PhotoMuse: Preserving Photography Through Architecture Jacksonville, FL Mark Painter Pariani
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Master of Architecture at The Savannah College of Art and Design ÂŠ August 2012, Mark Painter Pariani The author hereby grants SCAD permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic thesis copies of document in whole or in part in any medium now known or hereafter created.
Signature of Author and Date ____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________/___/___ (Arpad Ronaszegi, Professor of Architecture) Committee Chair
________________________________________________________________________/___/___ (Andrew Payne, PhD, Professor of Architecture) Committee Member 1
________________________________________________________________________/___/___ (Craig Stevens, Professor of Photography) Committee Member 2
PhotoMuse: Preserving Photography Through Architecture Jacksonville, FL
A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Architecture Department in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture The Savannah College of Art and Design By Mark Painter Pariani Savannah, Georgia August, 2012
Preserving Photography Through Architecture Jacksonville, FL
Mark Painter Pariani September 2011 - August 2012 Professor Arpad Ronaszegi - Professor Andrew Payne, PhD - Professor Craig Stevens
I would like to dedicate this thesis to my family. Without them I would never have been able to achieve as much or dream as big. Father......... Frederick Paul Pariani, Jr. Mother........ Susan Jane Painter Sister............ Allison Painter Pariani
I would also like to thank the several people who helped me stay passionate about this thesis and offered valuable insight into the realms of Architecture, Photography, and the city of Jacksonville, FL.
William â€œBillâ€? Cesery, Jr.
Professor of Architecture, SCAD
Professor of Photography, SCAD
Andrew Payne, PhD
Professor of Architecture, SCAD
Dean, School of Building Arts, SCAD Principle/Owner Sottile & Sottile, Savannah, GA
Department Chair, School of Fine Arts Professor of Photography, SCAD
Scott Dietrich Professor of Photography, SCAD
Professor of Photography, SCAD
Owner Cesery Companies, Jacksonville, FL
Stephen Lovett, ASLA, LEED AP Principle/Owner ELM Studio, Jacksonville, FL
Contents . . . . . . . Welcome to PhotoMuse . . . . . . . 001 . . . PhotoMuse in a Few Words Thesis Abstract 002 . . . A Photograph can Change the World A Brief History of Photography and the Impact of the Medium 018 . . . Lets Go to the Show Techniques and History of Proper Exhibition Design for Photography 034 . . . Finding Inspiration Concept Development and Case Studies on Museum and Urban Design 042 . . . The River City Site Analysis of Jacksonville, FL 072 . . . Getting With the Program Building Program Development 086 . . . Putting Pen to Paper Building Schematic Design 108 . . . Making Revisions Design Development 122 . . . Taking a Stand Final Design and Thesis Defense 154 . . . Wrapping Things Up Thesis Conclusion
List of Figures . . . . . . . 1.01 Camera Obscura - www.people.wcsu.edu/mccarneyh/acad/cameraobscura.html 1.02 Artist Using a Camera Obscura - www.mm.cs.sunysb.edu/334/images/Images.htm 1.03 The View from His Window at Le Gras - www.greenart.info/history/History1.htm 1.04 Boulevard du Temple, Paris - www.tumblr.com/tagged/boulevard-du-temple?before=1331043617 1.05 Boulevard du Temple, Paris (Detail) - www.tumblr.com/tagged/boulevard-du-temple?before=1331043617 1.06 The Open Door - www.theredlist.fr/wiki-2-16-601-798-view-pioneers-profile-talbot-william-henry-fox.html 1.07 The Mammoth Camera - www.bigshotcamera.com/sections/fun/buildables/optics/lenscamera.html 1.08 The Original Kodak Camera Kit - www.kodakcollector.com 1.09 35mm Roll Film - www.lyntronix.com/film%20developing.htm 1.10 Sony Mavica - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sony_Mavica 1.11 Digital Cameras - bestcameraforphotography.org/choosing-a-digital-camera/ 1.12 Migrant Mother - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothea_Lange 1.13 Lunch Break - www.feedforthefire.tumblr.com/post/5965857602/lewis-hine-lunch-break-rockefeller-center 1.14 Factory Girl - www.masters-of-photography.com/H/hine/hine_girl_worker_full.html 1.15 The Princess of Wales with her Bridesmaids - www.weheartit.com/entry/9192003/via/shyaway 2.01 The Paris Salon - www.duncanroy.wordpress.com/2011/04/08/new-museum/ 2.02 The Royal Academy of London - thehistorymanatlarge.blogspot.com/2011/06/what-is-royal-academy.html 2.03 Victoria and Albert Museum, London - www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1122304 2.04 Luncheon on the Grass - hss.albertlea.k12.mn.us/humanities/slides/unit16/image01.html 2.05 Girl in White - www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/whistler/ 2.06 1913 Armory Show, New York City - carnegie.org/publications/carnegie-reporter/single/view/article/item/265/ 2.07 Treasure of Tutankhamun - www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2010/oct/24/egyptian-replicas-manchester-tutankhamun 2.08 1858 Exhibition of the Photographic Society of London www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/0-9/1858-exhibition-of-the-photgraphic-society-of-london/ 2.09 The Rameseum of El-Kurneh, Thebes, Francis Firth www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/0-9/1858-exhibition-of-the-photographic-society-of-london/ 2.10 The Family of Man Photography Exhibition greg.org/archive/2011/03/02/where_to_make_a_steichen-style_photomural_compo_photocolor.html 2.11 1971 Photograph After 7 Years of Home Display - The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs: Traditional and Digital Color Prints, Color Negatives, Slides, and Motion Pictures (pg. 16) 2.12 The Department of Photographic Services at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. - The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs: Traditional and Digital Color Prints, Color Negatives, Slides, and Motion Pictures (pg. 710) 2.13 Schematic of a Moderate-Sized Humidity-Controlled Cold Storage Vault - The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs: Traditional and Digital Color Prints, Color Negatives, Slides, and Motion Pictures (pg. 707)
3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11
George Eastman House, Main Building - redbubble.com/people/locustfurnace/works/2167358-george-eastman-house-kodak Eastman House, Gallery - www.eastmanhouse.org/index.php G. Eastman, 1888 - www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/09/dayintech_0904 MOCA, Main Building - Image by Author MOCA, Gallery - www.mocajacksonville.org/collection/ MOCA, CafĂŠ Nola - www.golojax.com/2011/03/16/862/ ICP, Main Building - www.nycgo.com/venues/international-center-of-photography ICP, Gallery - www.gwathmey-siegel.com/portfolio/proj_detail.php?job_id=199718 ICP, School - www.iesnyc.org/NewsArticle.aspx?newsId=14734 Aerial Shot of Jacksonville, 1893 - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jax_1893.gif Panorama of Downtown Jacksonville, 1910 - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DowntownJacksonvillePanoramic1910.jpg
4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23
Jacksonville at Night - Image by Author Super Bowl 39 - www.sportslogos.net/logo.php?id=2342 Jacksonville Jaguars at Alltel Stadium - Image by Author Jacksonville on the Water - Image by Author United States Map Highlighting Florida - Image by Author Florida Map Highlighting Duval County - Image by Author Duval County Map Highlighting Jacksonville City - Image by Author Jacksonville City Map Highlighting Downtown - Google Earth - Jacksonville (with help from Stephen Lovett, ELM Studio) Downtown Map Highlighting Thesis Site - Google Earth - Jacksonville (with help from Stephen Lovett, ELM Studio) Downtown Map Highlighting Site Context - Google Earth - Jacksonville (with help from Stephen Lovett, ELM Studio) Haydon Burns Library, 2012 - Image By Author Haydon Burns Library, 1960s - jaxpsychogeo.com/the-center-of-the-city/haydon-burns-library-downtown/ Library Interior 1 , 1960s - jaxpsychogeo.com/the-center-of-the-city/haydon-burns-library-downtown/ Library Interior 2 , 1960s - www.whitewayrealty.com/Home/miscellaneous Library Roof Balcony, 2012 - Image by Author Library Detail, 2012 - Image by Author Library Interior 1, 2012 - Image by Author Library Roof Garden, 2012 - Image by Author Library Interior 2, 2012 - Image by Author Library Mezzanine, 2012 - Image by Author Library Exterior, 2012 - Image by Author Urban Street Map Highlighting Thesis Site - Image by Author Panorama from N. Main St. & E. Adams St. - Image by Author
4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27 4.28 4.29 4.30 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.34 4.35 4.36 4.37 4.38 4.39 4.40 4.41
Panorama from E. Forsyth St. & N. Main St. - Image by Author Panorama from N. Ocean St. & E. Forsyth St. - Image by Author Panorama from E. Adams St. & N. Ocean St. - Image by Author Panorama from N. Main St. & E. Adams St. with Callouts - Image by Author Panorama from E. Forsyth St. & N. Main St. with Callouts - Image by Author Panorama from N. Ocean St. & E. Forsyth St. with Callouts - Image by Author Panorama from E. Adams St. & N. Ocean St. with Callouts - Image by Author Urban Street Map Highlighting One-Way Streets - Image by Author Urban Street Map Highlighting Pedestrian Traffic - Image by Author Figure Ground Map of Downtown Jacksonville Highlighting Thesis Site - Image by Author Weekly Avg. Temperature, 45-95ยบF on Avg. - Ecotech - Jacksonville Weekly Avg. Wind Speed, 5-20 mph on Avg. - Ecotech - Jacksonville Weekly Avg. Cloud Cover, 40-80% on Avg. - Ecotech - Jacksonville Weekly Avg. Solar Radiation, 100-600 W/m2 on Avg. - Ecotech - Jacksonville Yearly Avg. Wind Direction, Most Coming from the South (Lighter Shade of Blue) - Ecotech - Jacksonville Yearly Avg. Sun Angles - Image by Author Summer Sun Angle Diagram - Image by Author Winter Sun Angle Diagram - Image by Author
5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10
Program Inspirational Image Collage - Google Image Search for each respective subject - Collage by Author Existing Floor Plan 1, Storage Level - www.thelibraryjax.com/ (with help from William Cesery, Jr., Cesery Companies) Existing Floor Plan 2, First Level - www.thelibraryjax.com/ (with help from William Cesery, Jr., Cesery Companies) Existing Floor Plan 3, Second Level - www.thelibraryjax.com/ (with help from William Cesery, Jr., Cesery Companies) Existing Floor Plan 4, Third Level - www.thelibraryjax.com/ (with help from William Cesery, Jr., Cesery Companies) Existing Floor Plan 1, Storage Level - Image by Author Existing Floor Plan 2, First Level - Image by Author Existing Floor Plan 3, Second Level - Image by Author Existing Floor Plan 4, Third Level - Image by Author Program Location Matrix / Public vs. Private / Lighting Diagram - Image by Author
6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04
Schematic Design Sketches - Image by Author Massing Model Collage - Image by Author Final Massing Model - Image by Author Structural Grid - Image by Author
6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24
