V18 N4 The Arrival of the British on 'Columbia's River

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Vancouver's journals indicate the Tenny had traded in the river earlier that year. Could it have been before Robert Gray found his way across the bar? The question has long been unsettled. This ambiguity seems to have been encouraged by the British during their long efforts to secure the Oregon Country. Lt Broughton, after rowing and charting the river 100 miles inland, even maintained the actual entrance to the river was above the estuary at Skamokawa, in which case Gray never entered the river at all. Join us now as we turn our attention to the British on Columbia's River.

The Arrival of the British on Columbia's River

Vol. 18 No. 4 Summer 1992

the UARTERDECK

A review and newsletter from the Columbia River Maritime Museum at 1792 Marine Drive in Astoria, Oregon

In the autumn of 1792, Vancouver's flotilla came down the coast The Chatham entered Columbia's River, there to find British fur trader Capt. James Baker in the 3-masted schooner Tenny. Thus marks one of the lingering mysteries of early Northwest history .

H.M. armed tender Chatham and the Bristol schooner Jenny in Baker's Bay in early November 1792. When Lt. William Broughton of the Vancouver expedition entered the river in October of that year, he found the Jenny already there at anchor in the bay behind the northern cape at the river's entrance. Painting by Hewitt Jackson, copyright 1965, in the Edmund Hayes Collection of the Oregon Historical Society. All rights reserved. Used by permission.

After entering and naming Columbia's River in May of 1792, American fur trader Robert Gray departed, never to return With him, however, he took a rough chart of the lower river, which he deposited in the hands of Don Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, Spanish governor at Nootka and a personal friend of Gray's Bodega later delivered the chart to George Vancouver as proof the American had found what Vancouver earlier in the year had disparaged-the entrance to a great river inside the perilous breakers of "Deception Bay" at the 46th parallel.

Gray's discovery confirmed what the Spanish mariner Bruno Hezeta had suspected in 1775 By conveying the chart to Vancouver, Bodega y Quadra officially alerted his British counterpart that American rights of discovery in this matter had been duly noted by the other major European power in the region.

We are in the process of developing a master plan to direct the next decade of operations and to position us for growth over the next 25 years. This means taking a critical look at tne layout of the building, what our future needs will be, and setting goals and objectives for physical expansion and upgrades. We are also involved in some exciting regional tourism strategies that will ultimately benefit both the Museum and the community at large.

B.D. The Museum is now regarded as one of the top maritime historical institutions in the country and designated as the state's official maritime museum. How has that come about?

Photo and illustration credits: page 1, courtesy of Hewitt Jackson and the Oregon Historical Society; page 3, Brix Maritime; pages 4, 6, and 7, courtesy of Hewitt Jackson; page 8, courtesy of the Public Records Office; page 9, CRMM archives; page 10, courtesy Museo de Americas, Madrid; page 11, courtesy of Parks Canada; pages 12 and 13, Hobe Kytr.

Current Base ence more comfortable and meaningful. Our front-line staff now go through hospitality training. The

. • •

The Columbia River Maritime Museum has emerged as one of the nation's leading maritime historical institutions. During a recent interview conducted by freelance writer Bonnie Darves, ferry Ostermiller talked about significant developments that have facilitated the Museum's fast track to excellence, and the direction for the coming years.

The QUARTERDECK is published four times a year by the Columbia River Maritime Museum, 1792 Marine Dr, Astoria, OR 97103.

J.O. There have been several changes on that front, for example our Visitor Services program. Our goal is to make the visitors' experi-

The goal of the first phase of the membership drive now under way is 2000 members by the end of Fiscal Year 1992. The long-range goal is to double the membership base. As of mid August, we had over 1900 members.

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Printed at Anchor Graphics, Astoria, Oregon

We have also established a strategy for the Great Hall, taking advantage of special displays and traveling exhibits. Volunteers regularly demonstrate maritime skills such as rope-making and netmending. With the newly expanded pier, we are hosting increasing numbers of replica vessels and boats of interest to the public. Finally, we're now experimenting with audio and touch screen electronic displays.

J.O. Although collections and programs are at the heart of any museum, the key issue here is that the quality of our staff has never been higher. This has made a big difference in what we can offer. This is one of the reasons we were chosen to host the recent Council of American Maritime Museums meeting.

Many people don't realize what it takes to house collections: "care and feeding, 11 registration and documentation, environmental controls, and, of course, long range planning. We're much better fixed in all these areas now. The $1 / 4 million dollar investment we made in the upgrade of the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system, for example, made it possible for us to house the "Noble River" exhibit and will allow us to bring in other exhibits requiring more sophisticated care.

B.D. These advancements are not likely to be visible to the typical visitor. Are there other developments that have

program has helped us to become more aware of the public's needs and better able to respond to them.

B.D. You mentioned the next "big steps." What are the plans for the future, and how can members get involved?

J.O. You mean administrative development? In short, we have become a more sophisticated professional operation. To some extent it's been a matter of using technology to gain greater efficiency. A few years ago, we had one primitive computer and two typewriters. Now we have ten P.C.'s, which have enabled us to completely renovate and reorganize our operations. Our fiscal system has been streamlined; all of our accounting is now done in-house. We have reorganized endowment moneys and consolidated assets to save management fees.

from the Wheelhouse

Editor, Hobe Kytr. Editorial Staff: Jerry Ostermiller, Anne Witty, Barbara Minard, Rachel Wynne, Hewitt Jackson.

Our goal is continued quality development, which will depend on our support base. Our membership drive this year has been very successful so far. Now we're asking our members, not just to support the membership drive, but to get involved in more direct ways-by serving on project committees, by coming in to visit with us about our developments for the future. That is collaboration at its best, and we welcome it.

J.O. First, it's important to note that we couldn't have arrived at this stage without the dedication of everyone associated with the Museum. All this has happened in the past few years because of the way the trustees and staff have worked together. It's been a remarkable collaboration, with the vision of the board and staff well-aligned; and that's unusual. Nor would we have gotten very far without the support of our members, who continue to contribute each year, giving us an enviable membership renewal rate.

B.D. In talking about the Museum's growth as an institution, you often refer to developments "behind the scenes." How have these developments contributed to the Museum's standing among similar institutions?

In the past, our publications were intermittent because of system and staff constraints. That's behind us, and now we're moving into desktop publishing. On another level, we have reconfigured our staffing to allow for more professionalism, better use of individual talents and strengths, and more creativity. We are setting ourselves on a course that will allow us to take the next big steps.

Volume 18 No. 4

FY 1992 Membership Drive enhanced the museum experience for your customers?

QUARTERDECK

CRMM at the Lake Union Wooden Boat Festival 1992

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Departing from the new 17th Street floating dock at 1800 hours, staff members and guests were treated to a harbor cruise, with catered refreshments provided, downriver to the Desdemona light, and then upriver past Tongue Point on the Harrington Point reach as far as upper Rice Island. Returning to the Museum at 2030, most assuredly a good time was had by all. Thank you, Peter!

In anticipation of the festival, Hampton Scudder, CRMM's Exhibit Specialist and resident "mother hen" to our small craft collection, had given our 1989 replica of a Columbia River Sailing Gillnet Boat a coat of pine tar inside and a shiny new coat of paint on the outside. He also replaced a few damaged floor boards in the bow and revarnished the long, 14foot oars. She absolutely sparkled! Steve Kann, CRMM's curator of large objects, got the boat's trailer in shape by replacing both axles and adjusting the braking system

Excited as I was about representing the Museum at the Lake Union Wooden Boat Show on July 3rd, 4th and 5th, nothing prepared me for the full impact of wooden boat fever that the festival encourages.

tion and intended use . Perhaps my favorite conversations were with people who had a grandfather who fished one or remembered seeing the "Butterfly Fleet" on the water with their dual sail rig It was a wonderful opportunity to tell folks about the Columbia River Maritime Museum and the history of the Lower Columbia salmon fishing industry If the people we talked to enjoyed us as much as we enjoyed them, then we both came away with a feeling we had been given something wonderful.

As our crew departed for the sail back to the loading ramp, we were all thinking of the past three days, remembering the boats we saw and went aboard, the people we met, the friends we made When we reached the far end of the lake I looked back at The Center for Wooden Boats, now very small in the distance, and I thought to myself, the trip up to Seattle was long, the weekend was wet, but it was worth every bit of it

After putting the boat in the water across the lake from the Center for Wooden Boats , we rigged her for sailing. (She has no engine.) With the wind in our favor we sailed across the length of Lake Union and up to our designated slip We were one of the first to arrive and were greeted by Dick Wagner, director of The Center For Wooden Boats . In the next few hours more and more boats pulled in By morning we were surrounded by a profusion of wooden boats in all shapes and sizes . Over 65 boats bobbed in the Lake Union waters and 40 more were on shore in various places over the festival grounds.

Mr. Brix, as well as being recent past president of the Museum, is CEO of Brix Maritime Company, operating an extensive system of tugs and barges on the Columbia River and along the West Coast from Mexico to the Arctic Circle The Pacific Explorer, originally built as a military tug during W.W.II, was part of the Washington Tug and Barge fleet when Brix Maritime acquired that company several years ago Now completely refurbished for entertaining corporate clients, she serves as a mobile ambassador for Brix Maritime

There were Blanchards, and Clancys and tugs, oh my At every slip something unique to wooden boat construction, sometimes very experimental, often traditional.

