Page 1


To Detroit, for the endless inspiration

TAUBMAN COLLEGE architecture + urban planning

University of Michigan Master of Urban Design

2015-2016 Š The Regents of the University of Michigan All rights reserved A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning 2000 Bonisteel Boulevard Ann Arbor 48109 www.taubmancollege.umich.edu


DISCOVER LEARNING FROM THE R’s


Table of Contents

Volume I: DARE

Introduction

Students Manasvi Ashok Bachhav

Travis Crabtree

Nine Urban Thesis for Detroit

Learning from the Ruhr & Rust Belt

A-07

B-07

Just Kidding

Rust Belt Region

A-10

India | Sir J.J. College of Architecture University of Mumbai B. Arch

Utopian Campus Converter

U.S.A. | Mississippi State University B. L. A.

Jonathan Adnan Hanna

U.S.A. | University of Michigan B. S. Arch

A-34

China | South China University of Technology B. Arch

Shao-Chen Lu

Taiwan | Tamkang University B. Arch

Nishant Raman Mittal

India | Maharaja Sayajirao University Baroda B. Arch

Luneoufall Vital Gallego U.S.A. | Texas Tech University B. S. Arch

Melia Jae West

U.S.A. | University of Notre Dame B. Arch

Zhe Zhang

China | Suzhou University of Science and Technology B. Arch

Biographies Acknowledgments

Instructor

MarĂ­a Arquero de AlarcĂłn Associate Professor, Architecture and Urban Planning Director, Master of Urban Design

B-10

Ruhr Region B-24

IBA Emscher Park Mine the Gap A-48

B-34

Ruhr.2010 B-40

Invert City Mengyu Jiang

Volume II: DISCOVER

A-64

Duisburg

Fricticious Realities

Nord Landschaftspark

A-90

Bind-ary A-114

An Island in the City A-134

B-46

B-50

Essen B-54

Zollverein Industrial Complex B-56

Gelsenkirchen B-58

The City and the City A-146

Expresscape A-156

Nordsternpark B-60

Bochum B-62

Dortmund A-194 A-196

Volume I: DARE

B-64


Volume III: DEVISE Field Guides to the Ruhr

Simultaneous Urbanisms

Discourses in Urbanism

Bus Stops to Bandstands

Post/Re Urbanisms

Airborne 48127

Cities: X Lines. Approaches to City+Open Territory Design

D-06

[Ruhr] Appropriation C-68

Play [Grounds] C-78

Big Shelters C-86

Moving Boundaries

E-66

D-10

D-16

E-76

Infra-Eco-Logi Urbanism

A “Motor” City Center

E-88

D-22

Urban Ecology: Detroit and Beyond

The Moving Skyline

C-96

D-28

Postcards of the Ruhr

Radical-con-nexus

E-98

C-100

D-34

Urbanism: Working with Doubt

The Hidden Eye

Reconstructs

Water Urbanism East

C-108

E-106

E-114

D-40

On Landscape Urbanism World of Walls C-112

E-124

An Island in the City D-46

Typological Urbanism Authenticity C-114

E-130

Church Express D-52

Formerly Urban E-136

Germany in Motion C-136

Bind-ary

Conversations

D-58

E-146

C-138 C-140

E-150 E-152

Volume II: DISCOVER

Volume III: DEVISE Table of Contents

B-5


B-6

Volume II: DISCOVER


INTRODUCTION Volume II: DISCOVER

This volume showcases the work developed in the master of urban design capstone course (UD742). Last in the degree studio sequence, the work draws upon the intellectual inquiry and design work developed over previous semesters. As part of the year-long focus in Detroit, this capstone course offers a platform for students to advance their personal research agendas through the development of a design thesis project. To support the collective and individual agendas and set a platform for exchange of ideas among students, the course includes three inter-related modules that address modes of practice (through the experiential learning component traveling to Detroit and the German Ruhr Region and engaging with local urban agents), modes of production (through the exposure to techniques and tools of making, and the study of texts and projects), and modes of design inquiry (through the development of a final thesis sited in Detroit). The three modules are staged over the course of the semester to build on each other through the development of different exercises including individual and collective components. Introduction

The first volume, “DARE: Nine urban design thesis for Detroit” initiates the sequence showcasing nine design speculations developed by the students. Operating as a synthesis of the work developed during the semester in the theories and field trip sections, each proposal opens up possibilities to reimagine radical conditions of urbanity for the future of the metropolitan region. This second volume, “DISCOVER: Learning from the Ruhr” establishes a disciplinary conversation between the Rust Belt and Ruhr Regions, building in their industrial past and examining the agency of design in their ongoing transformation. The volume showcases the students’ Field Guides of the Ruhr as recorded during the site visit to the German region. The last volume, “DEVISE: Simultaneous Urbanisms Detroit” represents nine found urban conditions in Detroit and instigate imaginary urban narratives around them. To instigate the larger disciplinary claims of these quick explorations, the volume includes readings on urban discourses and conversations with local practitioners and academics. B-7


B

LEARNING FROM THE R’


’S: RUST BELT / RUHR REGION Located in the heart of the Great Lakes Region, Detroit is a paradigmatic case of Rust Belt Urbanism, characterized by acute dynamics of city depopulation, yet stable suburbanization. While Detroit represents an extreme case by the intensity and massive scale of this phenomena, many other former industrial cities in the Rust Belt and abroad confront similar depopulation trends. After deepening the investigation around Detroit during the year, this studio interrogates the many simultaneous urbanisms reshaping post-industrial territories in the Global North, and uses the case of the Ruhr Region, in Germany, as a productive relational case with the Rust Belt. Learning from the experience of Germany in the IBA Emscher Park, and subsequent initiatives, the class will consider the role of the landscape as medium to spark infrastructural innovation and address cultural identity in the transformation of postindustrial territories. The investigations of the Ruhr + Rust Belt Regions look at different themes like geography, social and political structures, economies and infrastructures, dynamics of urbanization, and issues of cultural identity. This component also looks at specific projects, locating them within the constellation of cities in the region (Duisburg, Essen, Bochum, Gelsenkirchen, Dortmund), and in relationship with the Emscher River, and the narratives around its recovery. Together with these components, this volume includes the field guides developed by students upon their return from the Ruhr Region. In their accounts, students included personal observations, objects, interviews, annotated drawings and photos documenting the trip. During their stay in Germany, the group visited and documented the sites and projects, and met academics and practitioners involved in their planning and design.


RUST BELT REGION LAKE SUPERIOR

WI

LAKE HURON

MI

LAKE MICHIGAN

FLINT 102,434

DETROIT 680,250

LAKE ERIE

CHICAGO 2,695,598 GARY 80,294

TOLEDO 287,208

CLEVELAND 396,815 YOUNGSTOWN 66,982

LAFAYETTE 67,140

IL

IN

PITTSBUR 304,391

OH

CINCINNATI 296,943

WV

MAIN WATERSHED RUST BELT - GREAT LAKES RUHR - RHEIN, EMSCHER, RUHR RIVER


RUHR REGION

SCHLESWIGHOLSTEIN

HAMBURG

BREMEN NIEDERSACHSEN

LAKE ONTARIO

RHINE RIVER DUISBURG

NY

GELSENKIRCHEN 257,651

SYRACUSE 144,669

SACHSENANHALT

NORDRHEINWESTFALEN

485,465

DORTMUND 580,511 BUFFALO 258,959

BOCHUM 361,876

THÜRINGEN

HESSEN

RHEINLANDPFALZ

RUHR, GERMANY

PA

RGH

RUST BELT, UNITED STATES

ESSEN 573,784

SAARLAND BAYERN RHINE RIVER BADENWÜRTTENBERG

MAIN PRODUCTION RUST BELT - STEEL RUHR - COAL

CITY DETROIT POPULATION 680,250

0 25 50

100

200 miles


RUST BELT REGION B-B12

Volume II: DISCOVER


RUHR REGION B-B13


AU T AU OMO TO TIV MO E TIV E

RUST BELT REGION

MI N MI ING NIN G

LS TA METALS ME

CHICAGO CHICAGO

PITTSBURGH PITTSBURGH

COLUMBUS COLUMBUS

DETROIT DETROIT

metro pop. metro9.7 pop. million 9.7 million

metro pop. metro2.3 pop. million 2.3 million

metro pop. metro1.9 pop. million 1.9 million

metro pop. metro5.3 pop. million 5.3 million

properproper pop. 2.7 pop. million 2.7 million

SYRACUSE SYRACUSE

properproper pop. 138,560 pop. 138,560 metro pop. metro732,117 pop. 732,117

properproper pop. 1.7 pop. million 1.7 million

properproper pop. 822,553 pop. 822,553

CLEVELAND CLEVELAND

TOLEDO TOLEDO

metro pop. metro2.1 pop. million 2.1 million

metro pop. metro651,426 pop. 651,426

properproper pop. 390,113 pop. 390,113

B-14

properproper pop. 287,128 pop. 287,128

Volume II: DISCOVER

properproper pop. 710,000 pop. 710,000

BUFFALO BUFFALO

properproper pop. 258,959 pop. 258,959

metro pop. metro1.1million pop. 1.1million

MILWAUKEE MILWAUKEE

properproper pop. 594,833 pop. 594,833

metro pop. metro1.5 pop. million 1.5 million

CINCINNATI CINCINNATI

properproper pop. 297,517 pop. 297,517

metro pop. metro2.1 pop. million 2.1 million

YOUNGSTOWN YOUNGSTOWN FLINT FLINT properproper pop. 72,925 pop. 72,925

metro pop. metro570,704 pop. 570,704

properproper pop. 124,943 pop. 124,943 metro pop. metro443,883 pop. 443,883


650 miles

GEOGRAPHY

45

watershed

250 miles

cultivation

40 woodlands

geology

urbanization

1879 - 1907 Iron Ore Flows

Rust Belt Geography

1879 - 1907 Grain Flows

The Rust Belt is defined by the Great Lakes Watershed. Industrial activity once used the waterway for transporting and trading raw materials like lumber or iron ore. This meant that the cities within the mega region established themselves on the waterway. What once started off as small settlements grew into a series of metropolises. Urbanization and agricultural production has taken over most of the land cover in the Rust Belt. Minerals are still mined from the Appalachian Mountains to the east, but not in the same capacity of the mid-twentieth century.

