V23 N3 Down-Easter 'Pactolus' Sails into Museum

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The Museum recently added a magnificent down-easter to the Sailing Vessel gallery in the form of an 1874 portrait of the ship Pactolus. Painted by Liverpool marine artist John Hughes, the beautiful painting- newly restored and in its original frame depicts the Pactolus ten years into her long career as a deepwater carrier. It is here on long-term loan from James and Inez Kirker of Boardman, Oregon. Mr. Kirker is great-grandson of Captain William J. Tobey, commander of the Pactolus. Built and launched at Chapman and Flint shipyard in Thomaston, Maine in 1865, the shipPactolusmeasured 191 register feet and 1081 tons. She had a long career in various trades, carrying grain, case oil, and lumber, among other cargoes. She was finally cut down to a barge, foundering in 1907.

A hundred years ago, the lower river was busy with schooners, scows, full-rigged ships and small fishing vessels. Among these were sailing ships from the world over, and many down-easters large American deep-water sailing ships built in Maine for the grain trade. The down-easters flourished following the brief era of the clipper ships and the Civil War. Developed for the demands of the West Coast grain trade, these deepwater ships extended the age of sail for several more decades.

Inbound to Liverpool, the graceful 1865 down-easter Pactolus is depicted off Anglesey with a pilot schooner ready to guide her into Liverpool Bay. Shortly after John Hughes painted this portrait in 1874, Pactolus made her fastest round trip by way of Cape Horn. She sailed from New York to San Francisco in 114 days (a post-clipper ship record), thence to Astoria, where she loaded grain for Liverpool, and return to Philadelphia, where she arrived after IO months and 26 days. Courtesy of Jim and Inez Kirker, Ll995.131

Down-Easter Pactolus Sails Into Museum

Marine paintings this preserve many key elements of the past. We cordially invite you to visit the Museum again, and often, to enjoy the Pactolus along with many new displays throughout our galleries.

Vol. 23, No. 3 Summer 1997

A review and newsletter from the Columbia River Maritime Museum at 1792 Marine Drive in Astoria, Oregon

the UARTERDECK

Her first captain, William Tobey of Thomaston, Maine, made several voyages with her before he turned the ship over to his son William J. Tobey. For young Capt. Tobey, born in 1845, Pactolus was his first command, and he sailed her until 1876. While in command of Pactolus, the younger Capt. Tobey commissioned the Hughes ship portrait that hangs in the Museum today. For him it was a proud reminder of his first command. Paintings like this helped establish John Hughes' reputation among North American sea captains for his abilities as a ship portraitist; most of his works were painted for export.

-Anne Witty, Curator

As our summer issue goes to press, the 1997 grain harvest has come in. Huge transoceanic ships ply the Columbia River channel, or wait at anchor for their tum to load at docks upriver. A hundred years ago, the Astoria waterfront would have seen a similar influx of vessels here to load the golden grain. But what a difference in the ships!

Frank M. Warren

Charles Shea

Museum Staff:

Jim McClaskey

Herbert Steinmeyer, Secretary

Chris Bennett

Ted Bugas

Scott Palmquist

Trish Custard

A Museum Without Members?

Ted Natt, President

Cheri Folk

excitement of our traveling history programs. Students will also make use of our bilingual lesson books, and blind students will take a hands-on tour of the Museum, complete with a Braille guidebook. And all of this is only possible thanks to your support.

Sheila Radich

Anne Witty Rachel ¾ynne

Each year, hundreds of artifacts receive preservation treatment thanks to the support of members.

John Davis

Willis Van Dusen

Rod Leland

Peter Brix, Emeritus

Larry Perkins

Rob Rudd

Lynne Leland

Don Magnusen, Treasurer

Afterguard

J.W. 'Bud' Forrester Jr., Emeritus

"At the same time, your membership supports the work our education staff is doing throughout the region. This fall, students in two states, and in classrooms as far away as Pendleton, Oregon and Bremerton, Washington, will join in the

Robley Mangold, Vice President

Jennifer Miller

Richard T. Carruthers, Emeritus

"It is at this historic juncture, our 35th anniversary, and the 15th anniversary of our beautiful facility, that we take a moment's pause to thank you, our members, for making it all possible. It goes without saying that members are the lifeblood of this museum. Without your support, there would be no education programs, no new acquisitions, and no new exhibits. You make all of this possible. One measure of your support can be found not far from this luncheon ... at this very moment, a professional cataloger is at work computer cataloging our maritime library, a project supported largely by you, our members.

Sid Snyder

June Spence

Graham Barbey

Don M. Haskell

Charlotte Jackson

W. Louis Larson

Walter Gadsby, Jr.

David Pearson

Jerry L. Ostermiller, Executive Director

"As members, you also underwrite our Museum's renewed efforts to collect the finest maritime artifacts available. On your way to the Museum this morning, you may have noticed a Columbia River One-De sign sailboat, the first of its kind, sitting behind our building. This sailboat, commonly known as a CROD, was designed and built here in Astoria just before World War II. Now under restoration, the CROD will soon be part of our collection of 45 historic boats. So, too, will a 44-foot Coast Guard motor lifeboat, also the first of its kind to serve on the Columbia River Bar. And later this fall, the Darle, a wooden-

Karen Carpenter

Jim Nyberg

Richard G. Reiten

Over the course of the summer, the Museum held a series of lunches for our members. These luncheons were held in honor of the Museum's 35th birthday, and provided an opportunity for members to learn more about the Museum, its programs, and its future plans. Nearly 450 people attended the lunches. As follows is an excerpt from a talk given by Museum's Director, Jerry Ostermiller, at the first of these lunches.

