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ProAgri technology for the farmer

Z a m b i a No 38



Inves t in a cat t le farm


12 – 14 April 2018

GART Research Centre Chisamba, Zambia

Are you ready to join Zambia’s ultimate buying platform for farmers of all scales? Delivering quality inputs and technologies to 22,000+ farming professionals?


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Process sunf lowe r oil on me dium scale CONTACT LIAM BECKETT TO SECURE YOUR EXHIBITION POSITION Liam Beckett | t: +27 21 700 3552 | m: +27 79 281 7865 e:

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Letter from the Editor


e recently celebrated International Women’s Day and for us as agriculturalists, the huge role of women in our precious industry immediately comes to mind. At the recent Women in Agricultural Conference in Lusaka, the rich, ongoing and indispensable impact of the beautiful gender was also celebrated and highlighted. Better and smoother ways of making this huge task easier for them were successfully investigated. Farmer women are not scared of physical labour and the image of a woman bending over to plant seeds or hoeing weeds comes to mind. Besides manual labour on small and medium sized farms, women also successfully hold key positions in big enterprise farms or even leading their own companies. When farming is in your blood, you will maintain yourself in every possible part of the sector. She who cultivates the land will take possession. Women tend to bring more than their fair share to the table because they are commited in collecting food for their families for millennia. But a worrisome trend in the Western hemisphere is the emotional, feminist narrative which





feeds on a presumed gender inequality. Men are blamed as being the source of the problems women face. This is a controversial issue, but most importantly is that we have to accept that gender roles are there for a reason and women and men have their own strengths in different fields. We have to treat it accordingly and with mutual respect. For the city-bound woman who wants to experience farming, we have good news in this month’s edition. We take a look at Cattle Wealth Management who offers a share in a cattle farm where they do the management and you reap a part of the benefits. RSA Feed and Grain shows us their innovative design to secure proper hygiene in the lambing shed, leading to fewer mortalities and more profits. Drotsky is famous for their hammer mills and show us their Southern African range. Agritech is upon us. Prepare yourself for this year's show with the terrain plan inside. Farm smartly! Du Preez de Villiers





Continue the tradition: Invest in your share of cattle farming


Green Energy: Your expert supplier of solar and water pumping solutions


Neria's Investments Limited: Supplying the nation with quality inputs


Unique sheep systems are the future: Produce stronger, healthier lambs


Drotsky follows an age-old tradition of unnegotiable craftsmanship


DAZ facilitates proper feed for proper milk


Bonnox is a lifestyle choice


The best milk replacer for calves


Play your part in the war against brucellosis


The operation and application of hay rakes and hay tedders: Part 2


Make more from your crops: Processing of oil seeds - Part 14: Sunflower oil

ProAgri Zambia 38

Bonnox is not only a functional fence. It is also aesthetic according to some farmers, or rather their wives. Turn to page 15 to find out why Bonnox is more than just an enclosure.

ProAgri technology for the farmer

Z a m b i a

Nangwenya House No. 7352 Nangwenya Road Rhodespark +26 (0)96-216-9801 Copyright © 2019. All rights reserved. No material, text or photographs may be reproduced, copied or in any other way transmitted without the written consent of the publisher. Opinions expressed are not necessarily those of the publisher or of the editor. We recognise all trademarks and logos as the sole property of their respective owners. ProAgri shall not be liable for any errors or for any actions in reliance thereon.

ProAgri Zambia Editor Du Preez de Villiers > +27 82-598-7329 General Manager and Distribution Zambia Quintus Grobler > +26-(0)96-216-9801 (WA only) South Africa + 27-078-978-6339 Reporters Annemarie Bremner > +27 82-320-3642 Benine Ackermann > +27 73-105-6938 Senior Production Manager: Zainab Pandor > +26 (0)97-769-9786 Marketing Manager Diane Grobler > +27 82-555-6866 Marketing Xander Pieterse > +27 79-524-0934 Tiny Smith > +27 79-531-0024 Anelda Strauss > +27 76-687-4419 Gerhard Potgieter > +27 74-694-4422 Design Christiaan Joubert > Enquiries Engela Botha > +27 12-803-0782 Accounts Ronel Schluter > +27 12-803-0782 Business Manager George Grobler


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ProAgri Zambia 38

Africans and their love for cattle date back many millennia. Cattle Wealth Management offers you the opportunity to continue this tradition.

Continue the tradition: Invest in your share of cattle farming


any Zambians are passionate about cattle farming, but are handicapped because they do not have the land, resources or the time it requires to run a cattle farm. The four main challenges to become a cattle farmer is the cost of doing business, land acquisition, access to finance and road infrastructure. An innovate idea was born when a firm, Cattle Wealth Management, was launched. They decided to challenge these difficulties and offer farmers at heart the opportunity to live out their dreams. “We identified a need in the agriculture sector in specifically cattle ranching,” Joel Chitambala, a Director at Cattle Wealth Management Firm, says. Our business model allows for individuals to grow their own herds of cattle on our commercial ranches with 24-hour expert management.” According to Joel, a farmer doesn’t necessarily have to have land or a kraal to own a cow. Neither does he need to have a herdsman or the know-how to own a cow. “We at Cattle Wealth Management will do all this on his behalf at an aff ordable and reasonable once-off purchase price of a cow, on agreement that we share in the off spring. We believe that this will work well for our clients as they won’t have to dish out an additional cash lay-out. Our clients should just know that their herds are growing. Risks relating to

factors such as diseases or death will all be taken care of by us.” Cattle Wealth Management offers an unique opportunity to invest in a novelty of a product against the common traditional investment in money markets. Joel assures farmers that their product is aff ordable, flexible and with a better return on investment in what is regarded as Africa’s green gold – the agriculture sector. Cattle Wealth Management has tremendous ambitions for growth. They regard Zambia as the springboard into other countries. “Zambia is our flagship market in the short to medium term phase. Our future expansion plans spread into the SADC region to begin with and eventually into Europe on a sustainable ‘farm to fork’ model. This is based on the growing need from consumers who want to know where their food is coming from,” Joel says. “As Cattle Wealth Management, we are strategically positioning ourselves to tap into Zambia’s eight land-linked neighbours that will provide an even larger market base.” Other opportunities lie in the fact that food safety and particularly meat quality are becoming more and more of a requirement amongst consumers. This is an opportunity for the agri sector to ensure they are safety and quality compliant in order to send products to the overseas retail markets as well.

