The Mill Magazine Edition 13 No. 1 Art + Culture

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a TMM T H E M I L L M AG A Z I N E

E D I T I O N 1 3 N O . 1

Art+Culture PUBLISHER MarketStyleMedia EDITOR IN CHIEF TraceyRoman COMMUNITY EDITOR AubreyDucane MashaGartstein NickHaslam

CONTRIBUTING WRITERS MelanieMcGrath SamuelPutnam MelissaWheeler

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eatures F T Changing Morals We’re More Compassionate Than 100 Years Ago, But More Judgmental Too

p.30 ArtPop Charlotte CLASS OF 2022

p.18

Where You’re

Born

Influences The Person You

Become

p.54

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Dr. Teresa T. Mercado, DDS, FICOI with her French Bulldog, Boomer

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Changing Morals We’re More Compassionate Than 100 Years Ago, But More Judgmental Too Text by N i ck Ha sl a m , Me l a ni e M cGrath, A nd M e l i ssa W h e e l e r

V

alues such as care, compassion, and safety are more important to us now than they were in the 1980s. The importance of respecting authority has fallen since the beginning of the 20th century while judging right and wrong based on loyalty to country and family has steadily risen.

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As cultures evolve and societies develop, people change the way they think about good and evil. Painting by Michael Angelo at the Palace of Versailles. Photo by Adrianna Geo.

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Our analysis, using the Google Books database and published in Plos One, showed distinctive trends in our moral priorities between 1900 to 2007. How we should understand these changes in moral sensibility is a fascinating problem. Morality is not rigid or monolithic. Moral Foundations Theory, for instance, puts forward five moral grammars, each with its own set of associated virtues and vices. These are: ✳Purity-based morality is rooted in ideas of sanctity and piety. When standards of purity are violated, the reaction is disgust, and violators are seen as unclean and tarnished. ✳Authority-based morality prizes duty, deference, and social order. It abhors those who show disrespect and disobedience. ✳Fairness-based morality stands in opposition to authority-based morality. It judges right and wrong using values of equality, impartiality, and tolerance and disdains bias and prejudice. ✳Ingroup-based morality esteems loyalty to family, community, or nation, and judges those who threaten or undermine them as immoral. ✳Harm-based morality values care, compassion and safety, and views wrongness in terms of suffering, mistreatment, and cruelty. People of different ages, genders, personalities and political beliefs employ these moralities to different degrees. People on the political right, for instance, are more likely to endorse the moralities of purity, authority, and ingroup loyalty. Those on the left rely more on the morality of harm and fairness. Women tend to endorse harm-based morality more than men.

Patterns of language is one way to see how people make sense of themselves and the world. Library in Wells Cathedral. Photo by Annie Spratt.

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We used these five moral foundations in our analysis. Put simply, our culture, at least as revealed through moral language in the books we read and write, is increasing the emphasis it places on some moral foundations and decreasing its emphasis on others. HISTORICAL CHANGE IN MORAL CONCEPTS Moral psychologists know a lot about how people today vary in their moral thinking, but they have largely ignored how moral thinking has changed historically. As cultures evolve and societies develop, people’s ways of thinking about good and evil also transform. The nature of that transformation is a matter of speculation. One narrative suggests our recent history is one of de-moralization. On this view, our societies have become progressively less prudish and judgmental. We have become more accepting of others, rational, irreligious, and scientific in how we approach matters of right and wrong. A contrary narrative implies re-moralization. By this account, our culture is increasingly censorious. More things offend and outrage us, and the growing polarisation of political debate reveals excesses of righteousness and self-righteousness. We wanted to find which of these stories best captured how morals have changed over time, and we used an emerging field of inquiry to do so – culturomics. Culturomics uses very large text databases to track changes in cultural beliefs and values. Changing patterns of language use over time may reveal alterations in how people have made sense of their world and themselves. The most common platform for examining such cultural shifts is the Google Books database. Containing more than 500 billion words from 5 million scanned and digitized books, the database is a rich source of information on the rising and falling popularity of words.