Rose Palazzo

Ronald Collman

Nikki Bryan

Jon Englund

Celerino Bebeloni

Arline Schmidt

W Hampton Scudder

Alan C. Goudy

Ward V. Cook, Immediate Past Pres.

Ted Zell

James H. Gilbaugh, Jr.

Board of Trustees:

Mitch Boyce

Russ Bean

Mike Foglia

Elaine Rusinovich

Eugene Lowe Chet Makinster

Jack R. Dant

2

John McGowan

Carl Fisher

Bonnie Kozowski

hull troller built here in Astoria, will join our fleet of historic watercraft. And you, as members, have provided all of the funding to make these important acquisitions.

"You may also notice during your visit that there are new exhibits and new artifacts throughout the Museum all underwritten by you, our Museum members. Just one example is the newly restored bridge of the Navy ship USS Knapp. New campaign ribbons, a sound system, new lights, and canvas deck awnings all contribute to the 'real life' feel of the bridge. This project was underwritten in its entirety by membership donations that you make to your Museum.

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Membership contributions will pay for the costs of transporting and restoring the historic Mistee, a 1934 Columbia River One-Design and the first of its kind built in Astoria, and for two other historic boats recently acquired.

Last year, some 6,500 school children participated in Museum education programs,funded by membership contributions.

For more information about membership, call the Museum at (503) 325-2323.

"Finally, as our members, you serve as our besl ambassadors, spreading the word about our Museum, and it is for this that we are most grateful. Your membership is a ringing endorsement which assists us in securing grants and recruiting new members, and allows us to continue the high quality work that resulted in our becoming the first maritime museum to be accredited on the West Coast. Thank you for all that you do for your great Museum."

Quarterdeck, Vol. 23, No. 3 ' ,'1\.' t -,"' ", ~\\ { . 1 i \

Your membership is important to your Museum. If you know someone who should be a member, ask them to join your efforts in preserving our rich maritime heritage.

Welcome aboard!

In our Summer 1993 issue, we hailed the arrival of a Columbia River One-Design sailboat at the Museum (Quarterdeck, Vol. 19 No. 4). This summer we are delighted to an; nounce that CROD #1, the first of this small, distinctive class of sailboats, has returned home to Astoria. The Museum took custody of CROD #1, now known as Mistee, in August from the Center for Wooden B~a~s in Seattle. Mistee, built in 1934 and ong1-

We would like to thank the volunteers from the United States Coast Guard buoy tender Cowslip for repainting the Museum's entrance buoys. Their good work has added a refreshed look to the Museum grounds.

.

The cataloguing project is well under way, with books being processed and piled on every available surface. Library Catal_oguer Arline Schmidt is hard at work preparmg an inventory of books on the computer. At press time, about three-quarters of the collection of more than 6,000 books was listed.

Fresh Paint

CROD #1 comes home

With the encouragement of the Washington State School for the Blind, CRMM has developed a Braille guidebook. The project began after a visit to the Museum by students from the School for the Blind. Their instructor, Craig Meador, commented that it is difficult to find sites to visit that are accessible for his students. He praised the Museum for allowing his students to gently touch and explore selected artifacts during their tour. When asked how we could make the Museum even more inviting to the visually im paired, Craig suggested a Braille_ guidebook.

Once this list is complete, we'll be sending it to a library cataloguing c~mpan7 which will create complete, standardized Library of Congress records for most of our collection. Given the unique nature of our collection, Arline will also be cataloguing many books and monographs "from scratch," creating computer records_ for books not available through standardized library record sources. Finally, each book will be labeled and the shelves reorganized.

This is an exciting project for our Museum, and it is happening because of member support. Thanks to you, we will soon be able to offer broad-based access to our library holdings and be better able to serve the members, researchers and students who make use of our maritime research library. If you would like to take a tour of the library, and see firsthand how the project is progressing, please call the Museum at 325-2323.

Rolf Klep obtained the buoys from the Coast Guard in 1969. These were surplus through the 13th Coast Guard District in Seattle. In entering the Museum's grounds the red buoy is on the right for "red right returning." The black used to be the color of odd numbers buoys, which are now green. We are keeping with the black for historical purposes.

Written and designed by Tnsh Custard and Dave Pearson and produced by the Washington State School for the Blind, ~e guidebook is now available at the Admissions Desk for use by visitors while at the Museum. The seven galleries and Great Hall are rendered in thermoform plastic maps raised maps that are read by touch. Acco_mpanying each map is a description in_Brail!e of the displays and artifacts contamed m each gallery. Exhibits that can be explored by touch are highlighted.

Library Shows Cataloguing Progress

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The numbers painted on the buoys are 17 (on, left, black buoy) and 92 (on, right, red buoy). These numbers not only coin cide with our address, but also with the year of Captain Robert Gray's entrance into the Columbia River.

Photo by Larry Barber

The Education Department thanks Craig Meador and the Washington State School for the Blind for their help in this important project.

