 Oresund bridge
site of Western harbour and Municipality of Malmö in 1996, took action to develop completely new district including in it the university. The whole Orebo region had around 100, 000 students, but Malmö didn’t even have a highest education institute, but that all changed in 1998, bringing another new and fresh break for the city of Tomorrow. With the University in Malmö the city started to breath optimism for the future. Eventually also the shipyard dock proposal was ready, and the exhibition of future eco-district could begin.
Figure 8 Bridge between Copenhagen and Malmo
Figure 9 Malmo University
Bo01 always meant to be a pilot project, to test technologies and solutions that could become an example for the world. “Exhibition had two main objectives, to develop self-sufficient housing units in terms of energy and greatly diminish the GES emissions”(Roland Zinkernage, 2008). It proposed many different ranges of sustainable innovations, some of these innovations were: 100% locally harvested renewable energy (using a mix of solar, wind, heat pump, etc.), roof gardens and other green spaces for factory applications, open surface water systems against flooding and systemised composting for biogas. There were in total, 500 dwellings proposed, in very different designs, starting from half story to six-storey heights (Bo01 city of tomorrow, unknown). They were putting all the higher blocks towards the key side and lower in the area in the middle, to make the inner buildings more sheltered and cosy and protect them from the wind. For these buildings, they requested 15 different architects to design the space; they wanted to demonstrate how industrial wasteland could be transformed into the centre of the world. Some of these architects were: Santiago Calatrava (Zurich), Gert Wingård (Gothenburg), Kai Wartiainen (Stockholm), Ralph Erksine (Stockholm) and Bertil Öhrström (Malmö), in cooperation with Moore Ruble Yudell (USA) (Bo01 city of tomorrow, Klas Thamas). Bo01 also highlights some young Swedish and Danish architects, but the leading architect was Klas Thamas. The view from Klas Thamas’ office was outstanding, through the triple glazing the window ashes, churning up the icy grey water and ripping across the desolate landscape of half abandoned warehouses, redundant cranes and wasteland the remains of the Malmö shipbuilding past. Klas Thamas said “We have a chance to do something really great here, to create beauty, to breathe life back into the city” (Bo01 City of Tomorrow, Klas Thamas). Thamas is professor of architecture at Sweden’s top University, but for the past few years he has been spending his time in Malmö looking out of the window of his little office and dreaming about possibilities of 10
how to improve the city. (Kate Givan, unknown) As well as his teaching job, he also became the main chief architect for Bo01 Malmo. The city had already similar pieces of his work done before such as for example, the regeneration of the Austenburg area (Kate Givan, unknown). But his goal was to transform the Malmö docks into a living example of the best of European architecture. Looking at the site that day, it would be hard to imagine, that after half a year, it would dramatically change. Klas Thamas’ appointment became one of the major reasons for the success of this project, being the leading designer and programme co-ordinator. His experience shows that he has been involved in developing new villages in the UK, and he took the leading part of shaping the place in Malmö. He explained afterwards how his influence came from the manner of European towns and cities in the middle ages. He speaks passionately, placing human needs at the hearth of his designs. His passion for humanity is apparent. It would be real struggle to develop Bo01 without such sensitivity for the human needs and conditions (Kate Givan, unknown). In regards to the design of one part of Bo01, he said that they are: “requires the very best in architecture and urbanism in order to balance the environmental and technical elements of sustainability with the individuals social and emotions needs” (Kate Givan, unknown). He also mentioned that: “Happy residents are invested in the upkeep of their place, the place thrives and the value of the development grows over time. With the development below the critical line, people still move in, but are less inclined to invest in upkeep and over time decline sets in” (Kate Givan, unknown). It was his philosophy behind designing qualitative, long lasting residential buildings.
Figure 10 Part of Bo01 site in 1986
Figure 11 Part of Bo01 site in 2005
“The urgent conversion of society to long term Sustainability will only be possible when the sustainable alternative is regarded not only as the wisest, but also as the most attractive one... The prevailing quantitative standards for environmental sustainability, such as saving energy are necessary, but insufficient.... It will not be until people aesthetic, emotional and social needs are also met that the sustainable society can be attained.” (Bo01 City of Tomorrow, Klas Thamas) 11
Figure 12 Bo01 exhibitions from bird view
In the whole process of working with exhibition, it was often running behind schedule- it took longer than expected to agree on a site, and it was further run late by different other delays. But the leading architect kept insisting that “Everything will be finished for the show, though don’t ask me how, and when it opens people will be surprised it will be partly provoking, partly reassuring but always stimulating” (Bo01 City of Tomorrow, Klas Thamas). The process of building the exhibition happened in very quick speed. There were no possibilities for delay, as the date was set and there was no changing that. It had to be an example for the rest of the city and for the whole world. If they could not transform the dock region to the proposed idea, they probably would not get the chance to do it for the rest of the city. (Bo01 City of Tomorrow, Klas Thamas) Figure 13 Perspective drawing of pavilion in Stockholm exhibition 12
Similar exhibitions have happened over time including Paris in 1925 or Weissenholf Siedlung 1927. Sweden is also known for its own exhibitions “Stockholm exhibition” of 1930 that was a critical moment in the countries history. But the great turning point that set the functionalism tone of Swedish architecture for years to come was the Bo01. It was something fresh after a few decades, and it was meant to become an example for Sweden and especially for the Malmö. . The most strongest differences between the Malmö exhibition and exhibition in 1930s ( Stockholm exhibition) was mostly faced on fact that buildings then were temporary and focused on functionalism and international style. While Bo01 buildings were shown already as populated and staying with modern style, but focusing purely on sustainable elements. The Stockholm exhibition did manage to influence the shape of Swedish housing for many years to come, same as Bo01 Is trying to do right now. The exhibition promised to be quite different one. Thamas, the leading architect was explaining that “There are many different approaches to design. Hopefully - like jazz- all the bits will come together to create a harmonious whole. But