Professionally formulated cattle feed means proper growth which in turn means more money in your bank account. Investing in cattle is worth more than gold. Be part of the next generation of farmers and business leaders who will be responsible for food security in an uncertain future. All this can be done through a once-off purchase or via an instalment facility – interest free.

Keep your cattle free of diseases with the aid of professionals with the best high-tech equipment on the market.

Your future investment is safe in the hands of the ranchers from Cattle Wealth Management. ProAgri Zambia 38

Contact Cattle Wealth Management at +26 (0)97-598-5366, +26 (0)96 -984-3020 or send an e-mail to to start living out the farming dream. Visit for more information. 3


ProAgri Zambia 38

Green Energy: Your expert supplier of solar and water pumping solutions by Du Preez de Villiers Water is the essence of life and it is within your reach without interruption, with the help of Green Energy.


illions of people around the world live with limited access to water. In many communities, ground water is extracted by electric water pumps that use diesel to fuel their systems. However, these systems not only require costly, regular servicing and the purchasing of fuel, they emit carbon dioxide polluting the atmosphere. Erratic rainfall also poses a huge challenge for farmers who need a consistent water supply as many farmers want to plant crops throughout the year. These are the times when you need extra help and equipment like water pumps to assist you. But water pumps need power and since Zambia is heavily dependent on Zesco and hydroelectric power, which is not always available, for peace of mind it is wise to find alternatives for a more consistent water supply. Solar water pumping, or photovoltaic water pumping (PVP), provides an alternative. After years of research and technological advances, it has proven to be operationally, financially, and environmentally sustainable. In recent years, the cost of solar technology has dropped tremendously. Water pumping is one of the simplest and most appropriate uses for photovoltaic power. From crop irrigation to stock watering to domestic uses, photovoltaic powered pumping systems meet a broad range of water needs. Most of these systems have the added advantage of storing water for use when the sun is not shining, eliminating the need for batteries, enhancing simplicity and reducing overall system costs. Prices of the solar panels used in these systems have dropped significantly. In addition, these panels last around 25 years, requiring little maintenance throughout this time. You can’t go wrong when investing in

ProAgri Zambia 38

Green Energy only stocks high quality, world renowned pump brands with excellent backup and service plans. quality water pumps and solar power systems from a respectable and renowned supplier. Green Energy is a leading Zambian company that offers anything pertaining to water pumping as well as solar power, batteries and systems needed to go off the grid. They source their products from countries renowned for manufacturing equipment of high standards, such as Italy, Germany, Canada and the United States. Their quality equipment comes with full back-up and service plans and will last much longer than the cheaper varieties, which means that you will save money in the long run. They believe foresight is the key to succes. Green Energy’s main focus is on the farming community and medium to large-scale farmers are their biggest market. They are making good headway and push hard to inform the farmers about solar systems for pumps. The team at Green Energy realised that not many people know that solar panel and battery prices have dropped significantly. Now it is actually aff ordable. They have a system for less than $1 000, which pumps up to 8 000 litres a day, which is more than enough for 99% of medium-scale farmers. The initial capital lay-out for pumps

and solar systems are relatively huge, but a farmer will recover it in no time if compared to the huge cost of diesel, for instance, or if compared to the benefit of having a consistent supply of water all year round. The payback period is very short and after that, the farmer's electricity/water use is virtually free of charge. Green Energy offers various solutions for small, medium and large-scale farmers. They have found that there is a very large number of farmers that require water during the day only and have larger 3-phase pumps. Green Energy offers the Grundfos RSI pump inverter range that can power up to 37 kW pumps. This is a direct Solar-toPump system that’s more aff ordable for farmers as there is no need for costly battery backup.

The Grundfos RSI inverter is Green Energy's flagship in the range and is suitable for various water supply systems, especially irrigation and well pumping (submersible pumps). You can send an e-mail to with your contact details and full requirements to become an independent farmer. 5

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ProAgri Zambia 38

Neria's Investments Limited: Supplying the nation with quality inputs •


armers in Zambia not only need good quality seed and fertiliser to succeed; they also need good advice, trusted support and a reliable supplier of these commodities. Neria’s Investments Ltd is a wholly owned Zambian agro-commodity trading company. They recognise the great potential for growth in the agriculture sector and have invested extensively to drive growth in the sector. They provide consistent, effective and cost sensitive farming solutions for a better, healthy and well-nourished Southern Africa. Farming is their business and fertiliser is their solution. Their core values (entrepreneurship, integrity, excellence, trust and efficiency) are pursued to create wealth through agriculture and to offer value to their customers. The company started operations in 2012 and has steadily grown to cover all the main farming areas with operations in all 10 provinces in the country. Neria’s has been at the forefront of the roll-out and implementation of FISP (Fertiliser Input Support Programme) in the country. Services offered by Neria’s: • Procurement: Neria’s procures fertiliser and raw materials from their strategic partners with representation in China, UAE, India and South Africa. This ensures constant availability of stock. • Warehousing: They stock bulk commodities in their various warehousing depots throughout the country. ProAgri Zambia 38

Trading: They are currently trading in various agriculture commodities such as: fertiliser, raw materials, seeds, maize, soya beans, groundnuts and sunflower. Transportation: They have a wellcoordinated transport system using both road and rail.