We bid fair winds to our summer mtern, Melanie Stillion-Meyerhoff, who did yeoman's duty in the curatorial dep~rtment. Melanie worked on recordkeepmg, archival, and exhibit projects for six weeks as part of her studies at Washington State University. Thank you, Melanie! Sali Diamond has left the Museum Store to pursue the renovation of her new historic home. We wish her all the best.

We are very pleased to welcome new members of Museum crew. Arline Schmidt joined the museum in July as library cataloguer, bringing with ~er ~an~ yea~s of experience as a school hbranan m Fairfax County, Virginia. Jennifer Miller took up her duties as Administrative Secretary. She recently moved to the Astoria area from Wilsonville, bringing store management and recruiting experience. Bonnie Kozowski joined our crew on August 29th a~ Mu seum Store sales associate. Along with retail experience, she adds strong knowledge of all things maritime. Bonnie also teaches sailing with the USCG auxiliary.

Columbia River Maritime Museum News and Notes

nally named Cluaran (Scottish for "thistle"), was designed by naval architect Joe Dye~ at the request of the Columbia River ~achtmg Association. She is eminently smted for conditions on the Columbia, with shallow draft, hard chine, and a reasonable amount of sail area. People lucky enough to own oneofthe 12CRODsbuiltracedand cruised them around the river for decades. We hope to see Mistee sailing again on the lower river.

Braille Guidebook

My Name is York, by Elizabeth Van Steenwyk; illustrated by Bill Farnsworth (Northland Publishing Co., Arizona, 1997; $14.95)

Editor, Karen Carpenter. Editorial Staff: Jerry Ostermiller, Anne Witty, Patricia Turner Custard, Rachel Wynne, Rob Rudd.

My Name is York

Now a pilot working the treacherous Columbia River Bar, Dempsey is surprisingly matter-of-fact about her achievements, so it's left to her coauthor, Joanne Foster, to provide a landlubber's perspective. Journalist Joanne Foster spent forty days aboard a freighter under Dempsey's command to observe the captain at work. Together, their point/counterpoint description of the captain's job makes fascinating reading. Dempsey's daring rescue of a drifting freighter about to crash onto North Carolina's Frying Pan Shoals earned her every prestigious American maritime award--the United Seamen's Service AOTOS Honored Seamen Award, the Seamen's Church Institute Lifesaving Award, and the American Merchant Ma-

Great Books From the Museum Store

Still, I dream, and I carry my dream within me as we begin our quest to find a waterway to the western sea. I dream offinding freedom. My name is York and I am a slave

So begins an inspiring story of faith, courage, and resolve set against the backdrop of the most famous exploration in American history. When the Lewis and Clark expedition launched its search for a water passage to the Pacific Ocean in 1803, York, a black slave belonging to Captain Clark, accompanied them. In this beautifully illustrated children's book, York tells the tale of this remarkable journey and his own search for freedom.

Printed at Anchor Graphics, Astoria, Oregon

The Captain's a Woman

rine Seamanship Trophy. A lifelong pleasure sailor, Depsey served as navigator of the U.S. Women's Challenge Team.

The boats slip into the water at dawn and journey begins. Some people think we may find monsters out West But our leaders, Captain Lewis and Captain Clark, say that is an idea for dreamers . There is no room for dreaming on this journey into the unknown.

Volume 23, No. 3 _____________________;.___

Deborah Dempsey, a resident of Astoria, is one of very few women licensed to sail ships of any tonnage on all oceans. Despite the danger and physical demands of her work, sex discrimination, union hassles, and the sheer loneliness of life on the bridge, it is obvious from the details offered in this lively memoir that Dempsey feels most at home at sea. She enjoys a truly unique position in the merchant marine, and this inside account of her experiences in a traditionally male environment is a sea story that extends beyond the usual boundaries to appeal to a broad audience.

The QUARTERDECK is published four times a year by the Columbia River Maritime Museum, 1792 Marine Dr., Astoria, OR 97103. Phone (503) 325-2323, Fax (503) 325-2331.

Deborah Dempsey's maritime career has been filled with firsts. She was the first fe male to graduate from a U.S. maritime or military academy. The first American woman to be licensed as a master mariner and to command a cargo ship on international voyages. The first woman to become a regular member of the Council of American Master Mariners. The only woman among nine ship captains to earn the U.S. Navy's Meritorious Public Service Award during the Persian Gulf War (for getting heavy military equipment into Saudi Arabia) . But this book clearly shows that Dempsey takes pride not so much in being a trailblazer as in having earned the respect of colleagues by paying her dues and passing the tests faced by any seagoing officer.

Q the UAR.TERDECK

Coming up on December 13th, the Museum Store will host a book signing with Columbia River Bar Pilot Deborah Dempsey, who will speak about and sign copies of her brand-new memoir, The Captains a Woman : Tales of a Merchant Mariner (forthcoming in November) .

MY '7:...· ,JNAME IS Quarterdeck , Vol. 23, No 3

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Unofficially, the inclusion of Mr. Joseph Banks and his retinue in the party was an effort by the civil scientific establishment to expand the limits of knowledge with orderly observations in the life sciences and the social sciences. Their appointed observer, Banks, was an enlightened member of that establishment.

