V18 N1 The 'Columbia Rediviva' in Works of Art

Page 1

Fall 1991

Visitors to the Columbia River Maritime Museum often ask whether they can purchase reproductions of certain items in the Museum's collections. Among these, no other single object receives such regular comment from visitors as Hewitt Jackson's rendering of the Columbia sounding her way across the bar on May 11, 1792. This color study on drafting vellum in the Fur Trade and Exploration gallery has long been a favorite of the artist as well. There is a liveliness of line and composi tion present in the work which is simply lost in a more formal presentation.

We are very pleased to announce that in response to years of inquiries about the Museum's Hewitt Jacksons, an art quality poster print of the Columbia crossing the bar will soon be available. A limited number of these prints in commemoration of the Columbia bicentennial are to be signed and numbered by the artist. Pat Longnecker, CRMM Museum Store manager, suggests that due to the frequently expressed interest in Hewitt Jackson's work, those wishing to purchase one of the signed numbers of this special edition would be well advised not to wait.


Mixed-media drawing of the ship Columbia Rediviva of Boston by Hewitt Jackson. This work was done as a color study for one of a series of paintings commissioned by the late Edmund Hayes. Donor: Edmund Hayes. 1970.390.2

The Columbia Rediviva in Works of Art

In this issue of the Quarterdeck we also examine several other images of the Columbia Rediviva, in particular those designed by Museum founder Rolf Klep for use as letterheads and logos of the Columbia River Maritime Museum . Their story is inseparably linked to the early days of the Museum itself, and to Rolf Klep's role in bringing this dream into being In order to fully understand what transpired thirty years ago at the time of the founding of the Museum, it is further enlightening to view those events in the context of Rolf's life and work. Join us for a Klep retrospective.

A review and newsletter from the Columbia River Maritime Museum at 1792 Marine Drive in Astoria, Oregon

Vol. 18 No. 1

Photo and illustration credits : Columbia crossing the bar, 11 May 1792, by Hewitt Jackson, page 1, CRMM collections, photo by Creative Graphics, Eugene, Oregon; Anne Witty, pages 3 and 16; "The Columbia of Boston at Tongue Point," Woodfield photo of Cozzens 1926 origina l , page 4, and Astoria Column, page 6, CRMM Woodfield collection; Rolf Klep originals, page 5 and 7, CRMM archives; the Columbia and Discovery, 29 April 1792, page 8, and the Lady Washington off Kushimoto, Japan, page 11, courtesy of Hewitt Jackson; Minnie Mae and Charles Hill, portrait by Hayes fotografer, page 12, courtesy of Lawrence Barber, from an original in the family collection of Luella Hill Naimo. Printed at Anchor Graphics, Astoria, Oregon

Jack was born in Portland, Oregon and attended high school in Ilwaco, Wash ington before enter ing the Naval Academy. His naval career included the command of three submarines in the 1960s : the USS Sterlet, the nuclear-powered attack submarine USS Haddo, and the Blue Crew of the Polaris submarine USS Daniel Webster. While serving as Commander of Submarine Squadron Sixteen, Jack was selected for promotion to Rear Admiral.

Excerpt from the Kinan Younou, Samurai Sakamoto Tenzan, 1799, courtesy of Mary Malloy; used by permission

Finally, it illustrates just how often the fortunes of war influence and shape both the health and the decline of our national merchant marine industry


Jerry L. Ostermiller Executive Director

lines vs. the standard horizontal-vertical markings It represented a centuries-old symbol of excellence at sea, joined in a point forward on the stack like a ship's bow cleaving the water speedily and efficiently." (p. 127) As a result of Jack Dant's experience, the book provides a wealth of information, not just on corporate or family history, but also about the entire Northwest shipping industry.

States Steamship Company's role in the shipping industry spans two generations and a million miles of ocean. The Way of the Seahorse tells of hard work, perseverance and great fortune, as well as a heart breaking experience. The author's style is easy to read, both intimate and forthright Jack Dant conveys the observations of a lifetime of involvement, culminating in becoming the last Chief Executive Officer of one of the West Coast's most remarkable steamship lines.


In Memoriam: Admiral Jack Williams

The QUARTERDECK is published four times a year by the Columbia River Maritime Museum, 1792 Marine Dr, Astoria, OR 97103.

The Way of the Seahorse is a welcome addition to our Museum library. It is a well-illustrated 150-page book with ample depth, honesty, and humor. For students of Northwest maritime history, Jack's book provides a terrific insight into the West Coast's complex business relationships of timber and shipping.