Entry Level Schematic Plan - Image by Author Entry Level Schematic Plan with Program Layover - Image by Author First Level Schematic Plan - Image by Author First Level Schematic Plan with Program Layover - Image by Author Second Level Schematic Plan - Image by Author Second Level Schematic Plan with Program Layover - Image by Author Third Level Schematic Plan - Image by Author Third Level Schematic Plan with Program Layover - Image by Author East - West Schematic Section - Image by Author North - South Schematic Section - Image by Author East - West Schematic Section Daylight Study - Image by Author North - South Schematic Section Daylight Study - Image by Author East -West Schematic Section with Program Layover - Image by Author North - South Schematic Section with Program Layover - Image by Author Schematic Interior Perspective Photo - Image by Author Schematic Interior Perspective Sketch - Image by Author Schematic Interior Perspective Composite Rendering - Image by Author Schematic Perspective Photo - Image by Author Schematic Perspective Sketch - Image by Author Schematic Perspective Composite Rendering - Image by Author
7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14
Sketch Development Showing Plan and Facade Change - Image by Author Perspective Sketch Development of Entry Condition - Image by Author Entry Level Development - Image by Author First Level Development - Image by Author Second Level Development - Image by Author Third Level Development - Image by Author East - West Section Development - Image by Author North - South Section Development - Image by Author North Elevation Development 1 - Image by Author North Elevation Development 2 - Image by Author South Elevation Development 1 - Image by Author South Elevation Development 2 - Image by Author East Elevation Development 1 - Image by Author East Elevation Development 2 - Image by Author
Wall Section Development - Image by Author
8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 8.21 8.22 8.23 8.24 8.25 8.26 8.27 8.28 8.29 8.30 8.31 8.32
Entry Level - Image by Author Entry Level with Program Layover - Image by Author First Level - Image by Author First Level with Program Layover - Image by Author Second Level - Image by Author Second Level with Program Layover - Image by Author Third Level - Image by Author Third Level with Program Layover - Image by Author Structural Grids for Each Level - Image by Author 3D Isometric View of Structural Grid - Image by Author North Elevation - E. Adams St. - Image by Author East Elevation - N. Ocean St. - Image by Author South Elevation - E. Forsyth St. - Image by Author East - West Section - Image by Author North - South Section - Image by Author East - West Section with Program Layover - Image by Author North - South Section with Program Layover - Image by Author East - West Section Daylight Study - Image by Author North - South Section Daylight Study - Image by Author Wall Section - Image by Author Interior Perspective Photo - Image by Author Interior Perspective Drawing - Image by Author Interior Perspective Composite Rendering - Image by Author Exterior Perspective Photo - Image by Author Exterior Perspective Drawing - Image by Author Exterior Perspective Composite Rendering - Image by Author Final Thesis Show Digital Reconstruction - Image by Author Final Thesis Show in Studio, June 2nd, 2012 - Image by Author Final Thesis Show Detail 1, June 2nd, 2012 - Image by Author Final Thesis Show Detail 2, June 2nd, 2012 - Image by Author Museum Brochure for Final Thesis Show (Outside) - Image by Author Museum Brochure for Final Thesis Show (Inside) - Image by Author
Thesis Class Photo - Image by Martin Ronaszegi - Edited by Author
PhotoMuse i n a F e w W o r d s
PhotoMuse: Preserving Photography Through Architecture
Mark Painter Pariani August 2012 Photography is one of the most important mediums and art forms in existence today. It simultaneously captures and preserves human culture and history so that future generations can enjoy as well as learn from the past. Something so important merits protection and it falls to mankind to not only preserve this necessary medium, but to inspire and teach future generations. PhotoMuse seeks to preserve photography through architecture, share it through galleries, educate visitors through classes and workshops, and socialize the medium through inspiration. Photo = Muse =
Cultural and historical time capsule Inspiration to create and motivation to protect
A Photograph Can C h a n g e t h e W o r l d
A Brief History of Photography and the Impact of the Medium
“When photography was invented artists thought that it would bring ruin to art . . . ...but it has shown that photography has been an ally of art, an educator of taste more powerful than a hundred academies of Design would have been.”1 This quote comes from a text titled “Photography and Chromo-lithography” and was written in 1868. It is proof that photography, even in its infancy (since it was invented only 30 years prior to this publication) was already considered an important medium to human society.2 Photography has proven itself to be just as important in today’s world and it is one of the few art mediums that has steadily permeated nearly every aspect of society. This spread of photography was and still currently is made possible by the steady evolution of photographic technology. Ever since the first photograph was made there has been a dire need and desire to continually improve the technology and constantly seek out ways to push the boundaries. But one thing that has remained true, and the one thing that cannot be lost, is the need for photography to tell meaningful stories. With technology changing faster everyday it is more important than ever to preserve these stories in order to educate future generations about the importance of photography.
The world needs a PhotoMuse . . . 003
The History . . .
The history of photography starts with the invention of
the camera obscura. The word camera in Latin means a “vaulted chamber or room,” while obscura means “dark,” so combined a camera obscura means a dark vaulted room. More specifically it is an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen (Figure 1.01). It can be used for drawing, painting, and for entertainment, and the technology behind it was discovered as far back as 400
Figure 1.01 - Camera Obscura
BCE. During the Renaissance times it is speculated that many artists used devices that would fit the description of a camera obscura. This would have aided them greatly in acquiring the realistic detail in their work that made them so famous and influential even today. The actual device consists of a box or room with a hole or aperture in one side (Figure 1.02). Light from an external scene passes through the aperture and strikes a surface inside where it is reproduced, upside-down, but with color and perspective intact. The image can then be projected onto paper and traced to produce a highly accurate representation. The desire to capture this temporary image eventually led to the invention of photography.3
Figure 1.02 - Artist Using a Camera Obscura
Photography did not come to light until the first
decades of the 19th century. It utilized the technology of the camera obscura, but was able to capture much more detail and information by actually fixing the image produced within the camera to a surface and making it permanent. This new process made photography very desirable and popular and is what sustains it even today. Photography as a usable process goes back as early as the 1820s with the development of chemical photography.4 The first
Figure 1.03 - View from His Window at Le Gras
permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822
permanently and because his “heliographs” took so long to
by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but unfortunately
expose, some of them taking up to 8 hours, Niépce sought to
this first attempt was destroyed during a later attempt to
find a new process. Working in conjunction with the French
duplicate it. Niépce continued to work and improve upon his
painter Louis Daguerre, the two experimented with silver
process and his work paid off when he was finally successful
compounds based on previous research by Johann Heinrich
in creating the first permanent photograph from nature with
Schultz who in 1816 discovered that a silver and chalk mixture
a camera obscura in 1827 (Figure 1.03). Niépce called this
darkens when exposed to light. Niépce passed away in 1833
early photographic process “heliography,” which in Latin
and in his wake Daguerre continued to work and improve on
means to “write” with the “sun.”5 It involved treating a metal
their process. He eventually developed a usable photographic
plate with certain chemicals and fixtures and exposing it
technique in 1837 that involved coating a copper plate
to light within a camera obscura. The process was not very
with a silver chemical and iodine vapor, exposing it to light,
successful because the metal plate had to be exposed for
and developing its latent image by fuming it with mercury
several hours in order for it to develop and hold an image
vapor. He called this new method the daguerreotype.6 005
With this new process Daguerre accidently took the
first ever photo of a person in 1838 when, while taking a daguerreotype of a Paris street, a pedestrian stopped for a shoe shine, long enough to be captured by the several minute long exposure (Figure 1.04 & 1.05). At this time the use of the daguerreotype process, although still very young, was highly considered for taking inexpensive personal portraits. Before the daguerreotype one had to pay a portrait artist to
Figure 1.04 - Boulevard du Temple, Paris
paint a portrait and that was costly and took several hours or even days to finish so only the wealthy elite could afford to have portraits made. The only problem with using the daguerreotype for taking portraits was that the necessary exposure time ranged anywhere from five to 60 minutes and made it next to impossible to capture a decent enough portrait. The slightest movement of the subject would cause blur and out of focus images, yet when Daguerre revealed his image that captured a person, efforts to make the process practical for portraiture were sought out immediately.7
Figure 1.05 - Boulevard du Temple, Paris (Detail)
While working on further improvements to his process
Daguerre proved himself to not only be a great inventor but also a great entrepreneur. This led him to approach the French government with his new invention and he appeared at a joint meeting of the Academies of Sciences and Fine Arts in the Institute of France, Paris on August 19th, 1839. His salesmanship eventually won over the French government and they agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his formula in exchange for his promise to announce his discovery to the world as the gift of France, which he did later that same year.8
Meanwhile, an English inventor William Fox Talbot
Figure 1.06 - The Open Door
had already discovered another means to fix a silver
The disadvantage was that the calotype process produced
process image but had kept it secret. After reading about
images of far less quality than that of its metal-based
Daguerre’s invention, Talbot refined his process and by
competition. But this disadvantage was only endured for a
1840, Talbot had invented the calotype (or talbotype)
short period as the growing need for the reproduction of
process, which creates a negative image on paper. This
images secured the calotype as the photographic technique
was vastly different from the daguerreotype process, which
for the future. The negative to positive process would win
produces a one of a kind positive image on metal. The
the day and several of Talbot’s negatives would become
advantage of Talbot’s process was that an infinite amount
world famous, with one of his most famous being from 1843
of images could be made from one negative while the
titled “The Open Door” (Figure 1.06). The negative for this
daguerreotype process could only produce one at a time.