Antique books. Photo by Chris Lawton.

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Studies using English-language books, for example, have shown increases in individualist values, revealed through decreases in “us” and increases in “me”. Studies in Chinese-language books have shown similar declines in words associated with collectivist values in recent decades. To date, there has only been one culturomic study of moral language. The researchers examined changes in the frequency of a set of virtue words such as “conscience”, “honesty” and “kindness” over the 20th century. As the de-moralization narrative would predict, most of these words showed a significant decline in popularity, suggesting ideas of moral virtue became less culturally salient. In our study, we explored changes in 20th-century morality in greater depth. Each of the five foundations was represented by large, well-validated sets of virtue and vice words. We also examined changes in a set of basic moral terms such as “good”, “moral”, “righteous”; and “bad”, “evil”, and “wrong”. We extracted the relative frequency of each word in a set for every year, standardized it so that the year in which this frequency peaked scored 100, and then averaged the words in the set. The trajectory of these averaged values over time reflects broad changes in the prominence of each form of morality.

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DIFFERENTLY MORAL We found basic moral terms (see the black line--graph on next page) became dramatically scarcer in English-language books as the 20th century unfolded – which fits the de-moralization narrative. But an equally dramatic rebound began in about 1980, implying a striking re-moralization. The five moral foundations, on the other hand, show a vastly changing trajectory. The purity foundation (green line) shows the same plunge and rebound as the basic moral terms. Ideas of sacredness, piety, and purity, and of sin, desecration, and indecency, fell until about 1980 and rose afterward. The other moralities show very different pathways. Perhaps surprisingly, the egalitarian morality of fairness (blue) showed no consistent rise or fall. In contrast, the hierarchy-based morality of authority (grey) underwent a gentle decline for the first half of the century. It then sharply rose as the gathering crisis of authority shook the Western world in the late 1960s. This morality of obedience and conformity, insubordination and rebellion, then receded equally sharply through the 1970s. Ingroup morality (orange), reflected in the communal language of loyalty and unity, insiders and outsiders, displays the clearest upward trend through the 20th century. Discernible bumps around the two world wars point to passing elevations in the “us and them” morality of threatened communities. Finally, harm-based morality (red) presents a complex but intriguing trend. Its prominence falls from 1900 to the 1970s, interrupted by similar wartime bumps when themes of suffering and destruction became understandably urgent. But harm rises steeply from about 1980 in the absence of a single dominating global conflict.

Antique books and encyclopedias found in the library at Wells Cathedral. Photo by Annie Spratt.

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PROMINENCE GIVEN TO FIVE MORAL FOUNDATIONS FROM 1900 TO 2007 (The importance of overall morality over the century is shown in the black line)

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WHAT CAN WE SAY ABOUT THIS? The decades since 1980 can be seen as a period when moral concerns experienced a revival. What has driven this revival is open to speculation. Some might see the election of conservative governments in the US, UK, and Australia at the start of this period as a pivotal change. That might explain the rise of the typically conservative purity-based morality but not the even steeper increase in the typically liberal harm foundation. Others might point to the rise of social justice concerns – or “political correctness” to critics – as the basis for the upswing in harm-based morality. The surge of harm-based language during early- and mid-century wartime may point to the late-century rise being linked to the so-called “culture wars”. Certainly, the simultaneous rise in conservative (purity) and left-liberal (harm) moralities since that time is a recipe for moral conflict and polarisation. Our research has its limitations. Books are windows into only some aspects of culture. The population of English-language books is dominated by American and to a lesser extent British volumes, and we cannot isolate patterns specific to different Englishspeaking nations. The Google Books database does not allow us to examine changes in morality over the past decade. Even so, this research points to some important cultural transformations. How we tend to think about matters of right and wrong is different now from how we once did and, if the trends are to be believed, how we will in the future.