Learning from the R's: Rust Belt Region

B-15 Image source: pintrest.com

rust belt collage


RUST BELT REGION

Source: www.phmc.state.pa.us_pennsylvania_barn_oley_valley_berks_county_c_1820

early 1800s

Source: www.wikipedia.org

1825

German, Dutch farms

Source: geography.about.com

Source: www.memorialhall.mass.edu_loving1914_migration

1913 Ford’s assembly line

1920s, 1940s

Source: www.shalereporter.com

1900

First + Second Great Migrations

1950s Suburbanization begins

Source: www.newrepublic.com

2008 Great Recession + Foreclosure Crisis

2000s Rust Belt ruin porn 1910

1920

Civil War steel weaponry

Source: www.beltmag.com

Source: www.placemanagement.org

1970-2010 Continued loss of population 1800

Source: www.gunauction.com

1861

Erie canal built

1930

1940

1950

m oo gb n sin tio ou iza r h ban l wa ur na II st ub rse W Po d s s eA W an egin th ing b s k e m ma on co y, ati be ac igr it cr M ro o et em y eat D D nr r o of eap d G n w co on Se essi r ep D at re eG an Th es se Jim on m ati fro igr s M ave at sl re xG fe h rst o ut Fi flux so in w o Cr d es an niz cle io hi lut ve vo he re st e n nt li ve ly y in mb str rd se du Fo e as ries in try el th cto us te ry n fa s s o l ind p i gin ea so be w ie ar gin eg l W be n rn ivi er io Ca r C fell ct fo ke tru c ns ral Ro co atu il ra f n nd g o l a in na rad Ca e t ie ot s Er om rce pr sou re Image sources: www.theatlantic.com; commons.wikimedia.org; en.wikipedia.org; geography.about.com; www.battleofthehomestead.org; exhibits.musuem.state.il.us; libcom.org; www.shalereporter.com; www. todayslifestyle.com; www.gunauction.com; www.memorialhall.mass.edu; www.phmc.state.pa.edu; www.newrepublic.com; www.cnn.com; www.globalpolicysolutions.org

B-16

Volume II: DISCOVER


HISTORY / TIMELINE

Source: http//exhibits.museum.state.il.us/exhibits/athome/1890/ sideby/newcomers.htm

Source: http//battleofhomestead.org/images/view-of-mill

late 1800s German, Irish immigrants

1875 First steel mill in Pittsburgh

Source: www.libcom.org/GM-strike

1970s Steelers dynasty

Source: Melia West

2010s More press on possible comeback 1970

1893 Columbian World Expo

Source: www.wikipedia.org

Source: www.todayslifestyle.com

1970s American Worker’s Movement

1960

Source: commons.wikimedia.org

1980

1969-1999 Deindustrialization; loss of jobs

Source: www.cnn.com-black-lives-matter-exlarge-169

2015

2014 Black Lives Matter movement 1990

2000

2010

Source: globalpolicysolutions.org

Flint Water Crisis

2015

es m co be t, lin ity e tal su in F ru is g in e b ed lic ten son , Po igh oi yn he ad p gan okl o i Le h c Br i st M s in nal Ru k io g ac at in eb n liz m ore ita co m rev s an rk o n s rb pa t w U c. s tion nto use s et ten dow is ca me o at lt st ris h Be e C heir ighe the r t e su se s h nc e i clo lo se s re to n tes rn Fo ds sio ra po 08 an ces ent in e 20 us m R o ru th eat ploy of r n em io un 30s izat h G

19 tis Fe

ck ra s e C tie th . ci of U.S ng n ni ic i gin m of Be ide all ss er lo Ep ov n; th io wi reg bs o j is e ris th nd d l c in a ee e on lan d e St eclin lati ite s elt d pu m cau B po , li g st or sin Ru re lab es e tu n oc av ul io r le p cc d un al to ni an s, tic es co s xe er ori s i an Ta d v act te ric ea e an rst f cr m fi es n nA i cit tow rica o M Af of uth yo

Learning from the R's: Rust Belt Region

B-17


RUST BELT REGION

Source: www.census.gov

The First Great Migration 1910-1940

The First Great Migration 1940-1970

Great Migration The Great Migration was a movement of six million African Americans from the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West between 1910 and 1970. They moved mainly from 14 states of the South, especially Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, to the other regions of the United States.

Some historians differentiate between a first Great Migration (1916-1930), which saw about 1.6 million people move from mostly rural areas to northern cities such as Detroit, Chicago and other industrial cities, and a Second Great Migration (19401970), which began after the Great Depression and brought at least 5

million people to the north, and other western states. These movements not only supported the industrial productions in Rust Belt regions, but also changed the social structure dramatically.

Source: www.moma.org One Way Ticket: Jacob Lawrence’s Migration Series

B-18

Volume II: DISCOVER


SOCIAL STRUCTURE DETROIT BUFFALO TOLEDO

CHICAGO

CLEVELAND PITTSBURGH

CINCINNATI Races Distribution in Rust Belt Area

Detroit

Cleveland

The flourishing of the industrial manufacturing in the Rust Belt region was caused in part by the close proximity to the Great Lakes waterways, and an abundance of paved roads, water canals and railroads. After the transportation infrastructure linked the iron ore found in northern Minnesota, Wisconsin and upper Michigan with the coal mined from the Appalachian Mountains, the Steel Belt was born. Soon it developed into the Factory Belt with its great

Source: demographics.coopercenter.org

Source: demographics.coopercenter.org

1850

American manufacturing cities such as Chicago, Buffalo, Detroit, Milwaukee, Gary, Cincinnati, Toledo, Cleveland, Youngstown, and Pittsburgh among others. Because of the huge industrial production, the Rust Belt region for decades served as a magnet for international immigrants from Austria-Hungary, Poland and Russia who provided the industrial facilities with inexpensive labor resources. The preferred term today is the “Freshwater Belt.”

1940 WI

WI

IRELAND NY

MI

GERMANY IA

IRELAND IL

ITALY

NY

1910 WI

IL

NJ

OH

POLAND

PA

NY WI

NY

MI

MEXICO

RUSSIA

IA

NY

MI

DOM REP.

IA IL

PA

IN

NJ

OH

IN

2000

CANADA

GERMANY

NY

MI

IA

PA IN

CANADA

GERMANY

AUSTRIA

OH

NJ

IL

INDIA IN

NY

Learning from the R's: Rust Belt Region

OH

PA

RUSSIA

NJ

Top Country ofNYBirth Among U.S. Immigrants

B-19


RUST BELT REGION Industrial Legacy Source:southsidepghpa.com

Steel + Grain

Source: keyword-suggestions.com

Automobile

Steel

Source: thedeathingot.com

Contemporary Industry

Buffalo

Finance

Detroit

Aeronautics

Cleveland

Biomedical Tech Machines + Eds-Meds Chicago

Gary Source: atlanticsteelprocessing.com

Processing + Packing

Source: lakeviewcapitalllc.com

Steel

Source: lakeviewcapitalllc.com

Rubber

Chicago

Manufacturing +Real Estate + Tech

Toledo

Akron

Polymer Manufacturing 04

Steel

Source: rustwire.com

Source: rustwire.com

Steel

Cincinnati

Corporate Headquarters

0

45

0

90

180 Miles

180 Miles

Source:siteselection.com

Airport

Youngstown

Pittsburgh B-20

Robotics + Manufacturing

Volume II: DISCOVER

Infrastructure

Source: nbcnews.com

Steel + Meatpacking

59

Source: googleearth


ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Highw

Buffalo

Detroit

Since the 1980s, presidential candidates have devoted much of their time to the economic concerns of the Rust Belt region, which contains the popular swing states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan. New types of R&D-intensive nontraditional manufacturing have emerged recently in the Rust Belt, such as biotechnology, the polymer industry, info-tech, and nano-tech.

Toledo

Cleveland

Youngstown

Akron

Despite a boom in the tech industries, the manufacturing culture and expertise of the Rust Belt is still prevalent, and has been channeled to support the incoming industries, such as Cleveland’s manufacturing of machines to support the biomedical technology industry. Lately, analysts suggest that restructuring the manufacturing industries could be a comeback for the region.

Pitsburgh

Cincinnati

National Highways Railways - Passenger + Freight

Source: googleearth

National Highways

Source: peoriapublicradio.org

Amtrak - Passenger Rail Ridership - 29 million

Source: googleearth

Source: .railway-technology.com

Freight Rail

Source: googleearth

Learning from the R's: Rust Belt Region

Source: .googleearth

B-21

Freigh (natio

Amtra

Total (natio


RUST BELT REGION Unemployment Rate The politics and urban dynamics of the Rust Belt are characterized by racial, economic, class, and ideological segregation. This state of segregation is further stratified by the defunding of urban public school systems by state governments. This gives rise to the charter school model of privatized schooling, giving only those who have the economic means the opportunity to gain access to an education. This stratification of access to basic human necessities has been exemplified in the Rust Belt since the dawn of the industrial revolution giving rise to cities such as Buffalo, Pittsburgh and Flint. This inaccessibility to basic human needs influenced the labor movements and formalized the concepts of unions. The development of cities was driven by industrialists seeking cheaper land

away from the city centers, attempting to stay one step ahead of the unions. With the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, came the Federal Housing Act (FHA) loan which subsidized home ownership. In conjunction with the Federal Highway Act and the rise of the automobile, cities in the Rust Belt began to suburbanize rapidly. The Suburbanization of Rust Belt cities was not made possible for all, however. The trend of stratification persisted via practices such as red lining, which restricted African Americans from receiving FHA loans and unequal pay by employers for people of color, limiting who could and who could not afford a car, further perpetuating unequal suburbanization.

1950

Source: Social Explorer

1970

Source: Social Explorer

1990

Source: Social Explorer

2010

Source: Social Explorer

Source:insideevs.com/

B-22

Volume II: DISCOVER

0-5% 5-10% 10-15% 15-20% 20-25% 25-30% 35-40%


URBAN DYNAMICS Total Population Source: Social Explorer

Many Rust Belt suburbs adopted a separate but equal Jim Crow policy to regionalism, but with the abundance of land and more affluent class of people, it was anything but equal. Suburbs provided property tax abatements to incentivize the relocation of urban manufacturing. As Rust Belt cities declined, their people become stuck in poverty traps and food deserts.

1950

Source: Social Explorer

Furthermore, the urban poor were targeted by the U.S. Federal War on Drugs, a program that incarcerated large amounts from urban poor populations. This polarization between city and suburb has made regional planning nearly impossible. Cities have been stigmatized by their suburbs and suburbs are distrusted by their cities, leading to an urbanism of stagnation.

1970

Source: Social Explorer

1990

Source: Social Explorer

= 500 people

2010

Source: Wayne State University

Learning from the R's: Rust Belt Region

B-23


85 miles

RUHR REGION KreisRecklinghausen KreisRecklinghausen

85 miles

River Lippe

KreisWesel KreisWesel

KreisWesel

River Lippe

Bottrop

River Rhein

kirchen

Bottrop Duisburg Ober-

Duisburg hausen

Duisburg

Mulheim a.d. Ruhr Mulheim a.d. Ruhr

Essen

The Ruhr region is one of the five largest conurbations in Europe and is home to approximately 5.2 million people. Over decades, the The regionitself is one of the five and largest conurbations in Europe and regionRuhr has transformed from a coal steel industrial site to a service and culture-oriented home to approximately 5.2 million people . Over decades, the Theis Ruhr region is one metropolis. of the five largest conurbations in Europe and region has transformed itself frompeople a coal and steel industrial is home to approximately 5.2 million . Over decades, the and metropolis. region hasculture-oriented transformed itself from a coal and steel industrial site to a service and culture-oriented metropolis.