image is one of the oldest known negatives in existence.9 007
After meeting initial opposition from the public eye for
having less detail than the daguerreotype, the negative to positive technique of the calotype would prove to be more useful. Other inventors and artists of the era would seek to improve upon this photographic technique. One of these visionaries was John Herschel who in 1819 discovered that a sodium thiosulphate solution could be used as a solvent of silver halides. In 1839 he informed Talbot and Daguerre of his discovery and told them that it could be used to â€œfixâ€? pictures and make them permanent. This was a very
important discovery because until then it was unknown
Some of these plates that photographers would carry would
how to make an image stay on its respective media. After
be very large because in those days photo enlarging had
doing more research and work Herschel began to favor the
not been invented yet. So in order to print a large image
calotype process over the daguerreotype because in 1839,
one had to have a negative of equal size and this led to
the same year the calotype was made public, he used
the building of massive cameras. The biggest of these large
Talbotâ€™s negative to positive method to make the first ever
format cameras had to be operated by 15 men and could
glass plate negative.10
only be transported via railcar (Figure 1.07). This giant camera
Figure 1.07 - The Mammoth Camera
was built in 1900 by camera maker George Lawrence and
The advantages of the glass plate negative were
was constructed for just one photograph of a new Chicago
that the glass plates were much more durable than
& Alton railroad train for display at the upcoming Paris
paper negatives and offered much finer detail. The
Exposition. This camera held a glass plate that was nearly
disadvantage was that they were incredibly heavy and
five by eight feet and weighed 1400 pounds when loaded. In
hard to transport. Never the less photographers were
the end these huge cameras did not become very popular
known to pack up several glass negatives and venture
because they were very costly to build as well as set up and
out in to the wilderness to capture nature as they saw it.
did not allow for the easy capture of spontaneous moments.11
The interest in capturing the spontaneous moment arose
through the improvements in the photographic process. It was now much easier to capture a rare and fleeting moment due to faster exposure times and better materials. It was at this time that George Eastman developed the technology of film and a new type of handheld camera that used his new photographic film. This new invention in 1888, called the Kodak camera, quickly replaced glass plate negatives as the leading photographic process and made it extremely easy for people to take photos of everyday events (Figure
Figure 1.08 - The Original Kodak Camera Kit
1.08). This revolutionized not only the art of photography, but also the whole world. Now everyone who had a Kodak was a photographer. This was made even more appealing because Eastman also made the processing, developing, and printing a separate industry in itself. Their marketing tagline summed it up perfectly, â€œYou press the button, we do the rest.â€? By doing this Eastman eliminated the need of a darkroom, which opened the world of photography to the average person who did not know how to process film and just wanted to capture the family vacation or the neighborhood picnic. This new technology eventually led to the type of roll film still used in film cameras today (Figure 1.09).12 Figure 1.09 - 35mm Roll Film
As the technology developed even further there
was a greater pressure placed on photographers to deliver images faster. In 1981, almost a hundred years after Eastman had released his first Kodak camera, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film. This camera was called the Sony Mavica and while it saved images to a hard disk and the images were displayed on a television, the camera itself was not fully digital (Figure 1.10). In 1991 Kodak, after being the forefront of photographic technology for the past century, stepped up to the competition by releasing the DCS 100. The DCS 100 was the first commercially available digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera, and although its initial high cost limited its use to photojournalism and professional
Figure 1.10 - Sony Mavica
photography, commercial digital photography was born.13
photography does not lend itself to photo manipulation, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium.
Digital photography uses an electronic image
This difference allows for a severely high degree of post-
sensor within the camera to record the image as a set
processing of images using computer technologies that
of electronic data saved on a hard disc rather than as
are extremely difficult or impossible to reproduce in
chemical changes recorded on film. The primary difference
film-based photography. This permits infinitely different
between digital and chemical photography is that chemical
potentials and applications for digital photography.14
This idea of infinite possibilities led to the invention of
the digital point-and-shoot camera. These user friendly and price friendly cameras have become widespread consumer products, far outselling film cameras, and introduced new features such as video and audio recording. Film and film cameras very quickly become obsolete, and although film will never fully disappear as a photographic technique, several companies such as Kodak, Canon, and Nikon have already stopped production of film-based cameras. Thus, with the advent of the digital age, photography stopped being just a fine art and became a world wide communication tool that has permeated nearly all aspects of life. Photos are now being taken and shared at an unprecedented rate via the internet, cell phones, and other wireless devices. The world has become flooded with images and this change
Figure 1.11 - Digital Cameras
has greatly impacted how society views photography.15 011
The Impact . . .
In today’s world, with lighting fast sharing of
information and millions of photos taken and posted on the Internet every day, the need for the ‘realistic’ image still remains paramount. American photographer Robert Frank once said, “There is one thing the photograph must contain, the humanity of the moment. This kind of photography is realism. But realism in not enough – there has to be vision and the two together can make a good photograph.” Quite possibly the best example of how photography can capture the ‘humanity of the moment’ is in Dorthea Lange’s photo titled “Migrant Mother,” taken in 1936 during the Great Depression (Figure 1.12). It single handily immortalized the determined attitude of the migrant worker and has become the preeminent photo to represent to later generations the impact of the Great Depression. It is images such as this that keep photography an important story telling medium and have sustained its worldwide evolution.16
Figure 1.12 - Migrant Mother
Figure 1.13 - Lunch Break
Another great example of photography being used
to tell a story is in Lewis Hineâ€™s documentary work. Hine is mainly known for being the official photographer to document the construction of the Empire State Building and the Rockefeller Center in New York City in the 1930s (Figure 1.13), but somewhat lesser known is his work documenting working conditions in American factories in the 1900s. His unbiased approach with his camera showed the true factory conditions for child laborers (Figure 1.14). By dealing with this social issue Hine illuminated the injustice that was happening with child labor and his photos were instrumental in changing the child labor laws in the United States.17
Figure 1.14 - Factory Girl
Not every photographer though is concerned with
capturing dire times in history or exposing something so horrific that it causes world reform. Some just want to capture the everyday events and save them for future generations to enjoy. One of the most famous photographs that tells a perfect story of everyday life was taken by fashion photographer Patrick Lichfield at the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer in July 1981. During the wedding there were countless staged photos that had been planned weeks in advance, but quite possibly the most memorable photo from the event came right before the famous balcony kiss. The bride and groom were on their way to the balcony when the great-great granddaughter of Sir Winston Churchill, Clementine Hambro, slipped and hit her head. The new princess quickly bent down to help comfort the child and Lichfield saw his opportunity (Figure 1.15). This image eventually became a two-page spread in LIFE Magazine.18
Figure 1.15 - The Princess of Wales with her Bridesmaids
The Future . . .
It is very impressive how important photography
has become to society in the relatively short life it has had. It is an unafraid medium that is constantly pushing its own limits every day. It seeks out the truth and looks to illuminate injustices. It captures the humanity of the moment and presents it with an unbiased eye. It stretches our gaze to the stars above and gives life to what canâ€™t be seen with the naked eye. It saves those everyday life moments that connect everyone and shares them with future generations. It endlessly teaches and tells the stories that need to be told in ways that only it can accomplish.
Photography is the Muse of this generation and will be for every one after it . . . 015
Footnotes . . . . . . .