The return of Endeavour to England on 12July 1771 was marked by more than modest celebration. Lieutenant Cook's letters, sent home at various times during the voyage, added to the anticipation of the arrival. The successful voyage at once established the British at the forefront of scientific exploration in the Newtonian mode. Astronomy, medicine, geography, navigation, biology, and botany all benefited from the first voyage.

ticularly to establish the presence or absence of a great southern continent, Terra Australis Incognita.

Mr. Bank's Voyage

land in quest of new plants and animals to classify with the scheme. He instigated the notion and had the Royal Society put him forth as the Society's man on the voyage. Banks funded much of his own voyage of scientific discovery, and took along a private retinue of technicians and servants. He and the retinue produced scientific work of inestimable value, but their contributions were only part of the equation for its success. James Cook still commanded the vessel, providing for "the people," keeping the ship clean and dry, maintaining a reasonable watch schedule and varying the shipboard diet as opportunity afforded.

Banks was lionized when he returned The press was full of"Mr. Banks' Voyage."

ish scientific and naval establishment's management of the voyages, and Cook's response to that management, shows that the successes of that decade of exploration-and the death of the commander-are owing to management decisions. These were taken lightly at the time, but had far-reaching, even fatal, consequences.

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The Scientific Establishment had hundreds

In this article, we follow Cook through the three voyages until his death in the Sandwich Islands. A focus on the Brit-

In the Spring issue of The Quarterdeck (vol. 23, no. 2) we looked at James Cook's early life and his professional development up to 17 68 when he was selected as commander for the voyage into the Pacific to observe the transit of Venus.

Joseph Banks was of the landed gentry. Managing his family's successful farming operation, he was among the first to apply scientific principles to the management of crops and livestock. (The Banks farms, in fact, introduced Merino sheep into England). A disciple of Linnaeus, Banks had already been on a voyage to Newfound-

The voyage's efforts had been both official and unofficial. The stated, official objectives were to observe the transit of Venus across the solar disk in order to establish the Astronomical Unit, and to follow up on Wallis' discovery of Tahiti by further exploration in the southern Pacific-par-

His honorable career had been well rewarded. Yet the cost to James Cook himself was considerable. He had been in nearly

Captain Cook's ships Discovery and Resolution, moored in Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii, by artist John Webber. Photo reproduction from the Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii.

In the course of the next three years, the voyage met all of these objectives. The myth of Terra Australi~ was put t? _rest by sweeps into the Atlantic and Pa_cific Antarctic. Resolution became the first vessel to cross the Antarctic Circle. The Eastern Pacific was explored. The chronometer, though difficult to keep running properly, was thoroughly evaluated. Scurvy and other sickness was again held at bay by the enlightened management of the commander Cook returned to Portsmouth late in July 1775. He was promoted post-captain and provided with a substa~tial pen_sion as Fourth Captain in Greenwich Hospital. The Royal Society elected him a Fellow and awarded him their highest honor, the Copley Medal.

Quarterdeck, Vol. 23, No. 3 7

of plants and animals new t~ \European) science-many newly-classified by the Linnaean Method-a triumph of taxonomy. The draughtsmen had limned views entirely novel to the European eye. The enormous naval contribution to navigation and geographical knowledge, however, was given scant public attention.

Joseph Banks was picked again to accompany the expedition. Full of his success o_n the first voyage, he persuaded the Admiralty to modify Resolution to acco~modate an even larger retinue, and to provide shelter for plants and animals. But the roundhouse constructed on Resolution's poop made the vessel so crank that the dockyard removed it after sea trials, restoring the vessel to its original configuration. Mr. Banks was outraged, and withdrew from the expedition. Their Lordships may not have been displeased. They had Captain Cook, two excellent vessels, and a plan that need not necessarily include Mr. Banks.

Mr. Cook? Inevitably, Cook was maneuvered into taking command of a second voyage. He was promoted Commander. Weary or not, James Cook, as a leader, embodied much that was best and much that was hoped for in the modern, technological world that was emerging at the end of the 18th century.

strument makers were making measuring devices, such as octants, of increasingly high order By 1772 Harrison's chronometer had been put to a successful trial, so Admiralty commissioned Larcum Kendall to make a copy of Harrison's clock to be taken on Cook's second voyage. Thus, the vessels had two independent means of determining longitude. If "Mr. Kendall's watch" failed, the navigators had lunar distances. Other objectives of this voyage included Antarctic sw~eps into the Atlantic and again in the Pacific, and lower latitude searches in the Pacific for islands as yet unknown.

The Admiralty probably took a different view. Mr. Cook had accomplished the task, and brought all but a few of "the people" home. At a celebratory dinner for Mr. Cook, Their Lordships did some musing on the things yet to be accomplished. Ther~ were the successes: a successful observat10n of the transit of Venus (later to be qualified); the geographical exploration _of the eas~ern coast of Australia and the c1rcumnavigation of New Zealand; a sweep through the Pacific Antarctic that almost put to rest Terra Australis; a clear demonstration of the usefulness of lunar distances and the New Astronomy in navigation. However, the Atlantic-Antarctic was yet to be explored to eliminate any possibility there of the southern continent. And were there undiscovered islands yet in the Pacific?

