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ProAgri technology for the farmer

Z a m b i a

No 26


Choose Farmet for effective cultivation

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ProAgri Zambia 26

Letter from the Editor

ProAgri technology for the farmer

No 26



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Agrico is making progress in Zambia and their pivot irrigation systems are carefully manufactured and designed to place water exactly where and when the farmer needs it.



he new season is in full swing and serious farmers are occupied by their crops, which need to be nurtured and checked regularly. Most of the maize should be above shoulder height already and the soy beans are forming canopies. The FISP-system is causing many farmers serious headaches. In the Kalomo district, farmers were let down for the third consecutive season. They still cannot collect their seed and fertiliser from the suppliers. They deposited their money before mid-December, but their cards are still not activated. Some Kasempa farmers are also struggling with inactivated cards and decided to storm the office of the District Commissioner. The matter is being investigated. In Lundazi, co-operative members claim that their leaders are holding back their inputs. Some farmers only received two bags of fertiliser. This has a dire negative effect on the spirit of farmers, and we all hope that


3 4 13 15


Z a m b i a

Choose Farmet for effective cultivation

17 21 26 31 33

these issues will be resolved soon. Another crisis is a fast spreading stalk borer outbreak in the Serenje district. The ZNFU visited the area and called on farmers to be on the alert and keep their sprayers ready to combat the pest. More than ten hectares are already destroyed. In this edition you can read about Sensako’s new wheat cultivars, how Bonnox’s fences offer reliable security and Saro’s commitment to alternative energy on farms. We also publish another story out of the Czech Republic about Farmet and their soil preparation implements, which are already doing great work in Zambia.

technology for the farmer

Z a m b i a

Office no. 3 Fens Investment Building Lusaka Show Grounds +26 (0)96-216-9801 Copyright © 2018. All rights r­ eserved. No m ­ aterial, text or p ­ hoto­graphs may be r­ eproduced, copied or in any other way t­ ransmitted without the written consent of the publisher. O ­ pinions ­expressed are not n ­ ecessarily those of the publisher or of the e ­ ditor. We recognise all trademarks and logos as the sole property of their r­ espective o ­ wners. ProAgri shall not be liable for any errors or for any actions in reliance thereon.

ProAgri Zambia

Editor Du Preez de Villiers > +27 82-598-7329 General Manager and Distribution Zambia Quintus Grobler > +26-(0)96-216-9801 (WA only) South Africa + 27-078-978-6339 Reporters Annemarie Bremner > +27 82-320-3642 Farm smartly! Benine Cronjé > +27 73-105-6938 Du Preez de Villiers Senior Production Manager: Zainab Pandor > +26 (0)97-769-9786 Marketing Xander Pieterse > +27 79-524-0934 Stefan van Wyk > +27 82-381-7563 Tiny Smith > +27 79-531-0024 4 17 21 26 33 Riaan Oosthuizen > +27 72-321-3690 Tried and tested wheat cultivars for the Zambian market Johnnie Krige > +27 82-385-6191 Sheep farming made easy: Part 3 Design Protect your cattle with a Bonnox fortress Christiaan Joubert > +27 72-419-3990 Willem van Zyl +26 096 562 0775 ETG opens blending plant in Lusaka Enquiries +26 096 976 7272 Lize du Plooy > +27 12-803-0667 Soil: The farmer’s most important asset: Part 23 Engela Botha > +27 12-803-0667 Spray to protect your crops: Part 3 Accounts Make more from your crops: Processing of oil seeds: Part 3 Ronel Keet > +27 12-803-0667 Saro Agro provides the power to propel farming Business Manager Farmers welcome Farmet implements George Grobler

ProAgri Zambia 26


Tried and tested wheat cultivars for the Zambian market

Sensako is a proudly Southern African company with an established network of both local and international cooperators and interests. From humble beginnings in 1958, Sensako has maintained a proud history of product development and service to the grain producer in Southern Africa and a strong brand value among farmers. Since 2008, Sensako has refocused its research and efforts on continued wheat development as well as the re-establishment of summer crops. Sensako develops its products under the principles of “PROGRESS THROUGH RESEARCH” to produce new improved varieties/hybrids that contain “PROVEN GENETICS”. This is what Sensako calls “THE SENSAKO EFFECT”, which has become a slogan to encapsulate the vision and mission of the company. This article examines the progress in research of this widely known brand at its present point in the Zambian wheat seed market. The individuals currently involved in the winter crop breeding activities are the following: Dr Francois Koekemoer is the Research and Development Director, Wikus Bergh the Operational Director, and Stephan de Groot the Wheat Breeder. Wheat evaluation trials with the newly released cultivars have been planted in Zambia in collaboration with Syngenta since 2015, and a synopsis of the yield results is shown in Table 1.

The Sensako varieties have been tested against the local wheat cultivars to verify the yield potential and adaptation to climatic conditions. From these yield results the Sensako cultivars, particularly MRI 875 and SST 884 have shown improved yields compared to the local cultivar. An interesting observation from a commercial farmer in SERENJE, Zambia: Northern He planted MRI 875 at the end of July 2017 and harvested in November, after heavy rainfall. The cultivar produced a reasonable yield, and grain quality was still excellent. SC NDUNA would not have been accepted by the millers if the same practice had taken place. The cultivar MRI 843 has a shorter growing season and is suitable for later plantings. A condensed version of the cultivar characteristics is briefly discussed: MRI 843 This short growth period cultivar has good yield potential and good grain quality. It is adapted to late plantings, has good lodging tolerance, good resistance to yellow rust and moderate resistance to leaf and stem rust.

cultivar has good yield potential and good grain quality. This cultivar has the ‘stay-green’ characteristic indicating good drought tolerance and has good lodging tolerance and good adult plant resistance against leaf and yellow rust. SST 884 A newly released cultivar in Zambia with excellent yield potential, a short growth period and good grain quality. This cultivar has the ‘stay-green’ characteristic indicating good drought tolerance. The cultivar has good lodging tolerance, an excellent root system and good plant resistance against stem and yellow rust. In conclusion, Sensako is building on its policy to offer “THE SENSAKO EFFECT” (value adding products) to wheat producers. Tried and tested under local conditions these cultivars are the next step in improved wheat production.