Naomi Rosenblum, A World History of Photography: Fourth Edition, (New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 2007), 208.
“What is a Camera Obscura.” http://brightbytes.com/cosite/what.html (accessed Sep. 24th, 2011).
Naomi Rosenblum, A World History of Photography: Fourth Edition, (New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 2007), 15-20.
“Heliography.” www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/permanent/wfp/heliography.html (accessed Sep. 25th, 2011).
“History of Black and White Photography.” www.tropinature.com/photohist/photohist05.html (accessed Sep. 24th, 2011.)
“The Photogram - A History.” http://www.photograms.org/chapter02.html (accessed Sep. 24th, 2011).
Jim Stone, A User’s Guide to the View Camera: Third Edition, (New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2004), 97.
Naomi Rosenblum, A World History of Photography: Fourth Edition, (New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 2007), 259-260.
“History of Kodak.” http://www.kodak.com/ek/US/en/Our_Company/History_of_Kodak/Imaging-_the_basics.htm
(accessed Sep. 25th, 2011).
“Kodak Embraces Digital Revolution.” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3394183.stm (accessed Sep. 25th, 2011).
“Digital Photography Milestones from Kodak.” www.womeninphotography.org/Events-Exhibits/Kodak/EasyShare_3.html
(accessed Sep. 25th, 2011).
Naomi Rosenblum, A World History of Photography: Fourth Edition, (New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 2007), 366.
Robert Andreas, LIFE - Photography Exposed: The Story Behind the Image, (Vol. 5, Number 1, May 16, 2005), 94.
Lets Go to T h e S h o w
Techniques and History of Proper Exhibition Design for Photography
It is true that photography has become the muse of this generation . . .
Photography is perfectly equipped to deal with the information gathering needs that this, and any generation after, will have. It lets us know what is happening in the far corners on the world and allows us to communicate ideas over great boundaries. It even allows us to see where the human eye cannot and thus has opened doors in the fields of science and medicine. But photography is nothing on its own. It needs to be seen and shown around the world in order for it to function at its fullest potential. With this being said photography needs a place to be shown and exposed to the public so it can tell the stories that need to be heard, the stories that only it can communicate. Photography needs to be exhibited in great and important galleries seen by many people so it can share the great wealth of knowledge it has to offer.
Photography needs a Museum . . .
Exhibition History . . .
In order to understand the importance of the museum
to photography, and by extension the entire art world, the history of the exhibition of art must be examined. The exhibition of art has played a crucial role in the creation and distribution of new art since the 18th and 19th centuries. The Paris Salon, (Figure 2.01) beginning in 1725 as a private gathering of people, rapidly became the key factor in determining the reputation, and so the price, of the French artists of the day. These salons were held partly to amuse one another, as was common for the decadent French upper-class of the time, and partly to refine taste and increase one’s knowledge of the fellow participants through conversation. These salons soon grew in importance and were made more public by 1737. It was at this time that the salon became the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France. Furthermore, between 1748–1890, it was the greatest annual art event in the Western world.1
Figure 2.01 - Paris Salon
This need to exhibit art spread fast and one of the first
to pick up on the trend was The Royal Academy in London, (Figure 2.02) beginning in 1769. Due to the new demand for art, artists in both France and Great Britain were forced to put great efforts into making pictures that would be a success, often changing the direction of their style to meet popular or critical taste. The British Institution was added to the London scene in 1805, holding two annual exhibitions, one of new British art for sale, and one of loans from the collections of its aristocratic patrons. These exhibitions received lengthy and detailed reviews in the press, which were the main vehicle for the art criticism of the day. Critics
Figure 2.02 - The Royal Academy of London
held their readers attention by sharply divergent reviews of different works, praising some extravagantly and giving others the most savage put-downs they could think of. Many of the works shown at these early exhibitions were already sold, but success at these shows was still a crucial way for an artist to attract more patrons and thus more commissions. Among some of the first important loan exhibitions of older, already famous, paintings were the Art Treasures Exhibition in Manchester held in 1857, and the Exhibition of National Portraits in London, at what is now the Victoria and Albert Museum, (Figure 2.03) held in three stages in 1866-68.2 Figure 2.03 - Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Figure 2.04 - Luncheon on the Grass
As the academic art promoted by the Paris Salon
was felt to be stifling French art, alternative exhibitions were held. These exhibitions were generally known as the Salon des Refusés (“Salon of the Refused”). One of the most famous of these was held in 1863, when the government allowed their curators to annex their show to the main exhibition of a show that included Édouard Manet’s Luncheon on the Grass (Figure 2.04) and James McNeill Whistler’s Girl in White (Figure 2.05). This began a period where exhibitions, often one time only shows, were crucial in exposing the public to new developments in art, and eventually Modern art. Important shows of this type were the Armory Show in New York City in 1913 (Figure 2.06) and the London International Surrealist Exhibition in 1936.3 Figure 2.05 - Girl in White
It soon became obvious that just having temporary
art shows was not going to be enough. In order to sustain the public need for art exhibitions a focus would need to be placed on permanent art galleries, or museums. This new direction in the exhibition of art truly began to evolve in the late 19th century when museums started holding large loan exhibitions of historic art. The Royal Academy of London also started to hold lengthy shows in its grand halls, but even these shows were not enough for they did not reach a large enough audience. The first modern “blockbuster” museum exhibition, with long queues and a large illustrated catalogue, is generally agreed to have been The Treasures of Tutankhamun (Figure 2.07) held from 1972-1981. The creation of the Treasures of Tutankhamun
Figure 2.06 - 1913 Armory Show, New York City
exhibition reflected the changing dynamic of Middle-East relations. It was first shown in London at the British Museum from March 30 until September 30, 1972. More than 1.6 million visitors came to see the exhibition, some waiting up to eight hours just to get in, and such has remained the most popular exhibition in the Museum’s history. The exhibition eventually moved on to other countries, including the USSR, United States, Canada, and West Germany, and in doing so established an international need for art. It also manifested the idea of the exhibit during its nearly ten year run, a place for the public display of knowledge.4 Figure 2.07 - The Treasures of Tutankhamun
The exhibition of the photograph is just as steeped in
history as the rest of the art world. In fact the first recorded organized show goes as far back as 1858 (Figure 2.08). It was sponsored by the Photographic Society of London and held at the South Kensington Museum, which eventually came to be called the Victoria and Albert Museum (see page 21). The show consisted of over 1000 photographs, including some 250 from the Photographic Society in France, many of which were viewable through stereoscopes crammed onto tables in the middle of the room. The Society had actually been holding photography shows since 1854, but the 1858 show was the first of any kind to be held in a museum. The exhibition featured many genres of photography that are still common
Figure 2.08 - 1858 Exhibition of the Photographic Society of London
today, such as portraits, landscapes, architectural views, and still-lifes (Figure 2.09). Among others were photographs of paintings and negatives, which today would not normally be exhibited in an art museum, but reflected the interest at the time in the multiple uses to which the new medium of photography could be used for. This exhibition also brought up a debate concerning the true nature of photography as a science or an art, a debate that still exists today. But the fact that photography was now being collected in museum collections, such as the Victoria and Albert Museum, greatly helped it overcome this hurdle, and as history progressed photography came to be accepted into the realm of art by the general public while retaining its scientific background.5 Figure 2.09 - The Rameseum of El-Kurneh, Thebes, Francis Frith
Over time the exhibition of photographs became
more and more popular and more museums eventually started to collect and show this growing medium. One of the most famous and influential of these shows was called The
Family of Man (Figure 2.10). This show, which was curated
in 1955 by Edward Steichen, was first shown at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Much like the 1858 Exhibition in London, The Family of Man was a collection by not just one but several artists. The show consisted of 508 photographs chosen from over 2 million that were submitted by both famous and unknown photographers. 273 photographers were represented in the final selection, 163 of those being American. The overall collection offers a striking snapshot of the human experience and examines subjects such as birth, love, and joy, but also touches on war, illness, and death. Steichen’s intention was to prove visually the universal aspect of the human experience and photography’s role in its documentation. The show traveled to 38 countries during its run and over 9 million people saw it, an unheard of number for not only a photography exhibition, but any
Figure 2.10 - The Family of Man Photography Exhibition
exhibition. The show was eventually turned into a book of the same name and was reproduced in a variety of
Lastly in 2003 the collection was added to UNESCO’s (United
formats in the 1950s, most popularly a pocket-sized volume,
Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization)
but a large format version was also printed for the 40th
Memory of the World Register in recognition of its great
anniversary. The book has sold more than 4 million copies
historical value. Photography’s ability to serve as a historical
and has helped secure photography’s place in the art world.
and cultural time capsule was finally being used and admired.6 025
Exhibition Concerns . . .