Neria’s fertiliser products: Urea Urea is normally used as a nitrogen rich top-dressing fertiliser to boost growing plants. The nitrogen content of urea is 46% N and it is supplied in 50 kg bags suitable for rough handling. It promotes leaf growth through enhancing the proteins and chlorophyll content in the plants. Neria’s Investments Ltd is the biggest supplier and distributor of urea in Zambia. Compound D Since 2013 Neria’s has also been involved in the Government’s programme to supply smallscale farmers with fertiliser. Neria’s supplies up to 80% of the annual requirements of Nitrogen Chemicals of Zambia (NCZ) by providing aff ordable raw materials for the manufacturing of fertiliser. NCZ is a parastatal company mandated to supply and distribute fertiliser to small-scale farmers throughout the country. The fertiliser is commonly known as Compound D. It is a basal fertiliser suitable for use on a wide range of crops, notably maize and soya beans. The chemical formula for Compound D is NPK 10:20:10+6,5%S.

NPK NPK stands for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). These elements help plants grow in different ways from the roots to the stems and leaves. Neria’s can assist farmers to choose the correct formulation of NPK for the soil type, the type of crop and the growing stages of the plants.

Other products Raw materials are also provided directly to farmers with specific needs, namely: • Mono Ammonium Phosphate (MAP) • Muriate of Potash (MOP) • Ammonium Sulphate (AMSUL) Neria’s can also assist farmers with organic formulations to enhance the growth of micro-organisms and improve soil structure.

Contact Neria’s for your fertiliser needs in Zambia on +26(0)21124-4505, send them an e-mail to or visit their website at You can also visit them at Sub A, Stand 6392, Saturnia House, Longacres in Lusaka, Zambia. 7

Avima has led the way in the manufacturing and distribution of pesticides for the agriculture and public health sectors for more than 58 years, providing customers with technical and operational expertise. Avima’s product offering is diverse and dynamic with flexible services to ensure that customers’ needs are satisfied. Through strategic partnerships with selected global chemical suppliers, the entire portfolio has been designed to meet the requirements of resistance management, and integrated vector management programmes. The products sit across four main categories: Crop Protection, Disease Vector Control, Public Health Pest Control, and Specialist Pest Control. Avima stands for making a difference in the livelihoods of all Africa’s people by protecting lives against deadly diseases transmitted by vectors; maintaining food security through crop enhancement and protection; and improving healthy living through sanitary and pest-free environments.

AVIMA (PTY) LTD | | +27 (0)11 769 1300 18 Aschenberg Street | Chamdor | West Rand | Johannesburg | South Africa Co. Reg. No. 1961/001744/07 8

ProAgri Zambia 38

Unique sheep systems are the future:

Produce stronger, healthier lambs


SA Grain Storage Solutions is very popular and famous all over Southern Africa for their grain handling equipment. Over many years they have established themselves in the grain market as a reliable supplier of quality and durable equipment. This Heilbron based company situated in the northern part of the Free State province in South Africa is serious to stay ahead. They are constantly developing new products, even in different sectors if the opportunity arises. “Besides grain handling equipment, we manufacture water dams, PVC sails and dam linings. The recent addition to our product range is our sheep-directed equipment,” Willem Loots, Director of RSA Grain, says. Over the past five years RSA Grain Storage Solutions have been pioneering the industry of intensive lamb feedlots. “We are currently the market leader in tailor made solutions for farmers who want to make the move towards intensive sheep farming. With our expertise and cooperation with our clients, we have developed a worldclass product,” Willem says.

Sheep feedlots offer a very popular solution on limited land and where stock theft is high. You can trust RSA Grain Storage Solutions to build you a very professional unit. ProAgri Zambia 38

Today, this innovative company offers two mainline products, namely sheep feedlot systems and sheep lamb/ ewe slatted floor systems. The slatted floor system is crucial in an intensive lambing pen system when a farmer wants to improve the survival rate of new-born lambs. This is achieved through a two-pronged approach, one being that the hygiene in each pen is significantly increased by raising the floor and having all the manure and urine fall through the slatted floors. Second, limiting the space in which the ewe can move ensures that a strong, healthy bond between ewe and lamb is achieved, without any worries of an ewe abandoning a new lamb. A farmer also has more control over deliveries and can keep complications and losses to a minimum. “Our lamb/ewe pen systems give the farmer full control over his lambing cycle. Each ewe receives individual feed. Slatted floors above the ground makes cleaning and hygiene easy and enable you to raise a stronger, better class lamb,” Willem says. Even feed-wise, the system achieved wonders. “During our group tests we managed to achieve a reduction of 14 days on a 72-day feed cycle. Our sheep feed systems provide maximum soil utilisation per lamb and ease of feed and water provision.” The system is really intensive and compact. He says: “Our system works on an area of roughly 60 x 50 m and can comfortably accommodate 800 to 1 000 lambs.” “Each system is uniquely designed for each farmer, and we welcome any inquiries. Our approach is to visit the farm where possible and consult with the farmer on his exact needs.

Furthermore, we try to incorporate the existing infrastructure on the farm into our systems,” Willem says.

The secret in producing a healthier and stronger lamb while keeping the ewe happier, is a slatted floor system which is carefully designed for your particular needs by RSA Grain Storage Solutions. Contact Willem Loots at +27 (0)76-991-5208, +27 (0)82-5765057 or send an e-mail to Also visit their informative website at 9

uppe marketing A19862

Committed to a world without hunger ... a planet respected. Word-class specialists in and suppliers of inorganic feed phosphates, supplements, concentrates and nutritionally balanced animal feed, YARA strives to be the leading provider of sustainable crop nutrition and animal feed solutions, supporting farmer profitability through local knowledge, international expertise and ongoing technical advice, quality and productivity. With an ever-increasing world population, our responsibility remains to feed the world and protect the planet despite economic barriers, limited arable land and scarce resources. Forging strong relationships with our clients, investing in each other and building trust, lead to consistent business success, because we believe ... only through working together, we can make a real difference. Tel: +27 (0)31 910-5100 • Email: Yara Animal Nutrition (Pty) Ltd. Reg. No. 2001/025850/07

Drotsky follows an age-old tradition of unnegotiable craftsmanship by Du Preez de Villiers


rotsky’s iconic red and yellow colours are spread far and wide over Southern Africa, to such an extent that the name, Drotsky, has become a household name for hammer mills. Drotsky is a South African company, based in Alberton, but is taking special care of the Zambian farmer by exporting a carefully chosen range of equipment, precisely suited to the country’s needs.