Harbor Cruise on the Pacific Explorer

On Tuesday, 23 June 1992, the CRMM crew enjoyed a special treat. In recognition of the hard work put in this year by Museum staff members on special projects, such as the Council of American Maritime Museums annual meeting in April and the Columbia River Bicentennial Commission exhibit now showing in the Great Hall, Trustee Peter Brix invited all staff members to go for a cruise on the 1944 wooden tug Pacific Explorer

The overwhelming favorites of the show were four tall-masted vessels that graced us with their presence : the Adventuress, the Californian, the Lady Washington, and the Zodiac. There was also a replica of Vitus Bering's ship, the St. Petr, which had come from Russia on a journey that retraced Bering's Expedition of 1725-1730.

-Rachel Wynne

Then the people came. The weather on opening day couldn't have been more perfect, sunny and clear with a late afternoon breeze to stretch our sails in Dockside the hearty crew of the gillnet boat talked to people throughout the day, answering questions about her construe-

With all systems "go," ship, captain and crew headed up to Seattle on the 2nd of July Gear stowed and rigging ready, we were eager to show off our boat and to swap stories and information with the people we would meet

On the 5th, the rain seemed to slack off enough to bring the people out again,

On the 4th of July we awoke to cloudy skies . By 0900 the rain began. It was a good thing that we are Astorians, because we never go anywhere without our foul weather gear The rain continued throughout the day . The big ships hung awnings to provide some shelter for dampened spirits, but in the open gillnet boat we did what fishermen do, grin and bear it. That day was long, wet and kind of lonely except for the die-hard boat lovers They made it all worthwhile

but it began to pour again later in the day All in all, however, the festival spirit was ever present There was plenty to do inside the Naval Armory building on the festival grounds, lots of booths to browse through, an auction to attend, and a "quick and daring" boat-building contest to watch And then there were the races Little Clancys vied for top dog; the Lake Union Classic was fun and exciting ; and on the last day the contestants of the "quick and daring" event gave us all a good laugh (and a few gasps) as they tried to cross the finish line before their boats fell apart.

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 4

''This is the vessel that touched at Otaheite and brought from that place Mr. Weathered and four or five others of the shipwrecked crew of the Matilda. Besides touching at Otaheite, Sandwich

At this time, some forty-five years ago, the publication of the journals of Cap tains Cook and Vancouver, the Spanish voyages, and those of the American traders were only just being considered. Judge Howay's Voyages of the Columbia was the only reasonably complete work at hand. All else had to be found in random excerpts presented by local historical societies or unearthed by diligent research in various archives.

Early in my studies of the exploration and fur trade of the Northwest Coast, I came across fleeting mention of the fenny out of the English port of Bristol. Indications were that she made every effort to avoid contact with other vessels on the coast. It made no difference, naval ships of England or Spain, traders under various flags, the fenny remained aloof in all matters except necessity.

The Bristol schooner Jenny and H.M. armed tender Chatham leave the Columbia River, 10 November 1792. The illustration is taken from a blue-tinted brownline study of the subject. A similar view is on display in the Fur Trade & Exploration gallery of the Columbia River Maritime Museum. Copyright Hewitt Jackson, 1966. All rights reserved.

''It is necessary to state that on the day previous to our sailing, I received on board, two young women for the purpose of returning them to their native coun try, the Sandwich Islands. They had quitted in a vessel that arrived at Nootka on the 7th instant, called the fenny belonging to Bristol. But as that vessel was bound from hence straight to England, Mr. James Baker, the commander, very earnestly requested that I would permit these two unfortunate girls to take passage in the Discovery to Onehow, the island of their birth and residence."

There was more. The little known journal of Edward Bell, clerk on board His Majesty's armed tender Chatham, provides this gem:

I am indebted to Grahamme Farr, the prominent English maritime historian, for the following information. The fenny was built in Newfoundland in 1783, repaired and lengthened in 1791. Tonnage is given as 78, crew 9, though she may have had more men on the voyage to the South Seas and Nootka. Most records list S. Teast as the owner. Farr gives "Sydenham" as the spelling of Teast's given name, though we find others in different sources. Teast was a merchant ship owner and builder in Bristol, described by contemporaries as a spirited commercial entrepreneur.

This was interesting, intriguing, and quite different than the dry and essential log and journal entries that one labors through in search for human interest that can give body and life to the study of our maritime past.

The Mystery of the Bristol Schooner Jenny

Islands, at Christmas Islands, where Mr. Baker found Captain Cook's bottle, and he also found what Captain Cook could not find on that island, which was a very essential article, fresh water. Here he completed his wood and water, turned about seventy turtles, and found plenty of excellent cocoa nuts. He left on the island a fine Otaheite boar and a sow big with young and half dozen cocks and hens, and putting another paper mentioning what he had done into Captain Cook's bottle, sealed it up again and left it in the same place he had found it."

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The first reference encountered was intriguing, found in Vancouver's journal under the entry for October 12, 1792. The season's work of exploration and charting was done and they were about to sail southward to the Californias and the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands to winter over.

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Regarding the passages of early explorers and traders to the Northwest Coast, several factors must be taken into account. Most importantly, for a sailing vesel, the shortest, or rhumb line, course is seldom the most practical.

When one of these early vessels attempted to make a short beat up the coast, it was an epic ordeal. There are records of a passage of a hundred days from San Blas to San Diego The exploration of the Californias was delayed for centuries.

Some of the mystery of the fenny's whereabouts is dispelled by an entry in Captain Bishop's journal of the Ruby, another of Sydenham Teast's ships on the Northwest Coast in 1795:

''This morning after a night of light winds and rain we find ourselves off Port Sidenham, a small river with a bar at its entrance Captain James Baker of Mr. Teast's ship the fenny in his voyage of 1791 fell in with this place and went in safe when he continued trading with the natives ten or twelve days, but procured no otter skins. The natives are described as being numerous and of a savage disposition They are very expert with their bows and arrows and made signs to the fenny's crew that if they got them, they would eat them . . . Captain Baker not knowing if it had ever been visited by any other vessel called it Port Sidenham, in honor of Mr. Sidenham Teast, his spirited commercial owner."

We find that Farley's "Bristol Journal" provides a departure for this particular voyage: "June 17, 1791 entered out, Jenny, Baker, for Cape Verde and South Seas ." Mr. Teast's instructions to his captains are of interest. Those given to Captain Bishop of the Ruby are: "You keep your orders, your route and instructions a profound secret, and if you are not in want of assistance have no intercourse whatever (especially while you are making trade) with any other ship, and you must not part with any of your articl e s of trade in barter with other ships, not even for furs."

With the date of the fenny's sailing established, a few fixed dates determine her passage across the Pacific in 1792 The ship Matilda sailed from Tahiti on 12 February 1792, and six days out she was wrecked. The survivors made their way back to Tahiti. This would have been in early March. Back in Tahiti, these survivors joined the fenny for the passage to the Hawaiian Islands The time element is uncertain, but departure in early or mid March can be considered reasonable, possibly even early April.

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 4

The Te1111y would have been at sea for just less than a year when her trading venture began in the Umpqua River. Ten or twelve days there and she sailed north to Nootka and was reported there on the 7th of August-13 months out of Bristol. Her movements can be pretty well traced through the trading season on the Northwest Coast until she is back in Nootka and preparing to leave for England, and bequeaths her two dusky maidens to Captain Vancouver. She reported having acquired only 350 skins during the season, though the figure is hard to accept under the conditions.

Consider that the Manila galleon trade was well established centuries before English explorers or Yankee fur traders frequented the North Pacific. The westward route of the galleons was southward to Acapulco, thence westward with the prevailing winds to the Philippines. The return involved sailing north to Japan, thence east and southeast along the 45th parallel until the Northwest winds were encountered off the American coast, then down the coast to Mexico. The westerly passage was reasonably direct, favored by prevailing winds. For the ships of the time, return along this route was close to impossible. It was some years before the longer and more practical returning passage was discovered. The Hawaiian Islands lay between these two routes and far from them There is no record the early Spanish voyagers ever discovered or visited them

Pacific Passages

In later days of commercial sail on the West Coast, routes varied with the season. A record run was occasionally possible, though chances were better if bound south. Ships bound from California to the Northwest Coast stood well out to sea-often close to a thousand miles. Sea miles covered were well over the established distance, all to avoid the long, miserable beat to windward.

Tahiti and the Islands lay about equidistant on either side of the equator in areas of favoring winds. In between are the equatorial calms and currents, which can add a considerable variable to the passage At best, it could have taken two or three weeks, perhaps a month. The arrival in Hawaii would not have been much before May, and it may have been well into that month.

