V29 N1/2 WW II Merchant Ship Losses: Columbia River Built, Owned or Operated

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/ Oeconhil Shipping French line Hammond Shipping De la Roma Furness Line Hiflcone Steamship a Dollar line General Petroleum Holland-American I Donaldson Generaf 55 lnterocean~ East Asiatic Grace line lshrandtsen Java Pacific Line {Transpacific Trans.) Johnson Line Kerr Steamship Keystone Shipping Kingsley Luckenbach Lykes Bros. Marine Transport Matson Oceanic Moore •McCormack Northland Pacific Mail Norwegian-American Pacific Tankers Fred Olsen Petroleum Naviga·tioh Oliver J. Olson Parry Navigation Olympic Steamship Pope & Talbot

Afterguard

Cheri J Folk , President

Capt. Rod Leland , Vice President

Robley Mangold , Past President

Joe Tennant, Secretary

Don Magnusen , Treasurer

Jerry L. Ostermiller, Executive Director

Board of Trustees

George F. Beall

Dennis Bjork

Peter Brix*

Richard T Carruthers*

Thomas V . Dukich

Fred Fields

Walter Gadsby , Jr.

Alan C. Goudy * W. Dennis Hall

E.H. (Ted) Halton, Jr.

Jonathan Harms

Don M. Haskell

Senator Mark Hatfield *

Rep. Betsy Johnson

Dr. Russell Keizer

S. Kenneth Kirn

Thomas F. Martin

James Mcclaskey

John McGowan *

Prudence M Miller

Ken M Novack

Larry Perkins

David W. Phillips

Hugh Seppa

Charles Shea

June Spence

Willis Van Dusen

Bruce Ward

Samuel C Wheeler

Ted Zell

* Trustee Emeritus

From the Wheelhouse

One of my East Coast colleagues called me on the telephone the other day to discuss the upcoming Council of American Maritime Museums' Annual Meeting. CW e will be hosting this national gathering in September). During this conversation he asked me what we are doing now that the Museum has been completed.

I shared with him how the new exhibits are attracting impressive numbers of visitors this spring (up 40% since March) which is nothing short of astounding. Our visitors are constantly telling us that they are thrilled with the changes, and we are receiving "word of mouth advertising" from throughout the nation.

Now that the Museum building has been upgraded, we are turning our attention to the development of our campus and programs. Currently we are creating a Master Plan for the entire site. This will result in an attractively planted and lighted parking lot which will accommodate increased vehicle parking, drive-through parking for motor homes and trailers, staging areas for busses and ample spaces for the disabled. New signage and lighting, combined with planting of"low maintenance" greenery, will make for an attractive and safe environment. This project will be substantial and will require its own phased Capital Campaign. This will be a major project that will also require us to relocate the railroad tracks on the east end of the campus; the end result, however, will be a beautiful setting for this outstanding museum.

The curatorial department is also receiving special attention and support as we move forward. We purchased the 40,000 square foot Armory building directly across the street from the Museum for artifact storage. It, too, is undergoing a planning process to tum it into one of the finest repositories for maritime artifacts in the nation. Our curators are very active, bringing in new collection items on a daily basis. A museum is only as strong as its collections, and our commitment

as a collecting institution must remain aggressive and long-term.

Our Education team is also breaking new records in the variety of programs and the number of students reached both inside and outside the institution. For instance, our field instructor has given over 360 presentations to 9,000 students this year alone, all of which required her to travel to 30 different schools throughout the Northwest. Our in-house education programs are making the best use of our new facilities. Public meetings of all kinds in our new meeting rooms are making this museum a vital part of community life with special events being scheduled weekly. This summer we will host the National Park Service's ''National Superintendent Training Seminar", and as I mentioned, the Council of American Maritime Museums' National Meeting convenes here this fall.

That brings me back to the telephone conversation I had with my colleague on the other coast. Because we are a strong, aggressive institution that is moving boldly ahead with new and expanding programs, I told him that it is our hope that this museum will never be "finished". Our strength is our continued development, the result of a highly motivated and talented crew, led by a strong and visionary Board of Directors.

On The Cover: A close up section of a print: Steamship Stack Insignia. These stack insignia represent West Coast owned steamship companies as well as eastern and foreign companies in the Pacific.

Donated by John Clemson 2002.67.52

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Left to Right: SS Kungsholm SS Santa Rosa

2002.67.115 2002 .67.222

Left to Right: SS Kenya Castle SS President Cleveland 2002.67.118 2002.67.151

Shipping Poster Collection Donated to Maritime Museum

The Maritime Museum exists today because of the generous support of our members. In this issue of the Quarterdeck the Museum is excited to share with you one of these exceptional donations from the past year.

John Clemson got started early in the maritime trade spending his youth on the waterfront exploring the steam schooners at Coos Bay. John Clemson's father worked for the Independent Stevedoring Company in Coos Bay, inspiring Mr. Clemson to follow him into the maritime trade, becoming a checker, then shipping clerk and later moving up to supercargo. While working in the Northwest for 30 years, including the flour mill at Astoria and paper mill out ofWauna, Mr. Clemson started on a lifetime of collecting maritime artifacts. One ofhis favorite subjects to collect was shipping posters from the merchant and cruise industry fleets in the Pacific Northwest. This collection of posters includes some excellent examples ofEmer-

gency Fleet Corporation, Liberty and Victory ships of all types, sailing ships, the cruise industry ships and tugboats.