The S6 super plant is an improvement on the other S-models with extra features. The owner, Tewis van der Ryst, travelled to Africa and realised there was a need for a variety of other milled products. The Super Plant is designed to produce three maize products - samp, hominy chop and refined maize meal, where the germs and shells are removed. This machine reduces the regular five steps of an industrial roller mill to three.

The M-series is Drotsky’s flagship product available in a M8, M16, M24 and M36 model, where the M16-model is the most popular outside South Africa. These hammer mills are unique in the sense that they use a 360° sieve, which doubles the capacity of the traditional half circle hammer mills. The fans are on the outside of the sieve, which means it sucks the finished material with the same power instead of pushing it outwards and all around the sieve. Maize can also be milled and when travelling through the cyclone, it is cooled down, which improves the taste and shelf life. It is also very effective for cutting roughage.

The S-series works on a smaller scale and produces a finer product for animal and human consumption. It doesn’t have blowers, which eliminates dust. The final product just drops down to be collected below the machine. It mills the whole kernel to produce straight run maize meal. This is the most nutritious form of pure maize meal. It can be powered either by an electric motor or a diesel engine. ProAgri Zambia 38

Contact Francesco van Wyk on +27(0)83-267-3286 or +27(0)11-864-1601 or e-mail for more information, or visit their website at

The P2000 horizontal mixer appeals to the serious feed mixer or commercial farmer. This mixer is famous for its very quick, effective and thorough mixing action. This is the reason why milk farmers and their sensitive, highly productive animals love it. These mixers are also very inexpensive compared to mixers imported from the rest of the world. 11

Grow with Gundle API for a secure future Gundle plastic materials are manufactured for African conditions



Engineerd for proven quality and cost effective solutions in the agricultural, industrial, mining, leisure and waste disposal sectors.

Long lasting SILEX has greater puncture and tear resistance and maintains an effective air/rain-tight seal and ensures less damage to the silage.



South Africa’s most technically advanced plastic mulch ensures optimal growth and improved yields.

Frost covers reduce frost damage. It is formulated for short season applications where crops require protection for one season only.


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Packaging Cucumber shrink Fumigation sheeting Brick covers Pond liners Pool covers Planting bags Ground covers

• Truck liners • Damp and waterproof sheeting for construction applications • Roofing undertile • WeedStop spunwoven

ProAgri Zambia 38

DAZ facilitates proper feed for proper milk

by Rabecca Mwila

Board Chairperson Miriam Mbazima and DAZ Executive Manager receive the chaff cutters provided by DAZ.


echanisation of feed production is the way forward for a dairy farmer, even when starting with small machines. This is one of the stepping stones to become a commercial farmer. The Dairy Association of Zambia (DAZ) has procured ten chaff cutters worth K90 000 for distribution to dairy co-operatives in four districts in the country. A chaff cutter is a mechanical device for cutting straw or hay into small pieces before being mixed in with other forage and fed to horses and cattle. The equipment will be distributed to co-operatives in Lusaka, Southern,

DAZ staff offloading the chaff cutters. ProAgri Zambia 38

Central and Copperbelt Provinces. In a recent interview, DAZ board Chairperson, Mirriam Mbazima, said the chaff cutters will enhance the efficiency of dairy farmers and will reduce time taken for farmers to cut grass for their animals. “The cutters will give dairy farmers an alternative for animal food because it will also be able to cut grains,” she said. She said well-fed dairy animals will boost milk production and enhance the economic standing of small-scale farmers in the country. Mrs Mbazima however bemoaned the low consumption of milk in the country

which currently stands at 35 litres per individual annually. She said a deliberate effort to inform citizens on the importance of milk consumption could result in achieving the recommended global consumption levels of 200 litres per individual annually. “The association is currently involved in consultative meetings with its partners in an effort to revamp the school milk consumption programme as a way of encouraging milk consumption,” she said. In 2014, the Swedish International Development Agency supported a oneyear pilot programme dubbed Milk for Schools in Zambia, in partnership with the food processing and packaging solutions company - Tetra Pak, the World Food Programme, the Zambian government and local stakeholders. Mrs Mbazima added that the organisation anticipates an increased milk production capacity of 500 million litres this year, from 450 million litres last year. “We project the increase in milk production capacity this year due to various training projects and programmes that were undertaken last year.” She further noted that the pasture seed distribution exercise enabled more animals to have access to reliable food and will help farmers reduce their reliance on maize bran as food source.

Contact Miriam Mbazima of the Dairy Association of Zambia at 097-760-0458 or miriambazima@ for more information. 13


with the punches...

How good is your “defence”?



Prevent Poor imitations and buy directly from the only bonnox factory, situated in sunderland ridge, centurion only a bonnox invoice will serve as a certificate of authenticity. • •

076 169 9068


081 865 4543

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ProAgri Zambia 38

Bonnox is a lifestyle choice by Du Preez de Villiers


lthough he is a businessman, Desmond Green prefers the serenity of country life. When he moved from Botswana to South Africa, he decided to raise his children in the rustic tranquillity of the Western Cape countryside near Worcester. One of the most important decisions he had to make, was how to fence in his property. In 1997, Desmond and his wife had to fence in their plot in Botswana to keep out stray donkeys, cattle, goats and dogs. His wife, Elena, also wanted to keep a few goats. He saw the Bonnox advertisement in an agricultural magazine. The concept seemed to be a logical solution for his purpose. He and a worker quickly mastered the erection process, and the 1,8-m high fence was put up in a jiff y. Desmond says: “Bonnox proved to be the easiest, quickest and best solution for my fencing needs. If you follow the instructions and do everything right from the start, the time factor is a major advantage. You do not have to strain every wire separately. You strain the whole lot together one time and it is done. In 2015 they arrived in Worcester. The existing fence was five strands of

Desmond Green made a neat and functional gate using Bonnox fencing. ProAgri Zambia 38

Desmond Green and his wife, Elena, believe that a fence should be effective, but also aesthetical, uniform and neat. Therefore, they chose Bonnox to fence in their property which is outside Worcester.