Surviving records indicate that the explorers and early traders on the Northwest Coast chose to approach the coast in the region of New Albion-northern California. The better part of a month, or more, would have been required for the Tenny to raise the California coast, arriving in the vicinity in late June or early July. There would begin the long beat to windward up the coast, with a lee shore and all its hazards. Our next established point of contact is in Captain Ingraham's journal of the Hope, at Clayoquot, dated August 7th

The latitude of the described anchorage is given as 43 °40' North by Baker, and 43 °50' by Bishop This would be the Umpqua River, near the present town of Reedsport, Oregon. In view of our previous determination that the Jenny was on this part of the coast in the first weeks of July 1792, some interesting observations are in order . This clearly sets aside the careless claims that Baker be credited with the discovery of the Columbia River. There is no way that he could have been on the Columbia before 11 May when Captain Gray entered the great river and claimed discovery There is no doubt that the Tenny was the second vessel in the river, and that she may have been there during the summer before her meeting with the Chatham late in the season.

There is no certain way to determine how long they lay in or cruised about the Islands They did procure provisions and water, and they acquired the young ladies mentioned in the various journals. A reasonable conjecture would place their departure from the Islands in late May, but not much before that

On that same day, 12 October, Vancouver's squadron, consisting of the Discovery, Chatham and the store ship Daedelus, left Friendly Cove at Nootka for California, and thence to the Islands to winter over. A reconnaissance and survey of the coast was to be made en route . On the 17th, the Daedelus was sent into Bullfinch's (Gray's) Harbor to survey and chart, while the Discovery and Chatham continued on with the intention of entering and charting the Columbia River . The ships approached Cape Disappointment and the Columbia River bar with a favoring northwest wind. The Chatham, being the smaller vessel, was sent ahead to sound the channel. At first, the crossing was turbulent, and the jolly boat, towing astern, was smashed to pieces . The tide then turned against them. Edward Bell's journal best describes the situation at anchor in 4 fathoms:

Gale succeeded gale until the 14th, when it fell calm, with light and pleasant airs. They spoke the Tenny, which had suffered from the heavy weather. Again on the 17th they were in company, and Captain Baker came on board "with a very piteous Tale, that the late bad weather had done his sails and rigging so much damage that he was in great dis-

Further perusal of the accumulated notes, sources, and correspondence on the subject reveals some items of interest. Captain James Baker of the Tenny was indeed the brother of Lt. Joseph Baker of Vancouver's Discovery, as has been suggested. Baker's Bay, at the mouth of the Columbia, is named for the former, Mt. Baker in the North Cascades for the latter. After the voyage to the Northwest Coast, James Baker is said to have emigrated to America, some say to the Northwest Coast, though this is highly improbable. An interesting family tradition, though. Joseph Baker's descendants are still in the Royal Navy and other gentlemanly pursuits.

Mr Broughton supplied him,-."

Teast's ships were engaged in the African and slave trades, and, in all probability, in privateering, as Bristol was a great privateering port in those days His residence was at Posset Point below Bristol on the channel, where his outbound ships could salute him as they proceeded to sea. He is said to have had an extensive and beautiful rose garden that was his pride and joy. It is reported the local gentry, when riding to the hounds in chase of fox, took to bursting through this garden and that there were differences, eventually socially unacceptable. Sydenham shot some hounds. We are next advised that he had emigrated to Australia. A check of dates indicates that emigration hence was at the invitation of the court and Crown in short, he was transported to the penal colony.

''I must here acknowledge that in going into this place, I never felt more alarmed & frightened in my life, never having been in a situation where I conceived there was so much danger. The channel was narrow, the water very shoal, and the tide running against the Wind at 4 knots raised a Surf that broke entirely around us -that had we struck we would inevitably go to pieces, without the most distant hope of a single life being saved. But we know that two or three Merchant Ships had already been in here, at different times in the course of this last summer. When we cleared the inner point of Cape Disappointment, we observed the Tenny schooner lying at Anchor in a Bay under the Cape, and Mr. Baker, the master came off to us."

tress, particularly for rope and sewing twine, of which articles we had plenty.

"On the tenth (November), and not before, the channel out being to appearance tolerably smooth, we weighed with the wind at E.N.E. and stood out through the Southern Channel, having both our boats out, in case of accident . Mr. Baker had very civilly offered to lead out in the Tenny as she drew only 8 feet of water, whilst our heavy tub drew upwards of 12. About One O'clock we pass'd the Bar, and had hitherto very smooth water, with very even soundings nothing under four fathoms and a half, but we had scarce pass'd the Bar, when a tremendous surf appeared rolling towards us, and broke over the vessel with great violence, the spray of it when it struck us, wetted the Foresail as high as the upper reef, the Main Deck was filled with water fore and aft, three heavy seas suc ceeded this, but with less violence " They finally managed to claw off and were soon clear.

The Discovery remained at anchor outside the bar and, being unable to enter, sailed for San Francisco. Her log notes that the Tenny had been seen from outside the bar.

The two vessels remained in the river for some time, Lt. Broughton taking the Chatham's launch and surveying the river as far as Point Vancouver. After his return to the brig, they dropped down to Baker's Bay and joined the Tenny in waiting for a favorable break to get to sea. The Chatham's log rea<ls:

There was not much that could be turned up about the Teast family and interests This is not unexpected, as records and notice were kept for those of established family and position It seems the Teasts were not of the gentry. But, there is an interesting incident that has surfaced and been reported by my correspondents in this study.

By the time a model of the Jenny was designed, it was apparent that square topsails were carried on both the fore and the main masts. These are not shown in the illus trations. On the strength of this data I would tend to shorten the mizzen topmast. The model is currently on loan from the Oregon Historical Society as part of the Columbia River bicentennial exhibition at the Columbia River Maritime Museum.

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The worn and threadbare Tenny now stands to the southward for Cape Horn and home. The "Bristol Journal," Saturday, June 29, 1793 says, "Came in since our last the Tenny, Baker, from Nootka Sound." Re rigged as a small ship, the Tenny soon sailed again for the Northwest Coast under a new master, with a license to trade to China

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-Hewitt Jackson

Those sponsoring my research and paintings were inclined to perceive the Tenny as sleek and fast, as she had been successful in the slave trade. This was a popular misconception that had to be dealt with first off. In 1792, British legislation was enacted that limited the number of slaves that could be transported in a British vessel of a given tonnage. Nothing more. Most English bottoms engaged in the trade were either from Bristol or Liverpool, and there was nothing illicit in the trade at all. It was only many years later, when the trade was outlawed and slavers had to outwit and out sail the British and American navies and every pirate and opportunist of the infamous "middle passage" that extremes of speed and handiness were re-

The three-masted schooner rig was open to question. Fortunately, there was a good discussion of it readily at hand in Chapelle's Baltimore Clipper of 1930. He had discovered the lines and structural details of His Majesty's schooner Flying Fish and presented them in his work. What he had not found was the spar and sail draughts, so he reconstructed the rig from "Fincham's Rule," the first available for the three-masted schooner rig. It turned out to be an overly modest sail plan. We were later able to discover the data on the Flying Fish rig and it was more extreme than expected. It was so lofty that other vessels of her design were grossly over-sparred, and on occasion "sailed under" with disastrous consequences for ship and crew. This was all right for their service-out standing and apprehending the swiftest of those who piqued the interest of the naval or revenue services.

The schooner Jenny shown as she was rigged on her first voyage to the Northwest Coast, 1791-1793. She was rigged as a ship for a subsequent voyage.

We can determine that the Tenny was an active and able vessel by the record of her voyages out of Bristol in the preceding years: Ireland twice, New York, Belfast, Africa, the Current Islands. Then, "entered out, the Tenny, Baker, for Cape Verde and the South Seas." Other records show the Tenny and Ruby had been regularly employed on the African coast in quest of "ivory, ebony, spices, etc.," and the Tenny in particular for "transporting slaves to the Barbadoes."

The study of the voyages of the Tenny raised a number of questions about the appearance, design and rig of the historic vessel. The references to her as a threemasted schooner are among the first that we have in maritime literature. That "she drew only 8 feet of water" merely establishes draft, the only dimensional data aside from her tonnage.

(Portions of the preceeding article were previously published in 48 °N.)

quired. In the Tenny's time there was more stress put on a capable, safe, and weatherly vessel, one that could house her slaves, carry adequate water and stores and make a good passage. The route was one of favoring prevailing winds and conditions that would ensure a good voyage.

"Fincham's" was acquired and studied, and the Tenny's rig projected. Spacing of the masts was that of the conventional ship, and this was a factor in determining the lengthening of the vessel.

Any number of frames identical to the "dead flat" frame could extend the midship section. The length of this would be in multiples of "room and space," the then-current definition of the thickness of frame and the adjacent space.

In researching this particular period, it is essential to know and remember that vessels were not always described by rig alone, but that the trade of the vessel and her form were commonly used. With this in mind it is well to turn to contemporary works on rigging, sailmaking, and seamanship. In Darcy Lever's The Sheet Anchor, etc., etc. we find an easily overlooked short paragraph that tends to clarify matters:

Since the tonnage "as rebuilt" was known and a draft of 8 feet was established, these were the controlling factors of the design. It is well to remember that draft and depth of hold are not synonymous, that the latter is an interior measurement. Material was selected for a hull form that would have the shape and characteristics that would allow lengthening to a reasonable degree.

The ships of this period were laid down and built with well established procedures and proportions. The greatest beam was the first frame to be set up, and the building proceeded fore and aft from this station. What is not generally known and understood is that all hull lines, both fore and aft, are tangent to this frame. With the shorter or original hull designed to be typical of the type and period and suitable for the intended service, it was a simple matter to extend the structure to the new length.