"Mr. Kendall's Watch"

But who would lead the next expedition? Mr. Cook deserved a rest after three years of arduous sailing. Where were Their Lordships to find a person as qualified in astronomy, in navigation, in geography as

Clearly another voyage was in orde~. The Admiralty ambitions took over, leadmg to some errors of management that would affect the future voyages.

During the first voyage, the available means of determining longitude were two: by nearly simultaneous observations of the Sun the Moon and selected stars (lunar dist;nces), or by observing occultations of the moons of planets. Nevil Maskelyne, the Astronomer Royal, had published the first Nautical Almanac in 1766, making the laborious calculations arising from these observations possible. Also, English in-

contact ashore, some trading went on; the chilly officers and men purchased sea otter furs to keep warm. (The subsequent selling of these furs in Canton was the foundation of the maritime fur trade on the Northwest Coast). Sailing through Bering Strait, the exploration was finally halted by ice above 70 degrees North. Cook returned south to the Hawaiian Islands to continue surveying there. It was once again January. Within a few weeks, James Cook would die there--enmeshed in an act of Polynesian statecraft about which he knew nothing.

When Cook returned south to Hawaii, he began a running survey of the island, moving in the same direction as the Makahiki progress ashore. His vessels, with their square-rigged sails, resembled the representation ofLono-cloth draped on a cruciform. And the "god" was light-skinned. Thus, when the vessels anchored in Kealakekua Bay and Cook came ashore in State, as Captain and Commander, the Hawaiian monarchy and the people were prepared to welcome him as Lono Incar nate. They were in the course of the Makihiki festival, and as always, Lono would be honored At the conclusion of the festival, Lono would, as he always did, go away.

continuous service in foreign climes since 1767 He had nearly died of an intestinal disorder during the voyage; it may have left him with a chronic condition . He had been thoroughly exposed to tuberculosis (and would be again). He was certainly tired. Yet he himself petitioned Their Lordships to be allowed to quit the appointment in Greenwich Hospital should "either the call of my Country for more active Service, or that my endeavours in any shape can be essential to the publick " Soon enough he was called to more active service.

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Search for the Northwest Passage

Preparation for the third voyage began at once Less than a year later, Cook left on his last voyage, his objective to search for the Northwest Passage. The discovery of this route would surely be a crowning achievement for Science, Navigation and the Royal Navy. Unofficial objec tives may have included making a British presence in both Spanish and Russian America. After wintering in the Southern Hemisphere, the vessels headed for the west coast of North America. In January 1778, they discovered the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands. The fact that it was January will become of some importance

The representation of the Hawaiian god Lono, a symbolic cross usually to stay on good terms with draped with a strip of cloth. Cook's vessels, with their square-rigged sails, those on whom he relied for resembled the representation of Lono-cloth draped on a cruciform. wood, food and water.

Cook was greeted with the honors usually accorded a deity. Because it seemed the proper thing to do, Cook fell into his role, undoubtedly thinking he was being honored as a representative of another earthly power. But Cook and his compatriots had no other frame of reference. He was disposed to play the role to avoid , , offending the native peoples,

Then Cook sailed away. With

The royal progress involved circling the island carrying a representation of the god Lono, the only time during the year that the representation (a cross draped with a strip of tapa) was displayed. The effect-if not the intent-was to show the monarch as ruling by divine right. After weeks of festivities the god was retired, the trappings of deity and of majesty were destroyed or taken down, and the populace began another year. In the retirement of the god, the monarch reasserted his right to rule.

Cook as Lono-and a Royal Progress

the sailing, "Lono" went away and the Makihiki came to its usual conclusion. The monarchy had paid their respects to the god; the god had departed; and the monarchy again reigned supreme. But weather and a faulty mast forced Cook to put in again. To the Hawaiians, the reappearance of the god Lono did not fit the scheme. Instead it infringed upon the Hawaiian monarch's renewed right to rule. So when Cook came ashore, acting with force to retrieve a stolen cutter, the monarchy was left with but a single course of action: to dispose of the god by force in an assertion of sovereignty. Cook died the victim of a state-

Resolution and Discovery made 45 degrees North latitude in early March 1778. Coasting north, Cook noted the presence of a great river but failed, in the March weather, to find the estuary of the Columbia. He continued north, entering Nootka Sound, where the Spanish planned a naval establishment. As this was the first

Kings and queens continually face the necessity for reasserting their right to rule. Most monarchs are maintained in splendor, which is regularly paraded before the people-in state funerals, state weddings and royal progresses around the kingdom . In Hawaii, the splendor of the monarch was emphasized by the tabu surrounding the royal person. An annual progress around the kingdom, in December-January, displayed the regal splendor to the populace while linking the royals to the chief god Lono. As the lesser nobles had to entertain the king, a kind of tribute was exacted in their support of the event. It was this annual rite the Makahiki-that Cook sailed into.

The arrival of the vessels off Kauai

the previous January had less impact on the Hawaiians than the later arrival because Kauai was a lesser kingdom, and the British stay was brief. (Their objective at that time was the Northwest Passage, not another group of islands in the Pacific.) Hawaii, however, was a more powerful kingdom. Some word of the Kauai encounter had reached the island during the intervening year, along with an identification of Cook and his vessels with the chief god Lono. In keeping with tradition, Lono was expected to return in due season .

·

.· :,~stJtthen .......... .