Elena, Elizabeth and Desmond Green, Tiaan Conrad and Roxy find it hard to imagine a farm without Bonnox fencing. ordinary barbed wire. Desmond says: “I told my wife we had to put up Bonnox again, but she insisted that the fence should have aesthetic appeal. I showed her the pictures on the Bonnox website and she preferred the range with 100 x 100 mm mesh from top to bottom, because she found it pleasing to the eye with its uniform look. It was a more expensive range, but we only had to camp in two hectares and two paddocks, and it was important that it should look good.” Desmond ordered the 1,8-metre fence for his boundary and 1,4-metre for the inside camp in front of his house. He also bought the Bonnox clamp bar. “Two workers who had never erected Bonnox before quickly grasped the principles and within three days the fence was completed. I drove in a Y-standard every ten metres and placed three droppers between every two Y-standards. The steel corner and straining posts were secured every 98 metres,” Desmond says. Bonnox was the ideal fence to offer them safety, keep stray animals out, keep Elena’s possible future goats inside, and to emphasise their rustic lifestyle…

Doing business with Bonnox is very simple and straightforward, Desmond claims. “You tell them your needs and they respond with a quote. You only have to tell them how long and how high your fence must be, the size of the mesh you prefer, and the sloping of your farm. Then they reply with the right fence, number of posts, Y-standards and droppers you will need. They also suggest suitable transport contractors to deliver all the items needed.” Desmond’s advice to farmers who are still pondering over the various fencing options is: “Bonnox is original and they are still on the market. That means that Bonnox works. The Bonnox I erected three years ago still looks and works like brand new. Simply buy it and put it up. Bonnox is cost effective and of excellent quality.”

Bonnox offers a wide range of versatile products. Call Bonnox on +27 (0)12-666-8717 or +27 (0)76-169-9068, or send an e-mail to,, or Also visit their website at to get acquainted with their wide range of products and useful information. 15

**Habing et al. (2017, J.Dairy Sci. 100:3940-3948)

• 2017 trial: Supplementation to scouring calves results • Reduction in severity of episodes • 50% reduction in mortality at 120 days**

...therefore improving digestive performance.

Butyrate is very valuable to the calf and it has been shown to: - Drive gut blood flow and villi growth - Promote water absorption - Stimulate enzyme secretion

• We add butyrate to fill the fatty acid gap left behind by vegetable oils.

• We ensure the right amino acid profile to drive a targeted growth level.

• We take and then balance the proteins, fats and sugars which are specifically required for the needs of the calf.

We formulate for performance

The higher levels of bovine milk oligosaccharides found in are an important food source for positive bacteria in the gut.

• Plays a vital role in innate defences • Powerful iron binding antibacterial properties

Lactoferrin – research findings

Lactoferrin is identified in at elevated levels.

• Enhances the function of the Immune system


• Stimulates blood flow and villi growth • Promotes water absorption • Increases enzyme secretion • Contains anti-microbial properties


• Improves gut health

• Recent research suggests that Butyrate, a known energy source, is particularly beneficial in improving gut health

As part of creating the most performance formulated products available, we have added two additional ingredients together with selected vitamins and minerals to enhance our new range of milk formulas.

Health supplements

Tried and trusted performance Great results every time High content Gardion health package Higher levels of leucine

Experts in young animal nutrition

*Based on recommended feeding rates with access to ad lib starter feed and water

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The tried and trusted performer


he calving season has just kicked off in Zambia and with it comes the feeding of calves. Many farmers may find feeding milk replacer a viable option; especially when they consider the potential income achievable from milk sales compared to the cost of milk powder. Calf health benefits are also associated with feeding a milk replacer. However, careful attention must also be given to colostrum management; failing to observe the appropriate measures may inadvertently result in some calves getting less nutrients and ending up sick on the farm. Whether you feed whole milk or milk replacer, providing the calf with energy and protein is critical to support and maintain their normal body functions. What to look out for? When feeding a replacer, it is important to give serious consideration to the

product in the bag. The days of picking up the first bag you see in your local store should be well and truly over. Remember, this is the next generation of cows you are feeding and getting them off to the best possible start will have benefits when it comes to hitting target weights and, in turn, when you’re cupping them in the parlour down the line. When it comes to protein, farmers need to make sure that the protein in the milk replacer comes from dairy sources – either whey or skim powders. Failing to adhere to this and using ‘cheaper’ powders – high in plant-based proteins – will have a knock-on effect on performance. Ideally, farmers should aim to use a milk replacer with a protein content of 23 to 26% when feeding dairy heifers. In addition, the crude fibre content should not surpass 0,15%; the minimum fat content should be 16 to 20% and ash content should sit at 7 to 8%.

The optimum solution Novatek is proud to sell Volac’s product called Blossom Easymix for the reason that their approach in the manufacturing process is based on the utilisation of concentrated milk protein as the major protein contributor. The proteins which make up whole milk may, in simple terms, be differentiated into casein and whey, and whilst the latter represents a key source of milk protein it has traditionally been undervalued due to a combination of factors. These include a historical lack of investment due to ignorance of potential applications, variability in supply and a lack of appropriate processing technology. Research by Volac over the past ten years has demonstrated significant benefits from the substitution of traditional sources of milk protein with carefully selected, specially processed whey proteins in milk replacer diets for calves and lambs. The careful selection and processing of the whey results in a protein which is highly soluble and highly digestible in the digestive tract. How soon can milk replacers be fed? Once calves have received 8,5% of their birth bodyweight in colostrum within two hours of birth and if there is no difference in their weight gain pre or postweaning when compared to calves fed colostrum. This suggests that in well-managed systems, where the transfer of disease may be an issue, milk replacer can be offered immediately after colostrum feeding.