Sensako cultivars are marketed and distributed in Zambia by Syngenta.

MRI 875 The short to medium growth period

Table 1






Alan Miller

Multi year Average

MRI 843








MRI 875






SST 884












Yield results of wheat cultivars tested in Zambia: 2015-2017 ProAgri Zambia 26


Sheep farming made easy Part 3: T  he best site for your sheep production unit


he choice of a suitable site for your sheep production unit is not only important from the perspective of the sheep unit or the specific needs of the sheep. It is also important that the site complements the entire farm layout and considers other operational activities. We thank the ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering in South Africa who made their manual on sheep production and facilities available to the readers of ProAgri Zambia. The following factors influence the choice of a site: • Economy: The underlying reason for any development or extension of an operation

is to maximise profits. It is therefore necessary that all economic factors regarding each potential site should be determined and considered. The question is whether the provision of housing and handling facilities will increase the eventual income to such an extent that it will be possible to recover the expenditure within a reasonable period. • Effect on the environment: In the process of maximising profits, we must not be overwhelmed by selfishness regarding the utilisation of natural resources. In the planning – and specifically in the choice of a site - the effect that the system will have on the environment must be assessed. The choice of a site must be made in


such a way that the system will not contribute to pollution. The potential soil erosion that can be brought about by poorly planned storm water furrows and changes in the slope must be taken note of and evaluated. The contribution of each structure to the environment must also be taken into account, therefore the shape of the structure is important. If possible, all features or distinctions which enhance the environment, must be retained. An appealing and well-designed system will contribute to an acceptable working environment. • Relative position: Relative position means the placing of the complex relative to the farmyard. A compromise must be made between the comfort of being close to the complex and the discomfort of the noise and odours generated by the complex. The general placing is called zoning. The zoning model divides the farmyard into concentric rings with the farmyard as central point. These concentric rings are known as activity zones. Activities are now placed in one of these zones, depending on the degree of annoyance of the activity. Figure 1 (p 7) shows a division of typical activities in the zones. From the figure, we can deduce that the sheep production unit is placed in the development area and not closer than 90 m from the farmhouse. Noise and odour problems will be avoided if the unit is placed further away from the farmhouse, but supervision would then be more difficult (especially at night).

Do not choose a site that may contribute to pollution. 4

Continue p7

ProAgri Zambia 26

ProAgri Zambia 26


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ProAgri Zambia 26

Storm water furrow

charcteristics of the site determine the infiltration tempo of the soil. Clay soils will not only result in a low infiltration tempo and wet, muddy conditions, but also have weak foundation traits that may limit the type of structure to be used.



Sheep production system




Prevailing wind directions in orientation of buildings: The direction and strength of the local winds must be taken into account in placing the facility relative to the farmhouse. Natural shelter such as trees and a northern slope can also be utilised against cold winter winds. The orientation of a housing system must be such that it provides protection against cold winter winds, but still allows ventilation for the summer months. The orientation of the building also determines the effectiveness of the ventilation openings provided in the building. Orientation is further important in the utilisation of maximum shade in the summer and good heat gathering in winter, if possible. A housing system is usually placed with a long axis in an east-west direction and a low roof on the northern side.

0m Grain/ feed area

m 60






Main access route

Figure 1: Zoning model according to activity zones.

Prevailing summer winds



Farm house 90m





Prevailing winter winds


• Existing buildings: Existing buildings must only be used if they comply with the size, position, condition and adaptability of the entire plan.

Figure 2: Development relative to wind directions. • Accessibility: Easy access to the production unit from the main routes, machinery centre and feed area is an important consideration in the choice of a site. If vehicles must pass close to the farmhouse, it will ensure better security to the sheep complex. • Services: Costs and other implications regarding electricity supply, telephone service and water supply are important. • Drainage: Correct drainage is important, as runoff water may not be allowed into the

• Waste handling: Place the facility away from the natural stream areas - this will not only make the design and construction easier, but such a location provides sufficient space for the erection, maintenance and operation of a practical run-off control system. All run-off from a higher-lying catchment area must be diverted away from the facility by means of a run-off control system. Consider roofing for the open feeding pens and alleys in order to limit the volume of polluted run-off water.

natural stream areas. Poor drainage also has disease and other negative implications to be kept in mind. Drainage is mainly influenced by the topography and soil type of the relevant site. Low-lying areas must be avoided as far as possible to guard against problems with a high water table during wet periods. Suitable slopes are typically 4 to 6%, with the direction of the fall away from the farmhouse or other buildings. With steep slopes, attention must be given to the potential soil erosion dangers which may occur. A well thought-out run-off control plan will solve this problem. The soil

ProAgri Zambia 26

• Extension possibilities: With the choice of a site, the possible future extension of the production system must be kept in mind. Poor planning in this regard has inhibited the extension of an operational branch of a facility many times in the past, causing additional costs in the lay-out of a new unit. Design norms The design norms given in this paragraph must be seen as directives to the maximum and/or minimum proven in practice. It is however not necessary to apply these norms rigidly. Group sizes The purpose of the proposed group sizes is for the simplification of the management of a production system. Continue p 9


Indian River Broiler Pocket Guide: Housing and Environment Objective To provide an environment that permits the bird to achieve optimum performance in growth rate, uniformity, feed efficiency and yield, while ensuring that the health and welfare of the bird is not compromised. Principles Ventilation is the main means of controlling the bird’s environment. Ventilation maintains acceptable air quality in the house while keeping the birds within their comfort temperature. Ventilation provides adequate fresh air, removes excess moisture, and limits the build-up of potentially harmful gasses and airborne by-products. During the early stages of the bird’s life, ventilation supplies heat into the house to keep the birds warm and comfortable, and provides sufficient fresh air to maintain an acceptable air quality in the house. As the birds grow and start to produce more heat, higher ventilation rates are needed to remove heat and the products of respiration (moisture) from the house. Monitoring bird behaviour and adjusting ventilation in response to bird behaviour to ensure that bird comfort and activity is maintained, is key. Air The main contaminants of air within the house environment are dust, ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and excess water vapour. Levels of these contaminants must be kept within legal limits at all times. Continued and excessive exposure to these contaminants can: • Damage the respiratory tract. • Decrease the efficiency of respiration. • Trigger disease (e.g. ascites or chronic respiratory disease). • Affect temperature regulation. • Contribute to poor litter quality. • Reduce bird performance (Table 24).