With the growing need to show art around the
world also comes the need to preserve that art. It is the job of the museum and the art curators to make sure that the environments art is shown in does not detract from or harm the artwork. The three main concerns of exhibition environments include
Light wavelength, intensity, and duration contribute
collectively to the rate of material degradation in exhibition
•2 - Relative Humidity •3 - Temperature
pieces. The intensity of visible light in the display space should be low enough to avoid object deterioration, but bright enough for viewing. A patron’s tolerance of low-level illumination can be aided by reducing the level of ambient light so that it is lower than the light falling on the exhibit. Visible light levels should be maintained at between 50 lux
Three Main Concerns . . .
and 100 lux depending on the light sensitivity of the objects. For comparison, on a clear day the sun can provide as much as 10,000 lux while normal work spaces such as an office or
The level of toleration of an item will depend on the
even a supermarket can have anywhere from 500 to 750
materials of that item such as certain inks or pigments as
lux. An office space requires a higher level of light because
well as the duration of the exhibition. A maximum exhibition
of the everyday tasks that need to be accomplished in
length should initially be determined for each exhibited
those spaces, but an exhibition space does not need
item based on its light sensitivity, anticipated light level,
such high levels and would be damaging to the art.
and its cumulative past and projected exhibition exposure.8
Light levels need to be measured when the exhibition
The next concern for exhibition is relative humidity.
is prepared. UV light meters can be used to check radiation
An exhibition space should have a relative humidity (RH)
levels in an exhibit space, and data event loggers can help
value between 35% and 50%. The maximum acceptable
determine visible light levels over an extended period of
variation should be 5% on either side of this range and
time. Ultraviolet radiation must be eliminated to the extent
seasonal changes of 5% are also allowed. The control
that is physically possible and preventative measures must be
of relative humidity is especially critical for vellum and
taken to control it. Certain methods include the selection of
parchment materials, which are extremely sensitive to
artificial lights that have low UV radiation, placing UV filtering
changes in relative humidity and may contract violently and
films over existing lights, and using museum glass that helps
unevenly if displayed in too dry or too wet an environment.10
block UV radiation. Furthermore, exposure to natural light is
considered undesirable because of its intensity and high UV
content. The use of blinds, shades, curtains, and UV-filtering
temperature. For preservation purposes, cooler temperatures
panels in windows or cases can help control the exposure
are always recommended. The temperature of the display
to natural light. Artificial light sources are safer options for
space should not exceed 72°F. A lower temperature of
exhibition. Among these sources, incandescent lamps are
down to 50°F can be considered safe for a majority of
most suitable because they emit little or no UV radiation.
objects. The maximum acceptable variation in this range
Fluorescent lamps, common in most institutions, may be used
is 5°F, similar to the acceptable range for relative humidity,
only when they produce a low UV output and when covered
meaning that the temperature should not go above
with plastic sleeves before exhibition. Though tungsten-
77°F or below 45°F. As temperature and relative humidity
halogen lamps are currently a favorite artificial lighting
are interdependent, temperature should be reasonably
source, they still give off significant amounts of UV radiation.
constant so that relative humidity can be maintained
These should only be used with special UV filters and dimmers.
as well. Controlling the environment with 24-hour air
Lastly, as an over all rule, Lights should be lowered or turned
conditioning and dehumidification is the most effective
off completely when visitors are not in the exhibition space.9
way of protecting an exhibition from serious fluctuations.11
The last main concern for exhibition design is
Preservation and Storage . . .
Besides the concerns for the exhibition of art and
Images on paper and the film negatives that are
photography, there are also concerns for the preservation
often required to make them are notorious for fading
and storage too. Each photograph will have different
and deteriorating under harsh lighting and environmental
requirements when it comes to preservation because each
conditions (Figure 2.11). Since the vast majority of non-
photographic process has different properties that affect
digtal photographs are in one or both of these states it is
its life and longevity under exhibition conditions. Take for
important to know how to preserve them. The measures
example the daguerreotype mentioned in section one.
taken to preserve photographs are similar to those taken to
Its process was to secure an image to a metal plate using
exhibit them, just to a more sever degree. Most preservation
different chemicals. Since the image was placed on a
centers (Figure 2.12) have cold storage rooms that are
metal plate its longevity is considerably more than photos
kept at temperatures between 40ยบ and 30ยบF with a relative
on paper and that is why there are still so many that can
humidity between 30% and 20%, some are even kept at 0ยบF.
be found in collections today. But even so they will not last
These rooms are constructed like vaults (Figure 2.13) with
forever. Another process mentioned earlier, the talbotype,
large dehumidifiers and air ducts that control the air quality
fixed an image to paper and thus was a lot more fragile than
and temperature in the room. Also these rooms are kept
the daguerreotype, but its ease of use and portability made
entirely in the dark when preservationists are not working
it the preferred material for the printed image. Almost all
and as an added protection most prints and negatives
printed photographs today use some kind of paper as their
are stored in archival boxes to block out the little light that
canvas and this fact has to be dealt with when preserving
might affect them when the room is in use. Without these
and storing. The talbotype also introduced the negative to
facilities several important photographic materials would
positive technology that was used for over a century before
quickly become unusable and eventually be lost forever.13
digital processes were created. This process eventually led to the creation of roll film as well as slide film and these negatives are just as fragile as the printed images they make.12
Figure 2.11 - 1971 Photograph After 7 Years of Home Display
Figure 2.12 - The Department of Photographic Services at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C.
Figure 2.13 - Schematic of a Moderate-Sized Humidity-Controlled Cold Storage Vault
The Future . . .
As discussed, it is important for art to be shown to the
public and to travel in order to reach a larger audience. In doing so it furthers world culture and makes international connections that could only be possible through such mediums as art and photography. These connections become even more important when they are able to break through boundaries and allow learning and understanding. These works need to be shown and need to travel in order for their true purpose to be realized. The world needs to see with their own eyes the images that connect us on several levels by way of the photographic medium. But care must be taken to not damage these precious works. Photography needs to be housed in controlled environments that will promote the work as well as protect it for future generations.
Photography needs a museum and its mankindâ€™s duty to give it one . . . 031
Footnotes . . . . . . .
Laurence Smith, The Art of Displaying Art, (New York: The Consultant Press, LTD., 1997), 20.
Arian Mostaedi, Exhibtion Design, (Spain: Links Books, 2006), 35-50.
Laurence Smith, The Art of Displaying Art, (New York: The Consultant Press, LTD., 1997), 35.
Naomi Rosenblum, A World History of Photography: Fourth Edition, (New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 2007), 214-217.
Naomi Rosenblum, A World History of Photography: Fourth Edition, (New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 2007), 483-493.
Arian Mostaedi, Exhibtion Design, (Spain: Links Books, 2006), 76.
“Properties of Light: Reflection, Refraction, Dispersion, and Refractive Indices.” tulane.edu/~sanelson/geol211/proplight.htm
(accessed Oct. 20th, 2011).
“Relative Humidity.” hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/relhum.html (accessed Oct. 20th, 2011).
Arian Mostaedi, Exhibtion Design, (Spain: Links Books, 2006), 80.
Henry Wilhelm, The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs: Traditional and Digital Color Prints, Color Negatives, Slides, and
Motion Pictures, (Iowa: Preservation Publishing Company, 1993), 707-715. 13
F inding I n s p i r a t i o n
Concept Development and Case Studies on Museum and Urban Design
Open to your Muse and let it guide you . . .
When designing architecture it is absolutely necessary to have an overall concept before starting. Without one an architect is just shooting in the dark hoping to land on something usable and almost always will fall short of their expectations. But it should be known that the concept is not a spontaneous creation. It is a formation born from an architectâ€™s past experiences. It spawns from the collaboration of knowledge and artistic abilities. Architects must draw upon the past, gather knowledge and learning from their predecessors, and look forward to the future while attempting what has not yet to have been done. This is where concept comes into play because the concept is the architectâ€™s dream for a building. With that being said this thesis is in need of a dream.1
PhotoMuse needs a Concept . . .
Concept - Vision - Catalyst
Preserving . . . our culture through the photographic medium
/// Photographic Medium
Sharing . . . stories via photography that preserve our culture
/// Photographic Library
Educating . . . the public about the importance of this art
/// Photographic School
Socialising . . . and nurturing the inspiration to spread this medium
/// Photographic Center
George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film
Preserving . . .
This international museum of photography and film is contained within what used to be George Eastmanâ€™s personal home and estate. The House collects old photo works and memorabilia in order to preserve them and the history they hold. They also focus on research and the sharing of the story of photography, which is precisely what this thesis will seek to accomplish. Location . . . Rochester, New York Date Founded . . . 1949 Program . . . Galleries, Theaters, Reading Rooms, Gardens, Archives, CafĂŠs, Study Rooms, Store
Figure 3.01 - George Eastman House, Main Building
Inventory . . . 400,000 Photographs, 25,000 Films, 5,000 Cameras Mission . . . The George Eastman House is an independent nonprofit museum that tells the story of photography and motion pictures - media that have changed and continue to change our perception of the world. They collect and preserve objects that are of significance to photography, motion pictures, and the life of George Eastman. They keep and care for images, literature, and technology to tell the story of photography and the motion picture in history and in culture.2 Figure 3.02 - Eastman House, Gallery
Figure 3.03 - G. Eastman, 1888
Museum of Contemporary Art MOCA, Jacksonville
Sharing . . .