aM T M T H E M I L L M AG A Z I N E

Nick Haslam, Professor of Psychology - University of Melbourne, is a social psychologist whose interests include prejudice, psychiatric classification, and refugee mental health. His books include Psychology in the Bathroom, Introduction to Personality and Intelligence, Yearning to Breathe Free: Seeking Asylum in Australia, and Introduction to the Taxometric Method. Melanie McGrath is a Ph.D. Candidate in Social Psychology at the University of Melbourne. Her research investigates creep in concepts of prejudice, bullying, trauma, and mental disorder. Melissa Wheeler is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Management and Marketing at the Swinburne University of Technology. Dr. Melissa Wheeler lectures in the areas of business ethics, foundations of research, and change management. She has a Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Melbourne, where she explored how people communicate their moral beliefs and how they persuade others to agree with their beliefs. Melissa has an ongoing interest in the field of moral psychology and applied ethics, including workplace diversity, moral voice behavior, and ethical leadership. This article was originally published on The Conversation.

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Mackey Realty opened its doors exactly ONE year ago! THAN K YOU for all of you r love and su pport over the last year. We are so grateful for ou r Mackey fam ily and are looking forward to all that 2022 has in store!

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Awards celebration for ArtPop Charlotte class of 2022 artists. Photo by Alex Cason and courtesy of ArtPop Street Gallery.

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ArtPop

Charlotte CLASS OF 2022

E

C o m p i l e d by A u b re y D u c a n e

ach year, ArtPop Street Gallery sends out an open call asking community artists to submit a digital, billboardready image for consideration to their program. A jury of professional artists, gallery owners, executives, and community leaders reviews each submission and selects the artists who will make up the ArtPop Class for the year. They reveal the new class during a special celebration where each new artist receives a miniature billboard of their new public art project. ArtPop partners then do the magic of spreading art to the community on billboards, newsstands, and digital boards throughout the city. ArtPop Founder and Executive Director, Wendy Hickey stated, “I started this because I have a huge love for artists and I want to be their voice. I also want to inspire our communities and cover our streets with art — because we need it, now more than ever.” Since 2014, ArtPop has introduced over 400 artists to their communities, growing each artists’ individual impact and exposure. To date, ArtPop has provided over $40 million in advertising to these juried-in artists, but without further ado, let us welcome the Charlotte ArtPop class of 2022.

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ColorEDism - The Color You Don’t See, Full Frame Visual Arts

Bae Hart

thebaehive.com | @_thebaehive_

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Caladruis, Acrylic

Bethany Salisbury

salisburyillustration.com | @bethanysalisburyart

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Color Block, Glass

Cary Caldwell

carycaldwell.com | @caryel8

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Fly, Mixed Media

Bridgette Martin

bridgetteart.com | @bridgettefineart

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This Life We Live, Acrylic Paint

Celia Kulp

@celiakulpartanddesign

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Golden Sunset, Digital Art

Cynthia Allison

theartsyhippie.com | @cici_artsyhippie

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Tinalak, Digital Media Vector Drawing

Edelweiss Vogel

edelweissvogel.com | @edelweiss_de_guzman_art

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THEMILLMAGAZINE.COM•EDITION 13 NO. 1•ART + CULTURE


Stick Together, Watercolor

Eva Crawford

evacrawfordart.com | @evacrawfordart

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Life’s Journey, Ceramics

Jodi McNeely

jodilynnpottery.com | @jodi_lynn_pottery

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Colors of the Wind, Acrylic and Oil on Canvas

Kalin Devone

kalin-devone.com | @kalin_renee

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Looking Up at the Trees, Knitted and Woven Yarn, Fiberfill

Katrina Sánchez fiberess.com | @fiberess

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The Watcher, Oil on Canvas

Kevin Harris

kevharrisart.com | @kevharrisart

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The World is a Rainbow | Spray Paint, Latex Paint, Gouache, Acrylic