unlike the 1930 show, we are not preaching a dominant aesthetic. But of course there is also dominant theme for this Malmö exhibition and its sustainable design.” Klas Thamas (Jeremy Melvin, 2001). Figure 14 Klas Tham proposal for building layout The Bo01 had very strong regulations to follow. All the environmentally dangerous chemicals were banned and those who might reduce the quality of sewer water. The materials that are likely to facilitate recycling of the buildings at any future point are encouraged and more loosely the manner of architecture. The main priority was set to be the interaction with the environment, as are the variety of visual and aural impressions, experiences of the water, possibilities of silences, daylight and understanding of ones surroundings at the subconscious level. “We know that western civilizations way of life is unsustainable. Thamas explains; the situation is urgent - we must get people to adopt more ecological ways of living now, but the only way to do this is if we can make it attractive, a positive option and this exhibition is about looking how can do this“ (Jeremy Melvin, 2001). The idea behind the design was the manner reminiscent of medieval or renaissance European cities. It was built up around its edges. With the centre full of little alleyways and buildings that one only comes across haphazardly. Together Figure 16 Bo01 building layout there were fifteen different architects employed to design different parts of the master plan. None of the 13
buildings were to be breath taking, although the Turning Torso tower is quite elegant. Well except also that Bo01 is to have a park that will dazzle you, not the building. The district is planned on a broad-meshed grid of boulevards, distorted slightly by the need to shelter the development from strong west winds - â€œ like a fishnet hung out to dryâ€? (Adam Ritchie, Randall Thomas 2013).
Figure 15 The view to finish Bo01
Chapter 2 - Malmö Reflection on society and climate in nowadays (2001-2015) In Swedish housing, private and public co-operations have had a long traditional involvement. But over recent years conditions have changed. Unfortunately, Sweden is not able anymore to afford great policy for public funding. Housing projects in 1930s to 1960s had great funding schemes, but now the same policy has been abandoned for construction. Private sector alone funds and creates construction, and developers have no way of getting money back from rental properties. Jonas Olsson said: “The large developers, often stock companies, never jeopardise their situation” (Adam Ritchie, Randall Thomas 2013). But Bo01 suggested completely different solutions and terms for initiative and organisation. The city became the driving force as oppose to the developers. The way in which this all was made possible was when Malmö received 250 million SAT by the federal government through a local investment programme to support environmentalist ambitions, for the new neighbourhood. All the developers were required to participate and collaborate in this unusual collective process. They all had created guidelines to follow in order to shape the exhibition. The developers had the common platform in order to develop an operative tool that would secure the high ambitions, set up by Bo01 and regarding ecology, architecture, technology design. Eva Dalman, the architect for Bo01 said that she is really impressed that so much of the contents were finally realised, especially in terms of ecology and renewable energy. When it was possible, Bo01 tried to find good matches between architects and developers. Regardless of the difficulties caused by time constraints, general collaboration between architects and real-estate community went relatively well. Now with the economic state after the completion of Bo01 in good condition, collaborators are able to focus on the larger sector, considering the whole of Malmö. In effect, they can start dealing with problems like, climate changes in proper matter. When it comes to policies regarding social sustainability, they focus in on every single person in their respective towns, protecting every citizen’s needs. For example, in meeting these needs, the city aims to rejuvenate: education, employment, safety and healthcare, but as well as democratic participation - having a sense of belonging and opportunities of creative expression. Also, all men and women of all ages should be given the same opportunities to shape society and their own life. Immediately however, these policies seem to be having an adverse effect. As already stated, Malmö has become separated by the diverse ethnicities and is thus a divided into region. People have different living standards. These differences are resonated through institutions such as public health where, dependent on which hospital you go to, you will receive a different standard of care. These trends must be broken to unlock the full potential for this city’s population and cultural structures (Malmö City Council, 2014). It’s believed that the physical environment is a framework for social interaction and must incorporate the basic condition for life to reside inside the city. The climate changes incurred by our planet mean that there is an increased concentration of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere (Malmö City Council, 2014). It was the decision of Malmö to come together and create strategic plans to deal with this large-scale problem at least from their perspective and location. The consequences of climate changes are predominantly negative, however, sometimes positive. It depends upon how society designs to deal with these changes. Unfortunately, most of the time we are designing in order to adapt to a particular climate, whilst over-seeing the bigger picture, which is that our planet is completely changing. How vulnerable we are depends on our reaction time and as well our ability to be prepared for these changes. 15
Figure 17 The view to the city of Malmo
Examples of the negative impacts of climate change are: Increased risk of flooding and erosion Seepage from contaminated industrial sites due to flooding Higher demands on water supply and sewage Poorer drink water quality Loos of eco-systems, plants and animals Introduction of new pests and plants species (mostly insects) Algal blooms Increased needs for pesticides against noxious insects Increased need for irrigation Subsidence of land and buildings Increased use of energy for air conditioning system due to a greater need for artificial cooling Health-related issues such as heat stress, dehydration and contamination Heat induced curving and other similar problems for all rail-bound traffic More green area maintenance due to longer seasons Changed insurance terms Climate refugees Rise in heat related deaths Examples of positive climate changes are: Longer seasons Drop in cold related deaths Reduced need for de-icing Increased tourism Potential of cultivating new crops such as wine Less use of energy for heating homes. (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown) 16