With this widely held misconception out of the way, it was possible to search out surviving plans and information on vessels suitable for study. Fortunately, several such vessels had been taken into the Royal Navy, and their lines and details were consequently available. Better yet, they had been published in Chapelle' s American Sailing Ships.

"Ships in the Baltic and Coasting Trade, which carry fore and aft Mainsails, have the Mizzen Mast as taunt as the Mainmast, and seldom carry any Mizzen Topmast, but a Flag Staff, to hoist the Ensign. Thus is sometimes strong enough to hoist a small Topsail. They carry no Cross Jack Yard, consequently no square Topsail. .. The Mizzen is large in proportions." This fits our three-masted schooner to a "T." Other references to these vessels that "carry few hands" provide rigging details for the Tenny and for the Lady Washington as well.

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 4

Courtesy of the Public Records Office

It has had a long odyssey, but now, for the first time in 200 years, Captain Robert Gray's original chart of the Columbia River is back at the place it was drawn. In June, the document was handcarried to the Museum from London as a centerpiece of the exhibition "This Noble River : Capt. Gray and the Columbia " It will be on display here through November 29th.

Capt. Gray's Original Chart on Loan from London

The temporary loan of the chart from London's Public Record Office was made possible through a generous corporate grant from Fred Meyer, Inc. to the Co lumbia River Bicentennial Commission .

-Anne Witty

Gray's chart of the Columbia River shows a number of interesting features. The scale of distance is clearly in error The farthest point reached upriver, according to the chart, is a distance of 12 leagues (36 nautical miles). In actuality, Gray's Bay, where the Columbia went aground on 15 May 1792, is not quite half that distance from the river's entrance. The sketchiness of the chart and its soundings made during the spring freshets caused Lt. Broughton of the British Navy to doubt Gray's veracity when he was here during low water in October of the same year. Don't miss this rare opportunity to see the real thing for yourself!

Gray sketched a small chart of the mouth of the Columbia River when he sailed into the river in May 1792 Shortly thereafter, he turned his chart over to Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, who commanded the Spanish garrison at Nootka on Vancouver Island. Quadra, in turn, gave the chart to British Capt. George Vancouver, who had earlier (in April) tried to convince Gray that no significant river existed at the latitude where Gray just two weeks later in fact found the Columbia.

Along with the National Park Service, the Commission organized the special exhibition that opened May 11th here at the Columbia River Maritime Museum.

Special Exhibition This Noble River continues through November 29, 1992

The chart was preserved undisturbed among Vancouver's papers, kept by the British Admiralty and now preserved in the Public Record Office in London. It is a unique document, containing the first recorded information about the Great River of the West. As a relic of Gray's epochal voyage, it is a central artifact in the story of Capt Gray and the river he named after his ship Columbia.

Don't Forget!

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$50.01 $100.00 4.25 $100.01 and over 4.50

...

The Museum Store is an extension of the Museum and shares the same institutional mission. To carry this out, the Museum Store maintains a broad selection of merchandise and publications related to the thematic emphases of the Museum's interpretive exhibits. All subject matter is selected to meet the needs and interests of a broad audience, including Museum members, local citizens, and tourists.

Special 30th anniversary mugs are now available. But hurry! They won't last long. A) Pictured above, CRMM 30th mug, gold on navy blue. 9.50. B) Also in stock, Museum great seal mug, navy blue on white. Only 6.00.

Purser's Manif__est Summer 1992

Columbia River Maritime Museum, Astoria 1792 Marine Drive Astoria, Oregon 97103 (503) 325-2323

G. Authentic Neah Bay basket cedar and sweet grass. Original use of traditional motifs; 8" circum. x 3" high. 185.00.

D. "Sightlines" eyeglass chain with authentic trade beads. Converts easily to necklace. 30.00.

Mail

F. Cedar bentwood boxes, 7 ¼" and 8 ½" high. Decorated with two different screened images. 60.00.

H. Long glass (spyglass) brass, telescoping; 25 x 30 mm. 65.00.

Order Form No. Title/Description Qty. Unit Price Subtotal 0 Check Enclosed 0 Visa 10% Discount 0 MasterCard Subtotal Card No. Shipping Exp. Date TOTAL Signature __________________ Shipping Charges

$10.01 $15.00 3.00

$15.01 $30.00 3.50

$30.01 $50.00 4.00

$10.00 and under 2.50

Merchandise

C. Authentic trade beads 100 to 200 years old. Hudson Bay white hearts, Russian blues, Padres and more. From 10.00 to 150.00.

Museum Store Shopper's Guide and Mail Order Information

As stewards of the rich maritime heritage of the Pacific Northwest and the Columbia River region, the Columbia River Maritime Museum's mission is to preserve and interpret our maritime history in such a manner as to inform and enrich each and every one of our visitors.

The following publications and merchandise reflect and expand upon the themes explored by "This Noble River," bringing the world of 1792 forward into 1992.

With the installation of the Columbia River Bicentennial Commission's exhibit "This Noble River: Capt. Robert Gray and the Columbia," the Museum Store has kept pace with requests for more information about Capt. Robert Gray, the ship Columbia Rediviva, and the historic meeting of cultures heralded by Gray's entrance into the Great River of the West in 1792.

E. Rum ration 2 oz. copper outside, tinned inside, broad arrow stamped on bottom of cup. 10.00.

19 Northwest Colored Trade Bead Chart No. 2, Vol. IX, by Gerald B. Fenstermaker (1976). A chart of more than 100 beads from the Northwest states. Paper, 5.00.

20. Astoria and Empire, by James P. Ronda (University of Nebraska Press, 1990). A reexamination of the rivalry and social history of John Jacob Astor's Pacific Fur Trading Company and the Northwest Company and their roles in the settlement of the West. Hardback, 25.00.

22. Nordhoff's West Coast, California, Oregon and Hawaii, by Charles Nordhoff (KPI edition, 1987). A late 19thcentury account of life along the Pacific Coast of North America and the Hawaiian Islands. Paper, 9.95.

23. The First Oregonians: An Illustrated Collection of Essays on Traditional Lifeways, Federal-Indian Relations, and the State's Native People Today, edited by Carolyn Buan and Richard Lewis (Oregon Council for the Humanities, 1991). Just out, with an impressive list of contributors. Paper, 12.95.

12. The History of Beads: from 30,000 B.C. to the Present, by Lois Sherr Dubin (Harry N. Abrams, 1987). Follow the history of bead making from prehistoric to modern times. Full color throughout, with fold-out timeline. Hardback, 65.00.

Museum Members receive a 10% discount on purchases from the Museum Store.

1. Columbia's River, by J. Richard Nokes (Washington State Historical Society, 1991). The voyages of Robert Gray, 1787-1793. Hardback, 39.95; Paper, 24.95.

6. Juan Perez on the Northwest Coast, by Herbert K. Beals (OHS Press, 1989). Six documents of the Spanish expedition of the Santiago in 1774. Hardback, 25.00.

3. Gray and Columbia's River by Joean Fransen (Tabula Rasa Press, 1992). The story of Capt. Robert Gray, targeted for young adult readers. Paper, 14.50.

21. Astoria, by Washington Irving (KPI edition, 1987). The classic account of the Pacific Fur Trading Company and the establishment of Fort Astoria, based on John Jacob Astor's private papers. Paper, 9.95.

24. The Columbia River: A Historical Travel Guide, by Joann Roe (Fulcrum Press, 1992). Explore the history of this 1,294 mile maritime highway from Columbia Lake in Canada to the Columbia River bar. Paper, 15.95.

..

8. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7, The Northwest Coast, edited by Wayne Suttles (Smithsonian Institution, 1990). The most complete and upto-date volume on the native peoples of the Northwest Coast. Hardback, 55.00.

16. General History of Oregon, by Charles H. Carey (Binfords & Mort, 1971) A definitive record of the Oregon Country. Hardback, 35.00.

7. Malaspina & Galiano, by Donald C. Cutter (University of Washington Press, 1991). Spanish voyages to the Northwest Coast in 1791 & 1792. Hardback, 35.00.

11. Cedar, by Hilary Stewart (University of Washington Press, 1984). A study of the cedar tree in the mythology and everyday usage of the Northwest Coast Indians. Hardback, 35.00.

4. Log of the Union: John Bait's Remarkable Voyage to the Northwest Coast and Around the World, 1794-1796, edited by Edmund Hayes (OHS Press, 1981). Boit sailed with Capt. Robert Gray in the Columbia Rediviva as fifth mate at age 17. At age 19, he was master of the sloop Union. Follow him as he circumnavigates the globe. Paper, 12.95; hardback, 21.95; boxed, 50.00

Publications

13. Looking at Indian Art of the Northwest Coast, by Hilary Stewart (University of Washington Press, 1979). Learn to read the unique, indigenous art of the Pacific Northwest. Paper, 11.95.

10. Indian Trade Goods, by Arthur Woodward (Binford & Mort, 1989). Oregon Archaeological Society publication. Paper, 5.95.

14. Cathlamet on the Columbia, by Thomas Nelson Strong (Binfords & Mort, 1906). Recollections of the Indian people and short stories of early pioneer days in the valley of the lower Columbia River. Hardback, 9.95

15. Dictionary of Oregon History, by Howard McKinley Corning (Binford & Mort, 1989). A guide to who's who and what's what in Oregon history. Paper, 11.95.

