Multi Puebla: The North-Western Production Reserve Framework

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THE NORTH-WESTERN PRODUCTION RESERVE FRAMEWORK: SPATIAL NEXUS BETWEEN PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEMS AND RURAL URBANISED LANDSCAPES

Martin Quiroga Mora


MULTIPUEBLA: THE NORTH-WESTERN PRODUCTION RESERVE FRAMEWORK Spatial nexus between public space systems and rural urbanised landscapes.

Martin Quiroga Mora


ABSTRACT

City as a multisite solution through a public space/landscape framework is the response that overcomes the rampant urbanisation processes and the consequences to commuters’ life it brings about. Following the work started in the previous volume “MetaPuebla: towards a territorial system framework for urban multi-site regions and architectural local operations”, I take the concepts I elaborated there into planning and architectural design practice. The city of Puebla, located 100 km Southeast from Mexico City (Mexico) has more than doubled its urban footprint in the last 30 years, merging with other surrounding towns and cities. Together, they integrate the Metropolitan Area of Puebla. The zone faces the consequences of non-effective policies and planning all across its territory, as the urban sprawl’s fast pacing makes it challenging for public administrations and professionals to keep up with immediate responses. After the analyis and diagnosis undertaken in MetaPuebla, in MultiPuebla I used various concepts -puff-pastry theory, urban knowledge economy, public space/landscape dialectics, cities as archipelagos, planetary urbanisation, landscape urbanism…-, to establish a strategic framework to solve spatial problems in the marginalised areas around the metropolis. I recognise the existence of eleven regions around the mentioned Metropolitan Area, briefly highlighting their challenges and opportunities for spatial regeneration. By doing this, I address institutional and public urban programs’ –UNHabitat’s Integral Urban Operations, SEDATU’s Urban Improvement ProgrammeI explore the North-Western region of Puebla in order to analyse and diagnose its particular conditions. Its area encompasses towns and communities of long time traditions and culture, who are vulnerable against the tabula rasa scheme of developers and inversionists. The lack of a planning framework that recognises the land use value, production and heritage, both natural and cultural, turns into an opportunity to propose solutions from an urban and architectual perspective. In this work, after an overview towards MetaPuebla, I elaborate on MultiPuebla’s framework and the process that lead to choose the North-Western Production Reserve region as its practical approach. The nexus between public space and landscape is the vision that guides the actions and strategies for regional planning and local projects proposals, as they conform a system that binds together all spatial variables. My framework aims to future research, practice and informed decision-making policies, empowering people through their public space and surrounding landscapes.

(left) Cleaning up River Ametlapanapa in Cuanalá. Photo: MasNoticias Puebla twitter newsletter, 2019.


CONTENTS D *Lexicon

168 Conclusion III

01 Prolegomenon

170 A territorial to local nexus

05 A. What is MetaPuebla?

173 References

15 B. What is MultiPuebla? 37 C. Why the North-West? 49 D. A Genius Loci 65 E. Current Nexus 77 F. I.Planetary NWPR 91 G. II. Multi-Site NWPR 115 H. III. Eudaemonia NWPR 166 Conclusion I 167 Conclusion II (To the Great Architect of the Universe)

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multipuebla: the north-western production reserve framework

CONTENTS

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LEXICON Agenda 21 A planning framework developed in 1992 by the UN’s Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro (for which is also known as the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development) that enlists global and local actions to be implemented by the UN’s members to reduce the impact of human activities on environment in the 21st Century. After a 1997 and 2002 revision, the goals presented in the Agenda 21 are since 2015 included in the 2030 Agenda (UNCED, 1992).

HQDIL Multicriteria method of assessment of the urban space sustainability based on five concepts -heritage and resources, local environmental quality, diversity, integration and social link – (Chaguetmi and Derradji, p.2, 2019).

Integral Urban Operation Enhanced by the UN-Habitat Latin America Secretariat, is an urban implementation strategy of multi-actor and multi-sector correlations in which a given area – whereas it’s at neighbourhood, town or territorial scale – is intervened by a set of various projects conceived under a unique integral, efficient, informed, coherent, and synergic metropolitan vision (LA Network, 2020). It aims for a global impact as in urban as in social, economic and multi-dimensional areas, whereas its vision, alienated to the New Urban Agenda, looks for the physical translation of the SDGs (LA Network, 2020).

Landscape Urbanism “(Whereas) landscape has traditionally been defined as the art of organising horizontal surfaces (specially related to pastoral countryside imagery) …by paying close attention to these surface conditions –not only configuration, but also materiality and performancedesigners can activate space and produce urban effects without the weighty apparatus of traditional space making (given by the construction of buildings over horizontal surfaces)... (therefore) landscape is a medium for addressing the increasingly common urban conditions of de-densification and sprawl.” (Waldheim, p.12, 2002).

Metapolis a term first conceived by Francois Ascher in 1995, it refers to the urban footprint born out of big cities breaking down the physical boundaries of their original political limits into other small towns. They use motorised mobility infrastructures to reach the settlements they are merging with, making their way across territories, thus fragmenting them. The merged towns then change their administrative, economic and daily life functioning to meet the demands of the big city they are now connected to (Pelegrín et al., 2020).

(left) El Zapoteco Hill and the Iztaccíhuatl volcano. The landmark is a border-defining element of the North-Western region of the Metropolitan Area of Puebla. Photo: Daniel Llerandi Estrada private collection, 2018. C

multipuebla: the north-western production reserve framework

LEXICON

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(The) Metropolitan Area of Puebla

Public space(s)

is an urban-territorial zone (CESOP, 2016) in the State of Puebla that, after a 30-year expansion process, nowadays encompasses its capital city of Puebla with the neighbouring towns of Amozoc, Coronango, Cuautlancingo, Juan C. Bonilla, Ocoyucan, San Andrés Cholula, San Miguel Xoxtla and San Pedro Cholula (Pérez and Aguilar, p.112, 2008).

Spaces for community living, where meeting, trading and mobility happen; where individuals are considered equals, and have the right to enter or stay regardless their own personal, social or economic conditions (SEDESOL et al., p.33). Open areas in settlements which are destined to a collective use and/or function, not limited to leisure activities, universally accessible and traversable (SEDATU 2019). Also, it’s defined as a free-use space under local authorities’ jurisdiction, physically characterised as “empty” spaces -free of any built infrastructures-. These “voids” link together different areas between and outside the city itself, integrating a network. It distributes urban lands and buildings, while allowing services and accessibility. The public space is the place where social contact and collective identity is given, relating commuters with their neighbourhood and city (SEDATU, SEMARNAT, et al., p.203, 2017).

New Urban Agenda Is a guideline of actions envisioned under the universal “right to the city” developed during UN’s Habitat III Conference in Quito, Ecuador, on October 2016. The document establishes that governments shall meet the Sustainable Development Goals (2030 Agenda) through urban planning and housing, enlisting a series of alienated urban policies, strategies, programs, actions, specific goals, criteria and indicators to do so (United Nations, 2017).

QUEP (qualité des espaces publiques) multicriteria method of assessment of the quality of public spaces (Hadji, p.858, 2012).

Nexus “An important connection between the parts of a system or a group of things” (Cambridge University Press, 2020).

Planetary Urbanisation (also referred in this work as planetary urbanism): is an urban research concept developed by the Urban Theory Lab of the Harvard-Graduate School of Design that builds upon the 1970s “complete urbanisation of society” hypothesis made by Henri Lefebvre. Planetary urbanisation takes the typical local urban cores and cities concepts (“agglomerations”) to the outside territories of their expansion (“operational landscapes”). This implies that the way in which “major traditions of urban research, data collection and cartographic practice” define spaces, zones and borders, must be dissolved. It makes no difference between rural and urban areas, as these “are becoming (one) integral worldwide operational landscape for (economic) urbanisation processes” wherever they be situated. The planetary 21st Century worldwide urbanisation binds sciences, politics, economics, societies and nature, despite location and physical conditions. (The Urban Theory Lab, 2020).

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multipuebla: the north-western production reserve framework

Sustainable Development Goals (Stylised as SDGs): a set of seventeen objectives of worldwide impact towards a sustainable future, which implicate strategies and actions to be taken in present days to prevent future human living to be at peril. These compose the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development set and adopted by the United Nations’ members in 2015. They are: no poverty, zero hunger, good health and well-being, quality education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, affordable and clean energy, decent work and economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure, reduced inequalities, sustainable cities and communities, responsible consumption and production, climate action, life below water, life on land, peace justice and strong institutions, and partnerships for the goals. (UN-SDG, 2020).