We lost him. Swept overboard by forces even his indomitable spirit could not overcome, Admiral J.G. "Jack" Williams, Jr., President of the Columbia River Maritime Museum, died of cancer October 4th. Many tears have been shed over Jack's passing He was loved dearly by all who knew him, and respected greatly by all who experienced his inspirational ability to get the job done.

Active in numerous community and educational projects after his retire ment, Jack counted the Columbia River Maritime Museum among the many causes to which he contributed substantial energy. He joined the Board of Trustees in 1985 During his watch as President, Jack's leadership skills and enthusiasm for the Museum provided the impetus for a complete internal administrative reorganization. But his lasting legacy to us here at the Museum is even more valuable, if less tangible. Jack instilled an atmosphere of positive energy. He led us all to recognize the joy of a good challenge.


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Volume 18 No. 1

We are fortunate to add some real gems of historical importance to the Museum's library with increasing frequency. Just last year, Graham Barbey wrote a regional best seller, Barbey: The Story of a Pioneer Columbia River Salmon Packer. The upcoming regional maritime bicentennial is sure to bring additional works on Northwest maritime history to the bookshelves.

From May 1972 to September 1974, Jack served as Chief of the Navy Section of the Joint U.S. Military Mission for Aid to Turkey. Promoted to Vice Admiral in 1980, he became Deputy and Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief, U S. Pacific Fleet. One year later, Jack was promoted to full Admiral and named Chief of Naval Material, a position he held until his 1983 retirement.

from the Wheelhouse

Recently, I enjoyed a remarkable experience. Glancing out my office window, I observed a Navy Reserve ship steaming up the Columbia on her return from the Persian Gulf. Called a RO-RO (roll-on, roll off), she is one of the few U.S. vessels capable of carrying heavy battle tanks and personnel carriers to Saudi Arabia. I mention this because the vessel was a creation of the States Steamship Company. Now owned by the Navy, she once proudly displayed States' red seahorse insignia on her stack By coincidence, I had also just finished reading a new book by one of our trustees, Mr. Jack R . Dant. The Way of the Seahorse relates the history of the States Steamship Company, including the story behind the RO-RO that I had seen steaming up the river.

This new book is fascinating and certainly worthy of review, but what makes the book especially attractive is the insightful manner in which Jack Dant tells his story. Jack's writing is that of a man who has worked and lived what he writes about. For example, in describing the new insignia adopted in the late 1950s he writes:

"The red seahorse designed by Walter Landor did it all: S-shaped for States, it was unconventional, offering curved

In considering Jack Dant and his story, it occurs to me that we are also fortunate to be situated where one can look out to the river and see an actual RO-RO steaming up the channel. From the Museum itself, we can learn of its history and significance from a model of the RO RO type on display, then examine pictures and models of earlier States Steam ship vessels. Fortunate indeed, to have a fine maritime collection, but still more so to have people like Jack Dant and Graham Barbey sharing their experiences of Northwest maritime ways in the 20th century.

Ed i tor, Hobe Kytr. Editorial Staff: Jerry Ostermiller, Anne Witty, Barbara Minard, Rachel Wynne, Hewitt Jackson.

"Admiral Jack" had great pride in and respect for the Columbia River Maritime Museum. We speak from the heart when we say we have great pride and respect for Jack. J L.O.

During those early years, the Museum was most fortunate that at the helm of city government was a man who believed in the importance of history and its role in Astoria's future. Harry Steinbock's efforts to reestablish contact with the Astor family and to develop a sister city relationship with Waldorf, Germany, are well known. Lesser known is the role Harry played from 1964 through 197 4 in setting aside City owned property along the waterfront for the creation of a maritime park. This Museum is literally built upon Harry Steinbock's legacy to the people of Astoria. Thanks, Harry. And goodbye.


The gig Irrepressible Tiamot sails out of Port Townsend harbor to join one of many Pacific Challenge events during September's Wooden Boat Festival. Left to right: Tom Jackson, Rachel Wynne, Jonathan Taggart. Anne Witty photo

The Challenge enphasized camaraderie and learning. It was designed as a cross-cultural meeting, an exchange of traditional Northwest native maritime skills practiced by the young crews of newly-built canoes with the Europeanderived skills practiced by latter-day members of longboat crews Canoe crew members joined the longboats, native tales mingled with sea chanties around the beach fires, and in the end, everyone learned to tie a bowline-and much more.