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ProAgri Zambia 26

• Sick animals can be identified easier • Lambs will not be easily separated from their mothers

• Handling and record keeping is simplified

• Proposed group sizes are shown in Table 1

Space requirements Group type

Group size

Feeding pen


Ewes in lamb


Gathering or holding area

0,8 - 1m2/sheep

Ewes nearing lambing


1,5 - 1,8m2/ewe with lamb

Prematurely weaned lambs


0,5 - 0,75m2/Lamb under 1yr

Ewes with lambs - Age:

Herding area


Birth to 1 day

In lambing pen

Ram pens


2-4 days

10 ewes with lambs

Lambing pens

2,5 - 3m2/sheep

5-7 days

20 ewes with lambs

Shaded area in feeding pens


8-14 days

40 ewes with lambs

14 days +

50-300 ewes with lambs

* For ewes with twins, group sizes must be halved Table 1: Proposed group sizes

(0,3 - 0,75m2/sheep) Drying corral


* In areas with low rainfall (400mm/year), the drying corral can be reduced to 1m2/sheep Table 2: Space requirements for design and planning purposes

Feeding and drinking space Feeding and drinking space required Rationing / feeding trough conditions Mature sheep

0,4 - 0,5m2/sheep

Lambs ± 4 months

0,2 - 0,25m2/lamb

Lambs ± 1 year

0,3 - 0,35m2/lamb

Self-feeder / ad-lib feeding Mature sheep


Lambs ± 4 months

50 - 75mm/lamb

Lambs ± 1 year

75 - 100mm/lamb

Water trough

0,3m2/40 sheep

Table 3: Required feeding and drinking space

Water requirements of sheep Table 4 shows typical values for water requirements of the different animals in an intensive production system. Provision must be made in the design of the water supply system for reserve storage capacity for at least three days. Type of animal

Water requirements L/day/animal


7,5 - 10L

Dry ewes

7,5 - 10L

Ewes with lamb

± 12L

Weaned lambs

± 5L

Next month we shall look at housing systems. Published with acknowledgement to the ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering for the use of their Sheep Facilities Manual. Visit for more information.

ProAgri Zambia 26



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ProAgri Zambia 26

The remaining range of Pig Feeds are fed during the period of growth where the management practices are aimed at fast economical growth of pig meat and for this reason feeding is on a generous scale. It is important to not mix any other feeds with these balanced feeds as this will result in lower performance. Reducing stress during this period is critical. Overcrowding in particular causes high stress. Supplying clean and cool drinking water together with feed is essential.

A pig production enterprise involves the use of quality stock feeds from creep to finisher, hence Animal feeds produces certified pig feeds ranging from pig creep, pig weaner, pig grower, pig finisher, pig sow and boar and pig lactating sow. These feeds are available both in complete feeds and concentrates for farmers with farm maize.


ProAgri Zambia 26

Protect your cattle with a Bonnox fortress by Du Preez de Villiers

Johan Engelbrecht's cattle must be kept in a kraal near his house every night to keep them out of the clutches of livestock thieves. Theft on farms can be a big headache, and nowadays it causes farmers to assign a fair percentage of their budget to security. Johan Engelbrecht is a farmer who has to fight a fierce battle against livestock and other theft on his farm between Fochville and Vereeniging in the RSA. He also does not dehorn his Brahman cattle so that they can defend themselves against cattle thieves. He is obliged to keep three cattle herders in the field to ward off thieves. Johan also plans his breeding season to have fierce cows within the herd throughout the year to help protect the herd. Crime also forces Johan to kraal his cattle near his house every night. "We do not have any fences or boundary wires on the farm anymore, because they steal it, therefore the cattle have to spend the night in the kraal," he states. Johan realised that meshed wire was necessary to keep the cattle inside and make it a bit more difficult for livestock thieves, because it takes a longer time to cut. Three years ago, he decided to try Bonnox to protect his precious animals. "A few years ago, we decided to try

hingejoint wire, specifically the Bonnox product. In addition to the added security benefit, it also contains the cattle more effectively. The cattle were able to push their heads through the ordinary fences, even electrified fences, to reach the grass on the other side of the wire. With these efforts, they soon damaged the wire and then broke it. With the hingejoint wire, they are not able to push their heads through the wire. That is why we decided to try this product. You just have to erect it very tightly." he says. Johan's third reason was that the Bonnox fence could be erected very quickly. He says: "You are really able to erect kilometres in a very short time. According to the Bonnox recommendations, I made a clamp that holds the wire and then tensioned it with the tractor before repeating the process with the next 100 metre roll. You can erect this fence with very little labour. We could erect the entire 1 100 metre kraal in two days. Once your straining posts and props are cemented firmly, the wire is erected very quickly." Johan had to use wooden posts instead

Johan Engelbrecht's Bonnox fence succeeds in keeping livestock thieves out of his camp and keeping his Brahman cattle inside.

of the usual y-standards because on this farm, iron and steel disappear very quickly. Johan decided to use a 1,4 metre wire from Bonnox's Money Saver range to prevent his cattle from jumping over the fences, and to give it that much needed extra strength. "It works excellently for a kraal and it can even work well for home security. It is very light and easy to handle and to erect."

Call 076-169-9068, 012-666-8717 or send an e-mail to, or Also visit their website at

Johan had to use wooden posts to erect his Bonnox fencing because the thieves kept on stealing his steel y-standards.

ProAgri Zambia 26


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ETG opens blending plant in Lusaka: New growth for agriculture in Zambia L

ocal fertiliser producers are a national asset and provide ease of mind for farmers who may rest assured that this vital input will always be available. ETG invested in the construction of a state-of-the-art blending facility in the Lusaka South Multi-Facility Economic Zone. The main purpose of the plant is to increase the company’s capacity to blend more fertilisers to meet the increasing demand of both local and international markets. The new plant was commissioned and opened on 15 December 2017. It will increase production from the current 80 tonnes per day at the old plant in Mukwa Road to 350 tonnes per day. The plant will produce blended fertilisers. This is a class of fertiliser tailor made to provide exactly the right nutrition for a specific crop in a specific field. These products are crop specific, soil specific, lime enriched and organic matter enriched.