The City of Malmö, starting in 2001, focused on reducing the greenhouse gas emission not just in Bo01 but in the whole city and for them it is also important to work with an already changing climate. That puts them in a position of creating new guidelines, regulation or making strong decisions to defend existing and future city housing. In order to achieve these primary objectives, all of society must collaborate. The climate changes do not happen overnight, but rather, over the course of a long time. Possibly, in a hundred years’ time, your grandkids living in some old building in same old place, would notice that the water level, with
Figure 18 Kockums Fritid
every passing year, comes closer and closer to their doors until one day it will flood the streets. Unfortunately that would probably be a bit too late. That would happen after rise in sea level or heavier rainfalls, all which is caused by global warming. As Malmö’s location is directly by the sea, they have to be aware of and in control all three possible aspects of problems. In 2009 the city adopted an environmental programme for 2009 - 2020. Its purpose was to raise the awareness of climate changes, and provide examples and suggestions of possible action. When it comes to design, the city had to adopt two tactics – the first is aimed at adjusting existing buildings whilst the second for adjusting future buildings. As the location of the city is not so optimal for changes, the first and most important aspect was to focus on is existing building whilst not forgetting about green areas and water between these buildings. A great example is the Kockum Fritid sport complex. It was built in the mid-seventies by Kockums Industries. The complex was recently transformed from something of an “environmental bad boy” to an Figure 19 Diverse solution environmental example (Malmö stad, 2012).
Before, the building used large amounts of energy and chemicals for water. However, after installing new insulation and solar panels on the facade it lowered its energy consumption by 50% (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown). It is important to have clear integration between the buildings and surrounding areas. This is to improve the air quality, whilst also managing the large increases of water from rain. Thatâ€™s one of the reasons why the city same like Bo01 in example have its very own large local storm water management system. Here it doesnâ€™t just fall inside the sewer system, but runs into Figure 20 Malmo water storm system canals, ponds and fountains. The system is not just beautiful for residents, but itâ€™s great for the environment. The water becomes biologically cleaned before it reaches Oresund. The enjoyable view also benefits the physical and mental health of the residents (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown). The system is much appreciated by tourists and especially kids. It offers large amounts of entitlement. In the case of pound drying out, there is also possibility to refill it back local waters to keep the system going. However, to further progress this idea, the system was combined with an urban vegetation plant, that would help to reduce extreme temperatures, since the large amount of water would enhance the cooling effect due to evaporation. Also the trees providing shade have a direct cooling effect. Making the city greener is a good example of synergy between adaptation and mitigation of climate changes (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown). The result is positive in three different ways, ecological, economic and social. Other positive aspects are air quality and trees counteracting air pollution. Also the hard surfaces are to be adapted to the city plan to decrease flooding. There is also a need of strong mapping in order to understand all the heights in terms of tallest and lowest points. There is also strong need to restore all the other waterways, as well as to create greener infrastructure. Furthermore, they have to push homeowners to maintain and increase the amount of Figure 21 Green roofs greenery they have in gardens (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown). Riseberga Brook will become the designed pilot project for climate adaptation. It will reduce erosion at high tide and importantly it will cover levelled surface with vegetation (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown). All the sites that are susceptible to flooding will be protected. All the houses will have the backwater gate or pump to protect against back-flow from storm water pipes (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown). 18
Also the urban biodiversity is enhanced, especially after choosing native species of shrubs and trees. The benefits of it are economic developments, leisure, and community building activities, neighbourhood integration and educational opportunities for children and young people (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown). Green surrounding have an incredible effect on the health and welfare of people in general and aid recovery from stress related disorders (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown). In order to take care of green areas, new programmes were created such as the Environmental Protection Programme’. Its aim was to, in terms of basic, in general and in detail, provides planning for the future. It has three main aims - to defend and develop natural areas, to manage new areas whilst compensating for natural areas and lastly to increase the general populations awareness about nature and conservation work (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown). Also the hard surfaces are to be adapted to the city plan to decrease flooding. There is also a need of strong mapping in order to understand all the heights in terms of tallest and lowest points. There is also strong need to restore all the other waterways, as well as to create more green infrastructure. Furthermore, they have to push Figure 22 Pipes for circulation system, to recycle the waste homeowners to maintain and improve the sum of greenery they have in gardens. Riseberga will become the designed pilot project for climate adaptation. It will reduce erosion at high tide and importantly it will cover levelled surface with vegetation (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown). All the sites that are susceptible to flooding will be protected. All the houses will have the backwater gate or pump to protect against back-flow from storm water pipes (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth unknown). The city also has a system to slow down the effects of global warming, for example the circulation system, which recycles waste. All the buildings have access to source sorting at the plant where food waste is separated. All the food waste from kitchen sinks are made into energy-rich biogas for electricity and heat generation. Biogas is a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen; it exerts a very small carbon footprint. Food grinders are very popular among the residents. The large ‘waste suction system’ has also been integrated. The only visible elements are the pipes sticking out from the ground where the residents discard their waste. Then all the rubbish gets sent trough the pipes to the outskirts and then special waste disposal tracks take them to the treatment plants. Trucks never have to drive trough the residential area. Even the system of transport is sustainable. All the buses run on a mix of natural gas and renewable biogas, which is produced from food. Starting from 2015 all the buses will have this system. But what is even more impressive is that Malmö is the Figure 23 New buses running on fiogas 19