UN-Habitat III is the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development that took place from 17-20 October 2016, following the previous year implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Thus, this summit focused on how local and global governments, especially those committed to the mentioned agenda, can meet the eleven Sustainable Development Goals (SDG as stylised in the 2030 Agenda) and the Paris Agreement on climate change (UN-SDG, 2020).

Urban knowledge economy Sustainable economic approach based on functioning, agglomerated and specialised yet diverse multi-sector and multi-site circuits of existing productive urban areas, related directly to local knowledge industries, productive structures, human capital, and the specific locations in the city - spaces and places - in which all these elements are given. From them, it builds its sustainable development strategies of multi-site process city. (Serreli, pp.6-7, 2013).

LEXICON

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PROLEGOMENON

During the early 21st Century, the urban expansion in most of Latin-American cities has reconfigured their natural, geophysical, economic, social, and political conditions, extending its structures beyond their pre-established borders. The city of Puebla, located 100km Southeast from Mexico City (Mexico) is not exception. After a fastpacing expansion during the 90s, in 2000s Puebla merged with other eight neighbouring municipalities in the State of Puebla, duplicating its size. Despite great landmarks and heritage sites, the lack of effective urban sustainable development programs and policies has produced the contrasting Metropolitan Area of Puebla. Its built-environment houses a physically fragmented territory whose inequalities threaten the living quality of more than three million people. However, this has given the opportunity to acknowledge, analyse, and diagnose the components of the urban sprawl, to propose practical solutions from an urbanarchitectonic perspective. Thus, contributing to focus urban public planning projects of the Metropolitan Area of Puebla towards the sustainable principles of the UN’s New Urban Agenda, and other National Programmes –like updating the Territorial Operational Program of Puebla survey, and the implementation of the Urban Improvement Programme in Puebla. To do so, in my previous work MetaPuebla, I defined the MAoP as a metasystem, which is a city made out of other cities, covering a territorial scheme. From this, it resulted necessary to understand, define and describe what are the systems and structures that integrate it. I accomplished this using the lens given by time, natural, social and artificial frames. I performed some indexing operations using the systemic layers contained in them, in order to define which can be used to repair the fragmented territory. The procedure also highlighted areas in which integral urban operations can be undertaken for such regenerating purpose. To ensure that the local projects will bring about an impact in the territory, a final programming method was proposed, relating the global operations with the communities’ potentials. In MetaPuebla, the city’s public space and the territory’s landscape are recognised as structures to build upon spatial strategies that counter-act urban sprawl-fragmentation. This required an integral vision that shifts from local to territorial scales, rural and urban, and vice versa. MultiPuebla fully embraces the nexus between all these concepts. One of the outcomes of MetaPuebla is an ordnance zoning I base on the areas defined for integral urban operations. Rather than be final, it recognises the ever-changing complexity of the metropolis by illustrating the areas proposed to be intervened with the Metropolitan Area of Puebla’s public-space/landscape strategies: MultiPuebla. A woman biking from chore to chore around the farmfields of Cholula. Photo: Norman Campos private collection, 2020. multipuebla: the north-western production reserve framework

PROLEGOMENON

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In MultiPuebla, I propose a framework that highlights the peri-urban sectors of the MAoP as one multi-site circuit which nowadays is already existing as an orbit containing the urban sprawl. I define this sectors as peri-urban regions, which are integrated by marginalised settlements of different –and sometimes contrasting- characteristics. The first eleven conceived regions in MultiPuebla are: 1. The North-western production reserve. 2. Cuautlancingo production reserve. 3. Caleras-Xochimehuacan corridor. 4. Puente Negro watershed. 5. San Sebastián watershed. 6. Amalucan urban forest. 7. La Calera watershed. 8. South-eastern production reserve. 9. The Southern complex. 10. Atlixcayotl development reserve. 11. The Western production reserve. They are named after their most representative particular urban community, and natural landmark or economic function in the territory. The role of the public-space/landscape system is to articulate the urban fabrics existing in these regions. This function implies other two fundamental city-making actions: containing and defining. Finally, it uses its mobility network to interlace the territorial with the regional and local conditions, rural and urban, variables of the metropolitan phenomenon, understanding both people and spaces as a unity. The North-western Production Reserve –stylised as NWPR- encompasses areas of the MAoP’s municipalities of San Pedro Cholula, Juan C. Bonilla and Coronango. It includes the towns of Santa María Zacatepec, Santa María Coronango, Santa Bárbara Almoloya, San Lucas Nextetelco, San Gabriel Ometoxtla, San Diego Cuachayotla, San Sebastián Tepalcatepec, and San Martín Zoquiapan. The NWPR is defined by the landmarks of the Atoyac River tributary rivers – Ametlapanapa River to the West, Prieto River to the East-, and El Zapoteco Hill. “MultiPuebla. The North-western Production Reserve: spatial nexus for an urbanised rural system”, is the first of the frameworks that elaborate on a particular local region. The first part of my NWPR proposal gives an overview of the MetaPuebla one, as MultiPuebla is its direct outcome. Then, I elaborate on the MultiPuebla strategy that leads to the definition of the regions of the MAoP, locating the territorial position and role of the NWPR. After this, in the second part of my work, I focus on the elaboration of the NWPR sustainable development masterplan. Firstly, I describe and analyse the existing and potential variables of the North-western region of the MAoP towards its sustainable development planning framework. For this, I base on concepts and visions such as urban knowledge economy (Serreli, 2013), urban integral operations (LA Network, 2020),

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multipuebla: the north-western production reserve framework

landscape urbanism (Waldheim, 2002), planetary urbanism (The Urban Theory Lab), and the tools developed in MultiPuebla, looking to assemble a continuum. I synthesise a diagnosis to move immediately forward to the masterplan and its strategies –the nexus-. Although specific sites to be intervened are highlighted, it is not the purpose of this work to establish a final framework. Instead, it sets the spatial regional strategic interventions, stressing on its possible sites and architectural expressions. Finally, I propose architectural elements of public space and landmark infrastructures, presenting how they will be operating at specific locations. These projects are the basis to build the nexus operations between all the elements of the NWPR regional masterplan. The way in which public space systems of usually specific local-site condition transcend into a metropolitan/territorial scale is through the concept of landscape. Thanks to the organic sprawl of the contemporary urban expansion, both concepts now share the capacity to build a network to connect the different areas between local settlements, and with their surrounding regions. Nowadays, landscapes and public space are organising and distributing land uses and buildings alike, containing services and accessibility. They compose places where social and collective life and identity happens, relating commuters with their neighbourhood, city, and territory. My work’s objectives are as follow: 1. To establish an overview of the North-Western region of the MAoP, in order to understand the moving forces and actors that are currently defining its dynamics. 2. To achieve the aforementioned with the design thinking principles set in the MultiPuebla volume, intended to offer an insight into the natural, demographic, social, economic, cultural and urban components, fundamental for a sustainable development strategy related to space design. 3. To establish an urban nexus operation through architectural systems for sustainable development based on five axes/principles: traditions and heritage, natural landmarks and resources, economic activities and knowledge, built infrastructures, and social fabric/identity. 4. To propose a framework highlighting specific urban corridors and sites in the North-Western region that ensure an integral global urban operation towards economic processes. 5. To acknowledge the opportunities for different future projects and proposals within the NWPR framework, thus achieving a flexible and adaptable masterplan. It is important to note that further transdisciplinary and socialising actions are required to ensure the future applicability of any of the proposals. My framework aims to future research, practice and informed decision-making policies, as it looks to be a contributing background to the creation of the Territoriall Operational Programme of Puebla, from an architectonic-urbanist perspective, under SEDATU’s guidelines (2019).

PROLEGOMENON

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A.

WHAT IS METAPUEBLA?

(left) A view from the Peripheral Circuit Road into Cholula and the Popocatepetl Volcano. Photo: Daniel Llerandi Estrada private collection, 2018. 4

multipuebla: the north-western production reserve framework

WHAT IS METAPUEBLA?