The plant consists of the following sections: a) a) Lime filler granulation; Lime filler granulation; b) b) Organic filler production - with pelOrganic filler production - with pelletising and crushing; and letising and crushing; and c) c) Blending section, which is the main Blending section, which is the main production section supported byby bagproduction section supported bagging of of various sizes of of 5050 kg,kg, ging various sizes 25 kg,kg, 1010 kgkg to to 5 kg. Kynoch prod 25 5 kg. Kynoch products areare also repacked in in sachets of of ucts also repacked sachets 5 kg downwards forfor thethe benefit of of 5 kg downwards benefit smaller farmers. The finished prodsmaller farmers. The finished products from thethe plant include Kynoch ucts from plant include Kynoch Plus and Zambian Fertilisers brands Plus and Zambian Fertilisers brands of of blended products. blended products. In addition, ETG is investing in a distribution network across the country to ensure that fertilisers and agrochemicals are available to farmers in rural areas. Their approach is to establish all-weather depots that serve farmers throughout the year. As the country is moving towards diversified and export orientated agriculture, this plant is strategic to support growth of the agriculture sector. The Zambian Fertilisers brands of soil specific, crop specific, lime enriched and organic matter enriched fertilisers are tailored towards supporting vegetable production and are avail-

The blending and bagging section at Zambian Fertilisers.

able for farmers to engage in vegetable production throughout the year. Benefits of blended products • They increase soil fertility levels • Better water and nutrient holding capacity • Helps stabilise pH • Improves soil structure, especially aeration • Increase micro-organisms in the soil for efficient nutrient uptake by plants • Introduction of organic micronutrients, zinc, boron, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese and calcium All investors in crop production are invited to contact ETG for their soil specific, crop specific, lime enriched and organic matter enriched fertiliser needs.

The Vice-President of Zambia, Ms Inonge Mutukwa Wina, unveils the plaque at the Lusaka South Multi Facility Zone to officially commission the Zambia Fertiliser Blending Plant whilst the Minister of Commerce, Margret Mwanakatwe (right), and Export Trading Group Chairman, Mahesh Patel, look on.

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ProAgri Zambia 26

SOIL: The farmer’s most important asset

ProAgri Zambia acknowledges Grain SA for the use of this series which originally appeared in Afrikaans in SA Graan/Grain.

PART 23: Soil formation processes Martiens du Plessis, Soil Scientist, NWK Limited & Prof Cornie van Huyssteen, Lecturer: Soil Science, University of the Free State

Soil does not form by chance, but as a result of the influence of the five soil formative factors: climate, organisms, topography, mother material and time. These soil formative factors control the soil formation processes that determine which horizons form in the soil.


t is these horizons that influence a soil’s tillage capacity. This article focuses on a number of soil formation processes and forms part of a series to highlight this resource. Soil formation processes Soil formation is the result of a combination or sequence of soil formation processes. These processes may be simple or highly complex. The type and activity of the processes are determined by the soil formation factors. These soil formation factors were discussed in the previous issue of this series. Soil formation processes give rise to the formation of horizons in the profile. All processes may be simultaneously active in a soil, but the eventual result is determined by the dominant process.

Soil formation processes may be briefly described as the addition and removal of material, the distribution or redistribution thereof, or the transformation thereof in soil. The materials involved may be one or more of the following: organic material, soluble salts, carbonates, sesquioxides and silicate clays. The following are examples of soil formation processes that are active in the more common soils in South Africa. Mineralisation and humidification Plant growth adds organic material to the soil. The rate of organic material production is determined by the climate (largely rainfall and temperature), as well as by the fertility of the soil. When the organic material lands on or in the soil, this organic material

Eluviation (removal) of clay which led to the grey coloured E horizon. Illuvation (accumulation) of clay led to the formation of the large prisms and the abrupt transition. ProAgri Zambia 26

may be mineralised, humidified or accumulated. Mineralisation takes place when the organic material is oxidised and, in the process, releases minerals and plant nutritional material into the soil. Therefore, there is no accumulation or building up of organic material in the soil. Humidification is the process whereby fresh organic material is converted to more stable humus. This normally takes place under cool, moist climatic conditions and gives rise to horizons with a high humus content. The soil is well-drained, as under water-saturated conditions, accumulation of non-humidified soil will take place by preference. Accumulation of organic material takes place under poorly drained and/or cool (almost cold) conditions.. Under these conditions, microbe activity is slow and less organic material is mineralised or humidified than that which was added and therefore it accumulates. Accumulation of organic material takes place faster in wetter climatic regions, while humidification is predominant in cooler climatic regions and acidic soils. Accumulation may also take place in extremely acidic soils. Under these conditions, there are insufficient basic nutritional materials for the micro-organisms and therefore the organic material is not oxidised. Leaching and luviation Leaching is the process where soluble material (usually salts such as CaCO3, MgSO4 and KCl ) are removed from a part of the profile. This gives the horizon a low pH, low base state, low fertility and a bleached appearance (white) at times. Leaching is controlled by rainfall and soil texture. In the wetter climatic regions there is greater leaching of the soil and it is more acidic than in the drier regions. These soils are calcified to counter the acidity. In a specific climatic region, sandy soils are leached more than clayey soils because the water flows more rapidly through sandy soils than through clay. Older soils are also usually more leached (more acidic) than newer soils because the older soils have been exposed to rainfall leaching for a longer period. 17