bicycle city that’s rated top 7 in the world. It has roads even 9 km long that blend in the area very well. It’s one of most environmentally friendly modes of transport, and with bicycle can reach anywhere thus reducing the need to use a car.At the location of Bo01, after large excavations, masses have been dumped into the sea, where you can find the large considerable amount of soil. Some of the areas had high concentrations of toxins, around 10, 000 tonnes of soil were processed. The soil was tested and 75% of that could be used again, but the remaining 25% was decontaminated both chemically and biologically. Some of the areas soil decontamination was very low and it was possible to cover it with new layer of soil. The water in the area is pumped in because the main canal is purposely built a few metres above sea level so that the water does not permeate through the contaminated layers of soil. This was done to minimise the risk of toxins spreading. While the city is successfully managing all the sustainable projects, it seems to be having an opposite effect on society. Malmö has 270, 000 residents (2010) who speak around a hundred different languages and come from 164 different places. The immigrant criminal activity since 1995 has reached a new unprecedented high. The once strong industrial area where Kockums world famous shipyard operated, now is replaced with ecodistrict, Malmö university and companies in the IT and telecommunication industries (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). Also an exhibition convention centre is located in the former SAAB factory and specially designed concrete skateboarding arena has been constructed around one of the old ship ramps (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). Malmö can no longer be called an “old” city as it has undergone massive changes on various different levels of its infrastructure, and will continue to do so, especially as it is transcending from an industrial city to a higher learning and technologically advanced centre. This is truly reflected in its modern housing projects (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). In the past shipyard zone, we can see students, residents and people pertaining to the business sector, bustling about their lives. This is a stark shadow of the former glory once proudly emulated by Kockum’s workers. All the jobs in this post-industrial city were lost and more then 50% of children come from parents of whom at least one is born abroad. There are areas in Malmö where 90% residents are immigrants, where 70% residents depend on social allowances and where half the children do not receive passing grades from comprehensive school (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). Unstable finances and cutbacks have characterized the city state welfare institutions for over ten years. This postindustrial shadow of its former self is most Figure 24 2014 two car bombing in Malmo certainly in dire need of intervention on all fronts. Today, Malmö has the highest crime rate in the country, and despite of all these sustainable projects, one fails to see any change in the city’s situation. The Brussels journal states that some regions of Sweden, the model can’t refer anymore to stable, peaceful and advanced economy, more us socialist mismanagement and runway immigration. Slightly exaggeration, but still proven by Malmö immigration youngsters, that says: "We are waging war against the Swedes". When by reporters had asked why that is, their answer was quite simple as: "Well they hate us". (Fjordman, 2006) Malin Åkerström, a professor in sociology, sees only one solution to the problem: “Jobs for everybody. If this entails a deregulation of the labour market to create more jobs, then we should do so” (Fjordman, 2006). Something that Malmö sustainability projects failed to bring for everyone. 20
Figure 25 Land use plan (Hamnem is location of Bo01)
Chapter 3 - Future projects and ambitions (2015-2100) Malmö is a seemingly a progressive futuristic city that continually tries to grow in its own particular way, incorporating a strong affliction with sustainable design. The goal for Malmö is to become 100% driven by renewable energy by 2030. It focuses on three main objectives: sociality, environment, and economical sustainability. All three of which are mutually dependent and intricately linked. This in turn means they cannot be achieved without each other. The goal is to create an attractive and sustainable city for urban structure where the population could grow. The city’s spatial arrangement and design affects movement, people’s habits and patterns of residents. In which case, physical planning can therefore contribute to a more socially cohesive city. Meeting in public is a basic facet for a democratic society and so smaller and larger public spaces should be equally separated trough out the city. Good places to meet should be accessible, Figure 26 Different population welcoming, and free. In making these public places, it is important to think about making them accessible for all age, genders, disabilities or ethnic background and so the factors, which affect these elements, should be better understood. With regards to the economic realm, the business community plays a very important role, creating capital and supplying the region and the people of Malmö with incomes and livelihoods. The city council it tasked with making this sector a more attractive place for companies to grow which should in turn, attract established businesses. Diversity within the commercial sector is important, as it will certainly aid in securing a strong postindustrial economy that will continue to supply employment opportunities (Malmö City Council 2014). This will ensure a better spread of wealth and quality of life. A city with an educated population is arguably integral to the basis for positive development in the private sector. Cities and regions usually compete for people and capital. For these two, housing stock and good schools are very attractive propositions. Cultural life, attractive public spaces and the social living of the city and of course a safe and secure environment are also massive perks (Malmö City Council 2014). The city should be an important player when it comes to operations, services and investments. Investment in infrastructure is a good example of physical structures that are usually viral for economic competitiveness. Economical sustainability implies responsible use of both human and natural resources. 22