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As mentioned in the Prolegomenon, MetaPuebla is an analysis method I proposed and developed in “MetaPuebla: towards a territorial system framework for urban multi-site regions and architectural local operations”, to start filling in the gap in the sustainable development planning process of the Metropolitan Area of Puebla (referred in this work as MAoP), through urban and architectural design thinking. The city of Puebla, capital of the same-name state of Puebla, is situated at approximately a two-hour road trip to the south-east from Mexico City. The city was founded in a valley surrounded by the rivers Atoyac, San Francisco and Alseseca, during the Spanish Conquest era - 1531 -, after the Spanish had conquest the neighbouring town of Cholula. The title name of MetaPuebla refers to the rampant urbanisation process that the MAoP has observed in the last 30 years, currently impacting on approximately three million people. Its urban footprint has sustained an accelerated and organic sprawl, almost duplicating its original area by merging together various settlements –Amozoc, Coronango, Cuautinchan, Juan C. Bonilla, Ocoyucan, San Andrés Cholula, San Miguel Xoxtla, San Pedro Cholula- (CESOP, p.22, 2016) (Augustin, p.10, 2018). For the capital city of Puebla has become now a metapolis, a trans-local yet punctual metropolitan phenomena of polarized conditions -towns, productive areas, leisure centres, housing clusters- interlinked by high motorized roads that bring about a “tunnel effect” that fragments the undefined and fragile territory, as vulnerable neglected communities and left over unrelated but visible landscapes constitute large pieces of this broken organic expansion (Pelegrín et al., 2020). The 1st Stage of my MetaPuebla analysis method deconstructed the metapolis into its layered components by mapping and arranging them into four frames of systemic structures –X. Memory, I. Natural, II. Social, and III. Artificial-. The 2nd Stage performed different overlaying operations using the deconstructed elements and interface. This led to an indexing diagnostic of each of the overlaid sequences, resulting in the definition of large zones in the territory whose areas can be suitable for integral-urban-operation projects. Finally, in the 3rd Stage, the framework set the analysis process to assess the conditions of any of these sites, considering that their inherent scale is not territorial, but local. The results of this assessment integrate a diagnosis that works as the evidence to support any architectural program/space proposal, while responding to territorial problematics and conditions – I call this a zoom-in, zoom-out design thinking-. The obtained mapped elements from the 1st and 2nd Stages were represented in a matrix to understand how they are interlacing together. The following sequence of images give some context before presenting MetaPuebla’s matrix.

WHERE IS THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF PUEBLA? 6

multipuebla: the north-western production reserve framework

Framing the zoom to locate the Metropolitan Area of Puebla. Source: digital diagram by author, 2020. WHAT IS METAPUEBLA?

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PUEBLA, DUAL CITY

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One side of Puebla: some landscape landmarks and heritage centres. Source: collage assembled with photographs by author, 2019. multipuebla: the north-western production reserve framework

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Another side of Puebla: some vulnerable urban settlements deprived of physical substrate. Source: collage assembled with photographs by author, 2017-2018.

C

For the capital city of Puebla has become now a metapolis, a trans-local yet punctual metropolitan phenomena of polarized conditions (Pelegrín et al., 2020). MetaPuebla’s matrix is the opportunity to analyse it and create a much needed urban equilibrium: WHAT IS METAPUEBLA?

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The Reconstructed Matrix. Source: author, 2020 10

WHAT IS METAPUEBLA?

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The overlaying operations and indexing interpretations integrate a methodology that not only overlaps, but joints different systems and variables whose relationship in the territory usually goes unnoticed (e.g. between education centres and the presence of public squares). In some cases, the overlaying of usually considered opposite systems has given a further explanation to current complex situations. For example, reading “B” taking elements from reading “A”, shows a relationship between located high crime-rate areas and the infrastructures of the high-road system, whose built elements seem to endanger the transit of pedestrians, bikers and drivers alike, while offering hide-and-seek places for criminals. In other cases, the procedure has connected systems of different scales, acknowledging the possibility of important trans-scalar complementary corridors. For example, reading “C” suggests a sequence between the industrial complexes and the main lines of services as their footprints compose linear corridors, something that reading “D” actually stresses, thus demonstrating the viability to create a system from the dialectical concept that finds Public Space and Landscape as similar. By understanding the system’s physical relationships and how these impact in the territory through the proposed methods, my work moves towards urban-integral-operations thinking. From this, there are two sets of codes I generated: the list of deconstructed systems (given by numbering the systemic layers of MetaPuebla), and the list of reconstructive indexing actions (given by the alphabetical set of overlaying operations). The final local programming code refers to the axes of sustainability assessment – a. traditions and heritage, b. natural landmarks and resources, c. economic activities and knowledge, d. built infrastructures, and e. social fabric/identity-. Then, the list of code-making merges all three elements -numbers and letters- as through them future design proposals can address territorial and local conditions. They are the means in which the coded space program can go backwards from local to territorial scale, thus ensuring that local actions have a global impact. The codes formed by numbers and letters, when related to the concepts of integral urban operations and urban knowledge economy, find their own trans-scale dialectic. In one side, the territorial list of numbers is only fulfilled by a set of various local projects conceived as one integral, efficient, informed, coherent, and synergic metropolitan vision (LA Network, 2020). On the other side, the local list of letters is only successful when it becomes part of multi-sector and multi-site circuits of productive urban areas (Serreli, pp.6-7 2013). This list recognises both existing and possible contributions for the development of an urban knowledge economy in a given place or site (Serreli, pp.6-7, 2013), supporting proposed particular actions -local programming- to reconfigure it for further territorial interactions –global impact– These concepts, aligned to the New Urban Agenda, look for the physical translation of the SDGs (LA Network, 2020)

Code making elements, final list. Source: author, 2020. 12

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WHAT IS METAPUEBLA?

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HOW ARE THE DIFFERENT ELEMENTS OF METAPUEBLA INFORMING DESIGN?

B.

WHAT IS MULTIPUEBLA? zoom inzoom out 1 This diagram summarising the territorial and local concepts of MultiPuebla’s framework, and their zoom in - zoom out dynamics. Five goal-axes of the proposed strategies are cross-referenced from one scale to another. Whereas the main element of the territorial approach is a circuit of multi-site regions of specific urban roles, the local ones are integral on-site projects measured by the sustainability radar. Source: Author, 2020.

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multipuebla: the north-western production reserve framework

City as a multisite solution through a public-space/landscape framework is the response that overcomes the metapolis explored, analysed and diagnosed in MetaPuebla. In order to assemble a proper reactive framework, I use planetary urbanism principles to propose a territorial ordnance zoning framework. I took the information obtained –and coded- during the conclusive “F” overlaying and indexing operations of the 2nd Stage as basis for this new plan. To establish MultiPuebla.

"F"

The following pages present MetaPuebla’s “reading F”. The first set shows the data in a raw mapping operation. The second set features the indexing of such data, in a process that abstracts and informs design thinking and planning process. WHAT IS MULTIPUEBLA?

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F1. Composing Multi-site [Overlaying study]. The sixth overlaying operation is made between the layers X.06 Manufactured sprawl, I.02 Topographic, I.05 Landmarks | Landscapes, II.06 Services + Amenities, II.14 Marginalisation, II.20 Open squares, III.01 Road system, III.02 Barrier elements, and III.05 Urban green areas, of deconstructed systems. Above: mapped overlaid operation. Below: interface shows the input data from the Deconstructed Matrix used in this analysis. Source: author, 2020. 16

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WHAT IS MULTIPUEBLA?

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F2. Composing Multi-site: Circular multi-site [Indexing study]. The sixth indexing reads the information of the layers as X.06 Expansion of productive green, I.02 Physical-natural constraints, I.05 Territorial public space, II.06 Specialised sectors, II.14 Vulnerable communities, II.20 Joints + articulators, III.01 Connectivity, III.02 Divisive elements, and III.05 Urban public space. The elements have defined areas conforming a peripherical ring of multi-site dynamic opportunities. Elements also are dispersed across the territory. Above: indexing operation. Source: author, 2020. 18

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WHAT IS MULTIPUEBLA?