The merchant ship collection alone, a major part of this collection of over 600 prints and large photos, includes beautiful original posters produced during the height of the industry. Examples include the Grace Lines, Lykes Brothers, Dollar Line, Pacific Mail, Holland-American, Matson Oceanic, and States Lines, to name just a few.

A digital image database of the collection is now available through the new Museum Library.

This is a major donation which directly supports the Museum's mission to collect and preserve maritime artifacts from the Pacific Northwest and the Columbia River. The collection will now be accessible to researchers and Museum visitors alike, as a permanent part of the Museum's world class collection of over 30,000 objects.

For more information on the benefits of donating artifacts, books or photos to the Museum contact the Curatorial Department.

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World War II Merchant Ship Losses: Columbia

River Built, Owned or

The Columbia River area constructed 604 merchant ships for the war effort between December 1941 and 1946 when the last contracted vessels were delivered. The deliveries were as follows:

Operated

The Portland built Liberty Jean Nicolet's merchant crew, naval armed guard and military passengers were subjected to brutal treatment, unspeakable horror and torture after their vessel was torpedoed and shelled by the Japanese submarine I-8, Captain Ariizumi,

commanding. She was attacked on July 2, 1944 in the Indian Ocean. The 41 merchant Yard

Albina Engine & Machine Works Cl-MT-BUI

Kaiser Company, Swan Island T2

Kaiser Company, Vancouver C4-S-A4

Kaiser Company, Vancouver Liberty Oregon Shipbuilding, Portland Liberty Oregon Shipbuilding, Portland Victory

Totals

No. 4 147 20 10 322 101 604

crew, 28 Naval Armed Guard and 31 military 1 passengers lowered the four lifeboats and four rafts and all hands were successfully embarked in them. The I-8 surfaced and shelled the ship. Captain Ariizumi ordered the lifeboats and life rafts alongside the submarine. Captain David Martin Nilsson was taken aboard and ordered below into the submarine, he was never seen or heard ofagain. The balance of the crew, Naval L========i========-=========-_jl

The war losses covered both those vessels built under Emergency Shipping Board World War I program and the Maritime Commission World War II program. Fiftynine (59) Columbia River built, owned or operated were lost to enemy action in World War II. They were torpedoed, shelled, bombed, as well as lost to glider bombs and suicide planes.

It is of interest to note the first five Liberties constructed by Oregon Shipbuilding in Portland were lost by enemy action:

Star of Oregon

Meriwether Lewis

William Clark

Robert Gray John Bany

Torpedoed/sunk Torpedoed/sunk Torpedoed/sunk Torpedoed/sunk Torpedoed/sunk

The George Clymer, a Portland built Liberty, had the shortest career of the 2,500 Liberties built. She was delivered in April 1942 and torpedoed and sunk on June 7, 1942 . She was in service less than sixty days .

Armed Guard and passengers were ordered to board the submarine. Several crew members

in the confusion and in the darkness pulled away from the submarine in a small doughnut raft.

The Americans had their hands tied with wire behind their backs. They were then made to run the fore deck gauntlet made up of the submarine's crew. The Japanese bayoneted, clubbed and beat the Americans as they ran the gauntlet. Those who survived were thrown overboard. Before the massacre was completed a plane was spotted approaching. The submarine dove to escape attack leaving those Americans who were still alive to fend for themselves in the water. About 15 minutes after the submarine dove the plane flew over dropping rubber dinghies, life jackets, food and water. Within nine hours a total of 23 survivors were rescued. The casualty list was 31 merchant crew, 19 Naval Armed Guard, and 27 passengers lost.

The I-8 under the command of Captain Shinohara was sunk on March 30, 1945 by the USS Morrison (DD560) and USS Stockton (DD646). Presumably there were no survivors. The fate of Captain Ariizumi is unknown

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but ifhe survived the war, he would have been a prime candidate to be tried as a war criminal.

The Portland owned Washington was sunk by German aircraft on July 5, 194 2 about 360 miles west ofN ovaya Zemlya Islands, USSR. Her crew of35 merchant seamen and 11 Naval Armed Guard abandoned the vessel in two lifeboats and four life rafts. Prior to abandoning the vessel the Radio Operator got off an SOS message which was answered by Matson's Olopana, another Portland built ship. The Olopana arrived at the scene some two hours later. It is of interest to note that the survivors of the Washington voted to take their chances of survival in their boats. They refused to board the Olopana. The Olopana's Master gave them food, water and extra blankets and clothing. The survivors on the rafts were taken aboard the lifeboats.

The two boats under Captain Julius Riekter set sail for Novaya Zemlya 360 miles to the east arriving there on July 12 th • The boats averaged 30 miles per day under sail and oars. They landed on the island and killed a few birds from which hot soup was made. The QuarterDeck, Vol. 29 No. 1

The crew returned to the boats and set sail southwest along the coast looking for a settlement or port of refuge. There are no settlements on the west coasts of the North or South Novaya Zemlya Islands. They did, however, come across the survivors of the Dutch ship Paulus Potter. Together the crews continued along the coast stopping occasionally to kill ducks and make soup.