The exhibition ''Stefohen and His Meri" was de:yefopecf by theNavy Museum in Washington, DC, and is c:irctifated by the Smithsonian InstitutionTraveUng Exhibitfo:n Service ~pedal exhibits at the Coluhlpia River:Maritiine Musepm are made possible by the Rajph a11dSusieCoe' MemorialEpdo\VIllert( Don't piiss it! In the KemthtoµghJ*1111iiry.

Gilbert, George (edited by Christine Holmes). Captain Cook's Final Voyage Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii, 1982.

In addition.to simply recording facts, Steichen wanted t could be a powerfulinsfrurrient forsµowing the this reason. in 1942 he a§sernbJed r{di:verse phers: Charles Kerlee,HoraceBristol,Fennqjacob en anclDwightLong. (The Navy 'phofographs :ofVictot Jorgense11, a photojounialist frfnri Portland, Oregon, wefofeatured; in '. OUr popularJ995 exhibition, "Re.tuniAo · · Mknila: Th:e World WarIINavy PhotographsofWic:tor Jorgenseti.") •· · · · · Edward Steic:ben, a highly clecoratecl World :WarTJ\rtjly veterari,•per-sonlilly supervised thlpr-i11tirig o{his spec~arunifs .. ·• ; an9tqok,~tj'.flc:tivet9Jt:fl'ii111§elf in . the war zonei He :Was placed in pomma .· ··.. 1 Na:yy Com ·< · the last six months of the war, and the l:mmanizing influence of . .. . . spread to the over 4,000 Navy combat photographers. Steichen edited thebookl;l;S, Navy War Photographs, which sold six million copies in six mopths--::-' ari all0 tiine record for a photo boolq <

0' Brian, Patrick. Joseph Banks-A Life. London: Collins Harvill, 1987.

His example as a manager of voyages was the impetus for many of the great expeditions Russian, American, French and British of the nineteenth century, laying the foundation for much of our modern technology. His example as a leader "an excellent seaman an officer-sober-brave-humane"-even today moves mariners to declare him "My Hero, Captain Cook!"

Today, it is easy to second-guess the decisions of 1771 and afterward, but nonetheless it is instructive to do so. Had James Cook had a lengthy period of recuperation after the first voyage, it might not have materially affected his management of the successful second voyage. But it might have reduced the cumulative affects of stress and fatigue of his mind and body in the later voyages.

In taking on the planning and execution of a third voyage, a tired Cook began to exhibit symptoms seemingly consistent with chronic intestinal infections and with tuberculosis. The first may have been brought on by an earlier bout of food poisoning, possibly by shellfish. The second was surely the result ofliving closely with tubercular officers for all of these years. (Five of the seven deaths owing to tuberculosis were among the officers, including Cook's closest friends, King and Surgeon Anderson.)

Howse, Derek. Nevil Maskelyne-The Seaman's Astronomer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

. .. . .. · • .· ..•..· •.· ·• . .• ·•

~Zi:=;f~t:i!ttfi:~h·

•· ••·· •• .· .... ···· .·. ·· ······••··.·

··-··· ''," •·• ··• ··• · ..

Sahlins, Marshall. How Natives Think-About Captain Cook, for example. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Obeyesekere, Gananath. The Apotheosis of Captain Cook-European Mythmaking in the Pacific. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

In Retrospect

Cook's legacy is with us still: the foundation of scientific marine navigation; the beginning of marine science and oceanography; the discovery of Australia; the improvement of shipboard hygiene; and the opening of the planet's greatest ocean to the Western world.

Quarterdeck. Vol. 23, No. 3

• With these words, 011t to document t . . .·· cfeateda .kdving record of • • tion and took the war af sea · ..has '.·ever known. .. .. •................................ ,.·. ...·

Yet no senior officer-let alone Cook himself-saw such demanding service over such a long period of time as a "management problem." Rather, they saw the continuing emergence of modern exploration techniques under a commander with whom no fault could be found. Cook was heroic, and the country needed a hero.

9

•More thanforty~trik;@tilllages sele at~4 by Steichen and hiihne~ •a,,ft;:~~gili,i •, .. ·•• >The photographs re~9r4boththe'hoiriflroritaridthewat:.. :'~qveting: ·. d'tt*fiJt;~~~!cee~~;~ .. ·..·.·..· g~r=~~it,r~::i1ti~is;e:!~c1~~ ··· •the thousands of men a11<J.}Wqrili!n · dajly ~ction~ forge · ·. · hed·epoch in our naval history. Thephotogp : effip~fag, b,µtthey, i;u:e 11th~t they capture history. ; / · ·. ·

craft he did not understand. His death at Kealakekua Bay was an act of regicide. The Hawaiian temporal monarch reigned once again.

...