This particular case study is very useful because it is located in Jacksonville, FL (the site of this thesis). It informs on how an urban museum is designed in the downtown area of Jacksonville and how best to treat this specific urban context. It will also help understand how a museum can interact with the surrounding community as the MOCA has been a staple of Jacksonville since 1924. Location . . . Jacksonville, Florida Date Founded . . . 1924 Program . . . Galleries, Theaters, Reading Rooms, Archives, Cafés, Study Rooms, Store, Studios
Figure 3.04 - MOCA, Main Building
Inventory . . . 800 works or art - painting, print-making, sculpture, and photography Mission . . . The Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville is a private non-profit visual arts educational institution and cultural resource of the University of North Florida. It serves the community and its visitors through exhibitions, collections, educational programs, and publications designed to enhance an understanding and appreciation of modern and contemporary art with particular emphasis on works created from 1960 to the present. Educational programming includes children’s literacy initiatives and weekend art making classes as well as regular tours, lectures, and films.3 Figure 3.05 - MOCA, Gallery
Figure 3.06 - MOCA, Café Nola
International Center of Photography
Educating . . .
Museum and School
This museum and school located in New York City is a perfect example of an urban pocket museum. Positioned near Bryant Park, a prominent area in New York City, this center for photography is distributed between two buildings that create a dialogue with the urban context. This aspect will be important to relate to this thesis as the proposed site offers some great opportunities to interact with the urban environment of Jacksonville. Location . . . New York, New York Date Founded . . . 1974 Figure 3.07 - ICP, Main Building
Program . . . Galleries, Reading Rooms, Archives, CafĂŠs, Study Rooms, Store, Dark Rooms, Class Rooms, Studios Inventory . . . 100,000 Photographs - negatives, contact sheet, slides, and cased images Mission . . . ICP creates programs of the highest quality to advance knowledge of the medium. These include exhibitions, collections, and education for the general public, members, students, and professionals in the field of photography. Photography occupies a vital and central place in contemporary culture; it reflects and influences social change, provides an historical record, and is essential to visual communication and education.4 Figure 3.08 - ICP, Gallery
Figure 3.09 - ICP, School
Jacksonville, Florida The River City
Socialising . . .
Jacksonville is the largest city in the state of Florida as well as the largest city by area in the United States and has a population of 1,300,000+. This alone helps provide evidence for the social aspect of this thesis. With such a large area and a large population PhotoMuse will be well located to spread the art of photography. County . . . Duval County Date Founded . . . 1791 Population . . . 800,000+ in city proper, 1,300,000+ in greater metropolitan area Facts . . . Named for Andrew Jackson, Largest city by area in USA, Big on the film scene in 1910, Host city for the Super Bowl in 2005, voted best city for young people to find jobs with an unemployment rate of 2.7 percent in the city for 25-34-year-olds, recent renaissance in the arts scene.5 Figure 3.10 - Aerial Shot of Jacksonville, 1893
Figure 3.11 - Panorama of Downtown Jacksonville, 1910
Footnotes . . . . . . .
“Concept.” http://www.wespeakarchitecture.com/concept.html (accessed Aug. 20th, 2012).
“The Mission.” http://www.eastmanhouse.org/museum/mission.php (accessed Jan. 12th, 2012).
“Welcome: From the Director.” http://www.mocajacksonville.org/about/ (accessed Jan. 12th, 2012).
“About ICP.” http://www.icp.org/about-icp (accessed Jan. 14th, 2012).
“Jacksonville, Florida.” http://www.city-data.com/city/Jacksonville-Florida.html (accessed Jan. 15th, 2012).
Works Cited 041
T h e R i v e r C i t y Site Analysis of Jacksonville, FL
Jacksonville, Florida has always been a diamond in the rough . . .
There is something alluring about a city at night, especially one that takes pride in its built environment. Jacksonville is one of those cities. Every night it comes alive with thousands of lights all across the city and on the water (Figure 4.01). Its vast network of highways and bridges make for an interesting infrastructure that is both widespread and compact, and it has quite a few hidden treasures that would keep any urban explorer satisfied. But the real downfall is that the city is mainly a commuter/work city with the majority of the downtown area being only office buildings. There are simply just not enough places of interest to pull people downtown every night or even on the weekends. Jacksonville will truly benefit from having a new cutting edge museum in its downtown area and will help place it on the map for good.1
Jacksonville needs a PhotoMuse . . .
Figure 4.01 - Jacksonville at Night
Jacksonville Florida has had some highlights over the
years, such as hosting the Super Bowl in 2005 (Figure 4.02) and being the host city for NFLâ€™s own Jacksonville Jaguars (Figure 4.03), but it has mainly suffered due to its lack of activity. The majority of its residents live in the surrounding suburbs and only travel into the city if they work there or a special event is taking place, such as a football game or concert. The downtown area only has a few places of interest such as theaters, museums, and restaurants making it hard to maintain public interest at night and on weekends.
Even so the city was just voted the number 1 city for
young people to find jobs by the digital news and media
Figure 4.02 - Super Bowl 39
service The Fiscal Times. The report stated a surprisingly
Other reports have stated that the city has undergone a
low unemployment rate of 2.7 percent in the city and 3.2
recent renaissance in filmmaking, which has lead to an ever
percent in the greater area for 25-34-year-olds (thatâ€™s
expanding arts scene. It is obvious then that Jacksonville has
more than 7 percent below the national rate of 9.4
much more to offer than it shows at face value and by placing
percent for that age group). The city also has the eighth
a photography museum here it will be well suited to cater to
lowest unemployment for 20-24 year-olds (8.3 percent).2
the need and demand for activity within its downtown area.3
Figure 4.03 - Jacksonville Jaguars at Alltel Stadium
Figure 4.04 - Jacksonville on the Water
Jacksonville - Site Orientation and Context
Figure 4.05 - United States Map Highlighting Florida
Figure 4.06 - Florida Map Highlighting Duval County
Figure 4.07 - Duval County Map Highlighting Jacksonville City
Figure 4.08 - Jacksonville City Map Highlighting Downtown
Figure 4.09 - Downtown Map Highlighting Thesis Site
Figure 4.10 - Downtown Map Highlighting Site Context
Proposed Site - Old Main Public Library Haydon Burns Library Location . . . 122 North Ocean Street Date Founded . . . 1965 History . . . A huge contributor to Jacksonville’s inactivity is its high amount of vacant lots and abandoned buildings within the city. One of these buildings is the old Main Public Library, otherwise known as the Haydon Burns Library (named for former Mayor of Jacksonville (1949-1965) and Governor of Florida (1965-67)).4 The history of this building begins in 1957, when Library Consultant John Hall Jacobs identified the need for a new main library as the single greatest need of the system. After his survey, Jacksonville began to seriously consider a new main facility. A major capital campaign was instituted to inspire the public to vote for the construction of a new Main Library. When the votes were counted, library enthusiasts had won - Jacksonville would get its new library building. In March 1960, the city approved a location for the new Main Library: the site of old City Hall. After selecting the design submitted by Taylor Hardwick, a prominent local architect, construction could begin. In March 1964, ground was broken at 122 North Ocean Street. On November 28, 1965, the new building was dedicated, and the next day it was opened for service to the public (Figures 4.12-14).
The structure was designed to be both aesthetic and useful. As one newspaper reporter said of the library, “the ultramodern showplace is a symphony of color, texture and functional design.” But with technology advancing faster everyday it was only a matter of time before the Haydon Burns Library would start to show its age and after 30 years the need for a better facility made the library obsolete. In September of 2005 it closed its doors for the last time and has sat vacant ever since (Figure 4.11). In a city like Jacksonville it is easy to argue using a pre-existing building rather than building one from scratch since so many are available. Not only is it better for the environment because it is recycling what is old, but it also lends itself to the overall purpose of this thesis, which is to preserve photography for future generations. By re-purposing this building it will preserve for all who visit an iconic structure in the Jacksonville landscape for years to come (Figures 4.15-21). Not only is the building itself important but its location is too. It is located in the heart of downtown in the entertainment district and is just a stones throw away from such places as the MOCA, The Florida Theater, and The Jacksonville Landing, and it is one of the first sites seen when heading over the Main Street Bridge (Figure 4.09). This location is a prime spot that is itching for more activity. Plus, this museum will focus on the stories that are shared through the photographic medium and what better architectural format to do that in than a Library.5 051
Figure 4.11 - Haydon Burns Library, 2012
Figure 4.12 - Haydon Burns Library, 1960s
Figure 4.13 - Library Interior 1, 1960â€™s
Figure 4.14 - Library Interior 2, 1960s
Figure 4.15 - Library Roof Balcony, 2012
Figure 4.16 - Library Detail, 2012
Figure 4.17 - Library Interior 1, 2012
Figure 4.18 - Library Roof Garden, 2012
Figure 4.19 - Library Interior 2, 2012
Figure 4.20 - Library Mezzanine, 2012
Figure 4.21 - Library Exterior, 2012
Proposed Site - Urban Context and Environment
Figure 4.22 - Urban Street Map Highlighting Thesis Site
Figure 4.23 - Panorama from N. Main St. & E. Adams St.
Figure 4.24 - Panorama from E. Forsyth St. & N. Main St.
Figure 4.25 - Panorama from N. Ocean St. & E. Forsyth St.
Figure 4.26 - Panorama from E. Adams St. & N. Ocean St.