On July 15111 they came across the American Freighter Winston Salem which had run aground on the island. They boarded her and had their first real meal in ten days. They were taken off the Winston Salem by a Russian rescue trawler stationed in the area. The rescue trawler delivered them to the British ship Empire Tide, anchored in Matochkin Strait between the North and South Island ofNovaya Zemlya. Subsequently the Empire Tide joine<l a convoy of five vessels bound for Archangel, USSR. The survivors were landed in Archangel, USSR, hospitalized and recovered. They were repatriated to Glasgow, Scotland without incident where they were put aboard the Queen Mary bound for Boston, arriving there on October 15 th • They spent 103 days

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Launching of Star of Oregon at Oregon Shipbuilding in 1941.
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CRMMphoto

Merchant Crew

Naval Armed Guard Passengers

Total

from the time their vessel was sunk until they got back safely in the United States.

One has to wonder if those crew members and Naval Armed Guard who survived the war followed their intuitions in life since it served them so well on the decision to stay in the life boats rather than board the Olopana. Incidentally, the Olopana was torpedoed and sunk July 7, 194 2 one day after answering the Washington SOS.

The fifty-nine ( 59) Columbia River built, owned or operated carried the following merchant crew, Naval Armed Guard and passengers : Total Lost % 2329 476 20.4 970 213 22.0 281 40 14.2 3580 729 20.4

Isla Coracero, Venezuela but did not sink. On September 24, 1942 she was again torpedoed and sunk. There were no casualties. A rcata Built: Portland, OR 1919 Type:Laker Operator: Hammond Lumber Company Portland, OR Lost: Shelled and sunk July 14, 1942 in the Gulf of Alaska Eight (8) crewmen lost.

California Built: Los Angeles 1920 Type: West Type Operator: States Steamship Company Portland, OR Lost: Torpedoed August 13, 1942 off the West Coast of Africa. One ( 1) crewman died in the lifeboat.

Canada Victory Built: Portland, OR April 1944

Type: Victory Operator: Alaska Steamship Co. Seattle, WA Lost: Sunk by a Japanese suicide plane on April 27, 1945 off Okinawa. 1 crew member and two (2) armed guards were lost.

The chances of surviving the attacks for the merchant crews, Naval Armed Guard and passengers were one in five.

The following lists the Columbia River built, owned or operated vessels with dates lost, position, casualties, owner/operator and date of build: A nne Hutchison Built: Portland, OR June 1942

Type: Liberty Operator: Sudden & Christenson San Francisco

Lost: Torpedoed October 20, 1942 off East London, South Africa. Three (3) crewmen lost A ntinous Built: Vancouver, WA 1920

Type: West Type Operator: Waterman Steamship Corp. Mobile,AL Lost: Torpedoed and damaged on September 23, 1942 about 30 miles northeast of

Coast Farmer Built: Newark, NJ 1920

Type: "Submarine" from Submarine Boat Corporation

Operator: Coastwise Line Portland, OR Lost: Torpedoed July 20, 1942 off East Coast of Australia One ( 1) crewman lost.

Coast Trader Built: Newark, NJ 1920

Type: "Submarine" from Submarine Boat Corp Operator: Coastwise Line Portland, OR Lost: Torpedoed June 7, 1942, 35 miles southwest of Cape Flattery, Washington . One ( 1) crewman lost.

./Jeer Lodge

Built: Portland, OR 1919 Type : West Type Operator : Moore McCormack Lines, NY Lost: Torpedoed February 17, 1943 off Port Alfred, South Africa. Two (2) crewmen lost.

Edgar Allen Poe Built: Portland, OR April 1942

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Type: Liberty

Operator: Weyerhauser Steamship Company

Tacoma,WA

Lost: Torpedoed November 8, 1942, 56 miles Southeast of Amedee Light, Nowmea, New Caledonia. Two (2) crewmen lost.

Edmund F. IJickens Built : Portland, OR September 1943

Type : Liberty

Operator : Pacific Atlantic Steamship Co. Portland, OR

Lost: Mined, Manila Bay May 2, 1945. There were no casualties.

Elias Howe Built: Vancouver, WA July 1942

Type: Liberty Operator: Pacific Atlantic Steamship Co. Portland, OR

Lost: Torpedoed in Gulf of Aden, September 24, 1943. Two (2) crewmen lost. Elihu Yale Built: Portland, OR June 1942

Type: Liberty Operator : McCormick Steamship Co . San Francisco, CA

Lost: Glider Bomb Anzio, Italy February 15, 1944 . Three (3) crewmen and two (2) Navy gunners lost.