A big part of the town so far has been effective waste management, but it’s not in all parts of the city and should be adapted to 100% housing. Large waste sorting stations should be organized around the city regularly. They should be planned out according to housing and business locations. As transport produces the largest share of the world emission of greenhouse gasses, it has been proposed that all public transport should function only fossil fuels. Also all the renewable energy should come through wind, biomass, geo-energy and solar. For all future building construction work, it should be proposed they only integrate smart energy solutions and environmentally adapted materials. According to SMHI’s climate scenarios in regards to changes that mostly likely will happen by the end of the century. (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth, unknown). It’s expected that the climate will become warmer by 5.2 oC. Imagine what would that mean when experienced for more than a millennia. If the temperature increase would maintain this rate of steady increase, in a thousand years time we would have in Malmö more than 50 oC increase of temperature. Heat waves would occur far more regularly and would bring annual occurrence from year 2070 onwards. There would be an increased annual precipitation that is approximated to be 15% of which the largest increase would be during the winter seasons. Incidents of extreme precipitation would increase by 20% in single day of the week. The only positive aspect would be the length of a season to increase by 2 months (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Figure 27 Water system Eneroth, unknown). Considerably much less snow or ice, but heavy raining is expected. The buildings will have decrease of heating by 40%, but the need of cooling will increase from 3 to 37 days per annum, (Mathilda Edlund, Nina Eneroth, unknown). It is estimated that sea level will rise to 22-66 cm until 2100. The Malmö coastline is about 43 kilometres long. On the inner perimeter, there are low-lying areas at risk from rising sea levels and changing flood conditions (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). In extreme cases sea level in a hundred years could reach highs of three metres above the current sea level. It included waves, wind and high tide. Western harbour and the harbour areas are all located below the 3 metres level. Infrastructures and housings could be seriously damaged by the rising sea level. Critical communal services and functions would be wiped out and historical cultural values could get very damaged in the central part of Malmö. Heathland will become flooded and stand permanently under water, unless an effective coastal protection system is not established (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). However, even then the natural environment will be affected. The city’s actions in this case should be that developments should build above ground from 3.0 metres and not 2.5 metres. As well as install different types of defence structures, and propose a tactics as to how to best manage the rise in the sea. Barriers that protect buildings are necessary. One cannot forget about identification of critical communal functions and mappings of vulnerable areas (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010).
The average day temperature is over 20 degrees Celsius and will become a regular occurrence in Malmö. Every year, the days of summer with extremely high temperature are going to increase in number. It will also affect a lot of animal and plant life, the numbers of pest may increase, which means it is easier for diseases to spread. The increase in temperature will increase the risks of health problems for vulnerable groups such as small kids or old people as well as the already ill. Very good example was in 2003, when after two days of heat waves struck Europe 35, 000 people died. Also this heat will spread more unknown plants and animal species that can contaminate and cause disease to spread. This would further increase the risk of new contagions and parasites emerging. There is the challenge in front of us, to make our cities greener without making Figure 28 Malmo Parks them denser. There is this idea of making every space green, which has no specific reason to be hard surface. Having more greenery in the city, decreases the temperature, and improves cooling effect. By adding 10% of greenery to the city, it is possible to retain or lower the average temperature. In studies around the world, streets without vegetation and streets with vegetation have a difference of 3.5 C to 11 C, which proves vegetation is an incredible way of cooling. When it comes to buildings, especially hospitals, it is very important to orientate the building facing the west or south. All decisions to do with design should ensure the buildings interior temperature is kept at a comfortable level even if/when there is a heat wave (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). Environmental targets and aspects are a very high priority when it comes to planning sustainable cities. One of the important requirements is to protect the basic needs of future generations, which allows you to focus on nature and climate boundaries. In building good ecosystem, the main basic requirements are protecting nature and human health from the negative environmental impact. The city of Malmö has adopted a number of goals for the future. They have created another project together with Copenhagen, in which they are planning to make the Oresund Region, Europe’s first cross-border carbon-neutral zone. This requires Malmö to be supplied by locally sourced renewable energy, as well as to completely reduce its green house emission. “Biodiversity must be preserved, arable land and natural sets safeguarded, natural resources efficiently utilized and water supplies protected” (Malmö City Council 2014). Also it is proposed that the city Executive Board commissions on of the administrations to set up a climate adaptation strategy group for the purpose of promoting and coordinating the work on climate change adaptation (Malmö City Council, 2014).
Malmö’s geographic location is by the sea, and the seaside level is not very high. It is important to consider that the rising sea level could greatly affect Malmö. Some of the strategies for this are to have planning and preparedness for the effect of climate change, and urban runoff should be handled to ensure safety for extreme cases. The water level is very important for conservational, natural, economic and social reasons. With the new seaside development coastlines are strengthened. Adding more activities can develop the beaches, and the coastline could be made to be more accessible to the community. Groundwater is very important for basic living, as it provides drinkable water for the city. Urban planning should protect the ecosystem services from the sea, but at the same time, use the coastline for the community and all the runoff should be handled in a sustainable way. An attractive and sustainable urban environment needs to be both dense and green for the community. Everything that is green has in it the possibilities of improving the quality of health, as well as reducing population noise in the city. When large amount of different people meet in the same place, it is necessary to have greenery of different kinds. “Large interconnected parks and nature areas are important for recreation, biodiversity and ecosystem services“(Malmö City Council 2014). By connecting parks and recreational areas they become easier to use for the community. When you add more green qualities such as green city square trees and greenery they all are strengthened further.