Oberhausen

Hagen

County-level city Population: 209,292 Oberhausen Area: 77.04km2 County-level city Pop. Density: 2,717/km2 Population: 209,292 Area: 77.04km2 Pop. Density: 2,717/km2

Bochum Dortmund

Essen Bochum River Ruhr

EnnepeRuhrEnnepeKreis RuhrKreis

EnnepeRuhrKreis

Hagen Hagen

Hagen

51°30′N Metro Area: Population: Highest Elev. : Lowest Elev. : Climate:

Essen

2,717/km2

Dortmund

site to a service

County-level city County-level city Population: 580,511 Population: Dortmund 580,511 Area: 280.37km2 Area: 280.37km2County-level city Pop. Density: 2,071/km2 Pop. Density: 2,071/km2 Population: 580,511 Area: 280.37km2 Pop. Density: 2,071/km2

County-level city

Herne

Hamm

Dortmund

Bochum

River Ruhr

River Ruhr

209,292 Oberhausen 77.04km2

Recklinghausen Gelsen- River Emscher Kreis-Unna kirchen Herne Gelsen- River Emscher kirchen Herne

Essen

Mulheim a.d. Ruhr

Population: Area: Pop. Density:

Recklinghausen

Ober- Bottrop Recklinghausen hausen Oberhausen Gelsen- River Emscher

River Rhein

Dortmund

Kreis-Unna

KreisRecklinghausen

River Rhein

Dortmund

Kreis-Unna

River Lippe

Population: Area: Pop. Density:

Essen County-level city Population: 573,784 Area: 210.38km2 Pop. Density: 2,727/km2 Population:

Essen

Area: Pop. Density:

Population: Area: Pop. Density:

County-level city 186,716 160.36km2 1,164/km2

Hagen Population: Hagen Area: Pop. Density: Population: Area: Pop. Density:

County-level city 573,784 210.38km2 County-level city 2,727/km2 573,784 210.38km2 2,727/km2

Duisburg Population: Area: Pop. Density:

Hamm County-level city 186,716 160.36km2 County-level city 1,164/km2 186,716 160.36km2 1,164/km2

Population: Area: Pop. Density:

Duisburg County-level city 485,465 232.81km2 2,085/km2

County-level city 176,580 226.24km2 780/km2

Population: Duisburg Area: Pop. Density: Population: Area: Pop. Density:

County-level city Bochum

485,465 Cou Population: 232.81km2 Area: County-level city 2,085/km2 Pop. Density:485,465 232.81km2 2,085/km2

Herne

Hamm Population: Hamm Area: Pop. Density: Population: Area: Pop. Density:

Population: Area: County-level Pop. Density:

Cou

city 176,580 226.24km2 County-level city 780/km2 176,580 226.24km2 780/km2


40 miles 40 miles

40 miles

GEOGRAPHY

Hamm

a

Hamm

Waterways

40 miles

a

Waterways

Waterways

Waterways

Forest Forest

Forest Forest

Transportation Transportation

Transportation

51°30′N 7°30′E Metro Area: km2 51°30′N4,435 7°30′E Population: 5.2 million Highest Elev. : 441 m Metro Area: 4,435 km2 Lowest Elev. : 13 m Population: 5.2 million Climate:Elev. : Oceanic Highest 441 m Lowest Elev. : 13 m Climate: Oceanic

N 7°30′E 4,435 km2 5.2 million 441 m 13 m Oceanic

Transportation Urbanization Urbanization

Urbanization

51°30′N 7°30′E

ea: on: Elev. : lev. :

unty-level city 361,876 145.43km2 2,488/km2

4,435 km2 5.2 million 441 m 13 m Bochum Oceanic Population: Bochum Area:

unty-level city 154,608 51.41km2 3,007/km2

m

:

ity:

n:

County-level city 361,876 145.43km2 2,488/km2

County-level city 154,608 51.41km2

Pop. Density: Population: Area: Pop. Density:

Urbanization

Ruhr Geography Ruhr Geography Ruhr Geography The coal seams reach the surface in a strip along the River Ruhr

County-level city 361,876 145.43km2 County-level city 2,488/km2 The coal seams reach the surface in a strip along the River Ruhr 361,876 and the dipcoal downward from the river and dip downward from the river to the north. Beneath the River Lippe, 145.43km2 seams lie at a depth of 600 to 800 metres. seams lie at a depth of 600 to 800 reach the 2,488/km2

to the north. Beneath the River Lippe, the coal in a strip along the River Ruhr and dip downward from the river to the north. Beneath the River Lippe, the coal seams lie at a depth of 600 to 800 metres.

The coal seams

Gelsenkirchen Population: Herne Area: Pop. Density:

Population: Herne Area: Pop. Density: Population: Area: Pop. Density:

County-level city 257,651

Gelsenkirchen

104.86km2 County-level city 2,457/km2 154,608 51.41km2 County-level city 3,007/km2 154,608 51.41km2 3,007/km2

County-level city Source: Metropoleruhr.de / Citypopulation.de Population: 257,651 Gelsenkirchen Area: 104.86km2 County-level city Pop. Density: 2,457/km2 Population: 257,651 reach the Area: 104.86km2 Pop. Density: and dip downward2,457/km2 from the river

The coal seams

metres. surface

Ruhr Geography Source: Metropoleruhr.de / Citypopulation.de

in a strip along the River Ruhr Source: / Citypopulation.de to the north. Beneath the Metropoleruhr.de River Lippe, the coal seams lie at a depth of 600 to 800 metres.

Gelsenkirchen Population: Area:

County-level city 257,651 104.86km2

surface


RUHR REGION

Source: Quaderns - Jorge Mestre and Ivan Bercedo

1890

Rusty factories of Meiderich

Source: Quaderns - Jorge Mestre and Ivan Bercedo

1920 French soldiers during occupation

2005 1800

Source: Topos 26 - Callwey Munchen

Krupp factories

Source: Quaderns - Jorge Mestre and Ivan Bercedo

1930 Levin Mine, Essen

Source: Under the open sky - Regionalverband Ruhr

Nordstern Park

1900

1910

2010 1920

Source: Quaderns - Jorge Mestre and Ivan Bercedo

1930 Essen

Source: Under the open sky - Regionalverband Ruhr

Rheinelbe Science Park

1930

1940

Source: Quaderns - Jorge Mestre

Meiderich Ironworks

1950

of n tio . uc ure own str ct d on tru se ec as clo r r nfr s e wa al i in st tri l m e a Po us ad d co m in re rst Fi sa ne hi s ac trie r m us wa Ind ’s n er p itl up sio H Kr es nt at i r in ep po nds on, % 0 D h r sta f i 6 at ig re its h ent n o s by o e e G es ym ti uc Th ch plo duc red a re em Pro oal n U %. & c 32 el ste d s an isi cr on of acti sion ns in es sig ry pr ra de and rst Fi mpo mic on Te ono f ir on o ati ec n io gr ct mi n du im tio ro y uc st s p av od re as he pr he M el; t l ee o ste t t s e d nt d lac an ale ne sp al iv bi ke co qu m ’s t e co n ta hr os pe o Ru lm ro ati a r g i is Eu r of ss m uh a M eR th nd n ela ei in gin Rh en as am n ste ow . kn lia rst s Fi ine n is pha m gio est Re d W an B-26

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HISTORY / TIMELINE

Source: Under the open sky - Regionalverband Ruhr

Source: Under the open sky - Regionalverband Ruhr

r fo d ee to ms s n als or se n ef es sio y r pr es rg ex of e n pr en se d nt Es oun me an pe m ple ro im Eu d te re lec tu se Cul he t is n of or f se l a . ds Es it p % n e 33 Ca k ll ar n fa r P tio res he n sc inve sha Em re ring A n’s u IB gio fact of u re to of re tu ut an fu s o ion M he et rat s r t s s e pe fo n en ca p gio reg ds ho re n an ks ial o l l or tr as ria sful W us de st s i u d in are ind ucce el ks r sh sty s te o po ingl es, s p w e p em oy ru se pl e K wn of em th do ite by at ut sp sts on sh e In ote cti urg lin pr rodu uisb dec p D all in over th wi is ris on i l c eg ee r of St the nd lt l a esu in oa a r f c as g o ies lin tr ca us . ns ind ces ow g or D nin et f i m ark m

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Learning from the R's: Ruhr Region

2015 2010 2000 1990 1980 1970 1960

Duisburg Park climbing center

2010 Zollverein Park 2008 Duisburg-Bruckhausen

1967 Concordia pit 1960 Children walk past spoil tips 1945 Krupp factory destruction

Source: Topos 26 - Callwey Munchen Source: Topos 26 - Callwey Munchen Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Ruhr


RUHR REGION

IRELAND The Ruhr region has had a tremendous concentration of work, technical and industrial development, accumulation of capital, and also social conflict and war. In the late 1930’s, Krupp Industries produced Hitler’s war machines in the region. A third of the population of Essen, the region’s largest city, was economically dependent on the Krupp factories. The bombing raids at the end of World War II did not prevent the continuing development in this area, but only led to a short period of inaction.

In the 1960’s, many Ruhr region children used to walk past spoil tips on their way to school; the peculiar air of the industrial conurbation was notorious at the time, giving rise to Willy Brandt’s plea “Make the Ruhr’s sky blue again”. The current residents of the Ruhr region have to take part in guided tours of the industrial monuments to come into contact with coal and steel processing, as at the old Thyssen blast furnaces in Meiderich.

KreisWesel

Duisburg

SPA

Source: Quaderns - Jorge Mestre and Ivan Bercedo

Krupp factories 1890 B-28

Volume II: DISCOVER

Source: http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-aerial-view-rheinelbe-science-park

Rheinelbe Science Park 2015


east prussian provinces

UNITED KINGDOM

SOCIAL STRUCTURE

D

KreisRecklinghausen Hamm

Kreis-Unna

POLAND

Recklinghausen

Bottrop

Gelsenkirchen

Herne Dortmund

Oberhausen

FRANCE

Bochum

Essen

EnnepeITALY RuhrKreis

Hagen

AIN

surrounding region

Mulheim a.d. Ruhr

TURKEY

1870’s

While the Ruhr was an agricultural area before 1880, the industrial age brought with it many changes in almost all walks of life. By the end of the century, the Ruhr had become one of the most important industrial regions of the newly established German Reich. In the mining and metal production industries, there was an increased need for manpower, not fully met by people from the surrounding areas. From the 1880s onwards, mass immigration from European countries started.

A variety of factors encouraged immigration from the East Prussian provinces. The population was growing rapidly, especially the Polishspeaking population. The area was to a large extent agricultural and there were no significant industrial areas. At this time, agriculture mainly employed seasonal workers on wages; jobs were insecure and soon there was seasonal migration to Saxony. But this later led to migration further away: to the Ruhr area and also outside Germany.

Source: Muller, Lars. “Looking for work”. http:/historiana.eu. Web. May 2016.

Learning from the R's: Ruhr Region

The region experienced a delayed restructuring due to a variety of reasons, some of which was property development being held up by private companies, in fear of competition. Additionally, educational opportunities were very limited and the first university did not open until 1964. Only in the late 1900’s the region gained the knowledge base necessary for rebuilding. Lastly, before the 2000’s the regional image of the Ruhr was submerged in low wages and poor housing conditions, preventing investment and the income necessary to attract qualified human capital. B-29


RUHR REGION

Rhine

er

Emsch

Gelsenkirchen

Bochum Essen

Duisburg

Ruh r

Public Transportation

Within Region: Trains: Verkehrsverbund Rhein Ruhr (VRR) Tarifraum MĂźnsterland/Ruhr-Lippe (VRL)

en.wikipedia.org

VRR in Ruhr Region

Within City: Bus Tram Subway

www.youtube.com

VRL in Ruhr Region

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Since most cities have their separate transport associations, coordination remains a challenge. The region is well connected by train; within each city, bus, tram and the underground system provide a reliable network. Most cities in the Ruhr blend into one another, and riding public transit gives you unique insights on the regional landscapes. If you are short on time, use the S-Bahn or Regional-Express.


ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

TU Dortmund

Ruhr-Universität Bochum

Dortmund

Evonik Industries

ThyssenKrupp

RWE

Universitätsklinikum Essen Highway Main road Railway Main road

Universität Duisburg-Essen

Green Infrastructure National Park & Green Belts “Blue sky above the Ruhr”

1912

IBA Emscher Park Emscher Landscape Park

www.eesc.europa.eu/resources/docs/gi-050515-10-muhlenfeld-speech.pdf

Green Infrastructures in Ruhr Region

Renewal Emscher River Green Urban Development Green Infrastructure by bike Energy Efficiency Climate Change Innovation City Ruhr

2022 Learning from the R's: Ruhr Region

www.eesc.europa.eu/resources/docs/gi-050515-10-muhlenfeld-speech.pdf

Renewal Emscher River System

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RUHR REGION Change from traditional industrial base to knowledge-base economy Structural changes in the Ruhr Region Policy Changes of the public institutions at various levels Transition of work practices Role of Main Actors and Institutions

RESTRUCTURING The Landscape

Source: www.staedtebauleitplanung.de

RESTRUCTURING Policy During the 1960s to the mid-1980s, the region was in a period of “re industrialization and lock-in�. Until the 1970s, planning initiatives at the federal and state level supported the existence of traditional industries in the region. From the mid-1980s large enterprises started to diversify. In the 1990s, the Federal Government pursued an active modernization policy, which was matched with bottom-up initiatives. B-32

Source: www.staedtebauleitplanung.de

The Ruhr region consists of a plurality of differently-sized and differently-dense built spaces which are intertwined in complex ways with each other or, as in the image, separated by ruptures of infrastructure; their respective cores and connecting areas have special urban qualities. Volume II: DISCOVER


URBAN DYNAMICS

Land Agglomeration

2001 1922 1960

- First and Second World Wars, economic depression, dismantling of product lines after the Second World War. - End of product cycle in coal mining

2001

- Large-scale coal mining and development of coal chemistry - Mass production of iron and steel - Foundation of large enterprises - Heavy immigration

1960

- Small coal mines, iron and textile factories, and agricultural areas with low population density

Employees in Mining and Steel

Main Stages of Structural Changes

Employment structure

Population Change

The Ruhr Agglomeration shows a polycentric structure of 53 municipalities, with eleven major cities among them; there is no clear, dominant functional center. 1963

5.67 Million

1987

5.26 Million

2013

5.05 Million

13.6% Agri, Mining 61.3% Industry 36.3% Services 2.5% Agri, Mining 33.3% Industry 65.4% Services

Source: http://en.landschaftspark.de/

1800 - 1930 growth pattern

545k Mining

84k Steel 390k 263k 39k 52.6k

Source: www.staedtebauleitplanung.de

- Crisis in coal mining and closure - Absorption of workers into other sectors (1960s) - Still locked into steel- and coal-based industries until the mid-1980s

- New frontiers in knowledgebased economy, renewable energy, eco‑industry. - Industrial heritage- End of product cycle in coal mining Source: www.staedtebauleitplanung.de

The existing polycentric settlement structure of the region plays a key role in complex urban dynamics Learning from the R's: Ruhr Region

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THE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING EXHIBITION (IBA)

Source: leipzigshrinkingcity.wordpress.com

IBA Emscher Park. Master strategy

Background to the Emscher - A region in crisis The International Building Exhibition (IBA) Emscher Park was a ten year program of the Land NordrheinWestfalen, Germany, between 1989 and 1999. It was designed to initiate restructuring in the heart of the Ruhr region, which had been suffering the most from economic, environmental and social decline for many decades. In the past, the regions that had carried out an Internationale Bauausstellung (Darmstadt 1901, Leipzig 1913, Stuttgart 1927, Berlin 1957 and 1984) mainly aimed at architectural improvements and highlights, whereas the IBA Emscher Park aimed at an holistic approach by restructuring a former industrial region, the Ruhr, with outstanding B-34

urbanistic, architectural, cultural, ecological and economic incentives. As an initiative conducted by the state government, the IBA Emscher Park implemented a strategic approach to link urban development and landscape, and to combine private investment and architectural quality, implementing systematic cross-border planning of 17 municipalities in the northern part of the Ruhr region. Over 120 projects were completed, with a total investment value of â‚Ź2.5 billion. Since the year 2000, the cities and municipalities in the area have continued to work on IBA themes such as the regional Emscher Landscape Park and the changing of the Emscher System.

Volume II: DISCOVER

Large-scale industrialization, the coal and steel industries along the Ruhrgebiet were the economical backbone of every city for decades. The mono-structural economy and the lack of innovative activities for the labor force caused a high urgency for a spatial-economic transition of the area. Industrial closures led to empty, unused brown fields, causing huge fragmentation between certain parts of towns and the natural landscape. Decades of heavy industrial production and mining had caused severe ecological and geological problems in Emscher Park.


EMSCHER PARK, GERMANY

Source: http://beyondplanb.eu/projects/project_emscherpark.html

Source: http://en.landschaftspark.de/

Source: http://en.landschaftspark.de/

The river Emscher was polluted when the mining companies used it as a dumping ground for sewerage. It then became a symbolic icon of the challenge to transform the area.

Source: http://en.landschaftspark.de/

Learning from the R's: IBA Emscher

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Em nal

erne-Ka

Rhein-H

Ruh

r Ri

ver B-36

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er

Riv

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

[1806]

[1787] s

r che

[1856]

The Emscher river canaled for sewerage and waste The first steam engine used in the Ruhr mines was employed in removing water

COKE + STEEL PRODUCTION

COAL MINING STARTS

Stone tools found in the 20th century inside of the Emscher Valley

Settlements in Dortmund, Bochum, and Hagen are the first recorded within the region

[1580]

MIDDLE AGES

[695 - 1486]

Higher influx of immigrants from southern Europe arrive

COAL TRANSPORT

MEDIEVAL ERA

[22,000 yr]

EMERGENT LANDSCAPES

[22,000 yr]

[80,000 yr]

The Ruhr river is used for the transportation of coal

Rhein River

NEANDERTHAL ERA

ICE AGE

[2.4 M yr]

[300 M yr]

CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD

Melting glaciers formed rivers and deltas that pushed sediment along the edges of northwest Germany


Image source: pintrest.com

Emscher River collage

In 1901 a typhus epidemic killed over 200 people in Gelsenkirchen

DEAD ZONE

Industry collapsed all over the world, steel and coal plants began to shutdown

RENATURALIZATION

EMSCHER RIVER

[1991]

[1989]

Sediment banks were the most polluted areas along the river and were fenced off in the 20th century

[1950]

GREAT DEPRESSION

[1930]

Emscher river is declared biologically dead

I.B.A EMSCHER PARK

Region installed piping and began renaturalizing the river for an estimated amount of 4.5 billion dollars

The Internationale Bauausstellung Emscher Park gives a new identity to the Ruhr through the use of the river

Coal will no long be subsidized by the government after 2018 More art installations are added along the river

Nordstern Mine is converted into the Landschaftspark Nordsternpark.

Europe’s Dirtiest River : The Flow of the Emscher For 100 years, it was used by the Ruhr area as a sewer for industrial waste Flows 50 miles through coal fields, steel mills, and slaughterhouses Contains heavy metals, hydrocarbons, tar sands, pathogens Known as Europe’s dirtiest river River Ruhr the “artery” / Emscher served as a vein

Three treatment plants exist along the river, creating the most modern sewerage system in the world It runs 73 km, serving Dortmund to Emscher. Uses water elevators and cleaning robots Has catchment area of 430 square miles serving 1.8 M people

Learning from the R's: IBA Emscher

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Source: http://beyondplanb.eu/projects/project_emscherpark.html

IBA EMSCHER INITIATIVES The IBA initiative was designed to instigate integrated development and regeneration in the region, with architectural competitions playing an important role. This implies development that considers not only the usual economic and job creation factors, but also criteria such as society, the environment and culture.

All projects were required to be affiliated to one of six guidelines: Renovation of the Emscher Landscape Park The aim was to form continuity between the still vast, albeit disconnected, areas of green space in the region and create an ecological system. Ecological improvement of the Emscher River The aim was to re-convert the Emscher River from the open sewer it is today to its natural state. New utilization of industrial buildings It was an attempt to put derelict sites, formally occupied by mines, iron and steelworks, to new uses. Development of new working locations The initiative sought to take advantage of the abundance of traditional worker’s housing in the Ruhr.

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Development of new housing and municipal districts It sought to preserve and put to new use many of the most important buildings and monuments to the region’s industrial past. The motivations behind this initiative were: to retain the link with the past, to give new uses to old buildings rather than dismantling them, and to provide a backdrop to the promotion of cultural activities. Social initiatives, employment and training The aim was to involve local people & utilize their experiences and knowledge in order to bring direct benefits to them. Employment and training initiatives were established to find work for young long-term unemployed people; privately organized city neighborhood initiatives were encouraged to try and promote structural change and improve social infrastructure.


Actions

ART AND LANDSCAPE

Inspired by the IBA Berlin, Dr. Christoph Zopel, minister of Urban Development in the NRW, pushed the announcement of an IBA Emscher in 1988. In December 1988, The IBA Emscher Park GmbH was founded. The area was divided into several units; one east-west corridor and seven north-south corridors with their own priorities and committees. This was to achieve high quality projects and design competitions; these were held to attract investors for the future.

Source: www.ruhrundercover.de

In 1996, the IBA was the German architectural contribution at the Venice Biennale. HOUSING

The long-term unemployed were hired for casual work and to retrain their skills and mindset.

Source: www.ruhrundercover.de

Effect

INDUSTRIES WORKING

The IBA and Masterplan are now internationally known references in the study of the transformation of a region. The city of Essen was appointed as the European Capital of Culture in 2010 . ‘Zeche Zollverein,’ an old coal mine in Essen, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In spatial and cultural terms, the identity and quality of the area has improved enormously.

Source: www.ruhrundercover.de

Learning from the R's: IBA Emscher

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RUHR.2010: EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE

Overview

Themes

In 2010, the Ruhr Region became the first polycentric urban form to earn the designation of the year-long European Capital of Culture. The Ruhr Region split festivities between the 53 cities, each city hosting events for one week, and Essen running a year-long presentation. The initiative was treated as a continuation of the major effort to reimage the postindustrial region, with goals centering on economic regeneration, community cohesion, and promoting new structures of governing, all through a demonstration of the power of cultural production.

Ruhr Mythology Efforts were made to showcase the history of the region, focusing on the culture that has grown up from principles rooted in industrialization, namely, hard work and solidarity. The effort was seen not only as telling the region’s story for posterity’s sake, but for trying to let it inform its future.

Metropolis Redesign Directly building on the IBA’s Emscher Park, RUHR.2010 sought to give more exposure to the innovative landscapes that have been generated through architecture and landscape from old industrial infrastructure.

Moving Europe RUHR.2010 saw itself as not only aspiring to showcase cultural production for the sake of the region, but as a unifying and visionary force for all of Europe. Efforts were made to create artistic and intellectual dialog throughout the EU, with special emphasis on issues of migration, identity and education.

Stats

10.5 MILLION VISITORS 5500 EVENTS $79M OR 60M EURO IN EXPENSES

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WELCOME TO THE BLAST FURNACE OF CULTURE.

Source: http://www.modulorbeat.de/work/untitled/ruhrlights/ruhr2010/untitled

Source: www.gettyimages.com

Learning from the R's: Ruhr.2010

Source: http//dasjanding.de/2010/10/finale-essen-c-m-duschner-ruhr

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Source: muschelschubserin.wordpress.com

CHANGE THROUGH CULTURE, CULTURE THROUGH CHANGE. Source: www.alamy.com/kids-eat-chips-on-the-cultural-festival-ruhr-2010

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“The [Ruhr] Region is emotion epitomized.” -Wolf-Dietrich Sahr, Cities and Fascination: Beyond the Surplus of Meaning

- StillLife A40:

Program The three themes were explored through six lenses, with their aggregation giving vision to the possibility of change through culture: 1. Discovering Images 2. Changing Stages 3. Living Music 4. Exploring Language 5. Boosting Creative Industry 6. Time to Celebrate

The main highway arterial (A40) was shut down for one day and people were invited to stage performances or parties along the 60 km stretch of road. - Sing! Day of Song: 600 concerts were staged around the region for one day, and many encouraged people to sing-along. - Love Parade Music Festival: Tragically, one of the program events, a electronic music dance festival in Duisburg, saw 21 deaths, 500 injured due to crowd panic and suffocation.