Ezra Weston Built: Portland, OR August 1943

Type: Liberty Operator: International Freighting Corp. NewYork,NY

Lost: Torpedoed north of Lands End, England August 8 , 1944 There were no casualties

Francis W. Pettygrove Built: Portland ,0 R April 1943

Type: Liberty

Operator: America Mail Line Ltd. Seattle, WA Lost: Aerial torpedoed45 miles south of Almena , SpainAugust 13 , 1943 . There were no casualties

George Clymer Built: Portland ,OR April 1942 Type: Liberty Operator: American Mail Line Ltd., Seattle Lost: Torpedoed by a motor torpedo boat on

Ill TO EVERYONE IN THIS PLANT:

Shipbuilding poster from the John Clemson Collection. 2002.67.103

June 7, 1942 in mid-South Atlantic Ocean one (1) crewman lost. Harvey W. Scott Built: Portland, OR July 1942 Type: Liberty

' Operator: Grace Line Inc. New York, NY Lost: Torpedoed on March 3, 1943 about 40 miles south of Port St. Johns, South Africa. There were no casualties.

Illinois

Built: Los Angeles, CA 1920 Type: West type Operator: States Steamship Co. Portland, OR Lost: Torpedoed on June 1, 1942, 400 miles northeast of Puerto Rico. Thirty-one (31) crewmen lost.

Jacksonville Built: Portland, OR January 1944 Type : T-2 Tanker Operator : Deconhill Shipping Co San Francisco, CA Lost: TorpedoedonAugust30,1944, 50 miles North of Londonderry, Northern Ireland Forty-eight (48) merchant crew and twenty-eight (28) navy gunners lost.

James B. Stephens Built: Portland, OR October 1942

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THI$ PLANT IS JtNGAGED 1JPON GOVltRNMltNT WORK £VERY PED$0N Bltltt OWES THE UNITED STATES A DVTY TO DO HIS t1TMO$T TO MAK£ MATIJDIAL POD OVR SHIPS CAREF111.LY AND SPE"EDH',Y • • • 1£T THIS DE YOVD PART OUR COVN'"I'RY IS DEPENDIN'& ON YOV EMERGENCY FLEET CORPORATION
7

Type: Liberty

Operator: United States Lines, New York, NY

Lost Torpedoed on March 8,1943, 150 miles Northeast of Durban, South Africa. One ( 1) Navy gunner lost.

James Russell Lowell Built: Portland,ORMay 1942

Type: Liberty Operator: McCormick Steamship Co. San Francisco, CA Lost: Torpedoed on October 15, 1943 off Cape de Fer, Algeria. No casualties.

Jean Nicolet

Built: Portland, OR October 1943

Type: Liberty

Operator: Oliver J. Olson & Co. San Francisco

Lost: Torpedoed and shelled on July 2, 1944 mid-Indian Ocean. Thirty-one (31) crewmen, nineteen (19) Navy Armed Guard, twenty-six (26) passengers. One (1) Army medic was lost.

John A. Johnson Built: Portland, OR June 1943

Type: Liberty Operator: American Mail Line, Seattle, WA Lost: Torpedoed on October 30, 1944 in the North Pacific. Four (4) merchant crew, five (5) navy gunners and one (1) Army Security Officer were lost. The Japanese submarine 1-12 surfaced after torpedoing the vessel, slammed a lifeboat, sunk a life raft, and machine gunned the survivors.

John Barry

Built: Portland, OR January 1942

Type: Liberty

Operator : Lykes Bros. Steamship Co. New Orleans, LA

Lost: Torpedoed on August 28, 1944 about 125 miles off Saudi Arabia in the Arabian Sea . Two (2) crewmen were lost.

John Burke Built: Portland, OR December 1942

Type: Liberty Operator: Northland Transportation Co., Seattle, WA

Lost: Struck by a Japanese suicide plane on

December 28, 1944 off Mindoro Island, the Philippines. Forty (40) crewmen and twentyeight (28) Naval Armed Guard lost. There was one (1) survivor.

John H. Couch

Built: Portland, OR April 1943

Type: Liberty Operator: Weyerhauser Co ., Tacoma, WA Lost: Torpedoed by a Japanese plane on October 11, 1943 at anchor offKoli Point, Guadalcanal. One ( 1) crew member and one ( 1) Navy gunner were lost.

John Hancock

Built: Portland, OR February 1942

Type: Liberty

Operator: Lykes Brothers Steamship Co., New Orleans, LA

Lost: Torpedoed on August 18,1942, 95 miles west of Guantanamo, Cuba. No casualties.

John Sevier

Built: Portland, OR May 1942

Type: Liberty Operator: States Steamship Co. Portland, OR Lost: Torpedoed on April 6, 1943, 20 miles southwest of Great Inagua Island, Bahamas. There were no casualties.

Kentucky Built: Los Angeles, CA 1921

Type: West type Operator: States Steamship Co. Portland, OR Lost: Torpedoed by German aircraft on September 18, 1942 off Cape Kanin, Russia. There were no casualties

Keystone Built: Portland, OR 1919

Type: West type

Operator: States Marine Corporation, NewYork,NY

Lost: Torpedoed on March 13, 1943, about 450 miles west of the Azores. One (1) crew member and one ( 1) Naval Armed Guard lost. Lewis L. .Dyche

Built: Portland, OR 1943

Type: Liberty Operator : Interocean Steamship Corp.,

Continued on page 10.

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The Mauna Ala, a Matson Navigation Company World War I West type freighter, was the first casualty in World War II. She was not torpedoed or bombed by the Japanese, but instead stranded on Clatsop Spit, Oregon on Wednesday December 10, 1941.