Control Solutions




ProAgri Zambia 26

Gley horizons form in the subsoils where the soil is virtually permanently saturated with water (for close to twelve months a year). Iron (the colouring agent of soils) and manganese are reduced and the soil colour turns to grey. The reduced iron and manganese may be leached to form an E horizon, or it may be accumulated to form a G horizon. E horizons have a typically homogGrey ped surfaces as a result of the reduction of iron enous grey colour, and manganese under waterlogged conditions. This while G horizons process was also active in the pores and along root have flecked, grey, channels. green and/or blue colours. They are usually found in the low-lying portions of the landscape. The grey colours of the G horizons typically occur in the ped surfaces or within the peds (ped = structural unit). In the first mentioned case, G horizons are saturated for shorter periods and are less intensely saturated with water than in the latter case. Plintic horizons form when the iron and/or Extreme accumulation of organic material under cold manganese accumu(tundra) conditions. In some cases, the soil was perlates in a horizon as manently frozen and ice was visible in the soil. a result of oxidation and precipitation un Luviation is the process of clay der the influence of a fluctuating water removal (eluviation) and accumulalevel (height of water level changes). tion (illuviation). Clay is mobilised These horizons are typically in the uppermost part of the profile, saturated with water for about eight transported vertically or horizontally months of the year. This results in a and deposited in another horizon. The horizon with clear red, yellow and/or transportation of the clay takes place black flecks. It is these flecks that are in suspension – in contrast to leachused to identify the so-called “water ing, where the salts are dissolved. table soils”. In extreme cases, the transition of In extreme cases, the iron and accumulation to the horizon is abrupt manganese can accumulate and conor sharp. This gives rise to the term solidate to such an extent that it forms duplex soils (sand layer upon a clay a continuous hard layer. This hard iron layer). In some cases, the transition layer is also referred to as “ouklip”, is so abrupt that one can follow the “oubank” or koffieklip”, and it is physitransition with the point of a knife. cally very stable. It is therefore ideal for use as a road building material. Gley and plintite formation Gley and plintite formation is dependInversion and bioturbation Inversion is the process which mixes ent on lower redox potential in the soils and, in so doing, destroys the soil. Low redox potential is the consehorizons. Inversion takes place when quence of water saturation which, in cracks form in the soil and are filled turn, leads to oxygen exhaustion. Gley with infiltrating soil material from and plintite soils are therefore also above. referred to as hydromorphic soils. ProAgri Zambia 26

When the soil is wetted, it causes the soil to push upwards and, in so doing, moves over the soil itself. This movement results in friction levels and wedge-shaped peds, which are used to identify the process. This process is dependent on the presence of expansive 2:1 (montmorillonite) clay minerals and a prominent dry season. Bioturbation is the process whereby soil is mixed and turned over through the actions of soil organisms (such as earthworms, plant roots, animals that live in the soil and insects). It results in a homogeneous profile with indistinct horizontal differentiation, where horizon development is degraded. Summary The soil formation processes lead to a variety of soils, each of which is more or less .suitable for a specific purpose. As there is reasonable connection between the morphology of the soil and the active soil formation processes, one can make use of the soil morphology to deduce the active soil formation processes. It is precisely this knowledge of the soil conditions prevailing under specific soil formation processes that is important for the interpretation of the properties and behaviour of a specific soil type; which in turn may be used for the evaluation of its suitability for a specific land usage.

Friction levels that result from inversion trough the swell and shrinkage of 2:1 clay minerals. For further information, please contact the authors on: Martiens du Plessis: 072-285-5414 / Prof Cornie van Huyssteen: 051-401-9247 / REFERENCES

Brady, N.C. 1990. The nature and properties of soils. 10th ed. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York.



ProAgri Zambia 26

Spray to protect your crops P a r t 3: D i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s p r a y e r s

Compiled by J Fuls (Pr Eng)


here are many kinds of sprayers available. Some of them are intended for very special applications. This month we look closely at the different kinds of sprayers, from very small to very large and from general to very specific applications. We thank the ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering in South Africa, who made this article available to the readers of ProAgri Zambia.

Manual sprayers

Hand sprayer for pest control in small fields

Pressure tank sprayer for pest and weed control on small farm lands. A hand pump, like a motorcar pump, creates a high pressure in the whole tank. Air pressure drives liquid out of the tank for spraying. The sprayer is carried over one’s shoulder.

ProAgri Zambia 26

Knapsack sprayer for pest and weed control on small farm fields. The hand pump pumps liquid directly out of the tank for spraying. The tank is not put under pressure. The sprayer is carried on the back, hanging on both shoulders. Continue p 23


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Bicycle pump type hand sprayer for weed and pest control in larger fields

Powered sprayers

Wheel driven boom sprayer for pest and weed control on fairly large areas of small farms. The pump is driven from the wheels and pumps liquid directly from the tank to a number of nozzles mounted on a boom.

Engine driven wheel barrow boom sprayer for pest and weed control on fairly large areas of small farms. The pump is driven by an engine and pumps liquid directly from the tank to a number of nozzles mounted on a boom. The machine is still pushed over the field by man.

Engine driven knapsack sprayer for pest and weed control on small farm fields. An engine driven pump replaces the hand pump of the knapsack sprayer. The sprayer is carried on the back, hanging on both shoulders.

Tractor mounted boom sprayer for pest and weed control on large areas of commercial farming. The pump is driven by the tractor power take-off shaft and pumps liquid directly from the tank to a number of nozzles mounted on a boom. The machine is fully supported by the tractor. ProAgri Zambia 26


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Air-assisted sprayers

Air assisted boom sprayer for pest and weed control on large fields of commercial farms. Air from a powerful fan blows into a sock. The sock has holes above the nozzles. The air blows down and forces the spray into the leaves below. The pump and the fan are driven by the tractor power take-off.

Specialised sprayers

Tractor mounted disc atomiser for pest control on commercial farm lands. Spray drift in wind is a serious problem. Very little water is needed with the chemical. A special hydraulic drive system is used to drive the pump and disc from the tractor power take-off.

These sprayers are called ultra-low volume sprayers. They form very, very small droplets, like a mist, and the sprayers are only used to control insects and pests. Very little water is used together with the chemicals, which means that the tank can be very small or that a large area can be sprayed before re-filling.

A fast spinning disc breaks the liquid up into a mist.

Orchard sprayer for pest control on trees on commercial farms. Air from a powerful fan blows over a set of nozzles on both sides. This air carries the spray right into the trees. The pump and the fan are driven by the tractor power take-off.

Hand-held disc atomiser for pest control on small fields. A fast spinning disc breaks the liquid up into a mist. Spray drift in wind is a serious problem. Very little water is needed. Batteries in the handle provide power to spin the disc.