Remembering Harry Steinbock (1909-1991)

Those who built the Columbia River Maritime Museum are justifiably proud that their great task was accomplished entirely through private funding. When the Museum's new facility was opened on May 11, 1982, it was completely paid for, and without government assistance. But there is more to the story.

:,~¢ '

As might be expected, there were more ''challenges'' to meet than there was time to meet them. A planned expedition of surveying and charting Port Townsend Bay had to be by-passed, much to the disappointment of veteran "explorers" eager to hone their skills with compass and lead-line. But by Sunday afternoon, when a closing ceremony and exchange of gifts, a' 'mini potlatch,'' gathered Pacific Challenge participants and supporters into a large, reflective and contented circle, it was clear that this first meet had reached its mark. We all learned, exchanged experiences, and gained a better understanding of the many and varied skills it took (and takes) to be a successful mariner on the Northwest Coast. We look forward to more such events as the 1992 Maritime Bicentennial commemorations bring out more flotillas of open boats and canoes to recreate the meetings of mariners from many parts of the world in the Pacific Northwest in the late years of the 18th century. Clearly, such gatherings can foster seamanship, cooperation and leadership for the twentieth.

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 1

The traditional sailor's refrain asks the "green hand" one of the hallmarks of seamanship, and scorn might well be heaped upon the would be sailor who confessed that he could not tie this basic knot. At the Port Townsend Wooden Boat Festival in September, a crew from the Columbia River Maritime Museum brushed up their bowline tying and pitted their seamanship skills against history in a three-day contest known as the Pacific Challenge. The Challenge brought together the crews of two re constructed eighteenth-century explorers' longboats, the Porpoise of Vashon Island, Washington, and the T'Sou-ke of Sooke, B.C., each carrying upwards of ten crew members. A lone nineteenthcentury type, the 17-foot gig Tiamot, built and skippered by Museum volun teer Jonathan Taggart, represented Oregon. A small but spirited CRMM crew, Tom Jackson, Rachel Wynne, Hamp Scudder, and Anne Witty, took turns participating in Challenge events, as the boat only holds three under sail and four under oars.

Activities included rowing and sailing sprints, in which the longboats Porpoise and T'Sou-ke used a design advantage due to their length, stability, many peo ple at many oars, and multiple masts (Porpoise has two and T'Sou-ke , three) and sails. Crews also participated in knot-tying practice, a "coxswain overboard'' drill, and an event in which three consecutive bowlines were timedstraight, on a bight, and behind your back! A contest with a heaving line saw the crews working out how to heave a line to the jetty, bring up a heavier line, tie on a mail bag, and get the bag to the waiting boat without getting the mail wet. Finally, a stylish exercise, in which the "captain" (in the person of one of the judges) was taken from the shore to his waiting vessel without allowing his feet to get wet, required some ingenuity. The Anne Witty

Harry Steinbock, mayor of Astoria from 1959 to 1975, passed away Tuesday, October 1st, 1991. Harry was a steadfast friend and working partner during the formative years of this institution. We shall miss him.

''But can you tie a bowline?''

valiant and strong crew of T'Sou-ke resorted to carrying the captain to the waiting boat, while the smaller Tiamot was able to have the captain step right in from the beach. Points were awarded for style, for song, and for spirit. Tiamot, with Jonathan Taggart and Rachel Wynne at the oars and Anne Witty as coxswain, was lauded for a near perfect landing as the captain stepped directly onto the schooner's boarding ladder. T'Sou-ke received extra points for an original song penned for the occasion, sung to an 18th-century tune, and for their colorful sailors' knee britches and bright red kerchiefs.

Rolf Klep was born in Portland in 1904, and moved with his family to Astoria when he was nine years old. Already showing a passion for drawing, his new home at the mouth of the Great River of the West filled his imagination and his sketchbooks with the great, tallmasted sailing vessels that made the Columbia River a port of call during the early years of the 20th century. The romance of the sea was a strong temptation for a lad who liked nothing better than to hop onto the pilot's launch and spend hours or even days on board one of the windjammers anchored in the roads. Rolf's mother extracted a promise from him that he would not run off to sea, as had his maternal uncle. Rolf's grandfather, a Norwegian ship's captain, had been lost at sea many years before. True to his word, Rolf stayed ashore and completed his education. Rolf Klep graduated from Astoria High School in 1922, and received his B.A. from the school of architecture of the University of Oregon in 1927, with a major in fine arts.

Museums are for remembering, for musing, as the root meaning of museum implies. Sometimes, for instance, when engaged in research in our archives, intriguing fragments of information lead to speculation on matters which likely never will be settled, but are fascinating to ponder nevertheless. In researching one subject, another related matter may become suddenly clarified.