17. The Northwest, by B.C. Payette, for the Columbia River Maritime Museum (Payette, 1964). A collection of correspondences, bills of lading, and journals from the early days of the Pacific Northwest. Hardback, 15.00.

5. Early Maritime Artists of the Northwest Coast., 17411841, by John Francis Henry (University of Washington Press, 1984). This is a gorgeous volume at a much reduced price. Get one while they last. Hardback, 16.00.

2. Voyages of the Columbia to the Northwest Coast, 17871790 & 1790-1793, by Frederick W. Howay (OHS Press, 1991 ). The logs and narratives. Hardback, 40.00.

18. First Northwest Coast Colored Trade Bead Chart, Vol. VI, by Gerald B. Fenstermaker (1976). Illustrates more than 50 Columbia River beads. Paper, 5.00.

9. The Chinook Indians: Traders of the Lower Columbia River, by Robert H. Ruby & John A. Brown (University of Oklahoma Press, 1988). Historical study of the Indians of the lower Columbia. Paper, 16.95.

On October 24, Astoria will see another launching as the City of Vancouver, Washington, wets the hull of a replica longboat off Astoria's 17th Street Pier. The Lady Washington, temporarily disguised as Lieutenant William Broughton's command, the Chatham, will also be in the lower river for the event. The boat, the City of Vancouver's contribution to the maritime bicentennial, is currently being built at the Grant House Folk Art Center as a replica of Broughton's 25-foot cutter. Its design is based in part on research by Hewitt Jackson, noted Northwest maritime historian and artist whose work has been a regular bicentennial feature of the Quarterdeck.

Wake of the Explorers, an international group dedicated to reenacting the 18th century small boat expeditions that charted the long-hidden Northwest Coast, departed from Astoria for a rowing expedition on the Columbia River on Saturday, Sept. 12. The voyage was to take place in two longboats designed by Greg Foster as historical recreations of the small boats originally used by British, Spanish, and American explorers and traders on the Northwest Coast.

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 4

Lecture, ''Lieutenant Broughton's Exploration of the Columbia," with Douglas Brooks (City of Vancouver/Broughton Reenactment).

Sail aboard Lady Washington on the Columbia River. Day or evening sails. Contact Grays Harbor Historical Seaport, 206-532-8611.

Oct. 23 Oct. 23-25

9

The cutter's upriver voyage will begin on October 24th, 200 years to the day after Broughton's departure. The boat will follow Broughton's route, stopping at Cathlamet, Clatskanie, Rainier, St. Helens, and Camas, and arriving in Vancouver about October 31st. Although the

Kelso: Great River of the West Conference Series. Topics are Indians on the Lower Columbia, Mid-Columbia Indians, and Peoples of the Columbia. Contact Bill Lang, 206-737-2044.

Exploring the River in Longboats

Local coordinator for the reenactment expedition was Tom Jackson of Astoria, one of the volunteers who helped construct the replica of Columbia's jolly at OHS three years ago.

CRMM Kern Room, 7 pm. Free & open to the public.

Astoria: Launch of replica of Chatham's 25-foot cutter from the brig Lady Washington, (view from 17th St Pier).

Winter solstice lights: The Lady Washington will retum to Astoria!

Contact Grant House Folk Art Center, Vancouver, at 206-694-5252.

Bicentennial Events Up and Down the River Fall Calendar

Plans called for the boats to move upriver for approximately two weeks, retracing British Lieutenant William Broughton's explorations of 1792 as far as the Sandy River.

This fall marks two hundred years since the first European explorers charted the Columbia. In commemoration, two reenactment voyages have been planned to row and sail along the route followed by Lieutenant William Broughton in 1792. The Columbia River expeditions are part of a region-wide series of reenactments marking the International Maritime Bicentennial. Both groups of latter-day explorers intended to depart from the 17th Street pier adjacent to the Maritime Museum.

boat's crew is expected to be full, you can get more details on the expedition and the lecture series in the towns along the way by writing to the Grant House Folk Art Center, 1101 Officers' Row, Vancouver, Washington 98661.

Longboats at Port Townshend, from Plate II, Vancouver's Voyage of Discovery.

By a stroke of good fortune, plans for a ship's launch of the period were obtained from Admiralty records in Great Britain. The mayor of Vancouver and Kelly Putnam of the Columbia River Renaissance group in recent months visited the birthplace of George Vancouver in England and the Chatham Dockyard, where a fine set of contemporary plans was obtained.

Oct. 24 Dec. 21

Oct. 3 Oct. 22

CRMM Annual Meeting, Seaside Convention Center

Makah Tyee Tetaku, as drawn by Jose Cordero in 1792. Courtesy of Museo de Americas de Madrid.

The journals of Captain James Cook's 3rd voyage to the Pacific, published in 1788, spoke of abundant natural resources and potential riches to be made on the Northwest Coast. Cook discovered that Russian traders had established a lucrative business swapping " valuable furs by the natives of the country in exchange for beads, knives and other trifling commodities valued by them." Captains John Kendrick and Robert Gray and the six New England-based entrepreneurs who financed the voyages of the Columbia, were all familiar with Cook's accounts. They used all available insight

Glass beads were unknown among Native American societies preceding the introduction of European glass products. The beads carried by the early European and American explorers were mostly manufactured in Venetian glass factories on the Italian island of Murano. Others were made in Bohemia (currently a Western district of Czechoslovakia) and Holland.

On display in the Fur Trade and Exploration gallery of the Columbia River Maritime Museum are two strands of antique trade beads from the collection of Rolf Klep. This small selection of beads contains representative examples of the numerous varieties of beads available to European and American merchants whose trading ventures during the 15th through 19th century opened new markets in Africa and the Americas. Glass trade beads served as a valuable and easily measured medium of exchange, as well as adding color to the often drab decor of past centuries. The study of trade beads today presents us with the opportunity for intriguing insights into the maritime fur trade and Northwest regional history.

The second strand of beads on display (1973.77) contains a spectrum of colors and styles representing 300 years of North American trading. The thirty or so varieties displayed here are mostly glass, with a few metal, enamel (porcelain), and wood. The oldest beads on the strand may be the six "green heart" Cornaline d'Aleppo beads which date to the 17th century. These Venetian beads are composed of two layers of glass, opaque brick red on transparent dark green, cylindrical in shape with no other decoration. These beads are highly sought by collectors, as are the larger multilayered beads of identical glass called seven-layer "chevrons." During the 18th century, the green core was replaced by a white one. The same was done with multilayered chevron beads, which went from seven to six, then five, and eventually four layers by the 19th century. There are two nicely made six-layer chevrons on display, also a variety of Cornaline d' Aleppos often called ''Hudson Bay white-hearts." Different hues of red are an indication of the bead's age; since successively less gold and more selenium was used, later ones are a brighter red. A large bead of this type with a yellow heart on the display strand may have been made specifically for the Hudson Bay Company.

Trade bead glass is composed of silicon oxide, soda or potash, and lime, fused at high temperatures with other minerals for color. Cobalt, for example, is used to create deep blue, gold plus selenium for cranberry-red, copper salts for green, and tin for milky whites.

when planning the trade bait to accompany the first voyage of 1787. We find 348 pounds of glass beads plus 45 dozen necklaces listed as cargo which departed with Captain Gray on the Lady Washington bound for the Northwest Coast.

Trade Beads in the Maritime Fur Trade

One strand of beads on display at the Museum (1973. 70) is comprised of seventy translucent cobalt glass beads of various sizes. Beads of this type were a highly prized trade item from the late 18th century through the 19th century, especially on the Northwest Coast. Frequently nicknamed "Russians," these barrel shaped beads are hexagonal in cross section with as many as 55 hand cut facets on each bead. The most common and desirable color of "Russian" was blue, yet examples can be found made of red, green, clear, opaline, amber, and amethyst colored glass. It is doubtful that these beads were manufactured in Russia as the nickname implies. Their origin is likely either the glasshouses in the forests of Bohemia or possibly Venice. They were distributed

Once the maritime trade in Northwest furs to China was established, new varieties of top quality beads made in Peking, China, quickly entered the market as well. In 1989, I was given a mixed strand of antique beads of both European and Chinese origin by a friend who had found them by lantern light on the banks of the Columbia River. Like jewels in the shallow water, these prizes from an earlier era were scooped up to be appreciated again after more than a century in their watery hiding place.

The four most common methods of glass bead manufacture are drawn, mandrel-wound, mold-pressed, and blown. Each bead is unique and can be viewed as an individual piece of art. Many beads incorporate several manufacturing processes with numerous layers of glass.

throughout Europe via well established caravan routes and traded to North American natives by Russian fur traders.

Tetaku's wife, by Jose Cordero of the Galiano-Valdez ·Expedition, 1792. Note use of trade beads along with dentali um shells. Courtesy Museo de Americas, Madrid.

A Venetian bead furnace in operation, circa 1752. Courtesy of Parks Canada.