ProAgri Zambia 26

Next month we shall take an in-depth look at the knapsack sprayer. Published with the acknowledgement to the ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering for the use of their manuals. Visit for more information. 25

Make more from your crops Processing of oil seeds - Part 3

By Theresa Siebert, Petrus Britz, Pr Eng and Agrelek

Soy bean oil is a valuable component of a wide variety of processed foods. This month we discuss the different products you can produce from soy bean oil. 26

ProAgri Zambia 26

Soy bean oil When soy beans were first processed commercially, the oil was considered as the most valuable component and the defatted soy bean flour as a by-product. But since 1960, the need for alternative protein sources has risen sharply across the globe. Today the flour is a highly sought after component of animal feed. One tonne of soy beans yield approximately 183 kg of oil and approximately 800 kg of flour. The production of soy bean oil has increased dramatically and is currently considered one of the major food oils in the world. This is largely due to an improved understanding of lipid chemistry and enhanced oil processing technology. Modern soy oil is a stable, high quality triglyceride ingredient and is used widely in commercial processed foods. The crude soy oil contains both oil soluble and water soluble impurities that need to be removed by a series of refining operations.

soybeans into small pieces to achieve dehulling and to ease flaking. Corrugated or fluted rollers that rotate in opposite directions and at different speeds are used to crack soy beans. Cracking rollers are generally 25 cm in diameter and at least 107 cm in length. Cracking reduces the whole soy bean into four to six fragments, loose hulls and some fines (flour particles). The fragments are sized on vibrating screens. Whole beans and large fragments are returned to the cracking rollers. The soy bean fragments (cotyledon) contain about 20% oil while the hull has a negligible oil content. The removal of the hulls by aspiration is optional but has the advantage of producing a defatted soy meal with a higher protein content (48% as opposed to 44% protein of flour containing hulls). Conditioning of soy beans The cracked soy beans (soy meats) are

then conditioned with heat and moisture to obtain the optimum plasticity necessary for soy flake production. This is achieved by steam heating that raises the moisture content to 11% and the product temperature to 65 to 70°C. Typical steam heaters used include vertically stacked and horizontal rotary heat exchangers. Alternatively, fluidised bed heating can be used. Flaking of soy beans Flaking is necessary prior to oil extraction to reduce the particle size and increase the surface area from which the oil can be extracted. Soy flakes are approximately 0,25 to 0,37 cm thick. Flaking rollers are horizontal, smooth rolls whose pressure is maintained by springs under hydraulic pressure. It is important to ensure that the soy pieces are evenly fed over the entire surface of the flaking rollers to maintain uniform flake production.

Soy beans Cleaning Drying Cracking & dehulling Conditioning

Soy bean oil (Image source:

The process description of soy bean oil Cleaning of soy beans The first step in preparing the soy beans for oil extraction is to remove foreign materials, including plant rests, stones and dust. Cleaning is performed by a series of vibrating screens followed by aspirators and cyclone separators. Drying of soy beans Drying prior to dehulling is necessary to reduce the moisture content of the soy beans. A moisture content of 10% is needed to remove the hull effectively. Drying is performed by heated air that is distributed through a bed/layer of soy beans, followed by cooler air, which removes the residual moisture laden air. The dried soy beans are placed in tempering bins where the moisture is allowed to equilibrate throughout the beans for one to five days. Cracking and dehulling of soy beans The objective of cracking is to break the

Flaking Defatted flakes

Slovent extraction


Miscella stripping

Animal feed

Crude oil

Soy beans

Degumming Salad oil

Alkali refining Bleaching

Salad dressing

Other oils

Deodorisation (Hydrogenation)

Cooking oil


Liquid shortening

(Blending) Margarine

The process description of soy bean oil (Optional process or ingredient)

ProAgri Zambia 26


Oil extraction from soy flakes Soy oil can be extracted by one of two methods, solvent extraction or mechanical extraction. Solvent extraction is used by most commercial oil extraction plants while mechanical extraction is often preferred by small extraction plants, particularly where a variety of oilseeds are processed. Solvent extraction of soy oil Solvent extraction entails removing the oil from the flakes by an organic solvent to form an oil/solvent mixture known as miscella. The oil is recovered from the miscella by a distillation process. The most widely used solvent is hexane. It is not the perfect solvent, but fulfils most of the extractor’s requirements. Several types of solvent extractors are available. Commercial extraction is performed by continuous, counter-current systems such as the “Rotocel” (deep bed extractor) and “Loop extractor” (shallow bed extractor). Fresh solvent is introduced at the end of the line to defatted flakes. At the end of the extraction process the defatted flakes are dumped into a discharge chamber from where it is transferred to a desolventising toaster. The miscella containing the oil is diverged to the solvent stripping area. Miscella stripping The oil-hexane mixture (miscella) consists of 70 to 75% oil and 25 to 30% hexane. The hexane must be recycled for re-use to make the process more economical and the oil must be made safe for consumption. This requires the hexane to be separated from the oil by an evaporation process. A two-stage stripping evaporator and

stripping column is used. The shell-intube type of evaporators is used with miscella entering at the bottom of the tubes and hexane fumes collecting at the vapour dome at the top. The crude soy oil should be cooled to 40° C prior to storage. It is not only the oil that needs to be stripped of hexane. The defatted flakes (oil-cake) also need to be desolventised. Desolventising soy meal The defatted flakes contain about 30% hexane by weight. The hexane needs to be removed to make the soy meal safe for use as animal feed. This is achieved by steam (heat and moisture) in a special desolventising toaster. The heat treatment not only vaporises the hexane, but also improves the nutritional quality of the soymeal by inactivating the trypsin inhibitors and other naturally occurring toxicants. Storage of crude soy oil Crude soy oil can be stored for short periods prior to refining, but keep in mind that impurities affect the storage stability of the oil. Storage stability can be improved by the removal of fines by filtration through a fine mesh screen. The USA trading specifications for prime crude soy oil are as follows: • • • •

Moisture content <0,5% Neutral oil loss 7,5% Unsaponifiables 1,5% Flashpoint 121° C

Mechanical oil extraction (optional) The alternative to solvent extraction is mechanical extraction of oil. Soy oil is