You can contact Wiehan Visagie at or Marné Meyer at for any information on feeding and feeds. ProAgri Zambia 38


Play your Play your part in part in the war the war against against brucellosis brucellosis


ProAgri Zambia 38


ovine brucellosis, caused by Brucella abortus, is reported across most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Bovine brucellosis mainly causes abortions in cattle and can infect most other mammals, including humans. We thank the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of the Republic of South Africa for making their guides on animal diseases available to the readers of ProAgri Zambia.

Vaccination helps to decrease shedding of Brucella bacteria from infected animals. This helps to limit the spread of brucellosis within a herd and decreases the infection pressure. Always use vaccines according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Contact your private veterinarian or state veterinary services to help you mitigate this serious disease.

cattle and ensure that your fences are intact. If you have brucellosis in your herd, follow the advice of your state veterinarian to get rid of the infection as quickly as possible (branding, separation, vaccination and slaughter). Delays in action against the disease will increase losses and prolong quarantine.

An aborted foetus. Brucellosis may occur in persons who are exposed to infected animals, particularly through aborted and normal foetal material of infected cows and through the consumption of unpasteurised milk. Symptoms in infected persons include fever and fever-like symptoms, night sweat, extreme tiredness, depression, aches in bones and joints, especially the lower back, hip or knee joints. All female cattle between the ages of four to eight months have to be vaccinated against brucellosis with a registered product to help protect the national cattle herd.

Vaccinations for brucellosis disease. Photo: •

• • •

Vaccination is one of the important tools used to control and prevent brucellosis. Vaccination of all female calves between four to eight months is required. Do not vaccinate male cattle. Know your status! Test your cattle herd for brucellosis. Only buy cattle from recently tested, brucellosis negative herds and ask for proof. Don’t share grazing with untested

Branding of brucellosis positive cattle.

NB! Let’s all play our part to protect each other, our cattle’s health, our own health and our livelihoods.

Brucellosis symptoms in infected persons. Photo: ProAgri Zambia 38

For more information and support, contact your nearest animal health technician or state/private veterinarian. 19



Farm No. 683B Mumbwa Road, Lusaka West, P.O Box 35310, Lusaka. Tel: 211 846 367-70 Email:


The African Seed Company ProAgri Zambia 38

ProAgri Zambia 38


Visit o ur stand at

Jupidex (Pty) Ltd was founded in 1999, then trading as Kverneland South Africa. The company started off by importing and distributing Kverneland, Vicon, Taarup and RAU products from the world renowned Kverneland group to meet the needs of farmers in Southern Africa. Jupidex (Pty) Ltd are the market leader in South Africa regarding the distribution of soil preparation equipment and trailed mowers. Having one of the best dealer networks and always working on long term business relations within this network, Jupidex can market the total product range to the farming community throughout Southern Africa and Africa.



Jupidex Zambia Ltd • Stand 26594A • Kafue Road • Lusaka | Tel: +260 977 435 681 |


single rotor rake has one horizontal wheel or rotor with tines pointing downwards. The movement of the tines throw the grass against a screen to form a windrow on the side of the tractor’s line of movement. This month we look in detail at the hitch components, PTO drive shaft and rotor of the single rotor rake. We thank ARC Agricultural Engineering in South Africa for making their manual on rakes and tedders available to the readers of ProAgri Zambia.

to the drawbar of a tractor. (See Figures 3a and 3b). On some of the single rotor mowers the three-point tractor hitch can also pivot to a certain extent to allow the rake to follow the ground contours easier. This makes the machine practically independent of the tractor and when lifted, the machine is automatically locked in line with the tractor. This pivoting three-point frame guarantees flexibility, mobility and ease of operation (see Figure 4).

The single rotor rake: This type of rake is driven from the PTO shaft of the tractor and consists of the following: • Hitch components • PTO shaft • Rotor • Windrow screen • Guide wheels • Tine arm racks The single rotor rake.

Figure 4: When lifted, the pin slides to the bottom corner of the triangle and the rake is automatically locked in line with the tractor.

Figure 3a: A single rotor rake with a three-point hitching frame.

PTO drive shaft: The PTO speed is normally set at 540 rpm. The PTO shaft must be protected with a suitable telescopic shield and this shield must be replaced whenever it is damaged or worn out. (See Figures 5 and 6). All single rotor rakes are equipped with safety clutches.

Figure 5: A side view of a tractor showing the position of the seat, differential, PTO shaft and drawbar. The PTO shaft connects the rake to the PTO of the tractor.

The single rotor rake in action.

Figure 6: The PTO shaft with its telescopic safety shield.

Main frame: The hitching and other working components are connected to the main frame. The frame is robust and easy to maintain. The frame is designed to keep the centre of gravity close to the tractor. Hitch components: Some single rotor rakes are equipped with a fixed three-point frame attached to the main frame and suitable for hitching to the three-point linkage of a tractor. Other single rotor rakes are trailed models with a clevis connected

Figure 3b: A single rotor trailed rake with a clevis that hitches to the drawbar of a tractor.

ProAgri Zambia 38


Auxo – Post emergence maize herbicide for grasses and broadleaf weeds. Ideal for use in multi cropping systems. Belt® - An insecticide for Lepidoptera pests. Also an ideal solution for fall army worm, Tuta absoluta and diamond-back moth.

Confidor® - A solution for control of sucking insects and termites. Protects crops from effects of abiotic and biotic stress.

Nativo® - Ideal fungicide for early blight, rust, mildew, leaf spot and Grey leaf spot.

Always shut off the tractor’s engine when engaging or disengaging the PTO shaft. Make sure that the rake’s PTO shaft overlaps 50% to allow sufficient telescopic movement when the rake is following the contours in the field. (See Figures 7 and 8). Figure 12: The tines in a horizontal position.