Robert Gray and his crew first made contact with the natives of New Albion near 41 °38' N latitude (Northern California near Cape Mendocino) in August of 1788. At that time Second Officer Robert Haswell recorded, ''They were cloathed chiefly in deerskins and they were ornemented with beads of Europan manufactor. I am apt to think they have sometimes intercorse with the Spanish at Monteray which is but three or four degrees to the Southward of them." Supporting evidence for Haswell's premise may be found in the record of Spanish explorer Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, dating from thirteen years previous to the Gray expedition at a nearby coastal latitude. In June 1775 Quadra and the crew of the Sonora stayed ashore at 41 °18' for several days of peaceful ex change of goods and informat i on, which included a swap of beads for sardines.

11

"But as we have had occasion to remark more than once, the object of foreign trade which is most desired are the common cheap, blue or white beads, of about fifty or seventy to the pennyweight, which are strung on strands a fathom in length, and sold by the length of both arms: of these blue beads, which are called tia commashuck ... The most inferior kind are esteemed beyond the finest wampum, and are temptations which can always seduce them to part with their most valuable effects." Lewis' observations may have been true among the lower Columbia Chinookans, but bead values were subject to market fluc tuations and their overall value varied widely along the Northwest Coast. Lewis' "finest wampum" may have been desirable on the Atlantic Coast, where the purple and white cylindrical clam shell beads originated. However, the Northwest Coast shell-bead equivalent was the long, thin dentalium shell from the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

shells upriver to the interior for slaves, eagerly accepted glass beads as a ready made substitute for dentalia and a way to break the monopoly in trade from the north.

Another sentiment which was recorded by Lewis is found in the journals of other explorers as well, concerning the Euro-American traders' inability to guess wh ich trade goods would be most desirable at each village on subsequent visits.

Mark Tolonen

Meriwether Lewis repeatedly regrets in his journal that the Corps of Discovery, here in 1805 06, had not brought more of the desirable varieties of blue beads. On November 22, 1805 while wintering on the lower Columbia, Lewis wrote in his journal, "in the evening Seven indians of the Clot sop Nation came over in a Canoe, they brought with them two Sea otter Skins for which they asked blue beads ... mearly to try the Indian who had one of those skins, I offered him my Watch, handkerchief a bunch of red beads and a collar of the American coin, all of which he refused and demanded 'ti-"a-co mo-shack' which is Chief beads and the most common blue beads, but fiew of which we have at this time "

If one could tabulate the quantity of beads imported for the Northwest fur trade alone, the tonnage would be impressive. One window onto this period is provided by the records of the Hudson's Bay Company From 1824 to 1854 the ''Honorable'' Company imported many tons of beads into the HBC Columbia Department, which spanned the entire Columbia drainage system; beads of 40 or more historic varieties, colors and sizes that were acquired from glasshouses in Venice, Bohemia, and China. Records of a single shipment from 1844 detailed over 1200 ''bundles'' and 1500 pounds of beads.

One type of bead introduced to the North American trade by the early Spanish explorers is commonly nicknamed the "padre." The Museum display strand offers several kinds of beautiful sky blue beads, including some "padres," which are made of opaque blue glass and have a dull outer finish. These beads were especially popular in the Southwest due to their near-spherical shape, likeness to turquoise, and large perforation wh i ch allows for easy stringing. They can be found in sizes up to an inch in diameter. The beads on display at CRMM were unearthed on the Columbia, and likely arrived here via intertribal trading up the coast.

While Captain Cook was visiting Nootka, on Vancouver Island, in 1778, he noted specifically, "Glass beads they were not fond of." What Cook had yet to realize was that the Nootkans supplied fathom-length units of strung dentalium shells which were the standard for measuring the exchange value of trade goods throughout much of the region. The Nootkans were understandably resistant to the introduction of glass beads, which threatened to undermine the exclusive value of their dentalia In contrast, the Chinookans of the lower Columbia River, who long had derived great wealth by controlling the trade of dentalium

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 4

Official records documenting the commerce in trade beads are often sparse Fortunately, many dedicated armchair adventurers, archaeologists, scholars, and antique collectors are now sharing their interests and research. A good deal of information has been assembled concerning the identification and ages of trade beads as well as manufacturing details and facts concerning their initial distribution. Combining documents, archaeological evidence, and oral histories, a standard nomenclature for the clear and detailed classification of trade beads is under development.

Some examples of the trade beads mentioned in this article, as well as being on display in the Museum galleries, are also available for purchase in the Museum Store.

The completion of the City of Astoria's 17th Street pier expansion project opens exciting new possibilities for the community. Funded by the State Marine Board and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife in cooperation with the city, the project has extended the outer leg of the old L-shaped pier to make it a T-shape. The 17th Street pier, adjacent to the Museum, has long been identified with this institution, but it is owned and maintained by the city and leased to the Coast Guard .

This year's Lower Columbia Row-In included a number of different events. Pictured are Alex Spear in his grandfather's 1920 rowing shell and, in the foreground, Roble Anderson and Mike Stanley in a 16-foot skiff. Spear came in first overall in the men's division.

12

Inside the slat-breakwater of the new wing of the pier is a floating dock, providing day-moorage facilities for tran sient vessels in the central part of Astoria-one of the objectives identified by the Murase Plan for revitalizing Astoria's historic working waterfront. Just as important from the Museum's perspective is that the float also provides temporary docking facilities for visiting historic vessels. In the past , when a vessel with low freeboard su ch as the Lady Washington has come to call , a barge had to be put in place to provide for safe boarding . It was also necessary to schedule such a visit around the mission requirements of the Coast Guard Since the basic configuration of the new facility has been completed, several vessels have come calling, including the Lady Washington, the replica Revenue Cutter Californian, H M C S. Oriole, Brix Maritime's showpiece wooden tug Pacific Explorer, and the Russian replica vessels Saint Petr, Saint Paul , and Saint Gabriel.

The prospect of having another Coast Guard cutter assigned to Astoria has been big news in these parts for the past year or so. The pier expansion prompted by the expected arrival of the Venturous next year also provided the opportunity to dovetail a number of other goals into the same project. Among these are some incentives for this stately old river town to rediscover the river waiting on her doorstep .

last lightship to serve on the Columbia River station Another changing of the guard took place in 1983 , when the cutter Resolute was assigned to Astoria, replacing the Yocona

-\..l . -\ I 1 ,, \ \ ,...

17th Street Pier Expansion Becomes Reality

For the past three decades, the pier has been home to an Astoria-based Coast Guard cutter and the Lightship Columbia . The new downstream wing will provide moorage for an additional cutter, the Venturous , which is scheduled to be reassigned to Astoria starting in 1993

The 102-foot ketch-rigged Canadian sail training vessel H.M.C.S. Oriole is shown here at the 17th Street floating dock. The yacht, laid down in Boston in 1921 for a Toronto businessman, was commissioned into the Royal Canadian Navy in 1948 .

Local natives with long memories will no doubt recall that during the early years of the Columbia River Maritime Museum, the cutter based at the 17th Street pier was the Yocona and the lightship moored there was formerly old No 88. Built in 1907, No. 88 served on the Columbia River station from 1909 through 1939. She was acquired by CRMM in 1962, soon after the Museum was founded. In 1980, old No. 88 was replaced by No. 604, built in 1949, the

Ernestine J. Bennett

Rafting up at the conclusion of a successful rowing and paddling event.

Tim Dalrymple

to the latest in composite plastic. At the blast from the cutter Resolute 's whistle, off they splashed towards the East mooring basin and then back again. First overall was Alex Spear of Port Townsend The current president of the Wooden Boat Foundation, Spear was rowing his grandfather ' s 1920 single racing shell in the event.

Dr. & Mrs. Erik P. Eselius

Mary & Chris Jackson-Thompson Delia Whitfield

Rounding out the day were ropemaking and knot-tying demonstrations, and a line heaving contest. In all, it was an enjoyable day on and around the water and a fine way to initiate the new floating dock. With coverage by Channel Two news, those who wanted more could watch it all over again at 11 :00!

April 1 June 30, 1992

Pau l Brown

CCM C.R Easley

Robert & Bernice Albrich

Dr. Robert W. Haglund

SUPPORTING

Butch's for Sir C.S. Emmons Columbia Chocolates by Morden Nancy G. Halton

Jordan Schnitzer

Mr. & Mrs. Jon R. Levy

W. J. & Thelma B. Moisio

Tim & Lindsay Andersen

The men's 1.5-mile event began shortly after 10:00. The participants arrayed themselves near the starting boat in a variety of watercraft. Folbots, canoes, kayaks, racing shells, sharpies, peapods, and gigs were all represented. Construc tion techniques evident among the craft ranged from traditional wooden boats, to strip-built, to fiberglass and aluminum,

Patricia M. Jenkins

Dr. & Mrs R.P. Moore

The morning of August 9 was sunny and warm. Following after two days of welcome rain, the air was crisp and fresh with a light breeze. Conditions could not have been better for a rowing event .

Increased Memberships

Patty H. Kivisto

Mr. & Mrs. Evan T. Bash

Mr & Mrs. Kay A. Baker

Q1tarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 4

Mr. & Mrs. Patrick C. Jensen

SUSTAINING

Mr. & Mrs. George Phillips

PILOT

Mr. & Mrs L.F. Van Dusen

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Later in the morning the remaining events were scheduled. The children's race was planned for a short course to Englund Marine and back Almost canceled for lack of registrants, the women's race was reinstated at the last minute and scheduled for the same time and course. First in the women's division were Marcia Thompson, Bev Rinseld, and Monica Andrew of Newport in a modified gig. First in the children's race was Nathan Pancoast of Gresham in a single kayak. Amazingly close behind in a blunt nosed 6-foot punt was Osmon Boswell of Astoria.