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My MultiPuebla cartographic proposal finds its inspiration in the Urban Switzerland proposals developed under the planetary urbanism theory by Christian Schmid, Neil Brenner, Nikos Katsikis and the Urban Theory Lab-GSD (Brenner, pp. 398-426, 2014). In a similar way, my proposal bases its trace on “networks, borders and differences” (Brenner, p. 407, 2014) that define large specific land use patches whose morphologies are organic: they are not meant to be precise in form. However, this does not mean that they are not recognising the deconstructed variables mapped in the 1st Stage or the indexed dynamics of the 2nd stage. On the contrary, as it is based on them, this tracing exercise allows a more accurate definition of potential strategic, integral, and operative sites. By omitting the restrictions of nowadays political administrative limits, it’s possible to focus instead on defining borders of shared territorial governance: “In order to be able to cope with the new urban realities developing… old fashioned and outdated spatial representations have to be challenged.” (Brenner, p. 406, 2014). Then, these new integralterritorial borders can properly enclose the sustainable urban regions highlighted at the end of the 2nd stage. As the Urban Theory Lab of Harvard-GSD describes in Urban Switzerland: “Although maps are usually used to illustrate known facts, here they (are) employed as tools to produce knowledge”. (Brenner, p. 406, 2014). In MultiPuebla, I highlight the peri-urban sectors of the MAoP as a circuit which nowadays is already existing as an orbit containing the urban sprawl. As described in Reconstruct Matrix, I have defined sectors as peri-urban regions, which are integrated by marginalised settlements. The role of the public-space/landscape system (of rural-use lands and landscape elements, whether green plains, forest patches, hills or riverfronts) is to articulate the urban fabrics existing in these regions (urban sub-centres, former towns, satellite gated communities, social housing complexes, spread Juntas Auxiliares, barrios and colonias). The space-articulating function implies other two fundamental actions: containing and defining. In other words, the public-space/landscape system “roots” urban expansion, controlling it. Then parallel to this, the system makes use of the territorial dynamic of its network of corridors of mobility –as streets are also public space-. It uses the network to link the peri-urban socio-spatial regions to the protected heritage centres. In other words, it empowers the spatial sequence and change of scale that relates original –core- cities with the rural towns and new urban areas of the expansion. This integrates the rural and urban social existences of the metropolitan phenomenon, understanding both people and spaces as a unity. MultiPuebla is an ordnance zoning framework which rather to be final, recognises the ever-changing complexity of the analysed MetaPuebla entity. It illustrates proposed practical strategies as territorial-physical regions to be intervened using public-space/ landscape structures. Specific locations and sites in them are to be socio-spatially programmed. The NWPR’s planning proposal, as a direct sequence of the territorial ordnance, is also developed under the aformentioned principles.

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MULTIPUEBLA: MULTI-SITE SYSTEM N

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The MAoP is a fully urbanised territory, given by a circuit connecting various operative and functional peri-urban regions. A multi-site metropolis. These are unifying what previously was differentiated as urban settlements and rural areas. They do so using the natural landmarks across the territory. When changing the scale, they turn into public spaces, meeting regional landscapes in-between. The system defines the different land uses and value, particularly stressing on production lands, urban cores, corridors of dispersed amenities, and the public space network that connects them. And takes them back to the territorial landmarks. Source: author, 2020. WHAT IS MULTIPUEBLA?

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TERRITORIAL LANDSCAPES N

Territorial landmarks, regional landscapes, and public spaces defining urban elements, dynamics and configurations. View from the top of Cholula’s Pyramid to San Andrés Cholula and Flor del Bosque. Photo: Daniel Llerandi Estrada private collection, 2018. 22

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The remaining patches of the Southeastern Atlixcayotl-Quetzalcoatl forest reserve connects to the Eastern forest areas of Flor del Bosque through the Atoyac river, and its tributary basins and rivers. Then landmarks go north, meeting the basis forest of La Malinche mountain. These territorial landmarks and regional landscapes can’t be addressed as voids anymore. Any public space proposal inside the urban cores or along the networks has to actively respond to it. As this system maintains the structure integral and operational. Regional landscapes -riverfronts, lakes, hills, parks- reinforce the region’s ordnance strategies. They are local spacereferences, defining borders and transitions. Source: author, 2020. WHAT IS MULTIPUEBLA?

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URBAN CORES SUBSTRATE & NETWORKS N

Articulated-bus public transport system RUTA Puebla. The lack of effective planning and investment, alongside politics and corruption in the Unions of public transport has prevented for the system to become a trans-territorial mobility option. Photo: Daniel Llerandi Estrada private collection, 2019. 24

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The built infrastructures and spaces in the MAoP are condensed through the network that distributes, connects, and grants accessibility to them. Amenities and services are existing dispersed through an heterogeneous fabric in the territory. Due to the scale of the planning strategy, recognising their operative dynamics as fluxes creating complete streets corridors seems more effective. Only the original agglomerated cores are highlighted, as they function as built-metropolitan citizenship centres. However, establishing a multi-site region implies the diversification of the management and operation of the MAoP, as pointed out in the following pages. Source: author, 2020. WHAT IS MULTIPUEBLA?

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URBANISED RURALITY LAND RESERVES N

The lack of legal and administrative instruments on land use and value have allowed the predation of natural reserves and agriculture areas. The luxury area of Angelopolis rests upon the late forest reserve Atlixcayotl. Photo: Daniel Llerandi Estrada private collection, 2020. 26

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The MAoP is surrounded by large rural production areas. They are the metropolis’ main source of raw materials, food and crafts. They also house human capital that works dispersed across the territory, depending on their skills. MultiPuebla recognises rural contexts as production land reserves in the urbanisation process. This promotes clear and effective landuse policies and land value to protect them. They are part of the operational sequence of territorial spaces. Using the connectivity network, punctual site areas are defined where product process and trade -market or cultural- is given. Specific built space makes clear that these are not free-use voids. Source: author, 2020. WHAT IS MULTIPUEBLA?

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CONTAINED METAPOLIS N

How do we contain urban expansion? This is a typical example of horizontal urbanisation, spreading around free-use lands. Would these housing spread stop when making it into Flor del Bosque Reserve? Source: Daniel Llerandi Estrada private collection, 2018.

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The previously described elements draw together a territorial restraint strategy to control and ordain the urban expansion of MetaPuebla. They create an adaptable membrane that acknowledges urban dynamics as ever changing. Local spacedefining conditions cannot be predicted, but through clear frameworks of consecutive territorial, regional and neighbourhood scale, it is possible to keep the focus on maintaining a liveable city. Thus, building upon resilience and preventing undesirable scenarios. Source: author, 2020.

WHAT IS MULTIPUEBLA?

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MULTIPUEBLA MULTISITE: REGIONS N

This diagram summarises the final translation of the territorial concepts of MultiPuebla’s framework in local contexts. This, based in the axes of the 3rd stage of my MetaPuebla’s analysis methodology. Local proposals are the built architectural expressions of empowering communities across the territory. MultiPuebla -the MAoP itself- fully addresses its social dimension through this Multisite Regions components. Source: Author, 2020. 30

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MetaPuebla’s indexing F2 Composing Multi-site study translates into the definition of these first eleven peri-regions in the MAoP. They constitute a sustainable territorial operation system which is meant to regenerate the detected marginalised urban settlements. Therefore, they are integrated by patches of urban sub-centres, former towns, satellite gated communities, social housing complexes, spread Juntas Auxiliares, barrios and colonias. Defined and articulated by the public-space/landscape system, they are linked by MultiPuebla’s peripheral network. They protect the rural-production lands. As Image 30 illustrates, they contain the projects developed as integral urban operations under a knowledge economy vision. Source: author, 2020. WHAT IS MULTIPUEBLA?

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MultiPuebla Matrix. Regions are listed and given a function/role/purpose in the economic and urban process of the MAoP. The intention is not to limit diversity or to create new urban identities. It is to highlight their importance in MultiPuebla. Their systemic infrastructures’ components are listed. They respond to MetaPuebla’s methodology sustainable MATRIX CODES and AXES (left). Source: author, 2020. 32

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This diagram illustrates how the economic, spatial, social, industrial and ecological strategies are flowing and working together between scale changes, and through the elements of the MultiSite Regions system. Source: author, 2020. (right) Mapped diagram of MultiPuebla’s regions role-functions, their place in the metropolis, and the resulting linked dynamics of their interactions when operational. Source: author, 2020. 34

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WHAT IS MULTIPUEBLA?

35


As described in the diagrams, in MultiPuebla, I propose a framework that highlights the peri-urban sectors of the MAoP as a circuit which nowadays is already existing as an orbit containing the urban sprawl. I defined them as peri-urban regions, which are integrated by marginalised settlements. The first eleven regions of MultiPuebla are: 1. The North-western production reserve. 2. Cuautlancingo production reserve. 3. Caleras-Xochimehuacan corridor. 4. Puente Negro watershed. 5. San Sebastiรกn watershed. 6. Amalucan urban forest. 7. La Calera watershed. 8. South-eastern production reserve. 9. The Southern complex. 10. Atlixcayotl development reserve. 11. The Western production reserve. These are named after their most representative urban community, and natural landmark or economic function in the territory. The role of the public-space/landscape system is to articulate the urban fabrics existing in these regions. It uses its mobility network to interlace the existences of the metropolitan phenomenon, understanding both people and spaces as a unity.

C.

WHY THE NORTH-WEST?