Figure 29 Coast line of Malmo
When it comes to buildings, it was proposed that the city should grow inwardly, with its outer ring roads. It will reduce its environmental footprint and increase its appeal. It would also focus on reinventing the old buildings, or creating new ones in their place, as to not lose the land layout already in place. When you compact the city more and more, it is also becomes more resourceful and energy efficient. It gives the people of Malmö more choices as to how they could reduce their carbon footprint. It also proposes for people to abandon their cars and instead choose either public transport or bicycles, as the distance from one point to another doesn’t change but only becomes denser. There is also a greater possibility for more walk-able access. The city should keep growing but with the smallest possible environmental impact, both locally and globally. It should be an attractive place to live and work. The city’s strategic plan looks decades into the future in order to 25
create a town that will be socially, environmentally, economically sustainable and attractive. Malmö together with Copenhagen will function as a sort of engine for Oresund region to strengthen competitiveness. One of Malmö’s biggest regions, Hyllie, will be the pilot project for the beginning of the new time of sustainability. It will become the smartest city district and global benchmark for sustainable urban development. The region has its own vision of the future - High quality standards of life and living, as well smart energy use. All the waste will be recycled. Most of people won’t even need a car; they will instead use the train, tram or bus, which is eco-friendly. But those who will choose to drive to work with their own car will probably choose one of friendly carpooling cars. There will be many stations for electricity or biogas fuelling (City of Malmö (2011). Only 10 kg of food waste can produce enough energy for the car to drive ten kilometres. When it comes to recycling, they have to decide on whether to look into scientific theories regarding people’s behavioural patterns and thus deduce what would be the best potential way to collect the rubbish from people and make it organized. It will be also very handy to use the mobile recycling system. The homes will have intelligent home controls and detailed metering of energy production and energy consumption (City of Malmö (2011). Living in the urban area will have benefits of countryside. It will offer excellent urban Figure 30 Region of Hyllie farming opportunities. The city of Malmö is creating allotment gardens and other new construction projects around the area, possible elements that would be adjacent for residents. A number of buildings will have green rooftops and areas with wild bees on top of roofs. The courtyard will feature limestone- rich biotopes, and climbing plants on wire systems. Hyllie district will become a guinea pig, on which everything that will be applied to this region later on would be tested. If successful, it will be proposed to be applied to the whole city, its the next large scale district in Malmö after the Bo01. The city region will be 100% sustainable by renewable or recycled energy by 2020.
Figure 31 Style of Living
Conclusion Looking back to the Bo01 project that started this whole circle of transformation, not everything went as planned, in regards to combining the idea of sustainable design to society. After the project was successfully finished most of the Bo01 flats were sold, but the largest ones stayed empty forever. They were too large and too expensive for anyone to be interested in buying them, they unfortunately had miscalculated the market at the time. Dalman, one of the critics said that, the project was too busy always focusing on ecological sustainability, and how to build the whole thing up as quick as possible, but in-fact, most of the time they were behind schedule. That wasn’t the only problem that they faced, the problem with Malmö’s society was straight forward, the immigrants and local divisions between one another buying these expensive flats, separated the place even more. In terms of level of incomes, the middle class struggle to afford the housings. With this typology for whole city, it would probably push out a large number of people, just like back in the 80s when families preferred to move out of the city Figure 32 Ribersborg and in to the suburbs. A few blocks away from Bo01, you can find an impressive building, built in the 1930s called ‘Ribershus’. It was for a long time considered as the most modern of Swedish buildings. It was new and exciting architecture that was developed during the Stockholm exhibition. The building introduced new ways of living and handling domestic space. Except, in talking about its ecological ambitions, maybe this is something that Bo01 was lacking, and should be considered when designing the rest of Malmö in the future. This sense of new possibilities and a vision, to really experiment again is exemplary. Maybe its the fault of the Swedish building industry, that they prefer to invest in conventional vision, rather than taking provocative or risk full attempts at something completely new, and it’s hard to blame them, due to the position Malmö was in in 1995. Some of the temporary projects were also cancelled. One of them was the ‘Future Homes - From Earth to Mars and Back again’ show. Its build was planned in collaboration with NASA. Also the competitors in this exhibition often demonstrated disconnect between the architects and developers. The developers were not exactly always involved in all the competitions happening while they commissioned the build project, and when the winning design was awarded, the developers already had laid out all the plans. But not just the price was inappropriate but also, the actual product was lacking. The design of the region was lacking urbanity. The idea was simple - to follow middle age typical urban design of European architecture, that would incorporate short streets and public circles between the streets. However, what it did instead was turned made the place more un-city-like. This out-dated thinking and ignorance of modern urban discussions, made a lot of people agree that the project should not use the country village as an example, but rather, spread out in to more land, to take more territory 27
and connect with already existing residential buildings. This new idea would skip the idea of difference and bring connection between different people with different incomes. Ivar Lo-Johansson commented that “The planning, is not strategic and it doesn’t allow for any economic processes too ever start here”. He also mentioned that Bo01 is detached from the rest of the area, and more importantly from the industrial past of the harbour district, where it is located. These were conclusions drawn by some of the critics after Bo01 was finished.