Dorothy R. Mickelson

The Ship Inn

Mr. & Mrs. R. Allen Kronenberg

Benton F. Pace

M.R.L. Smith

Mr. & Mrs. Scott Hinsdale

J i

Mr. & Mrs. James W. Young

FAMILY

Rachel Wynne, organizing the event for CRMM, encouraged participants to wear period costumes in honor of the bicentennial festivities at the Museum. Several people responded. Awarded honors for best costume were Phil] Cafaro and David Ek of Fort Clatsop National Memorial. Kidded for wearing buckskins while rowing a tupperware canoe, they vowed to bring a proper dug out of Ponderosa Pine next year.

* * *

The potential for small boats utilizing the new facility also became clear this summer. The Lower Columbia Row-In, held the past two years at the old Astoria Yacht Club on Youngs Bay, this year returned onsite to take advantage of the new floating dock on the Museum's doorstep Appropriately enough, it was scheduled for August 9 to coincide with the annual Astoria Regatta.

Katey Kinkade

Heads up! CRMM volunteer Bob Peterson tries his hand during the lineheaving contest.

Michael C. Hord

Mr. & Mrs. Onnie Silver Lola M . Swanson

FRANCES C. DAHL

Jan Poindexter

Brenda Hood

May F. Johnson

SUPPORTING

Mr. & Mrs Fred W. Kario

Jean Waterman

Ken Austin Dallas Blair

Diane Julam

Robert & Janice Tarr, Jr.

HONEYMAN FAMILY

KATHERINE L. BLOOM

Anna Asikainen

Jean E. Larson

Sherry Parsons

Lillian Keller

Mr & Mrs. David Hoyer

FAMILY

Mr. & Mrs Harold J. Holmes

Marvin Chapman

Clarence R. & Kathryn D. Parker Ken, Jean & Judy Parks

Mr & Mrs Manuel S. Teles

McCall's Tire Center, Inc.

Mr. & Mrs. Eldon Korpela

Mrs. A Alan Honeyman

Mr . & Mrs. George E . Long

Mr. & Mrs Toivo Kivisto

John R. Atwood Stan Beerli & Family Richard Bernow Norman C. & Mary B. Blanchard Gary G. Bliss

INDIVIDUAL

Mr. & Mrs. Veikko A. Manners

Mike & Anita Schacher

Gregory A Peters

Bob & Ardelle Phillips

Mr. & Mrs. Jim R. Joudrey

Joseph E & Gwynn Bakkensen Grace Dixon

Arthur M. & Carol E. Ryan

Frederick W.A. Schott

WILLIAM J. HUNT, JR.

THELMA G. ANDERSON

Jerry & Mary Lee Alderman Linda R. Allaway Don Ambrose

Mr. & Mrs. Luka Radich

Ron & Joyce Honeyman

ALBERT E. BRYSON

Joyce Wright

YOUTH

Michael Johnson

Mrs. Ronald J. Honeyman

Mr . & Mrs. Charles Boyce

Harold & Lennah Concenia

David Messerschmidt

Jane G. Currie Daniel N. David Bernice Enke John Filmer

Mr. & Mrs. Evan T. Bash

GEORGE w. CROSS Bernice Bro

Mr & Mrs Donald Rund

Mr. & Mrs Henry Osterlund

Michael M. Okoniewski

James W . Jacobson

Mr. & Mrs. William E. Kilgore

Karen Kenyon & Ralph Wirfs

Mr & Mrs. Robert M. Siefert

Wendy R. Launer

Mr. & Mrs. William D. Clay Tom & Connie Hutson Mr. & Mrs Douglas N. Knudson

Tom & Joyce Park

Fraternal Order of Eagles Auxiliary #2189

Chery I Pesch! Charles B. Supplee

Pollyanna Miner

Gerry Gerritz

Robin Taylor

GORDON A. GRIMBERG

Mr. & Mrs. Alf E. Olsen

Mr & Mrs. John Peterson

Aaron Kyle Hudson

Ruth J. Wood

Peter & Lillian Whittlesey

L. Byrne Waterman

Alvin E. Jones

Robert J. Radcliffe

Mr & Mrs Toivo Hokkanen

Mr. & Mrs. Eldred Olson

Hugh Lovell

Memorial Donations

Mr. & Mrs Dave Johnson Betty Lu Johnstone

Mike Gemecke

Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth M. Abraham Mark & Kristin Albrecht

Douglas & Vicky Iverson

Mr. & Mrs. Robert P. Kearney Curtis Olson

PILOT

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. C Perkins, Sr. Pier 11 Restaurant

Robert A. Guy

Mr. & Mrs. James S. Bode Mr. & Mrs. Philip Bolster Mr. & Mrs. Thomas M. Bourland Mr. & Mrs. Fred Bowen Lee & Caryle Bradley Cebert & Hoppi Bryan Elmer & Colleen Carlson Marlin Christensen Bob Coomes Angelo & Julie Cruz

Mr. & Mrs. Lee Dohaniuk Mr. & Mrs. George Dolaptchieff Reverend Robert S. Downs, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. A.O. Dowrie Steve & Laurie Drage Robert & Elaine Edenfield James Emett Bob & Amy Emmett Troy A Farnham Mike Flood Margaret Fribloom-Barrios Family Robert & Janis Greene Mr. & Mrs. Coleman Harris Alvin Harwood Steve Herboth Cmdr. & Mrs. Peter R. Hoffman Ken Holmes Roy C. Hopgood

Marie Backa Jennie Backanen

Mr. & Mrs. Graham Barbey

KATHERINE Zu ARNOLD

David E. King

Mr. & Mrs. Charles D. Perry

Mr. & Mrs. Steve McClain

ROBERT L. BEEBE

14

Mr. & Mrs. Sven Lund Ed Lundholm

Alan Lemery

Robert E. Thompson

CHARLES MICHAEL GUSTAFSON

Ruth L. Shaner

Luella Kerr

Mr. & Mrs. John A. Pietila

EDITH M. HELLBERG

Mr. & Mrs. Warren Mattson

Mr. & Mrs. Toivo Mustonen

Betty Thompson Phil Wagoner

Cmdr. William A. Campbell

Mr. & Mrs. Charles S Lilley

DWIGHT R. 'DEE' HUBBARD

Mr. & Mrs. Theodore Lilley, Jr.

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas W. Thompson

ROBERT GAMBLE Ron & Joyce Honeyman

Betty May Josephson Jane R Keener

Joyce E. Mace

EMELIA A. BOHM

Bill & Karen Schell

MICHAEL T. DAUGHERTY

Joanne M. Clark

CLARENCE KOENNECKE Brix Maritime

New Members - April 1 - June 30, 1992

Dorothea J Handran

Merri L . Confer

April 1 - June 30, 1992

Brian E MacArthur

Edward & Linda Schanus

Mr. & Mrs. W. Dennis Hall

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Kankkonen

Frank L. Clarke

Mike Paxton

Norma Wilbur

Mr. & Mrs Ray Peterson

Mr. & Mrs. Toivo Mustonen

Theresa Wilson

Mr. & Mrs. Don E. Link

SUSTAINING

MEMORIAL

John P Codd

John & Shelley Bogaert Eraker Property Management Mr. & Mrs. William H. Coit Margueritte H Drake Robert Hale & Company, Inc

EARL COOPER Brix Maritime

Mr. & Mrs. Einor J. Long

Mr. & Mrs Arvi W. Ostrom

Bob & Peggy Roeser

Mr. & Mrs. Richard F. Van Winkle Mr. & Mrs Donald Webb Jeffrey & Judith Whittaker Wilfred Wong

Mr. & Mrs. Thaddeus C. Sweet

John & Caryn Tilton

Ed Little

Wayne Tronnes

Eleanor Ewenson

MARY I. STEINBOCK Beatrice W. Bergey

JAMES E. STOKES

Special Memorials

Mrs F.A. Westman

VIC & CHRIS NUNENKAMP ANNIVERSARY Mr. & Mrs. Harry Dichter

Interested in Membership?

Mr. & Mrs. Harvey Sargent

Mr. & Mrs. Albert Sorkki

Mrs Clyde H. McIntyre

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest E. Brown

Dr. & Mrs. John W. Reid Margaret Ann Rothman Esther B. Simon

Jerry & Yvonne Lundholm

Anna Helmersen

HONOUR KATHLEEN LAVIS

Mr. & Mrs. Trygve Duoos

ETTA B. ZIMMERMAN Mr. & Mrs. Gunnar Johanson Ada Lundman

Ada Lundman

GUY A. GENE PAXTON Norman C. & Mary B. Blanchard

Mr. & Mrs. John E. Griffith

Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert V. Kamara

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur E . Johanson

Mr. & Mrs. Hugh A. Seppa Ruth L. Shaner

Mr. & Mrs. Harold J. Holmes

Clara E. Miles

We would love to welcome you aboard as a member of the Columbia River Maritime Museum. To find out more about membership categories and levels of sup port, give us a call at (503) 325-2323 and ask to speak with our membership secretary. Or drop us a note at 1792 Marine Drive, Astoria, Oregon 97103.