As mentioned in the Prolegomenon, the public space/landscape system has other spaceinteracting capabilities, especially a space-articulating function that implicates other two fundamental actions: containing and defining. In the following pages I will present the characteristics that make the NWPR region a formidable starting point for the elaboration of local framework strategies under the MultiPuebla sustainable development programme.

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WHY THE NORTH-WEST?

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The region encompasses a rural-urban condition, as the mentioned town communities are mostly dedicated to agriculture, textiles, crafts, and raw materials trading. Some of these activities are the result of heritage processes that can be traced back to the Pre-Hispanic Era. Therefore, it can be argued that before the metapolis effect of the MAoP took place, these communities were towns self-sustainable and independent. Nowadays, MetaPuebla’s impact has turned them into and renamed them as peripheral communities. This implies not only a resulting marginalised condition, but the vulnerability and endangering of their traditional economic activities and knowledge, their natural landmarks and resources, and losing the cultural identity that defines them.

The North-western Production Reserve –stylised as NWPR- encompasses areas of the MAoP’s municipalities of San Pedro Cholula, Juan C. Bonilla and Coronango. It includes the towns of Santa María Zacatepec, Santa María Coronango, Santa Bárbara Almoloya, San Lucas Nextetelco, San Gabriel Ometoxtla, San Diego Cuachayotla, San Sebastián Tepalcatepec, and San Martín Zoquiapan. The NWPR is defined by the landmarks of the Atoyac River tributary rivers – Ametlapanapa River to the West, Prieto River to the East-, and El Zapoteco Hill. 38

multipuebla: the north-western production reserve framework

The sketch shows a reading of the main natural landmarks and main meta-urban structures crossing the region. Also, some towns are referenced. WHY THE NORTH-WEST?

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2006

2018

Via Google Earth

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Via Google Earth

WHY THE NORTH-WEST?

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NONTABULA RASA

A Recalling the peripheral dynamics

The aerial images featured in the previous pages have made a clear statement behind the criteria of choosing the North-Western area for a first regional MultiPuebla framework proposal. The expansion of the metapolis phenomena in this side of the city attempts against two axes of the sustainability criteria to be kept in mind for urbancommunity making. Whereas other communities around MetaPuebla are relatively young, originated out of a tabula rasa condition, the North-Western area ones even have in some cases accountable Pre-Hispanic backgrounds and heritage. Ideally, all the eleven regions should be addressed by professionals and authorities. In the last decade, they have been constantly marked by the National Institute of Geography, Statistics and Information INEGI (2020) as priority areas due to their marginalising conditions. In these communities, it is common that the axes of heritage and social fabrics are missing, hence to be created. In so many cases, the tabula rasa expansion scheme predated former landmarks and natural resources, adding one more sustainable axis to be enhanced. This is a constant issue present in most of Mexican and Latin-American cities. Nevertheless, the NWPR still holds natural, heritage and community variables of its own that are worth to be preserved. It is the aim of this work to make visible what is the role of this kind of communities in large cities, and why is it important to protect the communities and their physical and cultural expressions in built-manufactured space: “While every day we talk more about smart cities, stressing on technological gadgets to improve urban living, it is worth to remember that the future of cities also relies on creating symbiotic relations (between urbanised rurality) and the environmentâ€? (RebaĂŻ, p. 18, 2019). The following pages feature an overview analysis of three other indicative areas around the MAoP. This, understanding that urban sprawl operates in two types of peripheral actions: as tabula rasa with no human pre-existences, and as an invasion -if not predatingof a pre-existing traditional area. The aim is to compare the conditions of this urban communities with the NWPR ones, stressing the importance of protecting minor traditional neighbourhoods from invasive predating planning and building schemes. Also, to make visible how urgent is for all urban settlements under marginalising conditions to be intervened by Architecture and Urbanism, whether they are new or long-time existences.

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WHY THE NORTH-WEST?

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Photography 22. Students of different education levels moving aroung the public transport transfer zone. Moving to school can be complicated in the MAoP. Photo: author, 2019.

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metapolis

As a conclusion, above I present a quick sketch that resumes the characteristics found in the analysis. This short exercise has reinforced the concept of the MAoP as a fragmented city, taking its motorised mobility infrastructures as the medium to sprawl around the territory, dividing people and neglecting urban life. In the following pages I will describe the NWPR. WHY THE NORTH-WEST?

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D.

A GENIUS LOCI

In Cuanalá, there is a group of commuters lead by women, who are known by the nickname of “guardians of the River” Metlapanapa. This is in the heart of the NWPR proposal. Photo: Daliri Oropeza, through her report at “Pie de Página” website. 48

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A GENIUS LOCI

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GENIUS LOCI (sustainability)

towns 50

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Recalling my MetaPuebla methodology and continuing the previous narrative based on its five sustainability radar axes, here are enlisted the various elements found at the NWPR area. Nowadays, a genius loci can’t refer only to the physical conditions of site, climate, location, but to other non-built elements, such as traditions, heritage activities, festivities, economic knowledge, among others.

Location of main towns / settlements, the municipalities they belong to and recounting of existing landmarks. Although el Zapoteco Hill composes a landscape in the region, the rivers Ametlapanapa (or Metlapanapa) ad Actiopa-Prieto are the main protagonists in the area.

A GENIUS LOCI

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threats

The group of activists known as “guardians of the river” filmed and exposed that authorities from the neighbouring town of Huejotzingo were connecting a drainage line to the Ametlapanapa River in 2019. Construction was banned by State authorities, but the threat is still there. Photo: Daliri Oropeza, through her report at “Pie de Página” website, 2019. 52

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The diagram illustrates that besides the expansion of urban footprints over the farmlands and landscapes of the area, other major threats are territorial and national communication infrastructures. Again, it reminds us that the urban-meta condition is given by large infrastructures built without any given territorial sustainable scope.

A GENIUS LOCI

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landscape/landmarks

Around the ruins of the former estate of San Lucas Guadalupe, to the North of Cuanalá, the Ametlapanapa River maintains its natural riverfront condition. Photo: Google Earth, 2020.

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The sketched diagram illustrates the existing landscape elements, highlighting a production dynamic in the agricultural areas, but a “backyard” condition in new settlements. To the right, a map synthesises the concept of resilience and production, towards the framework. A GENIUS LOCI

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rural infrastructures

Local mobility roads and paths along the rivers and basins of the area, in this case around estate “La Pera�, Southeast to the Actiopa River. Photo: Google Earth, 2020.

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A GENIUS LOCI

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rural infrastructures

The river Ametlapanapa is constantly monitored during the rain season. The infrastructures surrounding it are simple, meant for the local mobility, given mainly by pedestrians and bikers. Photo: Tribuna Noticias Puebla, news outlet, 2017. 58

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The sketched diagram illustrates the existing rural infrastructures, highlighting the networks of local mobility (given by a ring along the rivers and a net inside agriculture parcels), mainly pedestrian and for biking. Motorised mobility in these is mainly related to agriculture activities. Above, a map synthesises the mentioned concepts of mobility and production lines, towards the framework.

A GENIUS LOCI

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Besides agriculture, traditional brick craft and raw materials distribution are the most important economic activities in the NWPR. Nevertheless, due to market and environment issues, these are endangered activities. Photo: Tribuna Noticias Puebla, news outlet, 2018.

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urban-rural knowledge economy A GENIUS LOCI

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urban-rural knowledge economy

Blue corn is a very much appreciated product in the Central and Southern areas of Mexico. It’s common to find places where women are the ones who sow and harvest it, then finally producing home-made tortillas. Photo: Daniel Llerandi Estrada private collection, 2017.

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The sketched diagram illustrates the existing rural economic activities and their relationship with traditions, culture, natural resources and community living in the NWPR. The existing scheme gives great opportunity for communal places, strategies and actions, all of them relating to agriculture -particularly blue corn and common Mexican corn production-, crafts products -mainly bricks and earthly raw materials-, and some other minor ones like textiles and other farm goodies production. The natural resources equilibrum is fundamental for these communities to be resilient and sustainable. Sadly, as the abstracted maps show below, there are some economic crisis in the area, which make people to illegally migrate to the USA. However, as mentioned at the beginning, the social network is strong. For example, take a look at the narrative of the women called “guardians of the Metlapanapa River� in the photos area of this chapter-. Migration has turned the area mostly lead by women, which is asking for a gender-oriented approach in the proposed framework. A GENIUS LOCI

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E.

CURRENT NEXUS

An example of a unit of public transport whose route passes by the main internal corridors of the NWPR. Photo: Daniel Llerandi Estrada private collection, 2019.