Refining of soybean oil (Image source:


extracted mechanically by passing the soy flakes through a screw press. The screw press consists of a shaft with an interrupted worm gear that rotates in a cage of metal bars with small spaces between them. The high pressure that is generated inside the press forces the oil out the flakes and through the cage bars. The pressed cake moves along the shaft and is expelled at the end. The resulting soy meal has a higher oil content, thus oil yield is lower compared to solvent extraction. Advantages include lower initial costs, no solvent requirement and no need for solvent recovery systems. Oil refining Crude oil contains a wide variety of impurities, including seed fragments, excess moisture, waxes, gums, free fatty acids, colour pigments, sterols, hydrocarbons, ketones and aldehydes. The refining process consists of four to six steps to remove most of these impurities. Each step is designed to remove selected components from the oil. These refining steps include degumming, alkali refining, bleaching, deodorisation, hydrogenation and winterisation. These refining steps, with the exception of degumming, are usually performed at a different location, and not at the extraction facility. Degumming Degumming is the removal of phospholipids, also referred to as lecithin. Phospholipids must be removed to avoid browning of the oil and offflavour formation occurring during the deodorisation process and to prevent oxidation during physical refining. Lecithin is also extracted because it is a very useful food additive. Degumming involves mixing soft, warm water (1 to 3%) with heated oil (both at 70° C). The water attracts the polar phospholipids, which are partitioned into the water phase. The high temperature of the oil and water prevents emulsion formation. The oil and water phases are then separated by centrifugation. Neutralisation Neutralisation is the removal of free fatty acids from the oil. It is necessary to reduce them as they reduce the smoke point of the oil and increase foaming. Several neutralisation methods are used in the industry, but alkali refining is most commonly used. It can be performed on crude or degummed oil. The soy oil is pre-treated with phosphoric acid prior to alkali refining. Free fatty acids are then removed by the addition of alkali (sodium hydroxide) to the oil. The reaction that takes place leads to the formation of sodium salts, that is soaps that are subsequently removed by centrifugation. After centrifugation, the oil still

ProAgri Zambia 26

contains traces of soaps, which are removed by washing in hot water (94° C. The oil is once more centrifuged, and then vacuum dried for storage prior to further processing. Oil at this stage of processing is often referred to as once refined oil. The by-product (soap stock) produced by this process, can be used by soap manufacturers. Bleaching Bleaching is an adsorption process whereby minor oil components are bound by a fine, powdered adsorbent (bleaching earth). It is performed at high temperatures (slightly above 100°C) and under vacuum. The process is important in enhancing oil appearance, flavour, and stability. Deodorisation Deodorisation is a steam stripping process that aims to vaporise undesirable volatile components. It is vital for oils to be used in salad dressings, cooking, frying, margarine and shortening. It is achieved by injecting steam into the oil under strong vacuum. Deodorisation also extracts remaining free fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols.

Hydrogenation (optional) Hydrogenation is performed in cases where the oil is converted into liquid shortening or margarine. The solidification point of the oil is increased by the reduction of fatty acid double bonds by the addition of gaseous hydrogen, with the aid of a nickel catalyst.

rine, salad dressing, cooking oil and mayonnaise are the most common. Soy oil also finds use in cheese spread, coffee creamers, ice cream and many more.

Literature sources

Winterisation (optional) Soy oil contains certain solids that tend to settle out during low storage temperatures and is problematic in cold climate areas (4 to 10° C). This unattractive precipitate can be prevented by purposefully subjecting the oil to low temperatures and subsequent removal of the solids by filtration of centrifugation.

1. Lui, KeShun. 1999. Soy beans: chemistry, technology and utilisation. Gaithersburg: Aspen Publishers, Inc.

Blending of soy oil with other vegetable oils (optional) Soy oil and other vegetable oils are often blended to obtain specific chemical standards and functional or sensory properties.

Next month we shall look at the soy paste production process.

Edible application of soy bean oil Refined soy oil has many applications in the food industry, of which marga-

2. Ericson, DR et al. (eds) 1980. Handbook of soy oil processing and utilisation. American Soy Bean Association (St Louis, Missouri) & American oil Chemists’ Society (Champaign, Illinois)

Published with the acknowledgement to the ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering for the use of their manuals. Visit for more information.

Bottling of soy bean oil for cooking purposes (Image source: ProAgri Zambia 26



ProAgri Zambia 26

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匀伀䰀䄀刀 倀伀刀吀䄀䈀䰀䔀 䬀䤀吀匀 䴀唀䰀吀䤀䘀唀一䌀吀䤀伀一䄀䰀

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猀甀椀琀愀戀氀攀 昀漀爀 愀昀爀椀挀愀渀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀 琀攀氀氀 㨀 ㈀㄀㄀ ㈀㐀㄀㐀㜀㜀        䔀洀愀椀氀 㨀 猀愀爀漀䀀猀愀爀漀愀最爀椀⸀挀漀⸀稀洀         眀攀戀 㨀 眀眀眀⸀猀愀爀漀稀愀洀戀椀愀⸀挀漀洀

SARO AGRO provides the power to propel farming M

odern farmers depend on an uninterrupted electricity supply for various operations such as irrigation pumps, temperature control in chicken houses and cooling chambers, grain dryers and milking machines. For the farmer, electricity is a necessity for continuous production, not a luxury. In 2007, Saro Agro Industrial Ltd established a standalone power department which covers the whole spectrum of electricity. They have become so popular that they were awarded the contract to supply the biggest hospital in Zambia with backup electricity. ZESCO also bought many of their generators to provide power to whole townships. Simon Nyirongo is the Sales and Service Manager of SARO’s Power Division. He says: “In our division we have solar systems and generators. In our generators section, we have domestic generators and industrial generators. Domestic generators can produce from 2 kVA up to 35 kVA. This is typically for a household or a small farm that needs to drive pumps or conduct other smaller operations. Our industrial generators can deliver from 50 kVA up to 1 000 kVA. These generators are perfect for large applications like centre pivot systems, dairies, feed mixing plants and mills.” Saro Agro also understands the value of human resources. Simon says: “We invest heavily in technical manpower. We have technicians with certificates and even master’s degrees to make sure that whatever we do, we do it professionally.” Saro Agro can supply a complete project, from costing, right through to