Figure 4.27 - Panorama from N. Main St. & E. Adams St. with Callouts
Figure 4.28 - Panorama from E. Forsyth St. & N. Main St. with Callouts
Figure 4.29 - Panorama from N. Ocean St. & E. Forsyth St. with Callouts
Figure 4.30 - Panorama from E. Adams St. & N. Ocean St. with Callouts
Figure 4.31 - Urban Street Map Highlighting One-Way Streets
Figure 4.32 - Urban Street Map Highlighting Pedestrian Traffic
Figure 4.33 - Figure Ground Map of Downtown Jacksonville Highlighting Thesis Site
Figure 4.34 - Weekly Avg. Temperature, 45-95ยบ F on Avg.
Figure 4.35 - Weekly Avg. Wind Speed, 5-20 mph on Avg.
Figure 4.36 - Weekly Avg. Cloud Cover, 40-80% on Avg.
Figure 4.37 - Weekly Avg. Solar Radiation, 100-600 W/m2 on Avg.
Figure 4.38 - Yearly Avg. Wind Direction, Most Coming from the South (Lighter Shade of Blue)
Figure 4.39 - Yearly Avg. Sun Angles Orange = Summer, Solar Noon Angle, 86ยบ / Green = Equinox, Solar Noon Angle, 61ยบ / Blue = Winter, Solar Noon Angle, 38ยบ
Figure 4.40 - Summer Sun Angle Diagram
Figure 4.41 - Winter Sun Angle Diagram
Footnotes . . . . . . .
“About Us.” www.visitjacksonville.com/about-us (accessed Jan. 20th, 2012).
“The 10 Best Cities for Young People to Find Jobs.”
(accessed Jan. 21st, 2012).
“Jacksonville, Florida.” http://www.city-data.com/city/Jacksonville-Florida.html (accessed Jan. 15th, 2012).
“Haydon Burns Library, Downtown.” jaxpsychogeo.com/the-center-of-the-city/haydon-burns-library-downtown/
(accessed Jan. 21st, 2012).
“Florida Top 100 Building Survey.” www.aiaflatop100.org/building.cfm?idsBuilding=102 (accessed Jan. 21st, 2012).
Getting With t h e P r o g r a m Building Program Development
The program is what gives architecture purpose . . . Just as every photograph is different, so is every building. There are several contributing factors to this such as the overall design and composition of a building, the surrounding urban context and how it addresses it, and how it handles environmental factors. But an even more important factor is a buildingâ€™s program. The program is what really makes a building have meaning or purpose because it defines what the building has to offer to the public. For example, the program for a post office would include a lobby, mailboxes, mailing kiosks, package prep stations, a sales counter, mail sorting machines, pick-up/drop-off zones, etc. In regards to this thesis the program needs to be able to cater to the needs of photography preservation, exhibition, and education. The program of PhotoMuse will serve as a catalyst in the movement to save old and deteriorating photographs and encourage the general public to get involved with the process. It will also act as a testing ground for new preservation techniques and will educate the public through engaging classes in photography and dynamic exhibitions. Lastly it will provide a suitable backdrop in order for these important works to share their stories with the world.
PhotoMuse needs a Program . . . 073
Museum / Camera Store Preservation Center
Preservation Center Archive Rooms Scanning Lab Offices
Library & Reading Rooms Café Archive Rooms Classrooms / Studios Darkrooms Computer / Scanning Lab Theater Offices Mech. / Restrooms
Educating . . .
Lobby Galleries Library Reading Rooms
Socialising . . .
Sharing . . .
Protecting . . .
Program - Contents
Classrooms Studios Darkrooms Computer Lab
Café Theater Roof Garden Museum / Camera Store
Figure 5.01 - Program Inspirational Image Collage
Program - Existing Floor Plans
Figure 5.02 - Existing Floor Plan 1, Storage Level
Figure 5.03 - Existing Floor Plan 2, First Level
Figure 5.04 - Existing Floor Plan 3, Second Level
Figure 5.05 - Existing Floor Plan 4, Third Level
Program - Conceptual Floor Plans
This level is best suited for the aspect of the program dealing with protection. The majority of the floor is loated below street level so damaging UV rays from natural daylighting can be easily avoided thus aiding in the construction of an archive room. Darkrooms could also be easily utilized on this level to aid in the educating aspect of the program.
Figure 5.06 - Conceptual Floor Plan 1, Storage Level
This level can easily be used to share as well as socialise the medium of photography. Back when the Haydon Burns Library was open this floor saw the most traffic and that fact wonâ€™t change in this thesis because why mess with a good thing. So, to take full advantage this floor will house the more public areas of the museum such as the lobby, urban cafĂŠ, and galleries. The preservation center will be placed on this floor because it will be necessary to expose the public to the preservation process in order to inspire them about the safeguarding of photography.
Figure 5.07 - Conceptual Floor Plan 2, First Level
This level will focus on protection and education with the (now two story) preservation center in the middle. Surrounding it will be a library, a computer lab, and several classrooms that will help facilitate workshops and classes. These sessions will touch on the importance of photography as well as the art, history, and creation of photographs in an effort to educate the next generation about the need for this medium.
Figure 5.08 - Conceptual Floor Plan 3, Second Level
This level will act more metaphorically in the sense that it will try to convey the need to not only learn about photography here in Jacksonville, but also spread it far and wide. This will be accomplished by the use of a roof garden with a view of greater Jacksonville and beyond. It will also hold some classrooms and a gallery space that will show traveling exhibits. These traveling exhibits will help demonstrate the far reaching impact of photography.
Figure 5.09 - Conceptual Floor Plan 4, Third Level
Program - Location Matrix
Figure 5.10 - Program Location Matrix / Public vs. Private / Lighting Diagram
Putting Pen t o P a p e r Building Schematic Design
The design is what gives architecture life . . . The program of a building is one of the most important aspects of a building. It is what gives a building purpose and how it interacts with and eventually gives back to the public. But without a good design that same building that had a good program will have no true essence in this world. An architect can put together a perfectly good house for someone to live in with all the necessary parts such as bedrooms, bathrooms, a kitchen, and garage, but if that architect does not design the house well then it will be uncomfortable to live in and thus undesirable. The same can be said of photography. A photographer can certainly snap a photo of just about anything they desire, it happens millions of times a day now with modern technology. But what sets apart a true photographer from the amateur is that sense of design that allows for well composed photographs that become cherished by all who view them. Design gives life to both photographs and architecture and is one of the driving forces behind this thesis.
PhotoMuse needs a Design . . .
Schematic Design - Sketches
Figure 6.01 - Schematic Design Sketches
Schematic Design - Massing Models
Figure 6.02 - Massing Model Collage
Figure 6.03 - Final Massing Model
Schematic Design - Structure
Simple existing structural grid
2x2 foot concrete columns placed at approximately 24 ft apart Figure 6.04 - Structural Grid
Schematic Design - Floor Plans
Figure 6.05 - Entry Level Schematic Plan
At this stage in the design this level is still best suited for the archive rooms and darkrooms since they need to be kept from daylight, but the entry and main lobby have been added. This decision was made after further investigation was made into pedestrian traffic. It was concluded that most people would be approaching PhotoMuse from the corner of N. Ocean and E. Forsyth so the entry was placed there. It also allows the easy street level access of visitors in wheelchairs. But the only public part of this level will be the lobby, which will immediately lead visitors up to the second level where the main galleries are held.
Figure 6.06 - Entry Level Schematic Plan with Program Layover
Figure 6.07 - First Level Schematic Plan
The first level will now function separately from the rest of the museum. This was decided by determining that the pre-existing entry on the corner of N. Ocean and E. Adams (where the store is located on this plan) would still need to be used to cater to the general public. But this opened up the idea to have the store and urban cafĂŠ hold separate hours from the museum in order to attract more people downtown at night and on weekends. An aspect greatly needed in downtown Jacksonville. The preservation center, which will be visible to visitors by way of transparent walls, is still on this floor but is now located toward the north side. This will allow people in the cafĂŠ as well as people outside on E. Adams St. to see through and learn about the preservation of photography.
Figure 6.08 - First Level Schematic Plan with Program Layover
Figure 6.09 - Second Level Schematic Plan
The second level will be mainly devoted to gallery space including the permanent collection of the museum. These collections will focus on the history of photography as well as the importance of its ability to document the human experience. A theater will also be housed on this level that will show screenings of historical films and documentaries. It will also be used for special events outside the realm of photography as the need arises. Lastly a meandering gallery called the preservation gallery will be suspended out above the preservation center on the first level so that visitors can look below and see how the preservationists work.
Figure 6.10 - Second Level Schematic Plan with Program Layover
Figure 6.11 - Third Level Schematic Plan
The third level will still house office, classroom, studio, and computer lab space, but the gallery space and roof garden have been further developed. The roof garden will now have a planting pattern in the shape of an aperture with light-wells in the center that will bring natural light into the urban cafĂŠ below it (Figures 6.15-16). Also the gallery space has been re-designed into a camera obscura room that has a view out towards the Main St. Bridge thus demonstrating the earliest form of photographic technology. Figure 6.12 - Third Level Schematic Plan with Program Layover
Schematic Design - Sections
Figure 6.13 - East - West Schematic Section
Figure 6.14 - North - South Schematic Section
Figure 6.15 - East - West Schematic Section Daylight Study
Figure 6.16 - North - South Schematic Section Daylight Study
Figure 6.17 - East - West Schematic Section with Program Layover
The connections and adjacencies of different spaces can be more easily seen in section view. It is important to note that the theater is a two story space, the roof garden is indeed open to the sky, the radiating galleries on the second floor hover over the urban cafĂŠ and the darkrooms are located below street level.