Figure 10: The spring steel tines are mounted at the end of the tine bar.

Figure 7: Always allow 50% overlapping on the PTO shaft.

At the outer end of each tine bar are a number of cam operated spring-steel tines. When the rotor tine bars reach the extreme left of their circuit, a cam lifts the tines from their rear vertical raking position to a horizontal position, allowing the hay to be deposited against a windrow screen (see Figures 11, 12 and 13).

Figure 13: The hay is deposited against a windrow screen.

Figure 11: The cam track in the centre hub, lifts the tines from their vertical raking position to a horizontal position to deposit the material in a neat windrow.

Figure 8: Depress the lock button and move the PTO shaft forward until the locking device is in position. You can hear it click. Rotor: The single rotor rake consists of a single PTO driven large diameter rotor with tine bars radiating from a centre hub (see Figures 9 and 10).

Figure 9: The centre hub contains the cam unit that controls the movement of the tines. ProAgri Zambia 38

This type of rotor is used for raking windrows and not for spreading hay for drying purposes. The rotor diameter can go from 2,0 to 3,6 metres and the mass of a single rotor rake can be 500 kg, depending on the type and model. The number of arms per rotor, can vary from 7 to 13, and the number of tines per arm can vary from 6 to 8. The shallow profile cam track, with a diameter of 300 mm, and on some models 400 mm, ensures that the cam follower rollers are smoothly guided through the entire cycle (see Figure 11). On big single rotor rakes the tines are sometimes curved to be in balance with the pivot axis (see Figures 14 and 15). 25


Wise Sibindi +26(0) 21 122 7497 / 26

Barry Hutchinson +26(0) 96 802 2320 /

Kalunga Chilufya +26(0) 97 777 5837 / ProAgri Zambia 38

Figure 14: Rake with curved tines.

Figure 15: Rake with straight tines.

Clean raking depends largely on the design of the tines. Long and flexible tines, with a gentle action, handle the most delicate crops with care. The tines are normally also curved towards the exterior of the machine to ensure that no grass is left behind, even when raking the densest crops. The gearbox with the cam unit can be an oil bath or a greased unit, and all the parts that control the movement of the tine arms are enclosed in a sealed housing, safe from rain, dust and dry grass particles. Pre-lubricated ball bearings are also used as cam followers (see Figure 11). Next month we shall look at the windrow screen, safety guards, guide wheels, tine arms carrier and operational features of the single-rotor rake. Published with acknowledgement to the ARC Agricultural Engineering for the use of their rakes and tedders manual. Visit www.arc. for more information. ProAgri Zambia 38

Photo: 27

Nothing Stands Still in Your Business

The seasons stop for no one and with a generator set from FG Wilson, neither do you. FG Wilson offer a complete range of robust and reliable self-contained diesel generator sets from 6.8 – 2,500 kVA which are easy to operate and require a minimum of installation work. Our dealers can help you choose a generator set which will give you years of service, install it for you and ensure that you have all the service and support you need.

To find out more, visit

Make more from your crops Processing of oil seeds Part 14: Sunflower oil production for medium-scale processors By Theresa Siebert, Petrus Britz, Pr Eng and Agrelek

ProAgri Zambia 38



ProAgri Zambia 38


he medium-scale oil processor can process 300 kg to 1 tonne of sunflower seeds per hour. Sunflower seeds yield between 40 and 60% oil of which 65 to 80% may be extracted using medium-scale oil presses or expellers. The oil is usually cold-pressed and yields high quality oil for frying, salad or shortening purposes. The oil generally retains anti-oxidants better than large-scale produced oil. This is important from a health and shelf-life perspective. We thank the ARC Agricultural Engineering in South Africa who made the information available to the readers of ProAgri Zambia. Medium-scale processors are generally close to the sunflower production area, resulting in the minimum need for transportation. Marketing possibilities of the oil range from direct selling and

Sunflower oilcake. Photo:

Sunflower oil. Photo:

marketing to the local rural people in retail packaging, or as bulk packaged products for large plants. Sunflower oil is a very popular product in fast food franchises as well as health shops. A great advantage of the mediumscale processor is the fact that the equipment needed is locally available. A popular by-product of sunflower oil is oilcake. It can be sold to nearby stock farmers as animal feed. This also saves on transportation costs. It is important to exercise caution to maintain the quality of the protein in the oilcake. During processing, a significant amount of protein denaturation can take place. For feeding purposes, the denaturation is generally desirable, because of the resultant improvement in digestibility. However, excessive heat generated during processing, may result in intensive loss of amino acids. The extent of such a loss will depend on the processing time and temperature, the moisture and the reducing sugar content of the oilcake, as well as other variable constituents and foreign materials in the original material. ProAgri Zambia 38

Sunflowers Harvesting & storage

Photo 2:

Harvesting and storage of sunflower seed The seed is harvested when the moisture content is approximately 10%. To have seed available throughout the year, large quantities need to be stored. Proper storage is very important. Seeds may be spoiled by mould, insect damage or overheating during storage. This may lead to damage ranging from a moderate increase in free fatty acid content in the oil, to seeds that are thoroughly spoiled and unfit for processing. The moisture content is the single most important factor for storing seeds. The moisture content must be below 10% throughout the entire storage period. If the seeds are harvested at a moisture content above 10%, the seeds should first be dried, and this adds to the processing cost. The capital cost of proper storage may be substantial, but must be weighed against the overall investment costs. To make maximum use and profit from the capital invested in the processing machinery, processing needs to take place continuously, and this is only possible with a steady supply of properly stored seeds.