backup support. “We have personnel who can go out and assist a farmer to determine his requirements. Our experts can do professional costing, execution, commissioning and more importantly, provide after-sales services,” he says. Portable solar kits Saro Agro recently introduced a new range of portable solar kits. The Zambian electricity grid reaches only 30% of the population. This means that there is an enormous opportunity to supply power to 70% of the population. In addition to this, their market is price sensitive, therefore, they strive towards offering quality solar solutions at affordable prices. As seen in the picture above, SARO has invested in various high quality and affordable multi-functional portable solar kits. Their stock includes a solar power lantern which has an electric mosquito coil to kill any mosquitoes that come into contact with it. Another kit model includes a solar powered radio with three LED bulbs with their respective light switches. In some rural areas, kerosene lamps are used at night for children while they study or for basic lighting purposes. But kerosene lamps can be quite costly in the long run, as one has to keep buying kerosene on a regular basis. Further to this, if it is not handled correctly, it can also present a fire hazard. Health complications can also arise due to the smoke. As a quick and cost-effective solution for illumination in the rural areas, Saro Agro offers solar powered reading

ProAgri Zambia 26

lamps with built-in solar panels. The built-in batteries can be charged during daytime to provide more than eight hours of light at night. With this lamp, free energy from the sun is used and no other maintenance costs are required. For camping enthusiasts, or for those who travel out into the field where access to grid power is limited, Saro Agro also have solar powered banks in the shape of a “trolley bag” as seen in the picture above. Once the bag is open, two solar panels charge the built-in batteries, allowing the use of laptops, mobile phones and some energy saving lights. Solar pumping inverters or mini-grids Saro Agro also recently invested in inverters which are dedicated for pumps. These inverters are powered by the sun to run your conventional grid-powered single phase pumps. If you have load shedding issues during the daytime, this solar pumping inverter is your answer. For the larger solar systems, where clients require larger appliances to be powered by the sun, Saro Agro will send out experts to design systems complying with individual needs. They determine how many panels are required and what kind of systems will work best. Saro Agro is also preparing for the Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff Strategy, a government power sector initiative to accelerate private investment in small and medium sized renewable energy projects of up to 20 MW. This will increase access to clean energy services to supplement other government power generation investment programmes. 31

Willem van Zyl

+26 096 562 0775

+26 096 976 7272

Affordable, reliable, efficient: Farmers welcome Farmet implements

by Du Preez de Villiers


ffordable, efficient, reliable implements are what the farmer needs to make a living and to feed the nation – and that is exactly what Farmet provides. This proud Czech manufacturer is 25 years old and concentrates on the manufacturing of soil preparation, planting and sowing implements, as well as oil seed, vegetable oil and feed production equipment. Zambian farmers welcome the fine equipment imported by AgriServe Agro. The four most popular Farmet implements in Zambia are the Kompaktomat, Cambridge Roller CV6, Triolent TX 300 and the Softer 4,5 NS Farmet’s versatile implements are simple to operate and welcomed by all the markets in which they were tested.


Starting at K140 000 Your best bet for additional pre-sowing soil processing, restoration of soil capillarity, crumbling of clods and surface levelling is the Cambridge Roller CV6. The implement is also suitable for soil processing after sowing and ensures a more uniform seed emergence and accelerated growth. The implement cleans itself from dirt and the cast iron wheels have a diameter of 500 mm.


Starting at K380 000 The Softer 4,5 NS disc plough harrow works between 5 and 12 cm deep. The disc diameters are 510 or 560 mm. It is ideal for shallow stubble-breaking and leaves behind a perfect undercut and well-mixed residues. It does a very thorough job when preparing the seedbed after stubble-breaking or ploughing. It also offers optimum recompaction of the soil.

The ideal implement to break stubble while loosening the soil deeper than the ploughing depth, is the Triolent TX 300. The teeth work to a depth of 35 cm and the ploughshare is 29 cm, which ensures thorough loosening as well as the incorporation of plant residues. The traction resistance is also minimal and a working speed up to 12 km/h is possible. The plough shares are spring protected with a release force of 450 kg.

A Farmet implement means profit. Contact Willem van Zyl at +26 (0)96-562-0775 or +26 (0)96-976-7272 or e-mail to experience progress on your farm. ProAgri Zambia 26

The Kompaktomat was one of Farmet’s first products. It was specifically designed to improve pre-planting and pre-sowing field preparation. The Kompaktomat works from 1 to 10 cm deep. As Farmet improved the machine over time, the two folding frames developed into machines with four folding frames. The driver uses only one hydraulic circuit to fold the machine for transport or to unfold it on the field.

Bohumil Hamršmíd, Deputy Head of the Embassy of the Czech Republic in Lusaka; Brent Stubbs, Mazabuka farmer; Poena van Niekerk, Mkushi farmer; Willem van Zyl, Technical Director of AgriServe Agro; Tereza Černá, Ministerial Counsellor of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic and Du Preez de Villiers, Editor ProAgri Zambia, at the Farmet factory in Česká Skalice. 33


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ProAgri Zambia 26

ProAgri Zambia 26





If your more adventurous side chooses the scenic route, Terrain Response lets you carry on. Inside, clever 5+2 seating offers room for either more explorers or 1,698 litres of stowage for more provisions. Little wonder Discovery Sport is considered one of the most versatile compact SUVs on the road, or off it come to that. Indulge your adventurous side, book a test-drive today. Alliance Motors Zambia Stand 38717, Along Great East Road, Chainama, Lusaka +260 971 245 459

* The repayment amount is indicative and subject to change based on individual customer risk profiling. The advert does not constitute an unconditional commitment to arrange and implement the transaction. An unconditional commitment shall only exist on the finalization and signing of all facility and security documentation and the fulfilment of any conditions precedent to the satisfaction of First National Bank.

ProAgri Zambia 026  

Choose Farmet for effective cultivation Reap the sun with SARO Solar AGRICO is top class rain maker

ProAgri Zambia 026  

Choose Farmet for effective cultivation Reap the sun with SARO Solar AGRICO is top class rain maker