She served in the Matson fleet as one of their workhorses. It was to be the first ship lost in World War II, not a victim of enemy action, but under circumstances and conditions attributable to the war.

The Mauna Ala had put about Sunday, when war broke, under orders to race to the Columbia River, her Captain and crew unaware that all navigational lights had been ordered extinguished.

Sliding through moderate Pacific swells in total darkness, the Mauna Ala had no assistance from navigation aid lights at the mouth of the Columbia, all darkened under wartime restrictions, and radio silence prevented her getting bearings .

The Mauna Ala drove ashore head-on to the gently sloping beach, jarring hard and

corning to rest 700 yards from the water's edge. Her running lights still blazing, the Mauna Ala stayed all shoreward, then swung broadside on Thursday morning and soon began breaking up, as her bulkheads broke under the surf's pounding.

Vessels and tugs attempted vainly to pull her off. She was officially given up for lost Thursday afternoon and Captain Saunders and 36 crew members were taken off.

The Navy suppressed all news of the wreck until Thursday afternoon.

Meanwhile crates of candy, oranges, Christmas trees and other cargo began floating ashore Friday afternoon as the ship started to break up under the pounding of a rising surf and swell. The Mauna Ala carried 60,000 Christmas trees when she sailed from Seattle for Honolulu. She was a Christmas ship for the Islands

Information collected from newspaper clippings and Matson Corporate archives by Captain Warren G. LeBack.

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The Loss of the S.S. Manna Ala, •'fhe Christmas Ship"
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CRMMphoto 9

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San Francisco, CA

Tanker Swan Island in South Seas Port, 1943. Drawn byR.B. Rogers. From the John Clemson Collection 2002 .67.363

Lost: Struck by Japanese suicide plane on January 4, 1945 at anchor, Magrin Bay Mindoro, the Philippines. No survivors.

Losmar

Built: Portland, OR 1919

Type: West type

Operator: Calmar Steamship Corp. NewYork,NY

Lost: Torpedoed on September 24, 1942 250 miles west of Cape Comorin, India. Twenty-four (24) crewmen and three (3) Navy gunners were lost.

Marcus Whitman

Built: Portland, OR July 1942

Type: Liberty

Operator: Matson Navigation Co. San Francisco, CA Lost: Torpedoed and shelled November 8 1942 about 110 miles offNatal, Brazil. There were no casualties.

Type: West type

Operator: American-Hawaiian Steamship Co. NewYork,NY

Lost: Torpedoed on May 8, 1942 about 1O miles off Boyton Beach, Florida. Seventeen ( 17) crewmen were lost.

O/opana

Built: Vancouver,WA 1920

Meriwether Lewis

Built: Portland, OR January 1942

Type: Liberty

' Operator: American Mail Line, Seattle, WA Lost: Torpedoed on March 2, 1943 in the North Atlantic. Forty-four( 44) crewmen and twenty-eight(28) Navy Armed Guards were lost. There were no survivors.

Michigan

Built: Portland, OR 1919

Type: West type

Operator: States Steamship Co. Portland, OR

Lost: Torpedoed on April 30, 1943 about 60 miles west of Oran, Algeria. No casualties.

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Built: Portland ,OR May 1942

Type: Liberty Operator: Pacific-Atlantic Steamship Co., Portland, OR Lost: Torpedoed on November 7, 1942, 40 miles north oflsla de Margarita, Venezuela. Thirty (30) crewmen, seven (7) Navy Armed Guards and one ( 1) passenger lost.

Ohioan

Built: Vancouver, WA 1920

Type: West type Operator: Matson Navigation Co. San Francisco, CA

Lost: Torpedoed and shelled on July 7, 1942 about 10 miles west ofMoller Bay, Novaya Zemyla, USSR. Five(5) crewmen were lost. Peter Kerr

Built: Osaka, Japan Type: Eastern type Operator: Pacific Atlantic Steamship Co. Portland,OR

Lost: Bombed by German aircraft on July 5, 1942,northofNorway. No casualties. Peter Skene Ogden

Built: Portland, OR November 1942 Type: Liberty Operator: W.R. Chamberlin & Co., San Francisco, CA

Lost: Torpedoed on February 22, 1944, 30 miles north ofPhilippeville, Algeria. No casualties. Portmar Built: Portland, OR 1919 Type: West type Operator: Calmar Steamship Co. NewYork,NY

Lost: Bombed by Japanese aircraft February 19,1942 anchored in Port Darwin, Australia

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One ( 1) crewman and one ( 1) army person were lost.

Puerto Rican Built: Vancouver, WA 1919

Type: West type Operator : American Hawaiian Steamship Co. New York

Lost: Torpedoed on March 9, 194 3 about 100 northeast oflreland. Thirty-nine (39) crewmen and twenty-five (25) Naval Armed Guard were lost. There was one (1) survivor.

Raphael Semmes Built: Vancouver, WA 1920

Type: West type Operator: Isthmian Steamship Co., NewYork,NY

Lost: Torpedoed on June 28, 1942 about 87 5 miles east of Cape Canavral, Florida. Nineteen (19) crewmen were lost.

Robert J. Walker Built: Portland, OR February 1943 Type: Liberty Operator: McCormick Sleamship Co. San Francisco, CA

Lost: Torpedoed on December 24, 1944 about 165 southeast of Sydney, Australia. Two (2) crewmen were lost.