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· Portr~it ••

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Mr. and Mrs. George Siverson Jerry McCallister

Rev. and Mrs. Stephen G. Maling

Gifts in Memory of Charles W. Browning, M.D. Kathryn T. Browning

Mr and Mrs Joe Miller

Robert C. Johnson

Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas C. Nelson

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Gifts in Honor of Anne Witty & Jonathan Taggart Annabell Miller June Leback

Boatswain

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Mr. and Mrs. Edward H. Aho

Mr. and Mrs Ray Peterson

James Nelson

Jon Kearney

Mr. and Mrs. John E. Mattingly Glen Merritt

Mr. and Mrs Bob Rudd

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James Litherland Syd Molenkamp Mel Woods

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Clune American Legion Clatsop Post 12

Florence Lindgren

Rae Goforth, Historical Tours of Astoria

Wilma Caplan

Welcome Back to our Membership - April 1 - June 30, 1997

Mr. and Mrs. John C. Bleakmore Charles C Canfield

Major Gordon Umino Ruth J. Wood

Frank L. Clarke

Ensign/Individual

Captain & Mrs Warren G Leback

Mr. and Mrs W. Louis Larson

Pilot

Mr and Mrs. Robert Adams

Michael Okoniewski and Family

Increased Memberships -April 1- June 30, 1997

Mr and Mrs Don MacRae

The Museum is the recipient of a $200,000 gift, made through a charitable remainder annuity trust. This gift comes to the Museum from one of our long-time members, Kenneth G Drucker. Mr. Drucker created a charitable remainder trust, and earned income from the trust during his lifetime. Now, the Museum will use the money from the trust to start a new endowment to benefit education and preservation programs. In addition, Shriner's Hospital for Children, Clatsop County Historical Society, and

I 0

Kathryn Gamer

Mr. and Mrs. Herman M Haggren Mr. and Mrs Charles S. Lilley Ocean Beauty Seafoods, Inc. Captain and Mrs. C. S. Wetherell

Rogan Coombs

Mr. and Mrs. Steve Wright

Helmsman

Mr. and Mrs. Herman G. Bender

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Hal Ayotte, Fletcher, Farr & Ayotte, AJA Roland R. Brusco, Brusco Tug and Barge Inc.

Mr. and Mrs. Michael D. Chinakos

Heather Frederick

Mr. and Mrs. Don Miller

Dr and Mrs. Larry K. Goza

Mr. and Mrs. Grant Orr William C. Praegner

Captain and Mrs. Mitchell Boyce Captain Bill Swindells

Dr. and Mrs . Dana Nason

Mr. and Mrs. William Nickila Mr and Mrs. Ed O'Brian

Daily Astorian Harold 8 . Wilde

Boatswain

Margaret I. Hughes

Mr. and Mrs Roger Wendt

Helmsman

Captain James T. Clune

Crew/Family

Gifts

Mr. and Mrs. Randy Bowe Mr. and Mrs John Ducich

Mr. and Mrs Robert F. Miles

Joyce E Mace

William S. Hanable

Carl Berggren

Darryl Bullington

Mr. and Mrs. George Nelson and Family

Helmsman

Captain and Mrs James T. Maher Leonard A. Rydell

Irja & Arnold (Chink) Curtis Mr and Mrs. Edward Rosenfeld

-)f~

Trust Gift to Benefit Museum and Others

We at the Museum are grateful for the support Mr. Drucker has given to our programs. During his lifetime, Mr. Drucker took a keen interest in children, young adults, and the history of our region. His interest will live on through the endowment created in his name. If you would like more information about planned or endowment gifts, call the Museum at (503) 325-2323

Mr. and Mrs. James Kirkland

Mr. and Mrs. David Miller

Mr. and Mrs. William Barrons

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Ginn

Mr. and Mrs. Teri Hebert

Mr. and Mrs. John M. Gilliland

Betty Farmer

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas F. Mannex Mr Josh Marquis and Ms Cynthia Price Marshall D. McCollum

Crew/Family

the Astoria High School Scholarship Fund will also receive funds from Mr Drucker's trust.

New Members -April 1- June 30, 1997

Mr. and Mrs. Adriane de La Sceaux

Mr. and Mrs. Michael Jacobi

Mr. and Mrs Frank Pinet Valeria Tarabochia

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Salinger Michael E. Lynch

Mr. & Mrs. Fenton Stokeld, Ship Inn Mr. Frank Wolfe and Ms. Kathleen Sayce

Mr. and Mrs. WA. Lissy

Margaret J. Jeremiah Dr. William Wodrich

Mr. and Mrs. Steve Gerttula

Library Cataloging Project - April 1 - June 30, 1997

Susan Blackmar

Boatswain

Dorothy L. Millikan

Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Bishop III

LTC and Mrs M. Clinton Cannon

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph E. Bakkensen Captain and Mrs. Joseph Bruneau Gordon Childs

Mr. and Mrs James S. Stacy Mr. and Mrs. Sion Wentworth Mr. and Mrs. Wendell Wyatt

Captain and Mrs. Joseph Bruneau

Allan J. Bemhoff

Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Frame (CRPA)

Mr. and Mrs. Mark B. Bogart

Bill and Madonna Pitman

Jane Albus

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Ginn

Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Fiori

Mr. and Mrs. Elmer Forseth Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Hjorten Mr. and Mrs. Richard D. Johnson Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Knutsen

Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Kearney Ed Lundholm

Mr and Mrs. John S. McGowan

Mr and Mrs. Nicholas D. Zafiratos

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Quarterdeck, Vol. 23, No. 3

Charles E. Haddix

Gladys and Stan Church

Donald Leslie

Audrey Leslie

Mrs. Al Mittet LTC. and Mrs. Victor L.Nunenkamp Adella Orwick

Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Oja

Captain Jack Dempsey

Don Hofe.er

Captain and Mrs. Paul A. Jackson

Clarence Israel

Jean O'Bryan

Mr. and Mrs. Orvo Piippo Mr. and Mrs. Roderick Sarpola Mr. and Mrs. Jack Smethurst

Harry Antoniou

Judith A. Dean

Mabel Hediger

Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Frame (CRPA)

Mr. and Mrs. Alan Ahola Mr. and Mrs. Arnold B. Curtis Sr.