Events

Results

Over 5000 events were planned by four art directors, each one in charge of the following ideas to help direct efforts toward the region’s rebranding: City of Arts, City of Cultures, City of Possibilities, City of Creativity.

Overall, the extensive collaborative efforts and heavy programming are viewed as a success, although the collaborative governance model is criticized for a seeming lack of authority to hold accountable, including how communication was handled. Other critiques include the fact that despite efforts to make it a bottom-up approach, money was unjustly distributed, and local artists didn’t always feel represented.

Example events: - Shaft Signs: 300 yellow balloons flew 80 meters in the air marking the location of previous coal mine shafts.

Source: www.akpublics.de/ruhr2010

Learning from the R's: Ruhr.2010

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DUISBURG THE APPROPRIATION OF THE FORMER INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPE

Duisburg, Tiger and Turtle


Duisburg Nord, Landscape Park


DUISBURG Population: 485,465 Area: 232.82 km2 (89.89 sq mi) Density: 2,100/km2 (5,400 /sq mi)

Source: www.ruhr-guide.de

Historic photo of Duisburg Inner Harbor

Located in the western part of the Ruhr Area, Duisburg has the world’s largest inland harbor, and has become an important venue for commerce and steel production. Like many other cities, today’s Duisburg is a result of numerous incorporations of surrounding towns and smaller cities. It is the fifteenthlargest city in Germany, and the fifthlargest city in North Rhine-Westphalia with 486,855 residents at the end of 2013.

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The city is renowned for its steel industry. The last remaining coal mine closed down in the summer of 2009, but Duisburg has never been a coal-mining center to the same extent as other places in the Ruhr region. All blast furnaces in the Ruhr are now located in Duisburg. In 2000, 49% of all hot metal and 34.4% of all pig iron in Germany were produced here. It also has a large brewery, the König Brauerei, located in Duisburg-Beeck, which makes the König Pilsener brand.

Volume II: DISCOVER

History The city’s name goes back to the Germanic word “dheus”, which means something like “wet area” or “flood plain”. Duisburg therefore could mean “fortified place in the floodplain”. Another interpretation assumes that the name is derived from the Old German “duis” which means “hill”. Duisburg could mean something like “castle on the hill”. Thus, a place on a hill overlooking the Rhine, that could refer to the area of the present Town Hall.


01 DUISBURG-NORD LANDSCAPE PARK Rhine 02 THE GREEN PATH Rhein-Herne Canal

Baldeneysee

03 INNER-HARBOUR COMMERCIAL PARK / RESIDENTIAL LIVING

Rhine

Source: Book - International Building Exhibition Emscher Park The projects 10 years later

01 Duisburg-Nord Landscape Park

Source: Book - International Building Exhibition Emscher Park The projects 10 years later

02 The Green Path Learning from the R's: Duisburg

03 Inner Harbor Commercial Park B-47


01 COMMERCIAL PARK

02 RESIDENTIAL LIVING

INNER-HARBOR COMMERCIAL PARK 1828 - 2007 1828 Construction of the Rhine Canal 1991 International policy and programming competition for the harbor

Source: www.fosterandpartners.com

Duisburg, in the heart of the Ruhr valley, has had to reinvent itself, following the decline of its traditional heavy industries. In 1991, an international competition was held to establish a masterplan for the renewal of the Inner Harbor – the largest inland waterway in the world. It provided an opportunity to test, at a larger scale, ideas about mixed use and sustainability, then being developed for the nearby Microelectronics Park.

Master Plan of Inner-Harbor

Source: Book - International Building Exhibition Emscher Park The projects 10 years later

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INNER-HARBOR RESIDENTIAL LIVING 1998 - 2006 1998 Construction of the canal, senior center opened.

Source: www.fosterandpartners.com

The canals between residential units.

Source: www.e-architect.co.uk

The canals between residential units.

Beside the new office and business spaces that were developed on the Duisburg Inner-Harbor, a new innercity residential quarter was established in a second row of buildings behind the historic warehouses. Three new canals were constructed in accordance with the master plan designed by Foster + Partners as central design elements for the new quarter. The water level of the harbor and canals was raised in order to increase experience of the water element. The canals function as reservoirs for the rainwater that accumulates on the neighboring residential structures. Electricity is supplied to them by photo-voltaic panels mounted on the roof of the former administration building. Apartments for varying and changing types of residential lifestyles and uses were created in this quarter, including: flats spanning multiple levels, penthouses, terraces, and rooftop gardens; special urban-style living spaces such as studios and lofts; and designs for different types of occupants (families, singles, seniors, students). A total of approximately 700 residential units were planned. Six companies built 472 rented and freehold flats between 1998 and 2006.

Source: Book - International Building Exhibition Emscher Park The projects 10 years later

Residential units for different types of occupants.

Learning from the R's: Duisburg

B-49


DUISBURG-NORD LANDSCAPE PARK

Source:Under the Sky , Emscher Landscape Park

Duisburg-Nord Landscape Park was the showcase of the IBA, which sponsored some hundred art and landscape projects from 1989-1999.

Source:Under the Sky , Emscher Landscape Park

Size: 43.5 sq. miles (70 sq.km.) Designer : Latz + Partner The project is a transformation of a formerly industrial site into a landscape of natural and cultural experiences. The sheer size of the park led Latz (designer) to organize the park in four different independent layers that interlinked: the Blast Furnace + the Rail Park + Water Park + Vegetation. Although the park was conceived as a piece-meal design, visitors experience the four parts as a landscape of experiences. The awesome structures evoke associations, emotions and an aura of mystery that inspired Latz to construct narratives and stories that alluded to a mythic past.

Source:ruhrgebiet-industriekultur.de

Blast Furnace

Source:flickr.com

Lighting Design

Source:flickr.com

Water Park B-50

Volume II: DISCOVER

Source:ruhrgebiet-industriekultur.de

Rail Park

Source:flickr.com

Carefully curated vegetated park


Simulating Experiences: Baroque formations of ornamental plants, abundant fields of aromatic sage, grapevines and birches all help to simulate the senses.

Source:ruhrgebiet-industriekultur.de

Master Plan

Cultural Relevance: The spaces within the complex are designed as courtyards, and are used as venues for cultural events and performances.

Source: baukunst-nrw.de

Event courtyard

The ironworks’ relics are not given the feel of romantic-pastoral ruins in historic gardens nor is any attempt made at re-interpreting the encountered objects as artistically elevated sculptures. Rather, using only minimal intervention, the relics become readable as important levels of landscape formations. The old Emscher, which during the ironworks’ active phase ran underground, has been designed as a straight, clear water canal with natural vegetation on its banks.

Source:flickr.com

Rock Climbing wall

Source: baukunst-nrw.de

Gasometer

Source:flickr.com

Learning from the R's: Duisburg Landscape Park

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ESSEN THE CULTURAL INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPE

Zollverein, landscape intervention


Ruhr Museum


Essen is the sixth largest city in Germany, and is located in the state of Northrhine-Westphalia. Through the industrial revolution, Essen became one of Germany’s most important cities in regards to coal and steel production. Essen was the home to most of the armaments manufacturing for both the First and Second World Wars. The leader of this manufacturing sector was the Krupp family. Steel manufacturers by trade, they rose to become the largest company in Europe, riding the wave of German imperialism and backing the rise of Adolf Hitler.

ESSEN Population: Area: Pop. Density:

566,862 210.40km² 2,694/km²

It is estimated that during WWII, 90% of Essen was destroyed by Allied bombings; the city was subsequently captured by the British in 1946. During the Nazi Third Reich, Essen was home to one of the countries greatest institutions, the Museum Folkwang, which was a world leader

Source: Jonathan Hanna

Was Ist? Street mural by unknown artist; exemplifies the post-industrial condition “What is?”

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Volume II: DISCOVER

in Modern art, housing works by Paul Cézanne, Henri Matisse, and Edvard Munch. Most of the Folkwang Collection was seized by the Nazis for being degenerate works. They were subsequently sold off to fund the war efforts, or burned. The museum has regained its prominence, and spurred many other cultural endeavors alongside the landscape plan for the Emscher Park. Projects include the Helene Colliery Sport and Health Center, an old industrial building originally build for the Krupp Company that was in a dilapidated state, and converted into a sports facility. Altenessen Forum and Colliery Clark Machine Hall is a former coal mine converted into a cultural center. The Zollverein Coking Plant is a cultural monument to an industry come and gone, and a model for postindustrial redevelopment.


Source: zechen-im-ruhrgebiet.de

Zeche Helene

Source: David Chipperfield Architects

Folkwang Museum, David Chipperfield Addition

Schurenbach Slag Heap, by Richard Serra

Source: maschinenhaus-essen.de/

Source: aalto-musiktheater.de

Altenessener forum und maschinenhaus zeche carl

Essen Opera House by Alvar Alto Learning from the R's: Essen

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In 1930, Zollverein was the most up-to-date coal mine in the world; today, it holds the significance of a magnificent cathedral in terms of industrial history. As a result of conversion measures, its Shaft XII complex houses a center for design, cultural and industrial history.

ZOLLVEREIN INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

The complex is a complete infrastructure of an historical coalmining and coke-manufacturing site. It also includes 20th century buildings regarded for exceptional architectural merit and Bauhaus style. This unique site chronicles both the evolution and

Source: Zollverein Industrial Complex, Jennifer Chandler. Web. June 2016

Zollverein Park model B-56

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decline of the essential coal mining industry of Germany over the past 150 years. The Zollverein colliery has been preserved as a testimony to one of the region’s largest industries. The complex includes the NordrheinWestfalen Design Centre, which occupies the enormous boiler room. The colliery is surrounded by the Forest of Industry, a natural park where industrial remains are scattered among the vegetation, interspersed with sculptures.


Source: Youtube-Zollverein Eisbahn. Jochen Tack. Web. June 2016

On 12 December 2001, UNESCO added Zeche Zollverein to the list of world heritage industrial monuments, partly on the basis of the OMA masterplan, which respects the site’s original identity. The masterplan is developed in close collaboration with heritage specialists and conservationists.

The masterplan develops a band around the historic site. New roads and the extension of an existing highway through a tunnel servicing the site allow for easy access. The rail tracks inside the site have been reconverted into public space, and connect the main buildings. The sky bridges for transporting coal are opened for visitors, who can also visit a former mine 1,000 meters deep.

Source: OMA. “Zollverein Masterplan”. http:/oma.eu. Web. May 2016. Learning from the R's: Zollverein

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Panorama of Gelsenkirchen

GELSENKIRCHEN

Population: Area: Pop. Density:

257,651 104.86km² 2,457/km²

Gelsenkirchen is located in the northern part of the Ruhr area. It was the most important coal mining town in Europe in the early 20th century. The city was also called the “city of a thousand fires” for the flames of mine gases flaring at night. The tallest chimney in Germany (302 m) was also located in Gelsenkirchen-Scholven. With the closing of collieries, the city searched for its new image. In 1997, the Federal Garden Show was held on

Population Statistics Gelsenkirchen B-58

Now, the city has Germany’s largest solar power plant. Since 1999, when Shell Solar Deutschland AG took over production of photo-voltaic equipment, the city has been working on presenting itself as a center of solar technology. Now, several other large businesses are headquartered in Gelsenkirchen.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Gelsenkirchen#/media/File:Population_Statistics_Gelsenkirchen.svg

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gelsenkirchen_subdivisions.svg

Gelsenkirchen Subdivisions

unused Nordstern coal mines in Horst; this helped catalyze the transformation of industrial landscapes.