Mr. & Mrs. Richard E. Cameron

Helen E. Koski

Yergen & Meyer

ROBERT BoB RoBITSCH Mr. & Mrs. Howard Henningsen Blane & Kathie Thomas Mr. & Mrs. Andrew E. Young

Pier 11 Restaurant

Bob & Peggy Roeser

Mr. & Mrs. Roderick Sarpola

HARRY M. STEINBOCK Mr. & Mrs. Robert Chopping Ruth L. Shaner

Dorothea J. Handran

ROSE K. SORENSEN Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Kairala

Mr. & Mrs. Walter Nelson Jim & Curie O'Connor

MARY Jo LAYMAN

Mr. & Mrs. Arvi W. Ostrom

Grace Dixon

Mr. & Mrs. Dick Keller

Mrs. Olaf Waisanen

SYLVIA M. LUNDHOLM

DOLORES P. NIELSON Carl W. Johnson

GEORGE E. 'MIKE' POELL Clara E. Miles

BARBARA JOANNE STRITE Yergen & Meyer

MAE TOLVA Joseph E. & Gwynn Bakkensen

Mr. & Mrs. Carl B. Bondietti Capt. & Mrs. Joseph Bruneau Gordon & Lora Childs Mr. & Mrs. Robert Chopping Jeanne Clifford Columbia House Condominium Homeowners Association Freda Englund

Georgia Maki

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 4

Mr. & Mrs. Robert S. Lovell Annabell Miller Marguerite S. Moyer

Mr. & Mrs. A.J. Matson

Mr. & Mrs. Frank M. Thorsness Mr. & Mrs. Sion Wentworth Mr. & Mrs. Donald G. Ziessler

Yergen & Meyer Ruby K. Smith

Mr. & Mrs. Don E. Link

Jame.s Pilgreen & Family Roy Salmi Edwi n Salmi

Dorothy Jacob

Joseph E. & Gwynn Bakkensen Mr. & Mrs. J. Pat Codd Freda Englund Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Frame Mr. & Mrs. John F. Jensen, Jr.

RETA LYNN OLSON Donna Swanson

Mr. & Mrs. Carl B. Bondietti Lester & Elizabeth Bondietti

Mr. & Mrs. John E. Hill

Mr. & Mrs. Richard C. Paulsen

SELMA V. MATTHEWS

Freda Englund

Leonard Haga

Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Knutsen

LAWRENCE P. 'LARRY' SCHMITZ Curtis Olson

KATHERINE M. SAGEN Jim & Curie O'Connor Marian Kay Palmberg

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Farmer Mr. & Mrs. Ed G. Fearey, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. J.W. Forrester, Jr. Buddy Hoell & Rae Goforth

DAVE MYERS 65TH BIRTHDAY MEMORIAL Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence S. Black Mr. & Mrs. David E. Brownell Mr. & Mrs. John C. Beckman K.A. & Evelyn Bredleau John & Virginia Campbell Dr. & Mrs. John R. Campbell Mr. & Mrs. William H. Coit Mr. & Mrs. Ward V. Cook Richard & Mary Deich

AGNES C. 'PETE' LAWRENCE

BERTHA l. LITTELL

Mr. & Mrs. Donald F. Fastabend

Mr. & Mrs. Arnold F. Johnson

Mr. & Mrs. Eugene C. Peterson

Mr. & Mrs. Toivo Kujala

Mr. & Mrs. James S. Stacy

James & Annette Arnell Any & Doris Callahan Olga Forbes Dorothea J. Handran

Mr. & Mrs. Brian Dutton Dr. & Mrs. Erik P. Eselius Dr. & Mrs. James Gerow Mr. & Mrs. Ed Hart Mr. & Mrs. William Headlee Lyle & Marilyn Janz, Jr. Dr. & Mrs. Chuck Jenike Mr. & Mrs. Theodore Lilley, Jr. Michael & Judy McCuddy Mr. & Mrs. Roger S. Meier Lois J. Mowry

Ursel & Mildred Narver Diarmund & Maura O'Scannlain Robert P. & Eva M. Polich Ronald K. Ragen

Marguerite S. Moyer Lila A. Olsen & Family

Mr. & Mrs. Einard Wilson Agne s Wolleson

Mr. & Mrs. David Drake

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas B. Stoel Mr. & Mrs. Charles J. Strader Donald & Geraldine Tisdel Tom & Ellen P. Twist

15

CAPT. VINCENT M. ZANKICH Wm. J. & Joanne Brooks Shirley Brooks Cole Mr. & Mrs George Moskovita Gertrude M. Oja

HOWARD M. LEE

Mr. & Mrs. Trygve Duoos

J. BYRON SNYDER Marguerite S. Moyer

MAE VLASTELICIA Theresa Andresen Mr. & Mrs. Evan T. Bash Ruth Lager Mr. & Mrs. Jack G. Marincovich & Andrew

Mr. & Mrs. Don M. Haskell Margaret I. Hughes

EINO J. SEVERSON Mr. & Mrs. Evan T. Bash Mr. & Mrs. Wm. R. Cunningham Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Frame Henry J. Hedin Gerry Gerritz Mr. & Mrs. Arvi W. Ostrom Fran Severson Dorothy 0. Soderberg Mrs. Olaf Waisanen Mr. & Mrs. George Webber

Mr. & Mrs. Clayton Johnson Patricia Longnecker

Van Dusen Beverages, Inc.

CAPTAIN KENNETH MCALPIN Capt. & Mrs. Alf P. Hammon Capt. & Mrs. James Lessard

BOBBIE C. SCRIMSHER Dorothy 0. Soderberg

Mr. & Mrs. Sven Lund

Mr. & Mrs. Victor Berger

Mr. & Mrs. Wenzel G. Luthe

Mr. & Mrs. Eldon Korpela

Mr. & Mrs. George E. Siverson Aina L. Tennyson

Francis & Helen McSwain

MARGARETE. MOTT Mr. & Mrs. Richard D. Johnson

Hjalmer Leino

Ron & Joyce Honeyman

Mr. & Mrs. Walter R. Turner Helen Utti

MARGARET VICTORIA NAVARRO Marian Kay Palmberg Pier 11 Restaurant Van Dusen Beverages, Inc.

In-Kind Donations

The much larger facilities and dining room of the Convention Center will accommodate more of us, more comfortably, this year.

COLUMBIA RIVER MARITIME MUSEUM

1792 MARINE DRIVE ASTORIA, OREGON 97103

ISSN 0891-2661

Notice of Proposed Action

tion On Saturday, October 24th, you can also enjoy a visit from the brig Lady Washington and the launch of the Chatham's longboat on the river in front of the Museum.

Beta Sigma Phi

Garry Schalliol

Special Donations

will encourage more of the Museum's South County membership to join us.

The Great Hall, site of many past annual meetings, is currently housing the special exhibition "This Noble River" (see related article). While you're in the area for the annual meeting, don't pass up the opportunity to tour this exhibi-

ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED

Members, mark your calendars for Pri day, October 23, 1992, and plan to bring family and friends to Seaside for the 30th anniversary meeting of the Columbia River Maritime Museum.

Allen V Cellars

Sedgewick James, Inc.

Nola Westling

Mr. & Mrs. Robley L. Mangold

Jean Sandoz

Non-Profit Organization U S POSTAGE PAID

The 1992 annual meeting agenda includes the revision of the Museum's mission statement and its by-laws, which will require the voting approval of the members. Please plan to take part in this important action by attending the annual meeting on Friday, October 23, 1992.

Invitations will be mailed shortly to all members for reply

Astoria, Oregon Permit No. 328

Hugh Lovell

This year, as well as being the bicentennial year of the Columbia River, is also the thirtieth anniversary of the Columbia River Maritime Museum. This extraordinary year is marked by many commemorations, celebrations, and events. We've planned an extra-special 30th anniversary celebration for Museum members this year: an annual meeting and banquet with an historical twist. Join us Friday, October 23rd for an entertaining and informative evening.

Copies of the revised by-laws are available at the offices of the Columbia River Maritime Museum, 1792 Marine Drive, Astoria, Oregon 97103 during regular weekday office hours.

In honor of the Columbia River Bicentennial, our special guest speaker will be Thomas Vaughan, Oregon's historian laureate. If you have never had the pleasure of hearing Mr. Vaughan speak, you can count on an unforgettable rendition of the story of Captain Robert Gray's voyage into the Columbia River. Since his retirement from thirty-five years as director of the Oregon Historical Society, Mr. Vaughan has lived nearby in Skamakowa. Late last year he presented the Museum with the replica jolly boat from Gray's Columbia; the boat is now featured prominently in the exhibition "This Noble River."

Launch into the Annual Meeting

Van Dusen Beverages , Inc.

Mr. & Mrs. Amo DeBemard i s

Brix Maritime Port of Astoria

US Bancorp

US West Foundation

This year's annual meeting also represents a bit of a change in recent tradition : it will be held at the newly remodeled and expanded Seaside Convention Center rather than at the Museum. As some members may remember, seating was limited at last year's banquet, and we had to turn people away from this popular event. Moving south to Seaside

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