Separation Dehulling (Size reduction) (Conditioning) Extraction Pressed oil


Clarification Refining

Oil recovery (solvent extraction)


Oil-cake recovery

Sunflower oil Process description Sunflower oil – medium-scale

Stored sunflower seed. Photo: 31


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Separation of sunflower seeds The harvested seeds are contaminated with foreign matter that needs to be removed. The foreign matter includes metal, sticks, straw, animal residues, dust and stones. Separation is performed using various apparatus and methods including: • Magnets to remove ferrous metals • Metal detectors to detect nonferrous metals • Destoners or a series of sieves (rotary or table sieves): coarse screens remove larger objects while fine screens remove particles smaller than the seed. • Disc separators remove unwanted foreign seeds as well as damaged, shrunken and broken sunflower seeds on the basis of their length • Aspirators remove light, air-borne particles. Proper cleaning will not only increase the processing capacity and improve the oil cake quality, but will also reduce the maintenance of the processing equipment. Hulling of sunflower seeds for oil extraction As the seed coat contains little or no oil, its inclusion would make oil extraction less efficient. If the hulls are not removed prior to extraction, they will reduce the total oil yield by absorbing and retaining oil in the pressed cake. Sunflower seeds only require partial hulling, since the seed coats play an important role in the separation of the oil and the cake. If the percentage of husks present were insufficient, an oily paste would emerge from the expeller with little or no free-run oil. The hulls are utilised in animal feeds as roughage, in the manufacture of chemicals, or as a substrate for yeast cells. Two methods/processes can be used for medium operations: • The Engelberg huller which combines milling and hulling in one machine. The ribbed cylinder rotates on a horizontal axis within cylindrical chamber. The first/early stages of the machine are dedicated to hulling. The ribs for this are diagonal curves, and the other ribs are parallel to cylindrical axis. The bottom half consists of screens through which fine material may pass. The gap between the cylinders and the flow rate controls the severity of treatment. Hulls removed help to abrade the grain surface further. Hulls, bran and broken endosperm are discharged through screens. • Two-stage process - hulling is done by running the seeds through two rubber-coated rollers turning in opposite directions at different speeds. The rollers must be replaced every 100 to 150 hours. Pressure is exerted and the gap is ProAgri Zambia 38

An Engelberg sunflower huller. Photo: adjustable to ensure best performance of the equipment. It is a highly effective method that can remove more than 90% of the hulls. Size reduction of sunflower seeds (optional) The extraction efficiency is improved by reducing the particle size and/or increasing the surface to volume ratio. The pieces should, however, not be too small as they may then contaminate the oil and complicate filtration/clarification. The seeds are reduced in size through either crushing, breaking, grinding or flaking. The choice of method depends on the oil content of the seeds, as well as the availability of equipment and the subsequent extraction method to be used. Typical equipment includes roller mills and flaking rollers. Roller mills use a pair of parallel rollers that rotate in opposite directions. One of the rollers rotates faster than the other (speed differential). Fluted rollers used for the breaking system consist of flutes, which resembles an italic V (one side shorter than the other). This process relies on the separation of the botanical tissue of the seed (endosperm from endocarp, testa [seed coats] and embryo) and reduction of the endosperm into grits. It involves both separation and size reduction. A thin curtain of seeds is fed into the nip (opening) between the rollers. Flutes shear open the seed and the seeds are reduced to a coarse meal.

The broken seeds may be rolled or flattened with large heavy rollers (flaking rollers) if required. Rollers are hollow inside to allow for chilled water to pass through, removing any excess heat to keep the temperature between 40 to 46 °C. The rollers are counter rotating with a surface temperature of 40 to 48 °C. 40 Tonnes of pressure can be exerted by the rolls. Roller speed is 100 to 400 rpm and capacity can vary from 100 to 400 kg/h. Sharpened steel knives mounted on adjustable holders are used to shave off the flakes that adhere to the roller surface. The thickness of the flakes can be between 0,25 and 0,45 mm. Conditioning of sunflower seeds (optional) The seed is conditioned to weaken the cell walls, to lower the viscosity of the oil and to coagulate the proteins in the cell walls. Conditioning is performed in a cooker that heats the seeds directly with water and steam. The seed is kept at a temperature of 90 to 95 °C for a period of 30 to 60 minutes. Heating also combats enzymes in the plant tissue, which would have a detrimental effect on the oil quality. If the oil cake is to be used for feed, controlled heating may be useful in increasing protein availability in the resultant oil-cake fraction.




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Sunflower oil medium-scale press. Oil extraction from sunflower on medium-scale Oil extraction is accomplished using continuous screw presses or expellers. The expellers apply pressure to the seeds through a screw that rotates in an enclosed casing or housing. The tapered auger feeds the seed into the housing to fill the gap between the auger and the sleeve. The pressure increases from the intake of the barrel to the end. An adjustable cone closes the housing at the end. The pressure in the sleeve may be adjusted by screwing or unscrewing the cone. Cake emerges from the press through the gap between the housing and the cone. Very high temperatures may easily occur in these expellers due to the enormous pressure that is generated. The heat aids the extraction of the oil. Care must be taken to ensure that the oil does not overheat as this could render the oil inedible. Clarification of sunflower oil In the case of pressed oil, an oil settling and filtering process is required to remove suspended debris. The crude oil is pumped to settling tanks and allowed to stand for at least 48 hours for most of the impurities to settle. The clear oil is then drawn off and the remaining suspended solids in the oil may be removed by either filtration or centrifugation.

Next month we shall look at the refining process of sunflower oil and the recovering of oil from oil cake.

Sunflower oil tanks. Photo: ProAgri Zambia 38


Published with acknowledgement to the ARC Agricultural Engineering for the use of their manuals. Visit for more information. 35


Zainab Pandor +26 (0)97-769-9786 (ZM)

Xander Pieterse +27 (0)79-524-0934 (RSA)


ProAgri Zambia 38

See brochure instore for more details at Livestock Services Co-operative Society & Agrivet Africa

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ProAgri Zambia 38


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ProAgri Zambia 38

ProAgri Zambia 38


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ProAgri Zambia 38

ProAgri Zambia 38


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AGRItech Expo Zambia: AGRItech map inside Invest in a cattle farm Process sunflower oil on medium scale Live the Bonnox lifestyle

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