Robert Gray Built: Portland, OR February 1942 Type: Liberty Operator: Waterman Steamship Corp. Mobile,AL

Lost: TorpedoedonApril23, 1943, 125 miles south of Cape Farewell, Greenland. There were no survivors.

Star of Oregon

Built: Portland, OR December 1941

Type: Liberty Operator: States Steamship Co. Portland, OR

Lost: Torpedoed and shelled by German submarine on August 30, 1942 about 50 miles northeast of Tobago, West Indies. One ( 1) repatriated seaman was lost.

Samuel J. Tilden Built: Portland, OR November 1942 Type: Liberty

Operator: A.H Bull & Co. New York, NY

Lost: Bombed by German aircraft on December 2, 1943 at anchor Bari, Italy. Ten(lO) crewmen and seventeen ( 17) military were lost. Swifisure

Built: Portland, OR 1921 Type: Tanker Operator: Marine Transport Lines Inc., NewYork,NY

Lost: Torpedoed on October 8,1942, 25 miles southeast of Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. There were no casualties, however sixteen (16) crewmen being repatriated on the Dutch liner Zaandam were lost on November 2, 1942.

Swifiscout

Built: Portland, OR 1921 Type: Tanker Operator: Marine Transport Lines Inc. NewYork,NY Lost: Torpedoed on April 18, 1945-125 miles eastofCapeMay, New Jersey No casualties. West Celina Built: Portland, OR 1919

Type: West type Operator: American Export Line Inc. NewYork,NY Lost: Torpedoed on August 19, 1942, 95 miles northeast oflsla de Margarita, Venezuela. The Convoy Commodore was lost. Washington Built: Los Angeles 1920

Type: West type Operator: States Steamship Co. Portland, OR Lost: Bombed by German aircraft on July 5, 1942 about 360 miles west ofNoraya Zemlya, Russia. There were no casualties. West Hardaway Built: Portland, OR 1919

Type : West type Operator: Isthmian Steamship Co. NewYork,NY Lost: Torpedoed on June 15, 1942, 30 miles west of Granada West Indies. No casualties.

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HMS Tracker, first aircraft-carrier built by Willamette Iron & Steel, 1943.

From the John Clemson Collection 2002.67.202

West Cheswold

Built: Portland, OR 1919

Type: West type

Operator: American South African Lines Inc. NewYork,NY

Lost: Scuttled as part of the Gooseberry I breakwater, Normandy Beachhead. West Imboden

NewYork,NY

Lost: Torpedoed on November 4, 194 2 North Atlantic. Eighteen ( 18) crewmen and thirteen (13) Navy Armed Guards were lost. William IJowes

' Built: Portland, ORApril 1942 Type: Liberty

Operator: Weyerhauser Steamship Co., Tacoma,WA

Lost: Torpedoed on July 22, 1942 about 20 miles from Perambula, Australia. Four (4) Navy Armed Guards were lost..

William Ladd

Built: Portland, OR September 1943 Type: Liberty

Operator: Weyerhauser Steamship Co., Tacoma,WA

Built: Portland, OR 1919 Type: West type Operator: Seas Shipping Co., New York, NY Lost: Torpedoed and shelled by German submarine on April 20, 1942 about 175 miles east ofNantucket Lightship, Massachusetts. There were no casualties. WestNohno

Built: Portland, OR 1919 Type: West type

Operator: American Export Lines Inc. Lost: Deliberately sunk as a blockship on June 11, 1944 to form the Gooseberry I breakwater at the Normandy Beachhead. She was the last ship sunk to form the Gooseberry breakwater. No casualties WestZeda

Built: Portland, OR 1918

Type: West type

Operator : Not known Lost: Torpedoed on February 22, 1942 about 125 miles southeast of Trinidad. No casualties.

William Clark Built: Portland, OR February 1942 Type: Liberty Operator: Isthmian Steamship Co.

Lost: Struck by a Japanese suicide plane on December 10, 1944 while she was anchored 11 miles south of Dulag, Leyte, the Philippines. There were no casualties . William S. Rosecrans Built: Portland, OR September 1942 Type: Liberty Operator : American President Lines Ltd., San Francisco, CA Lost: She was mined on January 6, 1944 while anchored 8 miles south ofNaples, Italy. There were no casualties.

Written and edited by Captain Warren G. LeBack, all data is from Captain Arthur Moore's book A Careless Word a Needless Sinking. Published by the American Merchant MarineMuseum,March 1983.

Recommended Additional Resources: The Liberty Ships, The History of the ''Emergency" type Cargo Ships Constructed in the United States During World War II.

The Victory Ships and Tankers, The History of the "Victory" Type Cargo Ships and the Tankers Built in the United States During World War II. L.A. Sawyer and W.H. Mitchell. Cornell Maritime Press, Inc. 1970 & 1974

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A Trip Down Astoria's Waterfront in the 1930s

This is a recollection of mine, gathered from my memories of early years of schooling and growing up in Astoria. I also worked on the river on a ferry boat, cannery tender and towboats. The latter was my joy. That was a long time ago so if any inaccuracies appear, I apologize.