This image of "The Columbia of Boston at Tongue Point is from a painting signed, "Fred S. Cozzens, 26." Cozzens originally painted the scene in 1896. This image distinctly differs from the widely published lithograph of the same scene, particularly in the treeline along the shore in the right middle ground. Woodfield collection

Taking a job in Portland following graduation, Rolf courted and married Alice Latture, his college sweetheart. They left on their wedding trip in a 192 7 roadster and drove to Chicago, where Rolf planned to enroll in the Chicago Fine Arts Institute. When they arrived in Chicago, they soon discovered the savings they had left behind invested on

margin had been wiped out by the Stock Market crash. Luckily, Rolf was able to interest an ad agency in his portfolio, thus beginning a long career in the commercial arts. Between 1929 and 1934, he worked out of Chicago, the last two years as a freelancer. It was during this period, in an ad campaign for Norge and Frigidaire refrigerators, that he introduced the use of the air brush for the first time to a piece of artwork intended for pure illustration. The air brush long had been used for touch-up work in photographic darkrooms, but Rolf Klep used it in a way no one had ever thought of before-for lending subtle shading to a drawing Almost overnight, the young man had a national reputation.


Rolf Klep's career continued to flourish after the war. Illustrations for a farreaching symposium on space travel chaired by Werner von Braun in 1951 were published for a series of articles in Collier ' s magazine, resulting in two books published by Viking Press, Across the Space Frontier in 1952, and Conquest of the Moon in 1953 These works were regarded as nothing less than visionary when men finally did set foot on the moon in 1969. Other major illustrations were published in Collier's, Life,

I recently had the opportunity to delve into Rolf Klep's development of the familiar CRMM logos and letterhead designs of the ship Columbia Rediviva. I was hoping to find some notes or correspondence having to do with Rolf's adaptation of Fred Cozzens' painting of the Columbia at Tongue Point, which was the basis for the Rolf Klep drawing of the Columbia familiar to most Museum members. In so doing, I found myself looking through extensive personal records and biographical materials, as well as the notes and minutes from the early organizational meetings for the founding of the Columbia River Maritime Museum, Astoria. Those of us who do interpretive programs at the Museum frequently tell our visitors that Rolf Klep was a noted marine illustrator and the pioneer of the use of the airbrush in modem commercial art. But beyond these accomplishments, and the fact that he was the founder of this Museum, until recently, I for one knew little else.

With the coming of World War II, Rolf Klep joined the Navy, serving as director of graphic art and production for Naval Technical Publications, under the Division of Naval Intelligence. Hundreds of technical publications and manuals ensued, many of them for the purpose of ship and aircraft identification. At one point during the war, the Army high command, in a critique of the weaknesses of their own publications, lamented that the only ones who seemed to get things right were the Navy-a remark that Rolf remembered with much amusement for years to come He left the Navy in 1945 with the rank of Lt. Commander, but remained active in the reserves until 1965, retiring as a full Commander.

Columbia Reborn

The couple moved on to New York in 1934, where Rolf started his own agency, specializing in maritime illustrations for large steamship companies. He also began working as a magazine illustrator, principally for Collier's. In 1939, he wrote and illustrated a children's book, Album of the Great. During a period when economic hardship was widespread, for this young artist there was no shortage of work In fact, he seems to have had the pick of whatever accounts he wanted to take

Comparison of Rolf Klep's designs for the CRMM letterhead and seal with Fred Cozzens' painting of the Columbia of Boston at Tongue Point, 1792, clearly indicates their derivation from Cozzens' work. As noted below, there are a num ber of subtle differences as well. In addition to changes in the sail plan, the jolly boat in the water at the stern in Cozzens' painting has been raised on davits in the Klep rendition. On the CRMM letterhead design , the Washington shore of the Harrington Point reach beyond Tongue Point has been drawn in to match local

Rolf Klep's letterhead design for the Columbia River Maritime Museum is clearly based upon the painting by Fred Cozzens. A closer examination reveals a number of subtle differences as well. Most easily discernible is the fact that in Cozzens' painting, the ship is hove to with the wind coming from well forward of the port beam, with main topsails aback. In Rolf's drawing, the wind is to starboard, and the ship is hove to with foresails aback.