Figure 33 Violence in city streets
It did seem that Malmö was listening to the critics and soon after the place had competitions for low income housings and proposals that connected with the old part and city centre, as well as transforming the entire Western Harbour into a mixed urban environment with workplaces, shops, restaurants and place to live. They did manage to populate the area with students, IT businessmen and local residents. The recurring fact is still relevant that the place used to be owned by industry workers and has now changed to a more knowledgeable people or students. In this case, the city did succeed in changing the city’s outlook from industrial to a knowledge hub.Bo01 was always a concept in practise, something that could be repeated and improved, making a real difference to the environment. It was not just about proposing the idea, but also about learning from it, for even more ambitious goals in the future - “(Bo01) is a full scale laboratory for sustainability” (Eva Dalman, 2005, p1672).The city has learnt its lessons and now has strong local environmental policies shaping the future of Malmö. It has a clear focus on sustainability and the city has been able to recreate itself baring relevance to its industrial city heritage and as well as being an Eco city (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). Its growth and development pressure have pushed them forwards for greater sustainable developments and becoming internationally recognized and possibilities of ecological adaptation of dense urban development. The city also has learnt to embrace new development and to display it for the city environment, not being scared of viewing new developments as a risk for green space. Speaking more globally the city still have long way to go when it comes to the global climate situation. Malmö has learnt as everyone else did, to adapt to its particular climate, but now it has to learn to adapt its ever28
changing conditions. Society could be vulnerable to these changes, but how much it affects us all depends on how quickly changes like those occur and how well we are prepared to tackle them. The city has to work on not just how to decrease the greenhouse gas emissions, also has to introduce climate adaptation strategies. All the key factors in the society must collaborate in order to endure. “Malmö has worked to remodel itself as a city of knowledge. One of the other central themes in the regeneration of the city has been a focus on the environment both from a broader sustainability perspective and also from an urban quality perspective in order to shake off the image of the dirty industrial town (Livable Cities, 2006, p1) The city ecological situation keeps growing, and there won’t be surprise if the whole city will run on 100% renewable energy until 2030. The city council is much focused and keeps listening to reports and learns from early projects. This environmental project perfectly reflected the needs of higher, medium class population and environmental issues inside the town as well increased the tourism and created an example for Europe sustainable housing. People are traveling from whole world to see just the sustainability elements of the city, and to hear the strategic plans that are prepared for few decades in front of us. It's perfect example for cities in world, how to adapt the global warming. The city won’t just prepare for changing climate conditions, but also slow down the process.
Figure 34 Systems Thinking
While sustainable projects seem to be heading strongly in the right direction, maybe it’s too early to assume that so too are social behavioural problems. To become a post-industrial and culturally-ethnically diverse, while also becoming eco-city possibly may have proven too difficult a task for lower level income groups. “Because of Malmös status as metonymy for a national discursive connection between immigration and social problem the representation of the city as ethnically diverse becomes problematic” (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). The city seems to have always welcomed immigration especially during its industrial age, when the dock industry was running. At that time, there was no need of knowing strong a particular language very well to get a job. The Swedes specifically invited immigrants, to raise the economy of Sweden. Some of those towns were Malmö and when the industry shutdown, Malmö faced the biggest unemployment levels in the city (1995). With a large number of immigrants, who then became unemployed, the city decided to change its profile from an industrial city to an intellectual capital. This sort of solution did Figure 35 Road of straggle to progress answer on its ecological problems, as sewer water on streets or economic issues. But it made jobs more for medium and higher class and cut short the lower class. These goals were achieved through making the city sustainable, eco-friendly, which in turn invited higher education, IT companies, businesses etc. But it didn’t bring back any industrial work possibilities and transformation may not appeal to most people in the city, whose daily activities are not always centred on technology or academia, but are instead connected with more with industrial work and skill set. You can see that the “manufacturing, building industry, has dropped from 50% in 1960 to under 20% in 2003” (Christian Fernandez, Anders Hellstrom, 2010). That is indeed a large drop for employment in the industrial sector. Today, Malmö is facing the highest crime rate in all of Sweden, while it is probably also the most sustainable city. Then again, because of early decisions of invitation immigrants and failure of industrial sector, Malmö sort of expected them to rise with the city or practically didn’t exactly understand their situation that kept the social problem failure from 1995 until now. Sustainability projects just made it all worse, by separating the classes of living. These youngsters that are part of criminal world in Malmö, are not exactly product of cultural dogma or as referred immigrant is equal with social problem. This more likely happened because of own Swedish failure in social politics, and school regalement that is led by the Malmö and the Sweden. There need to be strong changes in education, to adapt and collaborate with existing and incoming Immigrants, to help them to join the Swedish system and help them to find jobs in this new city model. With an ever swelling immigrant population who are struggling to cope with the transfer from an industry based income to a knowledge based income, a continued lack of employment or education opportunities and despite the fact that Malmö now also houses a new university, through these extraordinary interventions and milestones in policy making, technology, engineering and architecture, Malmö is definitely a city in a state of transcendence. 30