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Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gelsenkirchen_Altstadt_Panorama.jpg#/media/File:Gelsenkirchen_Altstadt_Panorama.jpg

Bundesgartenschau NATIONAL GARDEN SHOW The Bundesgartenschau (abbr. BUGA) is the biennial federal horticulture show in Germany. It also covers topics surrounding landscaping. Taking place in different cities, it took place in Gelsenkirchen in 1997. Several projects were completed as catalysts for new development.

Wissenschaftspark

Workers’ housing

Solar Powered Innovation Office Event center

Solar Powered

Nordsternpark/ National Garden Show 1997

Nordsternpark Commercial Area

Fusion of industrial and landscape Reuse of industrial structures

Fusion of commercial and landscape

Eastern/ Western landscape

Conversion of storehouses

Lanf Stream

Kuppersbusch Housing redevelopment

Rainwater management Waste water canal

Source: International Building Exhibition Emscher Park: The projects 10 years later

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Integrative open space Neighborhood organization


NORDSTERNPARK Nordsternpark is a park in Gelsenkirchen, Germany. It is located on the compound of the former mine of Zeche Nordstern. After the closure of the mine in 1993 the area was redeveloped. In 1997, the Bundesgartenschau (Federal Garden Exhibition) took place here.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelsenkirchen#/media/File:Population_Statistics_Gelsenkirchen.svg

North of the River Emscher, on a narrow isthmus between the Emscher and the Rhine-Herne Canal, south of the channel, a commercial and landscape park has been set up on the old colliery site of Mine I / II, integrating old buildings of the coal mine, historic dumping grounds, and various relics. In 1997, the Federal Garden Show was held in this park - the first to date on a former industrial brownfield. Following this, the Nordsternpark became a permanently free and accessible, not to mention popular, landscape park with playing facilities, gardens and viewpoints, existing as we know it today. Besides the obvious winding towers, one can find partially hidden relics of the coal mine, such as the foundation of a cooling tower, slag heaps or a switchboard in hedges or trees.

Area: 1.4km² 1993 - Closure of the mine 1997 - National Garden Show 2004 - New office B-60

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The former storehouse was completely gutted, and converted into a central hall, with stairs, transparent lifts, and toilet facilities; it is now a space for exhibitions and cultural events, and offices were arranged in three upper levels. This conversion added significantly to the quality of the entire transformation of the former mine site. The structurally qualitative facade contrasts with steelframed buildings, which had been conceived as temporary structures with a high need for flexible use. In 2007, around 92% of the commercial space was being rented by 18 companies. The entire number of people employed in the Nordsternpark is approximately 1,100.


Nordstern tower with attached floors and viewing platform

Remains of a cooling tower

Coal bunker and conveyor belt as a relic of a coker

Amphitheater with floating stage on the Rhine-Herne Canal

Symbols and landforms that indicate Railway Artificial climbing rocks at the northern edge of the heap Emscher

Source: https://www.ruhrgebiet-industriekultur.de/nordsternpark.html

Learning from the R's: Nordsternpark

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Essen Population: Area: Pop. Density:

Duisburg Population: Area: Pop. Density:

County-level city 573,784 210.38km2 2,727/km2

County-level city 485,465 232.81km2 2,085/km2 Source: International Building Exhibition Emscher Park: The projects 10 years later

BOCHUM

Bochum Population: Area: Pop. Density:

Population: Area: Pop. Density:

361,876 145.43km² 2,488/km²

County-level city 361,876 145.43km2 2,488/km2

Bochum is a centrally located city in the Ruhr Region, well connected by train along the line from Duisburg to Dortmund. Bochum was a heavily industrial city, with industries mainly of coal mining and steel production. After the economic decline of the region, and the closing of most of the industrial Gelsenkirchen operations, the city has invested in County-level city the high-tech industry and education Population: 257,651 fields. Area: Pop. Density:

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104.86km2 2,457/km2

Source: Metropoleruhr.de / Citypopulation.de


The Mechtenberg Landscape The park connects the area with footpaths, bicycle routes and bridges. Citizens were directly involved in the implementation of many projects. There is an 80-meter high hill with various elements, including: - Agricultural operations - Wetlands in former mining sinkhole area - Small woods - Two cement stream beds - Field for artists to experiment. Source: International Building Exhibition Emscher Park: The projects 10 years later

Holland Colliery Commercial & Residential Park

A new residential area and an ecologically-oriented commercial park were developed on the site of a historic colliery. Contaminated soil has been cleaned, and innovative businesses have relocated here. A pond-like rainwater reservoir functions as a transition area between the new commercial site and new housing zone.

Source: International Building Exhibition Emscher Park: The projects 10 years later

Learning from the R's: Bochum

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Source: International Building Exhibition Emscher Park: The projects 10 years later

DORTMUND

Dortmund Population: Area: Pop. Density:

Population: Area: Pop. Density:

580,511 280.37km² 2,071/km²

County-level city 580,511 280.37km2 2,071/km2

Dortmund is the eighth largest city in Germany. Since the city’s postindustrial decline, the population has decreased. Dortmund has adapted from heavy industry to a high technology economy, including robotics, biomedical technology, micro-systems technology, engineering, tourism, and finance. The region has shifted Essen to education and services as well. In County-level city 2009, Dortmund was classified as a Population: 573,784 Node City in the Innovation Cities Area: 210.38km2 Pop. Density:

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2,727/km2

Index. Dortmund is also home to a number of medium-sized information technology companies, many linked to the local university TU Dortmund, or at the Germany’s first technology center, “Technologiepark Dortmund,” having opened in the 1980s. The city works closely with research institutes, private universities, and companies to commercialize science initiatives.


The new landscape in Phoenix See

Phoenix See

Phoenix See is a large urban renovation project in Dortmund. Sitting in a former steelworks site, it has been rehabilitated into a mixed income residential and recreational area. An artificial lake provides the main landscape amenity, with most of the affluent housing developments situated around the lake. Also central to the landscape intervention in the area is the restoration project of the Emscher River. It is rendering initial results of improved water quality, and an accessible system of paths along the river. Learning from the R's: Dortmund

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FIELD GUIDE

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ES TO THE RUHR

Depicted in this section, each student was prompted with creating a “field guide�. A means of representing the explorations undertaken in the Ruhr Region and expressing characteristics examined, relative to each students thesis formulation. This took the format of sketches, narratives, post cards, constructs, and videos. Each student designed the presentation of their field guide, as well as curated the artifacts, drawn, or photographed. B-67


FIELD GUIDE on post-industrial on [Ruhr] appropriation Travis Crabtree

post - industrial

sites documented

Tiger & Turtle Duisburg- Angerhausen 51.2234° N, 6.44° E

gasometer Oberhausen 51.2938° N, 6.5214° E

Rhinepark

51.2440° N, 6.4458° E

Bottrop bernepark 51.3017° N, 6.5638° E

Landshaftspark Duisburg-Nord 51.2850° N, 6.4702° E

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51.4818° N, 7.2162° E

51.4556° N, 7.0116° E

51.5291° N, 6.9447° E

sites visited

: BOCHUM

: ESSEN

: BOTTROP

: OBERHAUSEN 51.5291° N, 6.9447° E

: DUISBURG 51.4344° N, 6.7623° E

: GELSENKIRCHENEN 51.517° N, 7.0857° E

[Rhur] appropriation


[Ruhr]appropriation is a collection of documenting territories in the Ruhr Region that have formerly been landscapes of utility, but have undergone transformations that engage the civic through new forms of urban intervention, while innovating in landscape performance. Each project has an element that celebrates the former utility of the place through materiality, scale, and program. Each project finds methods of joining in a cohesive narrative through networks of adapted public space along a conduit. The purpose of the guide is to understand how to better approach designing a linear territory made for utility with similar attributes in the Rust Belt region.

: LUNEN : MENDEN

: SCHWERTE 51.48° N, 7.5668° E

: ARNSBERG 51.4073° N, 8.0528° E

51.4377° N, 7.7953° E

: DORTMUND 51.5136° N, 7.463° E

51.6105° N, 7.5285° E

Tetraeder

51.314° N, 6.57° E

Himmelsstreppe

51.2914° N, 7.216° E

Phoenix Lake

51.298° N, 7.3046° E

Schurenbachhalde 51.3045° N, 7.0109° E

Ruhr Field Guides: [Ruhr] Appropiation

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WATER CONDUIT : Similar to Detroit, the Ruhr region is fragmented and development is sprawled. It is complicated to find what or where the true urban core is. Essen to Duisburg, growth spreads horizontal and has forced planners in the region to think critically about how the region can connect. Water has been the agent for doing that. The Emscher River was known as the most polluted river in Germany during the 20th century, carrying effluent and industrial waste to the Rhine.

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The Emscher IBA has helped to give the river an alternative and has created a conversation about re-naturalization. Today, the river is complimented with a series of landscape urbanism-type interventions. Most projects involve a formerly industrial object as an art element, with natural landscape placing it. The RhineHerne canal runs parallel with the Emscher to share the projects. Programs along the waterways vary from profit generating solutions to projects solely for identity making. The corridor can be traveled by bike or foot with little disruption of vehicular traffic making for a sublime urban experience.

Ruhr Field Guides: [Ruhr] Appropiation

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POST INDUSTRIALIZATION POST MODERNIZATION Big infrastructure best describes the Great Lakes Rust Belt and Ruhr Regions in the 20th century. While their industrialization and modernization eras were simultaneous, the Ruhr operated longer. In fact, industry just abandoned the region over the last three decades. Although both regions suffered the burden of the heavy legacy left by industries and their infrastructures, the Ruhr has been rapid in responding. The IBA Emscher Park in 1989 was the catalyst for this impetus, placing a conversation around the “shrinking cities� phenomenon and associated problems. Revitalization is mainly executed through the transformation of industrial territories into civic and performative landscapes. Operation as a regional collaborative has been the most powerful attribute of the project, and has driven a powerful narrative for the restructuring of the Ruhr Region through the reimagination of its landscape.

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LESS IS MORE, GREEN IS MORE Landschaftspark is arguably the best example of industrial and landscape synthesis. The minimalist design approach is what makes it so dynamic. The site is a former coke plant with about every big infrastructure that one could fit into an industrial site. The abandoned railways, blast furnaces, coal bunkers, and waste water turbines were ideal qualities to landscape architect Peter Latz. He used the abandon infrastructure and successional vegetation as an instrument for making space in the park. In plan, it is noticeable that he uses all the same geometries created for the plant’s original purpose. In aggregate, the urban void created by the site has been replaced with a location for gathering, recreating, passage, lounging, and reflecting. Landschaftspark being designed as an industrial reflection space is a thesis that helped set the tone and identity for regional direction.

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trash?