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CURRENT NEXUS

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WHAT/HOW ARE THE CURRENT NEXUS OF PUBLIC SPACE AND LANDSCAPE IN THE NWPR? In order to understand the interactions, dynamics and momentums of the variables and actors described in the Genius Loci, a general space sequence is elaborated. At a street view level, it’s recognisable that the area is indeed a rural urbanised transition. Along them, large infrastructures go along with large farm field areas, that at specific moments change to meet particular elements. The nexus between land and human, productive field and landscape, territorial to local. The first set of sequences runs from El Zapoteco Hill to the Actiopa-Prieto river bank. Reference plan.

ZAPOTECO HILL

AMETLAPANAPA NORTHERN RIVER BANK

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FEDERAL ROAD TO HUEJOTZINGO

AMETLAPANAPA SOUTHERN RIVER BANK

TRAIN LINE

ACTIOPA-PRIETO SOUTHERN RIVER BANK

CURRENT NEXUS

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ABSTRACTED NEXUS OF PUBLIC SPACE AND LANDSCAPE. SECTION 1

COEXISTENCING NEXUS 68

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This section shows how the elements are functioning together. Even if there are metainfrastructures such as the highroad to Huejotzingo and the train line, these are not impacting directly inside the communities’ place. In this direction, every activity and use are organised in paralel lines, as if the rivers were offseting their boundaries, creating corridors along the territory. However, these lines’s ordnance seems to create some level of isolation between communities. Can there be meeting points between them? Would this help to empower the regional scheme? CURRENT NEXUS

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WHAT/HOW ARE THE CURRENT NEXUS OF PUBLIC SPACE AND LANDSCAPE IN THE NWPR? The second general space sequence elaborated upon exploring the nexus described in the Genius Loci faces the relationship between rural and urban. Influencing concepts to my work like landscape urbanism (Waldheim, 2002), dialectics public-space/landscape (Serreli, 2013) and planetary urbanism (Brenner, 2014) suggest that in this century there is no more a distinction between rural and urban, but just moments or scenarios that have more or less than one or the other. The NWPR, under the influence of the MAoP’s expansion is a case worth looking at. Reference plan.

SOCIAL HOUSING

PERIPHERAL MOBILITY RING 70

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SOCIAL HOUSING

PERIPHERAL MOBILITY RING

SOCIAL HOUSING

SOCIAL HOUSING

CURRENT NEXUS

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ABSTRACTED NEXUS OF PUBLIC SPACE AND LANDSCAPE. SECTION 2

NON-EXISTENT NEXUS 72

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This section unfortunately reassures that in the Latin-American contexts, the issues of gated communities and spaces left over after planning are affecting the nexus between rural and urban. Instead of looking to cooperative sustainable schemes, in these areas we can read an anthagonist relationship. Even if at first glimpse there is no spatial relation, actually there are artificial landscapes and unpleasant place-making elements of territorial scale that difficults to establish a sequence. What’s worst, further analysis shows that naturar productive areas next to urbanisation start facing decay. How can we start to build bridges, spatial sequences to link one another? Would that be beneficial to the regional development? CURRENT NEXUS

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REGIONAL CHART

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SPATIAL NEXUS CONCEPT

NATURAL RESERVES PROTECTION COMMUNITY LIFE-MAKING

URBAN KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

VARIABLES

MOBILITY NETWORKS

Things considered, a set of strategic action lines for my North-West region of the MAoP framework proposal is conceptualised. Following the sustainability axes narrative of my work, I present a matrix with five of them strategic action lines to create a spatial nexus translation: to enhance, protect and/or generate the lines of waterscapes and landscapes, productive or ecological existent in the area; pick point strategic sites where to alocate articulating spaces which may house programs related to knowledge and local economy -including the towns “faenas” public meetings; to establish clear circuits of local traffic, enhancing the local paths along the rivers; improve such related-infrastructures; acknowledge and boost the region’s role in the territorial supply chain, of both natural and construction products. The matrix columns present local variables mapped as regional strategies (left column sequence), then sketched concepts of the architectural translation of these strategies are featured (right column sequence). The concepts are based on the sketch diagram at the end of this chapter. The aim is to propose specific, sensitive, and minimal architectonic objects that may become the catalyst for the changes aimed by the strategic lines of the NWPR.

LOCAL MARKET DYNAMICS

STRATEGIC LINES OF THE NWPR

CREATING A STRATEGIC SPATIAL NEXUS BETWEEN PUBLIC SPACE SYSTEM AND RURAL URBANISED LANDSCAPE

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CURRENT NEXUS

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F.

I. PLANETARY NWPR The sketch diagram explores the physical architectonic translations of the strategic action lines of the NWPR.

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The following pages present a collaged composition of an aerial view of the North-Western region. This sets the tone for this framework’s ideas and strategies, driven by a series of mapped recognised areas rather than by a list of actions, which are already presented in MultiPuebla. I. PLANETARY NWPR

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PERIPHERAL MOBILITY RING AND GATED HOUSING CLUSTERS

COMPLEMENTARY EXISTENT PROGRAMS. ARTICULATORS

SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTIVE LANDS BASINS RECOVERY

PRODUCTION HUBS OF AGRICULTURE AND CRAFTS

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PLANETARY MASTERPLAN As with the territorial scale, for the regional framework proposal I make use of the cartographic visions of the planetary urbanisation approach to illustrate existences, opportunities, strategies and preventive schemes that, in my view, will lead the way towards sustainable planning, integral urban operations programs and punctual effective architectural on-site solutions. However, this time the cartographies I developed fusion analysis and decision-making at the same time. Whereas in the territorial approach, the deconstruction of systemic layers to describe, acknowledge and respond to conditions was necessary. The planetary urbanisation strategy applied in the MultiPuebla method has allowed me to address, just as in the bigger scale, punctual scenarios, circumstances and momentums. The dissolution of the political limits, especially in a context like the NWPR’s region, is proving effective when addressing the complexity of the urban phenomena. The NWPR is subjected to at least nine different towns who are ruled by three different public administrations. And within them, there are many other sub-ordnance groups: neighbourhoods -colonias and barrios-, housing communities, Juntas Auxiliares, etc. Therefore, looking at global behaviours instead of at defined zones improves the experience of research, analysis and design. In this case, patches defined most of my framework’s traces. Their dynamics are overpassing networks as the developed cartography will show. Even for a smaller scale, these patches are large space configurators. There is a set of patches of agricultural activities, another for crafts and raw materials, housing settlements, even urban cores have a more organic configuration. The limits between spatial elements are given by linear joints, just like the previous chapters had stressed out. They become large corridors which would be worth to permeate with articulating and/or bridging spaces. That grouped formations are encircled also contribute to set a series of thematic frames, which are to be connected through public space-landscape. As their system of patches is the one that surrounds and binds together the entire regional territory. In this way, the two rivers are interlaced by the pedestrian and biking paths that go along them, becoming a ring configuration that sets a spatial before and after. The shape of the ring, along with the river’s tracing and the extension of its riverbanks into green patches or productive parcels gives spatial nexus possibility. This nexus holds not only a binding opportunity, but a meeting one. It becomes the territorial shelterbelt that prevents urban expansion to get into the rural area, and vice versa. But this ecological productive natural element is not meant to divide. On the contrary, the circuit ring of local mobility is the excuse to perforate spatial closures and walk through,to reach other towns, people and places along the same region.

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The landscape, integrated by the rivers and equipped with public space infrastructures, is envisioned as an entity that maintains, expands and responds, anticipating expansion. In this sense, even if the regional sustainable frameworks end up being turned into another fully extension of the urban footprint, fully urbanisation, the river-scape and the ring should prevail to be one of the metapolis’ green lungs. When space-piercing strategies along the ring start enhancing bridges and pathways, it becomes clear the final integration and real spatial relation between the landscape elements and the town centres. This is hinted in this planetary NWPR cartography, but is fully explored in the following phase of master planning, where I show some specific examples of on-site interventions. The infrastructures and architectural objects are not looking to be protagonists. Rather, they are quiet in their language -and maybe even in their function- but can be the place-making elements that finally bring together the territorial-local landscape-public space dialectics, turning them into nexus. Besides this integral urban operations and programs, are also important the strategies related to urban economic knowledge. The raw material banks have become a huge topic of debate, as demand is accelerating and lands are eroding faster, not to mention the implications of the brick oven’s smoke pollution. The solution my framework offers is a conceptual land soil remediation process, where exploited parcels can become regenerative spaces. This is linked to the resilience and waterscape schemes of the framework. Both visions meet along a central series of already eroded parcels, where the remeding strategies will take place, becoming a landscape attractive point and recovering its production capacity in the long term. If water supply is secured through the basins’ remedy strategies, then agriculture production remains unchanged. Architecture’s response to this is in either improving the processes or making them visible, if not attractive to other to value, cherish and even have the experience of it. The blue corn products are highly praised in Mexico. The idea is to create spaces where the process goes easier by providing storage spaces, areas to dry the grain, spaces for the traditional mill “nixtamal” to process, and finally, small points of sale. In the next pages and chapters I will present this and other elements that integrate the framework of the North-Western Production Reserve of Puebla.