Liz Haywood

lizhaywood.com | @lizhaywood

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El Yunque, Digital Art

Maria Velez Campagna

cottonandwooddesigns.com | @mariavcampagna

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The Harvest, Acrylic on Canvas

Melissa Crosson

mcrossonfineart.com | @melissacrossonart

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MATTE, Encaustic

Melissa Stutts

melissastuttsart.com | @melissastuttsart

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ArtPop Submission, Acrylic

Nadia Ogunfowora

nadiapaintsstuff.com | @artbynadiao

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Lobster, Stainless Steel

Stuart Peterman

stuartpeterman.com | @stuartpeterman

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Coneflower, Mixed Media, Collage, Acrylic Paint

Travis Johnson

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Expressions, Papier-Mache and Mixed Media

Veda Saravanan veda4art.com | @veda4art

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Born

Where

You’re

Become

Influences The Person You

A

Text by Samuel Putnam and Masha Gartstein

s early as the fifth century, the Greek historian Thucydides contrasted the selfcontrol and stoicism of Spartans with the more indulgent and free-thinking citizens of Athens. Today, unique behaviors and characteristics seem ingrained in certain cultures. Italians wildly gesticulate when they talk. Dutch children are notably easygoing and less fussy. Russians rarely smile in public.

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In some societies, children are taught that they are in control of their own happiness - which makes them more indulgent. The Travelling Companions, 1862 by Augustus Leopold Egg. Photo by Burmingham Museums Trust, United Kingdom.

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The Reading Lesson, 1855 by John Dawson Watson. Photo by Burmingham Museums Trust, United Kingdom.

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As developmental psychologists, we’re fascinated by these differences, how they take shape and how they get passed along from one generation to the next. Our new book, “Toddlers, Parents, and Culture,” explores the way a society’s values influence the choices parents make – and how this, in turn, influences who their kids become. THE ENDURING INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL VALUES Although genetics certainly matter, the way you behave isn’t hardwired. Over the past two decades, researchers have shown how culture can shape your personality. In 2005, psychologist Robert McCrae and his colleagues were able to document pronounced differences in the personalities of people living in different parts of the world. For example, adults from European cultures tended to be more outgoing and open to new experiences than those from Asian cultures. Within Europe, they found that people from Northern Europe were more conscientious than their peers in Southern Europe. Recently, we were able to trace some of these differences to early childhood. Parenting – perhaps not surprisingly – played a role. To conduct the research for our book, we worked with colleagues from 14 different countries. Our goal was to explore the way broad societal values influenced how parents raise their children. We then studied how these different parenting styles shaped the behavior and personality of kids. We did this primarily by administering questionnaires to parents around the world, asking them to describe their daily routines, hopes for their kids, and methods of discipline. We then asked them to detail the behaviors of their children. We also relied on the work of Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede, who, in the 1970s, asked IBM employees around the world about factors that led to work satisfaction.

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We were able to compare his findings to ours, and we were surprised to see that his results correlated with our own. The cultural values that were revealed through work preferences in the 1970s could be seen in parenting practices and child temperament 40 years later. This is important: It shows cultural values are relatively enduring and seem to have an effect on how kids develop over time. TO THINK ABOUT YOURSELF, OR TO THINK OF OTHERS? Perhaps the most well-known of these broad cultural values are individualism and collectivism. In some societies, such as the U.S. and Netherlands, people are largely driven by pursuits that benefit themselves. They’re expected to seek personal recognition and boost their own social or financial status. In more collectivist societies, such as South Korea and Chile, high value is placed on the well-being of the larger group – typically their family, but also their workplace or country. We found that the way parents discipline their children is strongly influenced by these social values, and likely serves to perpetuate these values from one generation to the next. For example, compared to parents in individualist cultures, collectivist parents are much more likely, when reprimanding their kids, to direct them to “think about” their misbehavior, and how it might negatively impact those around them. This seems to promote group harmony and prepare a child to thrive in a collectivist society. At the same time, if you’re constantly being told to think about how your actions impact others, you might also be more likely to feel anxiety, guilt, and shame. Indeed, we’ve found that kids in collectivist cultures tend to express higher levels of sadness, fear, and discomfort than children growing up in individualist societies. FREE TO PURSUE HAPPINESS? The second set of values we studied was indulgence versus restraint.