Astoria's waterfront should be defined as extending from the present Port Docks on the downstream end to Tongue Point at the upstream end, a distance of approximately five miles.

Let's begin at Tongue Point and slowly work our way downriver, in a watercraft, of course.

The US Lighthouse Service, later taken over by the US Coast Guard, maintained a large facility for storage and maintenance of river and ocean buoys and navigational aids. Two steel-hulled steam-powered vessels, the Rose and Manzanita, were moored at the docks. A few names of the fellows associated with the facility may sound familiar to some of you: Asquith, Leslie and Morris.

NextwereremnantsoftheHammond Lumber Company mill shipping docks where sailing ships loaded for Pacific Rim ports. The mill had burned on September 11, 1922 and was never rebuilt, a severe blow to Astoria's economy, as well as the town's catastrophic burning shortly after on December 8, 1922.

At the foot of present 50 th Street was a large complex of the Columbia River Packers Association, the largest of the salmon packers in the region. They also had a shipyard to maintain, repair and build boats for the company plus warehouse, net racks, bunkhouse and a fish receiving station. The facility was referred to as the Scandinavian Station named after an earlier-owned salmon cannery. About

six canneries merged to form the Columbia River Packers Association, CRP A for short. The tender Astormoored here during the fishing season. CRPA had a number of tenders that picked up fish daily from the various stations . I decked for several years on the Astor. A few names of people at the Scandinavian Station were Nelson, Peterson, Basel, three North brothers, Halonen and Messenger.

Chinook Station was located near the foot of 46 th Street. This was a facility owned by Chinook Packing Company of Chinook, Washington which lies across the river from Astoria. A number of Astoria gillnetters sold their catch to Chinook Packing in return for net racks, storage, moorage and fish receiving. The tender Man O' War, made daily calls to pick up fish for delivery to the cannery in Chinook. Gus Bergestein skippered. Sam Christensen was station manager.

CRPA's cold storage, known as Hanthorne' s, comes next near 40 th Street. It was a large operation for ice-making, freezer rooms and preparing salt salmon for export. A large amount ofice, both block and crushed, was necessary for daily delivery to the cannery, seining grounds and receiving stations. Other users were also served. Tony Canessa and Bill Cattral were old timers here.

George and Barker Station, a CRP A property at the foot of3 7 th Street, consisted of a receiving fish dock, net racks, warehouse, boat repair shop and a bunkhouse for out-of-town fishermen. The tender Leader moored here. Bill Bergman skippered. On the beach were Pete Welch, Ernie Gustin, Charles Bergman and Oscar Hendrickson.

At the foot of32 nd Street, near the old Eric Hauke grocery store, we find Brookfield Sand and Gravel. Charlie Larson founded and managed the facility for many years. Many of the roads and dikes on the lower river were projects of Brookfield. A rock quarry was operated at Brookfield, Washington about 15 miles upriver. A bucket

COLUMBIA RIVER MARITIME MUSEUM
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Looking up from 3 7th from the Net Racks at George and Barker Station.

CRMMphoto

digger for digging river sand, loading and unloading barges of sand and gravel was a necessary piece of equipment. The tug, Brookfield, skippered by John Ducich, provided the towing. She was powered by a Fairbanks-Morse diesel.

As we approach downtown Astoria we see the last of what some referred to as the Railroad Docks. Stemwheelers from Portland docked daily with freight and passengers. Among them were the Lurline, Undine and screw-propelled Georgiana. Land transportation and improved roads were beginning to favor the land competition. The demise of a colorful fleet, serving the region from Portland to Astoria, was drawing near. Replacing this waterfront section, we now have the Columbia River Maritime Museum, one of the country's best. The US Coast Guard shares the docking space with the Museum. River sightseeing cruise ships are now regular Museum visitors.

A short distance downstream were two car-and passenger ferry companies providing service to Megler and Point Ellis, Washington. The ferry, North Beach, owned by Columbia Transportation Company, docked

at the foot of 15 th Street. Captain Elmer Faulk was her skipper. The service was established in the early thirties.

The ferry, North Beach, was later acquired by Captain Fritz Elfving' s Astoria North Beach Ferry Company in 1931 and was subsequently eliminated.

The Astoria North Beach Ferry Company's ferries docked at the foot of 14th Street. The ferries were named Tourist II and Tourist III. Capt. Elfving founded the company about 1922. The first ferry landing was at P. J McGowan & Son's dock at McGowan, Washington. After a few years the Washington terminus was moved upstream about a mile to Point Ellis and then to Megler following the termination of the ferry North Beach.

The State of Oregon became the owner and operator of Capt. Elfving' s company in 1946. When the Astoria Bridge was completed in 1966, the ferry service from Astoria to Megler was discontinued. The ferry service could no longer accommodate the heavy traffic .