Figure 6.18 - North - South Schematic Section with Program Layover
In this view it is easier to see that the urban cafĂŠ space is in a two story space as well as the preservation center. It is also easier to see that the archive room is located below street level to protect from daylighting. It is also located under the preservation center so that preservationists can easily travel up and down while they are working. 103
Schematic Design - Perspectives
Figure 6.19 - Schematic Interior Perspective Photo
Figure 6.20 - Schematic Interior Perspective Sketch
Figure 6.21 - Schematic Interior Perspective Composite Rendering
This view shows how the preservation center and the gallery above it will function at this stage of the design. The gallery will meander its way around the center allowing visitors different views of how the preservationists work. It will also help turn this two story space into something much more dynamic and the composite view allows for the present and future to be seen simulteanously. 105
Figure 6.22 - Schematic Perspective Photo
Figure 6.23 - Schematic Perspective Sketch
Figure 6.24 - Schematic Perspective Composite Rendering
This view shows the approach to the main entry on the corner of N. Ocean and E. Forsyth streets. At this stage of the design the facades have been radically changed and the camera obscura gallery has been placed in a protruding box in order to show its importance as well as give hierarchy to the entry.
Ma k i n g
R e v i s i o n s Design Development
The critique is what gives architecture refinement . . .
The critique is a time honored tradition in the world of art and architecture. Although it may be a tedious and often uncomfortable experience, it is very important to the advancement of art and design. For photography the critique is usually held among
gathering of peers with a proctor (usually one considered to be an expert on the subject) overseeing the event. The work is displayed on a wall or table and an introduction of the photographer is made to open up the audience to the present subject. Then an open conversation starts up about what the photographer is trying to accomplish with their work and whether or not it is successful. The photographer can then take this input and improve upon their body of work into the future. A very similar process is used for the critique of architecture and it is just as important for its development. No art is ever created in a vacuum and thus it needs to be talked about.
PhotoMuse needs to be Refined . . .
Figure 7.01 - Sketch Development Showing Plan and Facade Change
Figure 7.02 - Perspective Sketch Development of Entry Condition
Figure 7.03 - Entry Level Development
Figure 7.04 - First Level Development
Figure 7.05 - Second Level Development
Figure 7.06 - Third Level Development
Figure 7.07 - East - West Section Development
Figure 7.08 - North - South Section Development
Figure 7.09 - North Elevation Development 1
Figure 7.10 - North Elevation Development 2
Figure 7.11 - South Elevation Development 1
Figure 7.12 - South Elevation Development 2
Figure 7.13 - East Elevation Development 1
Figure 7.14 - East Elevation Development 2
Figure 7.15 - Wall Section Development
Taking a S t a n d Final Design and Thesis Defense
The end justifies the means . . . Photography is a necessary medium for humankind. It is the best and most uncompromising way to document today in order that it will live tomorrow. In this vain photographers have become the historians of human existence and it is of the utmost importance that this medium be preserved.
It is vital to note that the photographic medium has, since
its invention, permeated almost all aspects of culture and life. It is nearly impossible to go an entire day without experiencing something that has not been influenced by photography. Without photography there would be no motion pictures, television, or quite possibly internet, and simple things that are taken for granted such as the nightly news or documenting your childâ€™s first steps would be next to impossible. It is up to mankind to make sure this medium is preserved for future generations and continues to receive the recognition it deserves and this can only be done through architecture.
The World needs a PhotoMuse . . . 123
Figure 8.01 - Entry Level
The final design of the entry level has a better articulated lobby that acts like a view finder of a camera, literally framing oneâ€™s entry into the building. The archive room has been better detailed and is still adjacent to the mechanical room since its interior environment needs to be controlled at all times (discussed earlier in section 2). The darkrooms are also located down here but now are connected to a staircase that connects directly to the classrooms on the third floor so student can easily travel between the two locations during workshops and lessons. Figure 8.02 - Entry Level with Program Layover
Figure 8.03 - First Level
The final design of the first level still has the lobby directing visitors directly to the second level thus separating the rest of the first floor from the museum space. This allows the f-Stop CafĂŠ and the Photo Shop to have different hours than the museum, which will help attract people downtown at night and on weekends. Also, all three now have separate entrances, furthering their ability to function independently if necessary. The entry to the f-Stop CafĂŠ takes advantage of the high pedestrian traffic on E. Forsyth St. by gradually filtering people up to the first level by way of three large stair cases with tree planters in-between them. Lastly the preservation center has been detailed more and still functions as a transparent learning laboratory. Figure 8.04 - First Level with Program Layover
Figure 8.05 - Second Level
In the final design of the second level measures were taken to preserve the original facade design that was compromised in earlier phases of the design. The radiating permanent collection galleries have been tucked back in behind the facade and the preservation gallery has been pulled back some as well. The purpose of these galleries have not been lost and the other galleries are still intact and have been more fully detailed. Also the Photo-Reel Theater remains as an important part of the overall building program. Figure 8.06 - Second Level with Program Layover
Figure 8.07 - Third Level
The final design of the third level, like that of the second level, has been modified to preserve the original facades. There have also been changes to the spaces above the Photo-Reel Theater and the Preservation Gallery. In these once multi story spaces now reside a Photo-Book Library and Photography Studios. It was decided that it was better to not have too much unusable space in the building since there was already considerable two story space being used in the f-Stop CafĂŠ and Preservation Center. Lastly The Camera Obscura Gallery has been re-designed so that it eliminates the overbearing box that once held it. The view to the Main St. Bridge is still preserved, which helps connect PhotoMuse even more to the city of Jacksonville.
Figure 8.08 - Third Level with Program Layover
Level 3 Figure 8.09 - Structural Grids for Each Level
Figure 8.10 - 3D Isometric View of Structural Grid
Figure 8.11 - North Elevation - E. Adams St.
Figure 8.12 - East Elevation - N. Ocean St.
Figure 8.13 - South Elevation - E. Forsyth St.
These final elevations show the seamless blending of the old, historic, and iconic design of the Haydon Burns Library with that of the new, modern, and sleek design of PhotoMuse. After further research into the old library it was decided that the general public of Jacksonville would not appreciate the complete change of the ribbed facades. This led the design in a different, and ultimately greater, direction. The new design plays off the existing rhythm and incorporates angled glass cases or sleeves that offer views inside and out. These sleeves help give hierarchy to the main entry as well as incorporate the museum logo into the aperture for the Camera Obscura Gallery (Figure 8.08 & 8.13). Also these new glass additions provide for interesting lighting in the Lightbox Gallery (Figure 8.06), being the first place a visitor arrives once traveling up and out of the lobby. This truly manifests the experience of photography for the visitor who first has to walk through the darker View Finder Lobby (the act of looking through a camera view finder) into the light and composition of the first gallery space (the framed view seen from the view finder). 135
Figure 8.14 - East - West Section
Figure 8.15 - North - South Section
Figure 8.16 - East - West Section with Program Layover
Figure 8.17 - North - South Section with Program Layover
Figure 8.18 - East - West Section Daylight Study
Figure 8.19 - North - South Section Daylight Study
Figure 8.20 - Wall Section
Figure 8.21 - Interior Perspective Photo
Figure 8.22 - Interior Perspective Drawing
Figure 8.23 - Interior Perspective Composite Rendering
These Composite renderings came out of a desire to integrate photography and architecture throughout the design process. By first taking a photo of the Haydon Burns Library, drawing over it with pencil, scanning it back into the computer, and adding people and environmental elements through photoshop, the end result is a complete integration of both mediums.
Figure 8.24 - Exterior Perspective Photo
Figure 8.25 - Exterior Perspective Drawing
Figure 8.26 - Exterior Perspective Composite Rendering
Figure 8.27 - Final Thesis Show Digital Reconstruction
Figure 8.28 - Final Thesis Show In Studio, June 2nd, 2012
Figure 8.29 - Final Thesis Show Detail 1, June 2nd, 2012
Figure 8.30 - Final Thesis Show Detail 2, June 2nd, 2012
Figure 8.31 - Museum Brochure for Final Thesis Show (Outside)
Figure 8.32 - Museum Brochure for Final Thesis Show (Inside)
Wr a p p i n g
T h i n g s U p Thesis Conclusion
Contemplating the past Looking towards the future . . . For as long as I have been a student of architecture I have also been a student of photography. I constantly seek out ways to integrate the two in everything I do and this dual passion led to the creation of this thesis. By combining my two passions into PhotoMuse, my single most important academic project, I was able to create a symbiotic relationship between architecture and photography. During this project I thoroughly enjoyed talking to professors of both architecture and photography in order to successfully complete the project. As I progressed into the world of PhotoMuse a natural collaboration between the two fields developed. It was this sense of partnership and sharing of ideas that influenced my outlook on both my project and my emerging professional career. Just as photography needs a place to be exhibited in order for it to share its knowledge, I too need a platform to learn from others, collect knowledge, and share my findings with my peers.
I need a PhotoMuse . . .
Figure 9.01 - Thesis Class Photo
Published on Aug 26, 2012
A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Architecture Department in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arch...