I. PLANETARY NWPR

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PLANETARY MASTERPLAN

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PLANETARY urban knowledge economies Community cooperation schemes that make use of already existing productive patches, alongside the rivers. Alliance for sustainable long-term economy. A production reserve. Nevertheless, when the agriculture patch is later compared to the specif productive parcels, it seems that lack of regulations are turning many of them into mixed-use areas. Thus, turning themselves vulnerable to estate market.

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PLANETARY urbanisation processes This cartographic illustrates the areas that are undergoing urbanisation processes, some of them under a predative scheme. Land use regulation will prevent this, and also for locals to have a good use of their parcels, as many of this built patches are out of selfconstruction schemes and lack of regulation policies.

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I. PLANETARY NWPR

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PLANETARY production reserve region This plan represents the main production parcels of farming and the raw materials’s banks. Landscape and public space ring also link them, thus establishing an economic circuit that with specific particular projects may complete the production and trading cicles of the local economy.

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I. PLANETARY NWPR

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G.

II. MULTI-SITE NWPR

Some guardians of the river Ametlapanapa (or Metlapanapa, depending on who you ask). Photo: Daliri Oropeza, through her report at “Pie de Página” website, 2019.

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MULTI-SITE MASTERPLAN For a better understanding of the elements and strategies composing the Planetary NWPR framework, the proposal is being translated into a master plan rendering. In the following pages will diagram and elaborate on the regional proposal circunscribed by the aforementioned elements of river landscapes, productive lands and a local mobility circuit that defines the primal action area.

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01 REGIONAL NEXUS: RING The first composing and management strategy uses the river’s landscape and productive areas to hold the towns together. It’s the regional membrane.

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02 REGIONAL NEXUS: ACROSS A series of already decaying parcels stand along one of the main linear routes of the mobility networks in the productive area. This line links spaces across the territory, complementing the ring’s functions. Most important, is the line of a strategy to maintain/recover the existing basins, preventing soil exhaustion and derosion.

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03 REGIONAL CONNECTION Ring and bridges. Regional interconnection is key to maintain the Reserve socially operational and cohesive. To do so is necessary to propose articulating points, from bridges to plazas or existing infrastructure mainainance.

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04 LOCAL CONFIGURATION The local use of the articulators proposed in the previous system extends fluxes and impacts inside of the connected towns. The kinetics that follow after these connections ask for improvement and creation of public programs inside them.

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05 LOCAL PROGRAM

FIRST MULTI-SITE APPROACHES

Community and landscape amenities are to appear now that the publicspace/landscape system of the regional strategies has permeated and reconfigured urban cores.

Although what has been here presented is like a serial sequence, is not an specific order of events. However, when there’s a clear socio-spatial framework of strategies, architecture meets effectiveness. Here is a set of specific on-site explorations that in the following pages will exemplify the final physical translation of all the elaborated proposals, from MetaPuebla to MultiPuebla and the NWPR plan.

7 1

7

2

3

4 5 6

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NWPR INTERVENTION NOWADAYS

NWPR INTERVENTION NOWADAYS

1

2

SAN MARTIN ZOQUIAPAN: BRIDGE The current conditions of the bridge makes it difficult for commuters to cross. Many of them prefer to go around and access to the town centre by another way. Public spaces nearby the bridge area include a kinder garden and a Union. Improving the connection may articulate the entire dynamic of the town centre, as hinted here, pedestrianising the square, for example. 100

multipuebla: the north-western production reserve framework

1

2

SANTA MARIA CORONANGO SPORTS BRIDGE Improvised sports courts are along the river bank in this town. People reaches there by paths, and the bridge connecting is in decay. Improving this connection can articulate the sports courts and link it to the town’s centre. This square also needs a reconfiguration, including modules to substitute the existing ones.

II. MULTI-SITE NWPR

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NWPR INTERVENTION NOWADAYS

3

SANTA BARBARA CORONANGO ARTICULATING PLAZA

3

The mobility ring of the regional nexus strategy crosses through this town, as it is the only way to fully close the circuit. But the side square is a parking lot for the City Hall. Just by changing the use to an open square, the circuit finds its path and closes the strategy, while connecting a cemetery, a high school and to the South area of the region with this town’s centre. 102

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NWPR INTERVENTION NOWADAYS

4

4

San Gabriel Ometoxtla Church. Via Google Maps., 2020. 104

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SAN GABRIEL OMETOXTLA BRIDGE AND SPORTS Sometimes is not that there are no amenities, but there are no ways to make it there. This is the case with the baseball field in this town. By extending the ring into it, with a bridge, I create a corridor that actives the area, while local people can find a closer path into the landscape of the river. The intervention can be the excuse to improve the existing facilities too. II. MULTI-SITE NWPR

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NWPR INTERVENTION NOWADAYS

5

CUANALA PARK AS A CONNECTOR At an already highy transited rural path, the opportunity this site gives to create place making is unique. This is the kind of areas the landscape membrane and ring circuit are looking to create. Improving the bridge at site and the conditions of the accessing points will bring about a new amenity in the town, one of the most marginalised in the system. 106

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5

II. MULTI-SITE NWPR

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FARMING

6 SLOPE REMEDIATIONS

BASIN+IRRIGATION SHELTERBELTS

NOWADAYS

SOIL REMEDIATION PHASING Conceptual phases of soil rehabilitation to be undertaken in the eroded parcels in the area. Instead of turning into waste lands or new urban footprints, the idea is to regenerate the production of the soil, even if it takes a long-time, it’s the opportunity to keep alive regional wathersheds, local basins and production lands. Given their location in the territory, these spaces form a continuos line that can be used for natural irrigation and water containment.

2-5 YEARS

6

5-10 YEARS 108

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POP-UP MARKETS PROCESSING OF RAW FOOD AND/ OR RAW MATERIAL WORKSHOPS ACCESSES TO BIGGER PARKS AND LANDSCAPES HIKING MEETING POINTS

7 PLACE MAKING PLACES TO BE ARTSCAPING WALKING AND BIKING ROUTES VIEWPOINTS SPACES FOR CULTURE

7 7

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PERIPHERAL EXPANSION SUSTAINABLE BARRIERS Local programs can create the nexus between rural and urban, finally bridging together spaces that become moments of transition, meeting, exchanging, coexisting. Spaces left over after planning and soil-decayed alotments are the opportunity for recovery systems that respond also to the new inhabitant’s necessities, thus being part of the territorial processes, using regional and local resources.

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III. EUDAEMONIA NWPR To present the architectural objects I have envisioned for this stage of development of the framework, I will make use of a set of images that rather than be technical, want to express place making concepts. The idea of doing so is to break down the more scientific approach of the planning process that initiated in MetaPuebla, opening up the nexus to MultiPuebla’s subjectivities. The North-Westhern Production Reserve region as eudaemonia.

Farm lands with the Popocatepetl volcano at the back, Photo: Daniel Llerandi Estrada private collection, 2019.

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NWPR MULTI-SITE MASTERPLAN (2) -

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NEXUS OF ARCHITECTONIC SUSTAINABILITY

A series of adaptable elements, projected with modulated local materials and systems, as building is in itself an urban knowledge economy. Green donation areas and supply infrastructures that save waste of resources. Don’t forget about orientation, wind direction, soil composition. But as of 2020 we are still missing the point, not even after the recent historic events have we learned that composition, experience, feelings, are also a set of rules to be applied when designing. It’s not about big projects with radical formal solutions. To achieve the most simple things takes a great deal of work and thinking. Design thinking looks very much like this zoom in - zoom out diagram. You are in the middle of it, elements of place making floating around you. You know the solutions, but until it’s built you won’t know if that was the correct answer.