RECYCLED LAND Space for waste is a common urban issue cities in the Rust Belt are encountering. High demolition rates in post-industrial cities, like Detroit or Essen, generate large quantities of deconstruction material. A landfill outside of the Ruhr region known as Metabolon, or “Black Mountain” as it is known to the local community, has found a way to reconfigure the traditional landfill to have performative and interactive attributes. It is an active recycling center and public landforms that people can climb. Most significantly, Metabolon allows people to connect with their trashscape. A closer connection might have positive implications on community consumption patterns. Deploying interactive programs completely shatters a traditional perspective of a landfill, and would be an applicable idea for some of Detroit’s trash.

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RIVER HIGHWAYS Rivers have been conduits for transport since cities have emerged. The settlement logic for the Great Lakes and Ruhr region was based on the geography of the water system for that reason. As highway and rail infrastructures become extraneous to manage, movement by water seems to be a viable mode of travel again. The Rhine River at the Cologne harbor uses water for mass transport of goods, but also activates the edge of the river to form two types of civic space. The east grasslands are managing flooding while making a destination nature park, and the other side is a culmination of historical and contemporary development demonstrating with a new public promenade. The promenade operates in a peculiar way: in Cologne, the cargo ships are docked adjacent to a concentration of high end real estate. It is an interesting juxtaposition since these two items traditionally would be overtly partitioned. However, this current layout makes for an interesting product, by allowing the public to engage with industrial logistics.

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CITY TO THE RIVER Former industrial cities, for the most part, have a buffer that disconnects the city from the river. In Duisburg, the new Rhine park is a reaction to collect that missing piece. Its industrial character, size, dilapidated condition, and context match a similar narrative to harbors along the Great Lakes. The park exemplifies what creative landforms and recycling material can do in delineating a civic spatiality. Landforms make elevated views, and forms a series of rooms against the river. Overall, the main objective of this project is to connect the river with the city. The fragmented relationship that industry forced hid the Rhine River from the public, which caused a lack of care of the river quality. Renewed access to it has initiated a conversation based on the river’s future care.

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BACK TO EARTH The experience of climbing the Bramme for the Ruhr is unparalleled. The project is a spoil tip over 100 meters high. The rubble mountain isn’t noticeable because of the forest growing on the perimeter of it. The top is what tells the story. The peak is black rubble, with a steel slab wedged in the middle of it. Richard Serra, the artist for the project, made a sculpture representative of the region by emulating the silhouette form of a smokestack. The materiality is the other symbolic feature. It is a steel slab wedged into the mountain. The top material connects, through display, the materials mined for the products made. The Bramme for the Ruhr sits on the skyline with other smoke stacks to forever commemorate the Ruhr narrative.

Ruhr Field Guides: [Ruhr] Appropiation

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:PLAY /noun

activity engaged in for enjoyment and recreation, rather than a serious or practical purpose.

:[GROUNDS] /verb

give (something abstract) a firm theoretical or practical basis.

Luna Vital

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In a city continuously regenerating its grounds, its landforms can be read as a datum for playfulness, facilitated through elements such as platforms, ramps, tubes, nets, swings, kinetic objects, and many other elements yet to be explored. Most playgrounds are custom made to fit specific audiences, and predict specific sets of movements. However, playful grounds facilitate activities without any formal speculations as to how these grounds are to be used. The hanging guide examines these through categories of custom-made and appropriated field conditions. Each character holds certain features specific to the nature of their existence and use. For instance, appropriated play grounds tend to be more dynamic considering its physical properties were not initially designed for their current use.

Ruhr Field Guides: Play [Grounds]

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essen

water [grounds] //generator

bottrop

water tends to carry the inherent physical properties necessary to activate any ground conditions alone.

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topo [grounds] //generator similarly, topographical changes enable playful grounds, whether they are natural, or artificially formed.

The Ruhr performs as a testing field for playgrounds and the host of experiential qualities they sponsor. As it readjusts its environment from a production era into a time for open-ended playfulness, the region attracts an audience of explorers, designers, and critical minds ready to dissect the industrial heritage to the best of their understanding, hoping to experience its unique atmosphere. The Ruhr region’s playgrounds have a sense of ludicrous behaviors, a narrative of humor and fun its residents and newcomers can hold on to as the essence of its postindustrial fabric.

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c o n d i t i o n s

- landschaft + metabolon

f i e l d

appropriated

activity engaged in for enjoyment and recreation, rather than a serious or practical purpose.

:barrier /noun a fence or other obstacle that prevents movement or access.. Today, these barriers enables movement and access to higher grounds in the park.

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:embed /verb fix (an object) firmly and deeply in a surrounding mass. Objects embedded to its contexts acquire new functions and purposes, serving also as playful [grounds]

Ruhr Field Guides: Play [Grounds]

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:play

- duisburg

c o n d i t i o n s

:spontaneity

custom made

f i e l d

/noun

the condition of being spontaneous; performed or occurring as a result of a sudden inner impulse or inclination and without premeditation or external stimulus.

a change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.

:adjacenct

[grounds]

/noun

/verb

activity engaged in for enjoyment and recreation, rather than a serious or practical purpose.

give (something abstract) a firm theoretical or practical basis.

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:adaptation

/noun

/adjective some custom made play [grounds] tend to locate adjacent to an edge of significant relevance, whether it’d be history, water, or remnants in the city.

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:kinetic

/adjective

:dynamic

of or relating to the motion of material bodies and the forces and energy associated therewith

/adjective

system characterized by constant change, activity, or progress.

:adjacenct /adjective some custom made play [grounds] tend to locate adjacent to an edge of significant relevance, whether it’d be history, water, or remnants in the city.

Ruhr Field Guides: Play [Grounds]

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BIG SHELTERS Mengyu Jiang

Essen

Duisburg

fence

Church Courtyard

Duisburg Innenhafen

Metabolon

Ruhr Museum

Landschaftspark

Gasometer

Rheinpark_Playground

Rheinpark_Riverfront

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open space

street


Gelsenkirchen Dortmund

Bochum

tree

sand

grass

bushes

hydro

recycle

railroad

industrial legacy

Ruhr Field Guides: Big Shelters

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Duisburg Innenhafen was an industrial harbor for shipping. Nowadays, the water has been cleaned, office building has been set up along the harbor as a bckground. The buildings and historic city wall enclose an open space for children.

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Rheinpark was an industrial site which transformed into waterfront landscape park. It provides a natural space for children.

Ruhr Field Guides: Big Shelters

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Gasometer Oberhausen was an industrial gasometer which has been transformed into an exhibition space. It is now an educational and recreational space for children.

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Rheinpark was an industrial site which transformed into waterfront landscape park. It provides a natural space for children.

Ruhr Field Guides: Big Shelters

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Church in Cologne is in a neighborhood which has a kindergarten at its backyard. It provides a safe neighborhood space for children.

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Zollverein was a coal mine before which has been transformed into

Ruhr Museum. It is a museum

which shows the history of ruhr area for children.

Ruhr Field Guides: Big Shelters

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Landschaftspark_Nord was a

coal mine before which has been transformed into an recreational park. It is a adventure space which uses industry as culture character for children.

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:Metabolon is a new model for landfill projects. It integrates waste management, energy producing, landscaping and community interaction.

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MOVING BOUNDARIES Shao-Chen Lu In the Ruhr Region, heavy industry drove the production of the entire area, and dictated the urban pattern, experience, and even memories. It created several boundaries to secure the ownership and increase efficiency. Moving Boundaries reveals the relationship between new uses and former edge conditions, showing how people occupied the area and redefined the new boundaries, further redefining urban memories.

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Ruhr Field Guides: Moving Boundaries

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POSTCARDS OF THE RUHR Jonathan Hanna An experiment in the production of a written and visual narrative of the Ruhr Region in the style of Magical Realism.

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Ruhr Field Guides: Moving Boundaries

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Ruhr Field Guides: Postcards of the Ruhr

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Ruhr Field Guides: Postcards of the Ruhr

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Ruhr Field Guides: Postcards of the Ruhr

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Ruhr Field Guides: Postcards of the Ruhr

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Leppe Rhein

Ruhr

Emscher Landschaft Park Duisburg-Nord Gasometer

Spoil Tips Spoil Tip - Schurenbachhalde Essen Zollverein Coal Mine

Metabolon Garten der Technik

Field Guide Ruhr Region - Germany 05.24.2016

- 06.01.2016

HIDDEN EYE Manasvi Bachhav Hidden Eye is a taxonomy of spaces and territories of the industries in the Ruhr region, and their re-appropriation within the postindustrial landscapes. The images are a collage of photographs and linework that reveal the spatial and material quality of the infrastructure through Sections and Photographs. They also capture the interventions at different scales from the architectural scale with the Gasometer to the urban scale with the spoil tips, to realize the impact of the IBA initiatives in response to the post-industrial scenario.

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Landscapes of Play

Landscape of Production

Landfill Park

Spoil Tips

Metabolon- Garden of Technology Metabolon is an exemplary landscape of learning and production that celebrates a geography of trash. Mountains and walls of trash, make for not such trashy landscapes.

Spoil Tips are heaps of dead rock from the coal mines, that have identified as sites for landmark sculptures for the region during the IBA.

Ruhr Field Guides: Hidden Eye

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Bunkers

Infrastructures

Duisburg Nord Landschaft Park

Landschaft Park Duisburg- Nord Capturing a moment of confluence between vehicular (rail, highway and bike)and pedestrian infrastructures and their resolution at different levels.

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The bunkers under the tracks were once used for storing coal, now act as activity pockets and hold landscapes for remediation for the poltued materials


Bunker

Gasometer

Ruhr Museum- Zollverein

Oberhausen

The Gasometer (gas holder), a remnant of the region’s indutrial past has been converted into a space that allows for unique exhibitons due to its distict volumetric proprotions.

The different levels of the museum are connected through a feature staircase that transforms the dark, robust and highly functional space of the old factory to an enticing interior experience.

Ruhr Field Guides: Hidden Eye

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Zhe Zhang

While the shape of the landfill can hardly be called a wall, and the main focus of the design is to reveal the potential value of previously ignored urban components, the playground on the top reveals one characteristic of walls - the creation of asymmetric visual accessibility. While it is perceived as a green hill from the bottom of the landfill, it is perceived completely differently from the top. The top and even inside of walls therefore gain certain autonomy.

Walls in the form of earth art, created by level differentiation, can also create asymmetric accessibility, both visually and physically. Moreover, this type of landscape-style wall fluctuating the ground plane brings programmatic implications. Subjectivity to flooding from this asymmetry is certainly a factor in proposing programs, if there are any. According to this, the program of other walls is subject to their levels.

WORLD OF WALLS

Walls do not even have to utilize their characteristics of dimension. In this case, they can become figurative as other shapes do.

Walls do not necessarily always serve as divides. They can become simply objects with certain dimensions that can be climbed upon and interacted with. In this sense, wall buildings or structures can bear both interior programs and exterior programs without necessary connection.

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Walls can be simply frames without actual "designed" contents, a void waiting for temporal activities. This will provide flexibility and finally provide vigor to the area.

Walls with interruptible time scale, specifically based on plants, can grow over time and be edited to specific shapes to serve the needs, usually related to accessibility. If we replace the plants with flexible structures as walls around the target that interacts with people, the flexible structures may serve different goals over time due to its flexibility.

Change of programs and values of walls throughout time enables walls to survive after their “designed� life spans end. By designing or redesigning, walls are enabled to achieve eternal existence with rich values embedded.