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Some cultures, such as the U.S., Mexico, and Chile, tend to permit and promote selfgratification. Others – like South Korea, Belgium, and Russia – encourage restraint in the face of temptation. These values seem to be connected to a specific set of parenting goals. In particular, parents in indulgent societies tend to emphasize the importance of developing self-esteem and independence. For example, they expect children to entertain themselves and fall asleep on their own. When one of their kids misbehaves, they’ll often suggest ways he or she can make amends and try to repair the damage. The message kids may get from this kind of treatment is that they’re the ones in control of their happiness and that they should be able to fix their own mistakes. At the same time, when kids are expected to pursue gratification, they may be more likely to impulsively seek immediate rewards – whether it’s eating candy before dinner or grabbing a toy off a shelf at a store – before getting permission. Meanwhile, in societies that prioritize restraint, parents were more likely to shout or swear when disciplining their children. This might make them more obedient. But it might also cause children to be less optimistic and less likely to enjoy themselves. IS INDIVIDUALISM THE FUTURE? Parents seem to be motivated to best prepare their kids for the world they’re likely to inhabit, and what works in one culture might not necessarily work well in another. But as our world becomes more interconnected, this diversity of parenting approaches may dwindle. In fact, most countries have become more individualistic over the last 50 years – a shift that’s most pronounced in countries that have experienced the most economic development. Nonetheless, there’s still a huge difference in parenting styles and childhood development across cultures – a testament to the enduring influence of societal values.

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aM T M T H E M I L L M AG A Z I N E

Samuel Putnam is a Professor of Psychology at Bowdoin College. He specializes in social development. He teaches a survey course in child development, a lab in developmental

research

methods,

an

introduction to psychology, and a seminar in social development. His research interests involve

exploring

interactions

between

nature and nurture in the development of sensation seeking, negative emotionality, and attentional control. Masha Gartstein is a Professor of Psychology at Washington State University. Her research addresses primarily

social-emotional in

early

development,

childhood,

with

an

emphasis on identifying typical trajectories of temperament development, as well as risk and protective factors relevant to the development of psychopathology. In addition, parental contributions to both temperament development and the emergence of symptoms/ behavior problems continue to be examined. She has been fortunate to collaborate with a number of wonderful colleagues abroad, who contributed to another area of research she is involved in, namely the cross-cultural study of temperament development and developmental psychopathology. Dr. Gartstein has also maintained a part-time private practice with the Educational and Psychological Services in Moscow, Idaho for the past 10 years, providing a variety of clinical services to children and families. This article was originally published on The Conversation.

A Girl with Flowers on the Grass, 1878 by Maris. Photo by Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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EXPLORETHE THEMILL.COM COM ART + CULTURE•EDITION 13 NO. 1•THEMILLMAGAZINE.COM

65


“ THANK YOU First Responders and Veterans

for your bravery, compassion, and service to humanity.” -- William J. Boss, Owner with his wife and kids

ON TH E

MO

VE

ON

E TH

MOVE

THE TRAILER STORE

2950 Old Nation Rd, Fort Mill, SC 29715 | 704-996-1998 | thetrailerstore.online


2460 INDIA HOOK RD, SUITE 206, ROCK HILL, SC 29732 | 803-985-2020 | PALMETTO-EYE.COM



Let’s work together to protect, foster, and strengthen the local independent businesses that make our community unique.

Think, buy, and source

LOCAL. MADEINTHEMILL.COM

artists


2022 Charlotte Artist Cynthia Allison

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ArtPopStreetGallery.com