During the decades in the Midwest and the East, Rolf continued his close ties with home. He maintained business partnerships with his brother in Astoria, most notably the Klep Building [better known as the Reed & Grimberg building) at 12th and Commercial. His motor yacht, the Webfoot, which was moored at Astoria in New York's borough of Queens, flew the burgee of the Astoria Yacht Club [Astoria, Oregon) much to the puzzlement of local Long Islanders . Finally, in 1956, Rolf began to extricate himself from his business commitments; he cut back on his commission work and prepared to return to Oregon and what he anticipated would be a life of welcome relaxation. Rolf and Alice Klep established a new home in Surf Pines, to the north of Gearhart, Oregon, later that year .


Look, Time, and National Geographic . One such illustration was the painting of the S S. United States, commissioned by Life magazine, which now graces the walls of the Steam and Motor Vessel gallery. This painting exhibits many of the trademarks of Rolf Klep's best work: exceptional draftsmanship in portraying a wealth of architectural detail, cutaways to show the inside and outside of the vessel at the same time, and finely controlled color work in watercolor, gouache and, of course, the airbrush.

The Kleps took an extended trip around the world in 1961. While in Europe, Rolf and Alice visited several

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 1

Soon after returning home, Rolf found that compared to an active professional life, retirement and relaxation did not suit him well. He responded by jumping into local civic affairs. Even before leaving New York, Rolf had played a prominent role in the effort to replicate old Fort Clatsop, researching and designing elevations for the construction of the stockade which is now the centerpiece of Ft. Clatsop National Memorial. Follow ing his resettlement, he volunteered to serve on the Astoria Planning Commission. He designed logos for the Clatsop County Historical Society, the City of Astoria, and the Chamber of Commerce. He designed donor bookplates for the new Astoria High School library He designed the cachet for the Oregon centennial commemorative stamp. He took an active part in the planning for the Astoria sesquicentennial of 1961, designing the Concomly Memorial near the Astoria Column. But, tellingly, personal letters to friends in the East indicate an increas ing dissatisfaction with retirement, even so far as to suggest it might be time to leave Oregon and move back to New York.

Leafing through Rolf Klep's appointment calendar for 1962, on Thursday, May 10, one finds, "Finished design for seal. 11 The next day, May 11, 1962, was the 170th anniversary of Robert Gray's successful entry into the river, and the day the Columbia River Maritime Museum was officially and formally brought into being Rolf wrote that, "About 42 showed up at the J. J. Astor Hotel for Foundation Day . 11 The following Monday, May 14, 1962, he noted simply, "Finished [drawings] for letterhead and envelope " A week later, "Checked letterhead and decided to redo them.'' Carbon copies of letters sent in June to the members of the Board of Directors, giving them their committee assignments, indicate from the space left at the top of the page that they were typed on the new letterhead stationery.

major maritime museums, rekindling a dream Rolf had held for some thirty-five years. Upon their return to Oregon, he began spearheading the effort to form a marine museum or maritime historical society on the lower Columbia. Notes from that period are sketchy, but they are revealing Reading through the meet ing minutes, one finds that on March 7, 1962, the discussion centered upon what was needed for establishing an Astoria Marine Museum. By April 3, a potential list of names for the organization had been drawn up. A discussion of the connotations of "maritime" versus "marine'' ensued. Out of a list of several possible names, those present selected the Columbia River Maritime Museum at Astoria for the organization The notes for another meeting indicate that Rolf Klep led a discussion of the reasons why the ship Columbia in 1792 was the strongest and most universal image of the importance of local maritime history to the region and to the nation as a whole Richard Carruthers, past president and currently a member of the CRMM Board of Trustees, attended several of those meetings in 1962 I asked him if there was ever any discussion of what should be the symbol of the Museum Richard responded with a grin, "Are you kidding? Rolf showed us his drawings and allowed us to compliment him on his beautiful work. 11


Another interesting but speculative point of comparison between the Cozzens painting of the Columbia at Tongue Point and Rolf Klep's drawings of the same subject has to do with the types of canoes represented around the fur trading vessel. Fred Cozzens apparently based his painting on the watercolors of George Davidson. The native craft portrayed in Cozzens' painting are "head" canoes, the favored war canoe of the northern reaches of the Northwest Coast. The same canoe style may be seen in Davidson's "Attackted at Juan De Fuca Straits" (see the Quarterdeck, Vol. 17 No . ,'3). In Rolf Klep's drawings, the canoes represented are the so-called "Chinook" canoes (modified "Nootkan" canoes) of the lower Columbia, which were described in some detail in the [oumals of Lewis and Clark. I believe the most likely pictorial reference for Rolf Klep's sketches of the native canoes in the foreground of the ship Columbia may be found in the drawings of James G. Swan. Swan's illustrations of canoe types in The Northwest Coast, or Three Years' Residence in Washington Territory, 1857, a copy of which could have been studied at the Astoria library, include all the same types, shapes, and varieties of canoes seen in Rolf's drawing.