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Figure 1. Location of Malmo (2010) [Photo] At: hhttp://staffanstorp.se/wpcontent/uploads/2010/10/100115_Uppr%C3%A5ka_program.pdf (Accessed on 06.01.2015)
Figure 2. Location of Bo01 (2010) [Photo] At: http://www.laciudadviva.org/opencms/export/sites/laciudadviva/recursos/documentos/Familias_de_doc umentos/Obsolescencias_urbanas/Augustenborg_Malmoe.pdf (Accessed on 06.02.2015)
Figure 3 Solar panels and wind turbines located around Malmo (2008) [Photo] At: http://gatesofvienna.net/category/news/scandinavia/page/3/(Accessed on 06.03.2015)
Figure 4. Photo with children standing by graffiti (2014) [Photo] At: http://gatesofvienna.net/category/news/scandinavia/page/3/(Accessed on 06.01.2015)
Figure 5. Kockums Crane (unknown) [Photo] At: http://www.darkroastedblend.com/2008/07/dismantling-of-worlds-largest-gantry.html(Accessed on 09.03.2015)
Figure 6. Kockums Crane (unknown) [Photo] At: http://www.darkroastedblend.com/2008/07/dismantling-of-worlds-largest-gantry.html (Accessed on 09.01.2015)
Figure 7. Oresund bridge (2012) [Photo] At: http://beauty-places.com/oresund-bridge (Accessed on 04.02.2015)
Figure 8. Bridge between Copenhagen and Malmo (2012) [Photo] At: http://www.grabseu.org/downloads/Climate_Adaptation_Strategy_Malm__webb.pdf (Accessed on 06.01.2015)
Figure 9. Malmo University (2008) [Photo] At: http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malm%C3%B6#/media/File:Hj%C3%A4lmarekajen-1.jpg (Accessed on 23.01.2015)
Figure 10. Bo01 site in 2015 (2015) [Photo] At: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=957518&page=7 (Accessed on 06.03.2015)
Figure 11. Part of Bo01 site in 1986 (1986) [Photo] At: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=957518&page=7 (Accessed on 06.02.2015)
Figure 12. Bo01 exhibition from bird view (unknown) [Photo] At: http://www.msaudcolumbia.org/summer/?p=3093 (Accessed on 06.01.2015)
Figure 13. Perspective drawing of pavilion in Stockholm exhibition (1930) [Photo] At: unknown (Accessed on 15.01.2015)
Figure 14. Klas Tham proposal for building layout (1999) [Photo] At: http://www.urbanarea.co.uk/PeopleWeLike.html (Accessed on 12.01.2015)
Figure 15. Bo01 building layout (unknown) [Photo] At: http://www.rudi.net/images/6398?size=original (Accessed on 18.02.2015)
Figure 16. The view to finish Bo01 (unknown) [Photo] At: http://lab3.se/flygfoto/ (Accessed on 28.02.2015)
Figure 17. The view to the city of Malmo (2013) [Photo] At: http://www.almrsal.com/post/23483/central-malmo (Accessed on 28.02.2015)
Figure 18. Kockums Fritid (2013) [Photo] At: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kockums_Fritid,_Malm%C3%B6.jpg (Accessed on 28.02.2015)
Figure 19. Diverse solution (2010) [Photo] At: http://www.laciudadviva.org/opencms/export/sites/laciudadviva/recursos/documentos/Familias_de_doc umentos/Obsolescencias_urbanas/Augustenborg_Malmoe.pdf (Accessed on 28.02.2015)
Figure 20. Malmo water storm system (unknown) [Photo] At: https://urbanreport.wordpress.com/2011/09/03/welcoming-water-part-2-how-open-storm-watermanagement-works/ (Accessed on 25.02.2015)
Figure 21. Green roofs (unknown) [Photo] At: http://www.hardrainproject.com/imagine_growing_strawberries (Accessed on 23.02.2015)
Figure 22. 18 Pipes for circulation system, to recycle the waste (2014) [Photo] At: http://malmo.se/English/Sustainale-City-Development/Bo01---Western-Harbour/Eco-cycle.html (Accessed on 24.02.2015)
Figure 23. New buses running on fiogas (unknown) [Photo] At: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1274887&page=2 (Accessed on 06.02.2015)
Figure 24. Green roofs (unknown) [Photo] At: http://www.jihadwatch.org/2014/12/sweden-two-carbombs-rock-muslim-area-of-malmo (Accessed on 04.03.2015)
Figure 25. Style of living (2009) [Photo] At: http://malmo.se/download/18.760b3241144f4d60d3b69cd/1397120343885/Hyllie+klimatkontrakt_brosc hyr_EN_2013.pdf(Accessed on 01.03.2015)
Figure 26. Different population (2013) [Photo] At: http://www.malmobusiness.com/en/facts-andpublications (Accessed on 06.03.2015)
Figure 27. Water system (2012) [Photo] At: http://www.grabseu.org/downloads/Climate_Adaptation_Strategy_Malm__webb.pdf (Accessed on 06.03.2015)
Figure 28. Malmo parks (unknown) [Photo] At: http://www.malmo-time.se/45 (Accessed on 06.02.2015)
Figure 29. Green roofs (unknown) [Photo] At: https://www.flickr.com/photos/barracuda666/14350646012/ (Accessed on 09.03.2015)
Figure 30. Region of Hyllie (2014) [Photo] At: http://www.ncc.se/en/vacant-premises/vacantpremises/malmo/hyllie-malmo/ (Accessed on 14.03.2015)
Figure 31. Style of living (2009) [Photo] At: http://malmo.se/download/18.760b3241144f4d60d3b69cd/1397120343885/Hyllie+klimatkontrakt_brosc hyr_EN_2013.pdf(Accessed on 15.03.2015)
Figure 32. RIBERSBORG (unknown) [Photo] At: http://www.kringla.nu/kringla/objekt?referens=raa/bbr/2131000000095 (Accessed on 15.02.2015)
Figure 33. Violence in city streets (2013) [Photo] At: http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21578725-scandinavian-idyll-disrupted-arson-and-unrestblazing-surprise (Accessed on 15.03.2015)
Figure 34. Systems Thinking (2010) [Photo] At: http://www.laciudadviva.org/opencms/export/sites/laciudadviva/recursos/documentos/Familias_de_doc umentos/Obsolescencias_urbanas/Augustenborg_Malmoe.pdf (Accessed on 16.02.2015)
Figure 35. Systems Thinking (2009) [Photo] At: http://malmo.se/download/18.760b3241144f4d60d3b69cd/1397120343885/Hyllie+klimatkontrakt_brosc hyr_EN_2013.pdf (Accessed on 18.03.2015)
The Cass School of Architecture - Dissertation by Martins Silins