Ruhr Field Guides: World of Walls

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WORLD OF WALLS

Walls as foreground or background can interact with their context. Succession plants create a different atmosphere than gridded plants as foreground of deserted industrial structures. Similarly, the materiality, figure and scale of architectural walls will also create a corresponding atmosphere to their context.


a u t h e n t i c i t y //

a field guide to the Ruhr region

AUTHENTICITY

Purpose

Melia West

Many similarities can be drawn between the Ruhr region and the American Rust Belt, also suffering from decades of disinvestment, industrial pollution, and a declining population. By studying the initiatives of the 1989 IBA, one can draw lessons of success and failure to apply to the Rust Belt, opening up possibilities for her re-imagination.

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Landschaftspark

Zollverein + Kokeri Rheinelbe + Wissenschaftspark

Gasometer

Bottrop Gelsenkirchen Oberhausen

Campus

Krefeld

Bernepark

Duisburg

Essen

Bochum

Dortmund

Phoenixsee Innerhafen Rheinpark + Tiger and the Turtle

Düsseldorf Route der Industriekultur

Metabolon

Köln

Engelskirchen

Context Historically the largest producer of coal and steel in Europe, with mining operations existing since the 17th century, Germany’s Ruhr Region has long been defined by its industrial production. The fifth densest settlement in Europe, it has maintained a polycentric urban form, with industrial infrastructure strewn throughout the landscape. Beginning as early as the 1950s, the Ruhr region saw the decommissioning of industrial factories, and a slow erosion of its economy and population.

In 1989, the state of Northrhein-Westfalia called for a tenyear International Building Exhibition (IBA) to re-imagine how the region might be restructured in a holistic manner, addressing the growing need for a spatial-economic transition of the region. The initiative sought to address the area’s problems through urban, architectural, and ecological solutions and economic incentives.

view from blast furnace, Landschaftspark, Duisburg North Ruhr Field Guides: Authenticity

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IBA Emscher Park The IBA focused 120 projects around six guidelines, allowing architectural competitions to play a major role in project commissions. Guidelines focused on ecological initiatives, including cleaning the Emscher River (a contemporary open sewage canal), growing jobs, and finding new uses for abandoned industrial buildings. Upon visiting the ‘Route of Industrial Culture’ that snakes alongside the River, the re-imagined region is striking for its ability to capture a continuous narrative, giving the projects power to generate a renewed collective identity - all while maintaining a sense of authenticity of place.

Innerhafen, DĂźsseldorf

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culture//

cultural production//

authentic//

the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group (Merriam Webster); manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively (Google definition search); myths which remind a group of people what to do at a given time (Virgil)

a process dealing with how person(s) are produced as cultural beings and how this production of persons results in the (re)production of cultural formations (Kevin O’Connor); an intervention in the process of producing meaning (University of Salzburg);

not false or imitation; true to one’s own personality, spirit, or character (Merriam-Webster)

Overview The success of the IBA to capture and re-appropriate historic sources of collective identity and cultural production in the Ruhr - while not being nostalgic - are lessons to be applied in the re-imagination of Detroit. Four elements play a key role in this sense of authenticity of place:

1. weathering // palette of materials giving tactile and visual experience to a place

(prevalent material . texture, especially through aging . color . light)

2. confrontation // friction between two opposites that simultaneously leads to collective, and maintains unique, identity

(material . program . history . occupation)

3. pressure // role of industrial heritage in regional redefinition

(process . product . economy . social)

4. boundary // formal and programmatic elements that mediate a range of industrial to post-industrial edge conditions

(architecture . landscape architecture . art . physical . imagined) conveyor belt, Zollverein, Essen Ruhr Field Guides: Authenticity

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1 // WEATHERING

Rust stains along traces of water flow; Landschaftspark, Duisburg Nord

palette of materials giving tactile and visual experience to a place

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weathering on corrugated steel; Landschaftspark, Duisburg Nord

ivy growing on dilapidated concrete wall; Landschaftspark, Duisburg Nord

stained tile; bunkers at Landschaftspark, Duisburg Nord


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cotton seeds,ground cover at Zollverein Kokeri

weathered statue at Cathedral; Cologne

colored glass at Bramme for the Ruhr; Schurenbachhalde


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curated graffiti, skate park at Rheinpark, Duisburg

elevated gas tubes; Zollverein Kokeri

gabion weir; storm-water catchment canal, Phoenix West, Dortmund


friction between two opposites that simultaneously leads to collective, and maintains unique, identity

MACHINE // VEGETATION

2 // CONFRONTATION

patterns of succession on rusted rail; Landschaftspark, Duisburg Nord

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PROTECTION // OBLITERATION

POLLUTION // PLAY

LIFE // DEATH girls catching tadpoles, coal bunker, Landschaftspark, Duisburg Nord

child plays in water near historically polluted canal, Landschaftspark

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World War II bunker on the site of a destroyed synagogue, Ehrenfeld, Kรถln

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trampolines at the summit of metabolon landfill, Engelskirchen

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LEISURE // WORK

TREASURE // TRASH

OLD // NEW tension between historic and contemporary building techniques

continuous green way along the Emscher, adjacent to working industrial sites


Emscher River, an open sewer since industrialization

RIVER // SEWAGE

MIGRANT // RESIDENT “Solidarity”, Zollverein miner’s Polish pin; exhibited in Ruhr Museum

Emscher River, an open sewer since industrialization

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Landschaftspark, Duisburg North

3 // PRESSURE role of industrial heritage in regional redefinition photo credit: luna vital

SCALE //

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the gargantuan proportions of industrial machinery compared to an operator’s human hands

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ENERGY //

the historic role of energy production through coal has been re-imagined through solar energy plants


Alabaster panels, DĂźsseldorf

Food Lovers Fest, Zollverein, Essen

GATHERING //

industrial heritage sites remain central to cultural production through events

CRAFTSMANSHIP //

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manipulation of steel and rock remain central to artisan ingenuity


Gasometer as exhibition space, Oberhausen

Krefeld

PRODUCT //

from raw to finished product: rocks of the Rhine watershed processed as aggregate

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RE-APPROPRIATION //

a plethora of creative uses occupy previous industrial structures


pressures causing slow genMARKET // market trification, leading to new program

process as visualized in the slow consolidation and settling of a landfill

and dislocation

SENSES //

auditory and olfactory station, Ruhr Museum, Essen

consolidated trash, Metabolon landfill, Engelskirchen

historic meat storefront-turned-artist’s studio; real estate pressure, Ehrenfeld

TIME //

sensory pressure helps define the region in natural and artificial environments

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4 // BOUNDARY formal and programmatic elements that mediate a range of industrial to post-industrial edge conditions

LIGHTING/

night, Landschaftspark, Duisburg North C-130

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GARDEN/

LAND USE/

former sewage filtration tank, Bernepark, Bottrop

transformation of harbor to offices, Innerhafen, Duisburg

ART/

ascent to spoil tip, Richard Serra piece, Schurenbachhalde Ruhr Field Guides: Authenticity

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WATER/

naturalized Emscher River, Phoenixsee, Dortmund

RECREATION/

recreation path on former rail r.o.w., Rhine Herne Canal

EDUCATION/

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science incubator on former steel factory, Wissenschaftspark, Gelsenkirchen


TOPOGRAPHY/

WALL/

FAITH/

recreation and educational center, Metabolon landfill, Engelskirchen

ARCHITECTURE/

stair in former coal bunker, Zeche Zollverein, Ruhr Museum, design by OMA Ruhr Field Guides: Authenticity

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APPLICATION //

Looking to the Capstone Playing on Virgil’s understanding of culture as a set of collective memories that can give direction and meaning in a specific moment, it is important to note that culture cannot be imposed or “institutionalized”, but must be built up slowly on wisdom gained in experiences of high pressure. The ability of the Ruhr region and IBA Emscher Park to capture a collective narrative rests on its strength to let juxtaposed realities coexist, while maintaining their patina. In December 2015, Detroit was declared the first U.S. City of Design by UNESCO. Unsure how to utilize the designation, the capstone project will seek to give vision to the physical reality of a City of Design through urban design.

Similar to the IBA Emscher Park agenda, themes of industrial heritage, cultural production, and curating a collective identity will be central to the project - all while acknowledging, if not addressing, solutions for the ecological, economic, and social tensions in Detroit. Attention will be placed on the weathering, confrontations, pressure, and boundaries that exist in Detroit to render more fully her existing richness. As seen in the documentation of the Ruhr region, urban design has the ability to hold opposite realities in a fruitful juxtaposition. _____________________ How can the culture of Detroit, now recognized as a City of Design, drive the city’s development and re-imagination, while staying true to its identity?

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GREEN OVER RUST // GEOGRAPHICAL COMPARISON

Detroit

RUHR REGION

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Ruhr Region Field Trip

Impressions

Places as institutions of learning & joy

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RUHR IN MOTION Nishant Mittal

Video - Germany Field Trip MUD 2016 Duration - 3.34 min Music credits-David Garrett & Michael Giacchino Link - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7aVOBvR5vPA

Ruhr Field Guides: Ruhr in Motion

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AUTHORS Manasvi Bachhav holds a Bachelor of Architecture Degree from Sir J.J. College of ArchitectureUniversity of Mumbai, India. She is interested in exploring the potentials of Architecture within the temporality of the urban context through multiscalar interventions.

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Travis Crabtree holds a degree in Landscape Architecture from Mississippi State University. His research focuses on productive landscapes as a formative element within distressed urban conditions.

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Jonathan Hanna is a graduate of the University of Michigan Bachelor’s of Science in Architecture program. Born and raised in Detroit, he participates in the rich tradition of making in the region, and plans on working and living in the city after graduation.

Mengyu Jiang holds a degree in Architecture from South China University of Technology. She is interested in the design of inclusive communities, and the possibilities around new forms of urban governance.


Shao-Chen Lu holds a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Taiwan. His research focuses on the relationship between architecture and urban space. Post-graduation, he plans to keep working on projects that interrogate the role of architecture in the reconfiguration of urban settings.

Nishant Mittal holds a degree in Architecture from the Maharaja Sayajirao University Baroda in India. Interested in the agency of institutions and new forms of governance in the transformation of the distressed central city, he plans to stay in Detroit after graduation to practice as an urban designer.

Luneoufall Vital Gallego holds a degree in Architecture from Texas Tech University and is also pursuing a Master of Architecture from the University of Michigan, starting in Fall 2016. Her interest explores the limits between interpretation and design as agents for speculative futures.

Melia West holds a Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Notre Dame, with a concentration in Historic Preservation. With experience in corridor design plans, and walkable neighborhoods, she is committed to fostering a sense of place by building on existing assets and community initiatives.

Authors' Biographies

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Zhe Zhang holds a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Suzhou University of Science and Technology. Interested in Asian cities with high density, he is returning to China to practice as urban designer and architect, also doing research on the relationship between urban culture and urban form in Jiangnan cities.


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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many thanks to our experts: Scott Campbell Associate Professor, Urban and Regional Planning, University of Michigan For his inspiring introduction to the Ruhr Region in preparation for our trip.

Thomas Kn체never Principal Kn체vener Architekturlandschaft For providing incredible support, knowledge and guidance in our exploration of the Ruhr Region... and for the most incredible two days biking along the Emscher and through Duisburg. We made it! Julia Sattler T U Dortmund Fakult채t Kulturwissenschaften Institut f체r Anglistik und Amerikanistik For joining us in the exploration of the Zollverein Plant and surroundings and sharing the many hidden secrets of the site.

Acknowledgements

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TAUBMAN COLLEGE architecture + urban planning

University of Michigan Master of Urban Design

2015-2016

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DISCOVER: Detroit (v2)  

Urban Design Capstone Taubman College University of Michigan, Spring 2016

DISCOVER: Detroit (v2)  

Urban Design Capstone Taubman College University of Michigan, Spring 2016

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