Bill and Madonna Pitman

Rosemary Wells

Kenneth V. Carlson

Ella Marie Koppisch

Mr. and Mrs. Kelly Larson

Ray Daniels, Jr.

Erroll G. Ostrum

Warren Bean, Jr.

James S. Kelly

Mr. and Mrs. John S. McGowan

1 1

Mr. and Mrs. Jerry Lundholm Robert A. Nikka Pearl Palmrose Marie Sarampaa

Miles L. Rice

Captain Kenneth McAlpin

Mr. and Mrs. Roderick Sarpola Mr. and Mrs. James S. Stacy

Jeffrey R. Andersen

Mr. and Mrs. Trygve Duoos

Inikente Kalmakoff

Jerry McCallister

Mr. and Mrs. Arnold B. Curtis, Sr.

Mr. and Mrs. James Porter Holtz

Grant Leslie

Dixon Seo/fern

Mr. and Mrs. Joe Hubbell

Helen Demarest

Mr. and Mrs. Roderick Sarpola Tyne Westman

The Columbia River Maritime Museum is adding five new benches to the entry plaza. These handsome benches are made by Columbia Cascade Corporation, and will incorporate the Museum's name and logo in their design. For a donation of $2,500, you may recognize a family member or friend at one of these benches. Recognition will include your message on a granite plaque at the bench of your choice. Two of these benches have already been sponsored, with three remaining available. For more information, call Rob Rudd at the Museum (503) 325-2323.

Mr. and Mrs. Harry L. Larson

Mr. Jerry Ostermiller and Ms. Lynne Johnson

Harold Hatley

Mr. and Mrs. Allen V. Cellars

Mr. and Mrs. Carl Bondietti Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Cameron Mildred G. Doran

Have a seat!

Memorial Donations - April 1 - June 30, 1997

Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas D. Zafiratos

Rebecca J. Widden

Lyle Baker

Clayton Johnson

Mr. and Mrs. Harold C. Hendriksen Mr. and Mrs. Angelo Mariani

Mr and Mrs. Roy Schulbach Oarlock Investment Services, Inc. Mr. and Mrs. Orvin Sletten Mr. and Mrs. Alan D. Stoller Mr. and Mrs. Robert Tindall

Theresa Wilson

Ruth Pruzynski

Nick Hazapis

Gladys Haglund Duncan

Mr. and Mrs. Andy Callahan Mr. and Mrs. Alvin K. Graham Mr. and Mrs Melvin Hjorten

Kathleen Kulland Mr. and Mrs. Dan Lake Mr. and Mrs. Harry L. Larson

Mr. and Mrs. Richard B. Hansen

Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Kairala

Allan J. Loughrin

Evelyn Sandstrom

Don Gaittens

Eugene Lowe

Mr. and Mrs. Fred Leslie

Mr. George Abrahamsen

Mr. and Mrs. N. H. Hawkins

Michael Foster

Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. Haskins Mr. and Mrs. Kaarlo J. Kama

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Knutsen Diana McAlpin

Robert C. MacDonald

Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Forrester

Mr. and Mrs. Joe Miller

Arthur S. Johansen

Mr. and Mrs. Richard C. Tevis

Dorothy Labiske

LTC. and Mrs. Victor L. Nunenkamp

Mr. and Mrs. Don W. Landwehr

Buddy Hoell

Mr. and Mrs. Richard S. Leslie Einar Lundman and Gerald D. Juniper

Lucille Perkins

Helen V. Ryan

7lnnuaf !Jl{eefing

1792 MARINE DRIVE ASTORIA, OREGON 97103

Join us for the 1997 Holiday Program This all-new event is now called WinterFest to truly reflect the fun and excitement of this years new plans. A daylong celebration of the season on December 21st promises to be among the liveliest holiday events in the area! Look forward to great musical entertainment and many more children's activities and crafts-maritime fun for the whole family!

Senator Mark Hatfield Ken Novack

COLUMBIA RIVER MARITIME MUSEUM

ADDRESS

Mark your calendars for the November 14th Columbia River Maritime Museum Members Annual Meeting at the Astoria Golf and Country Club Look for your invitation and ballot in the mail in October.

Five candidates will be included in this year's slate of candidates for positions on the Museum's Board of Trustees.

CORRECTION REQUESTED

Xovember 14l.h

7Jecember 2/sl

Our guest speaker is the highly respected scholar, Jim Ronda He has written nine books including Astoria and Empire, and Lewis and Clark Among the Indians. He has also received two Pulitzer nominations.

& RETURN POSTAGE GUARANTEED

Gofumb/a !J?.iver 2TCar1!1me 2TCuseum W1nlerYesl

Joe Tennant Sam Wheeler Harold Wilde

The qualifications of the candidates will be presented in ballots sent out to all Museum members in October.

Non-profit Organization U S. POSTAGE PAID Astoria, Oegun Permit No. 328

FORWARDING

21(useum Jrusfee Candida/es :7lnnounced

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