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TRADITIONAL BRICKS MEETING STEEL BEAM SYSTEMS. THE FIRST FOR DIVISION ELEMENTS, THE SECOND FOR THE STRUCTURE. 118

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I AM USING THIS CEILING SYSTEM. AND TO ASSEMBLE GABION WALLS, I'LL ASK THEM TO USE WASTE BRICK PIECES AND VOLCANIC STONES AND TILING LEFTOVERS 120

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HAVEN'T YOU EVER TRIED ONE OF THESE BLUE CORN TORTILLAS? DO YOU REMEMBER MY FRIENDS FROM THE GENIUS LOCI CHAPTER? LET'S BUY THEM SOME! 122

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HAVE YOU SEEN ANY OF THESE BEFORE? THEY ARE CALLED "CAPILLA POSA", THEY WERE USED TO MARK THE STOPS DURING THE PREHISPANIC CATHOLIC VIA CRUCIS. THEY ARE CHAPELS WERE LITERALLY YOU STOP AND PRAY. THEY ARE LOCATED AT THE CORNERS OF THE EARLY BAROQUE CHURCH'S ATRIUMS. CONCEPTUALLY YOU CAN SAY THAT THEY ARE POINTS ON YOUR ROUTE TO TAKE A REST. 124

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INSTEAD OF TAKING THE USUAL ROAD, TAKE THE ONE THAT GOES BY THE RIVER.

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THERE USED TO BE NOTHING AROUND THIS PATHWAY, BUT NOW I SEE MORE PEOPLE EVERYDAY, I WONDER WHY? 128

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WE ARE ALMOST REACHING THE RIVERBANK. THIS VIEW IS NICE, ISN'T IT? WHAT WOULD YOU CHANGE OF IT? 130

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WELL, YOU ALWAYS NEED SOMEWHERE TO SHELTER FOR A WHILE, OR WHERE TO GET SOME NICE VIEWS. 132

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LOOK THERE'S ONE OF THOSE ACTIVISTS WHO PRESERVE AND PROTECT THE RIVER. CAN YOU IMAGINE HOW THIS PLACE WOULBE WITHOUT IT? 134

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WE ARE CLOSER TO THE BLUE CORN TORTILLAS. LUCKILY THERE'S THIS NEW BRIDGE THAT GETS US CLOSER AND FASTER TO THEM! 136

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THE BRIDGE BROUGHT ABOUT THIS NEW PLACE WITH IT, LOTS OF PEOPLE MEET HERE, SPECIALLY WHEN THEY CALL FOR COMMUNAL ASSEMBLIES 138

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WE JUST HAVE TO GO AROUND THIS HOUSES AND WE'LL GET THERE. THEY JUST MOVED TO THIS NEW TORTILLA VENUE. PEOPLE SAY THEY BUILT IT TO PREVENT MORE HOUSES TO BE BUILT, BUT ACTUALLY THEY DO LIKE THIS PLACE, SO NO COMPLAINTS THERE. 140

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ACTUALLY THIS PLACE MIXES WAREHOUSES, MILLS, IT EVEN HAS THESE HARVESTING GARDENS AND AN AREA WHERE PEOPLE LIKE MY FRIENDS CAND DRY THEIR GRAIN. LET ME EXPLAIN YOU THE PROCESS: 142

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I ND IV ID O AREH USES LW UA

THEY KEEP THE COLLECTED GRAINS AND THEIR TOOLS FOR PREPARING THEM IN THE FIRST MODULES AT THE BACK OF THE BUILDING. 144

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DRY IN

G

AIN GR

NET MODULE

THEN THEY USE THESE MODULES WITH NETS TO STRAIN THEM CORN GRAINS. THEY JUST PUT THEM ON TOP OF IT, AND WAIT FOR GRAVITY TO GET THEM DRIED. 146

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THE LAST AREA IS DESTINED TO THE MILL-PROCESS, WHERE THEY CAN FIND A MACHINE TO GRIND THE CORN. ALSO IN THIS AREA YOU CAN BUY THEM TORTILLAS.

NIX

CO M

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A AM

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LM

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THE BUILDING'S PURPOSE IS NOT ONLY TO IMPROVE THE PROCESS, BUT TO PROMOTE THE TRADITIONS AND HERITAGE BEHIND IT. I THINK IT'S TIME TO GO BACK. 150

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OH, AND BEFORE WE SAY GOOD BYE, DO YOU REMEMBER THE CHAPELS I TOLD YOU ABOUT BEFORE? 152

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I FIND THEM REALLY INSPIRING..!

PRODUCED OBJECTS OVERVIEW 154

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MODULES OF AMENITIES

01. Basic toilet or amenities module. 3x3

03. Roof steel structure.4.5 min

02. Gabion walls create a surrounding offset. 1x1 3x3 04. Basic module of amenities, as pavilion and access element.

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BRIDGES

01. Basic pedestrian and biking bridge module. 2.10x3

03. Support structure for pedestrian and biking mobility

02. Beam steel structure for bridges.

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MODULES OF FOLLIES

01. Gabion wall composition.

03. Ceiling and half-walls of traditional bricks

02. Steel structure resting on gabion wall 04. The viepoint and the follie modules.

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SERIES OF MULTIUSE MODULES

01. Basic steel module with brick walls and ceiling. 3x3

03. Steel structure resting on gabion wall

02. Gabion walls create an offset. 04. Progressive boxes of progressive multiuse minicomplex modules.

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PRODUCTION WORKSHOP 11 TRADING

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LARGE SCALE MODULES OF PUBLIC SPACE

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BLUE CORN NWPR CENTRE example A. Internal distribution of elements make visible the different stages of the blue corn process. Architectonic program 01. Production access (from neighbouring parcels) 02. Multi-use amenities module. General public access 03. Harvesting yard 04. Warehouses section 05. Corn-drying nets yard 06. Nixtamal machines tables 07. Corn-based food preparation (sale-points) 08. Dining area 09. Leisure yard 10. General public access. 11. Roofed assembly square and toilet services. X. Transition corridor 162

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CONCLUSION II..

CONCLUSION I. City as a multisite solution through a public-space/landscape framework. The first part of my work resumed the MetaPueba methodology developed to analyse, define and respond to the MAoP current urban phenomena. There, it resulted necessary to understand, define and describe what are the systems and structures that integrate it, using the lens given by time, natural, social and artificial frames to do so. Then, some indexing operations were performed using the systemic layers contained by them, in order to define which can be used to repair the territory. This procedure highlighted areas in which integral urban operations can be undertaken for such regenerating purpose. In MultiPuebla, these areas are defined to ensure that the local projects will bring about an impact in the territory. The steps of my proposed methodology are related to those of my design-thinking process, explained through a series of hand-drawn diagrams. Once the methodology stages were executed, digital imagery took over graphic mappings and interfaces to describe the data and its analysis. A parallel narrative is set in photographs showing an insight to the people and places that co-exist in the MAoP. The framework shows some basic strategies to analyse, acknowledge, diagnose and propose strategic actions under a territorial vision, aiming to future research and decision making informed through clear set of alike data and criteria. Especially but not limited to trans-scalar spatial design – architecture and urbanism – planning frameworks. All these, were synthesised in the conclusion chapters of Multisite NWPR, where an ordnance survey proposal plan is presented, inspired by the planetary urbanism concepts of the the Urban Theory Lab of Harvard-GSD. Here, I present a final set of image-thinking: from the point where MultiPuebla’s NWPR Eudaemonia chapter leaves the reader with an open free subjective interpretation of its architectural proposals, back to MetaPuebla’s scientific methodic Reconstruct Matrix, featuring the five axes of local sustainability that drove most of this framework’s direction. Can I say that these are two forces creating a symbiotic equilibrium, if not a nexus? Then the second and final image features them both in a sequence that seems that one is calling for the other, and viceversa. For this is the real nexus between them, where we can take concepts of assessment, diagnostics and decision making, but also of place-making experiences and momentums. Where conceptual images like the broken floor and the rooting green tree, inform and inspire in the same way a clear and objective set of systemic layers and codes can do. The sequence also shows that when changing the scale of the project from territorial to local, the thinking process approach adjusts from mapped areas over a territory to places where people live. The language used to express ideas changes, like the “nexus” image at the end of this chapter shows.

CODE-MAKING METAPUEBLA MULTIPUEBLA NEXUS

This framework is meant to serve and guide future urban-architectural planning decision making in the MAoP and in Mexico. It stands between academic work, policy and practice, for a country where these approaches are less developed or formalised. As it cracks down the codes that sustain the current urban problems, the readings of data presented can be a tool for public and private decision making, promoting a vision of shared territorial governance that implies a multidisciplinary and multisite cooperative policy within the MAoP.

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CONCLUSION III. MATRIX OF METAPUEBLA MULTIPUEBLA NEXUS The Reconstructed Matrix. Source: author, 2020 168

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(Part 2 of 2) 2020 Martin Quiroga Mora MMU 18053620 | UOM 10611733