Dock space between the two ferry landings accommodated the moorage for the US Corp of Engineers' survey boat,

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Geo H. Mendell. She was retired, sold to Shaver Towing of Portland, repowered with a diesel engine, then used in the towing industry. The Corp replaced the Mendell with a new upgraded steel hull and diesel-powered engine. She was then named the Robert Gray. Her design complimented her nice lines . Knappton Towboat Company, largest of the local towing companies, occupied the dock and warehouse between 14th and 15 th Streets. (There was no 13 thStreet) Both steam and diesel engines powered their fleet. Among them were the Defender, Irene, Knappton, Myrtle, Melville and Tonquin. Skippers usually were long-term employees who had advanced from deckhands to skipper. They were John Sigfridson, Oscar Nelson, Clark Bell, Bill Jacobson, Connie Johns, Mike Lawlis and Arve Larson.

Shaver Transportation of Portland berthed their steel-hull diesel Wilavis in Astoria to take care of their towing on the lower river, mainly log rafts out ofY oung' s Bay. Harold Herren and Sam Shields worked together, eventually being transferred to Portland when towing diminished. The moorage was located between 12th and 11thStreets.

Occupying an adjacent space downstream was Arrow Tug and Barge . The company was founded by three Cherry brothers: Harry, Phil and Ted. Both river and occasional ocean towing was supplemented by an agreement with the Columbia River Bar & River Pilot Associations to provide transportation to and from oceangoing vessels as they passed Astoria. Their vessels were Arrow 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Some names to go along with the fleet were John Hanhela, Charlie Nelson, Mag Larson, Vic Lonberg and John Pemberton who ran the Arrow No. 2 for pilot transfers.

A dock, from 11 th Street to 10th Street, provided moorage for a number of vessels handling freight and passengers. Among these vessels were L. P. Hosford, Elfin, America and Watco. The latter made daily (except Sundays) round-trips from Cathlamet, Washington. Harry and Ernie Foster owned the company and had successive boats over the years. Others were the JuliaB. and the Imperial. Eventually, the business became unprofitable to operate .

A smaller, but necessary boat, named the

Tourist No 3 on the ways. Woodfield Photo.

COLUMBIA RIVER MARITIME MUSEUM
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CRMMphoto

COLUMBIA HIVEH MARITIME MUSE

New Members

July 9, 2002March 31, 2003

Statesman

Cleo Brainerd

Robert Bunch

Harvey Black

Bette R. Gant

Mamoru Inouye

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Jay Leuck

Jill D. Toberson

Ensign/Individual Membership

Katherine M. Astala

David Isaacs

Kathleen M. Kaping

Edward Moen

Jacqueline L. Russell Thomas G. Thompson

Robert W. Trumble Erika W eisensee

Crew/Family Membership

Mr. & Mrs. Rodger Adams

Capt. & Mrs. James S. Bernard

JohnC. Blum

Kelly Brown & Susan Applegate

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Morgan

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Davey

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Mr. & Mrs. Herschel Lange Mr. & Mrs. Harry Packard Mr. & Mrs. Ronald K. Ragen Kathy Samsel Mr. & Mrs. Russell E. Thompson

Mr. & Mrs. Don Tuschoff Mr. & Mrs. Dale Victor Mr. & Mrs. Jim Wills Mr. & Mrs. Yockey Boatswain

Helena Barbey Lankton Mr. & Mrs. Daniel E. Crockett

Increased Memberships July 9, 2002March 31, 2003

Crew/Family Membership

John S. Burlingham

Susan Holway

Florence Kelly

Gail Moren

Mr. E. Robert Nassikas

Mr. & Mrs. Sam Patrick John & Juanita Price

Helmsman

Mr. & Mrs. Stephen C. Allen

Judge & Mrs. John C. Beatty, Jr.

Mr. & Mrs. Bill Bennett Mr. & Mrs. Tom Benson

Mr. & Mrs. Donald M. Bertucci

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Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Burkholder, Jr. Barbara A. Campbell

Gerald Capps

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Baker- Monaghan Larry Nordholm & Gayle

Smelser

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Mr. & Mrs. Les Swain

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Douglas Du Val Dr. Robert Holland Dr. & Mrs. Ted Kingery Y aquina Lights, Inc. Ted M. Natt, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Dale A. Osborn Catherine S. Palmateer Mr. & Mrs. David W. Phillips Mr. & Mrs. Bill Wyatt Pilot

Kit J. Gillem & Deborah Horrell

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Allan Maki

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20
The QuarterDeck, Vol. 29 No. J

Ida Schauer

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July 9, 2002

Jaqueline Erickson

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Senator & Mrs. Sid Snyder Melissa Yowell

Robert D. Barr Mrs. & Mr. D . Huddleston June Spence Helen Sorkki Lou Evans Dr Robert Mitchell Commodore Mr. & Mrs. George Wilhelm Carol Povey Mr. & Mrs. James Mack Boatswain

Ensign/Individual

Mr. & Mrs. Arnold E. Mervin Andersen Memorial Donations Andersen

Robert W. Blake July 9, 2002 Mr. & Mrs. Dan Bartlett Billylou Brattebo March 31, 2003 Mr. Robert C. Bueermann Dr. Del F. Corbett Mr & Mrs. Theodore T. Tony Cox George Abrahamson Bugas

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Wagner

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MUSEUM
MARITIME
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21 Th e Qu arterD eck, Vol 2 9 No 1

Jerome S. Bischoff

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JackLidral Mr. & Mrs. Eliot H. Jenkins Fastabend

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N eimi Oil Company

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The QuarterDeck, Vol. 29 No. 1

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