These comparisons of Klep with Cozzens raise some obvious questions. Why would Rolf Klep have based his drawing for the Columbia River Maritime Museum on a painting by Fred Cozzens? Was this derivation widely known? The answers to both questions appear to be relatively straightforward. Until Hewitt Jackson began his series of paintings on the subject several years later, sources of pictorial evidence on the Columbia were extremely limited. Fred Cozzens originally had painted the Columbia in 1896, but a lithographic reproduction was reissued in 1926 specifically for the dedication ceremonies for the Astoria Column. This image appeared on the dedication programs, and was reprinted as calendar art. There can be no question of the familiarity of the image to Astoria residents of Rolf Klep's generation-precisely those who banded together in 1962 to organize the Columbia River Maritime Museum

The simplified, stylized design of the Columbia used as the Museum logo appears to have a slightly different derivation Among Rolf Klep's original drawings of the ship Columbia in the Museum collections is a design for a donor bookplate still used by the Astoria High School library. AHS librarian Michael Foster says that the bookplates probably date from the dedication of the library in 1957 . This design shows several indications that it was derived from George Davidson's "Attackted at Juan De Fuca Straits." The stays in Davidson's watercolor are represented by bold lines of exaggerated weight, and are similarly rendered in the AHS bookplate. The sails on the bookplates are furled and the yards

In terms of historical accuracy, the placement of the ship Columbia off Tongue Point is purely a matter of artistic license. Robert Gray's vessel remained on the opposite shore of the river during the entire two week period spent in this vicinity in May of 1792 This, along with several other imaginative details, could be attributed to a number of reasons, including availability of the historical data for study. In the case of Cozzens' painting of 1896 , there very well may have been the desires of his sponsors to take into account. The Astoria and Columbia River Rail Road to Astoria was completed in 1898, connecting with Portland via Northern Pacific track at Goble. In 1907, this line was taken over by the Spokane, Portland & Seattle Railway . The S.P.&S . in turn was part of ''The North Shore Road," an affiliation of railroads, including the Great Northern and Northern Pacific, all of which were controlled by James J Hill. By 1926, Fred Cozzens' original painting was owned by the president of the Great Northern Railway, the principal corporate sponsor of the Astoria Column . While we have not been able to determine whether the Cozzens painting was in fact commissioned by the railroad, it takes no great leap of imagination to guess the reasons this historical vignette may have been pictured along the right-of-way near Astoria, rather than across the river along the Washington shore.

Michael Naab, CRMM curator beginning in 1971, associate director in 1980, and director from 1981 to 1986, recently pointed out, "Rolf was a terrific adapter of things for artistic purposes." According to Michael, Rolf was more likely to adapt an image for aesthetic than for scholarly reasons. For example, he was quite familiar with the Nootkan style canoe, an excellent example of which was on display at the Museum of Natural History in New York. He admired the clean lines evident in the form. On the other hand, Rolf plainly disliked the head canoe, which on several occasions he described as "simply not shippy."


Cozzens and the Column: The Railroad Connection


topography. In the design for the Museum seal, the Columbia's bowsprit has been raised to accommodate being placed inside a circular array, and the distance between the ship and Tongue Point foreshortened. Rolf placed the ship under a field of three stars , perhaps representing the triangular fur trade, or perhaps symbolizing the three events at the mouth of the Columbia River which underpinned America's first foothold on the Pacific Coast : Robert Gray and the Columbia in 1792, Lewis and Clark's winter encampment of 1805-1806, and the founding of Fort Astoria in 1811. Or perhaps the three stars are there for balance, as stars to steer by, or even simply because he liked them.

Woodfield photo of the Astoria Column as it looked in its early years. The principal speaker at the dedication of the column in 1926 was Dr. Samuel Eliot Morison, widely regarded as the father of American maritime historical scholarship.



There were several later adaptations of the simplified Columbia logo, each with slightly differing elements . A membership decal was created to coincide with the first issue of the Quarterdeck Review in 1973. A Museum house flag was first flown in 1976 for the dedication of the flagpole at the foot of 17th Street where the new building was under construction. Michael Naab later adapted the design to be fabricated in bronze for exterior installation at the new Museum in 1982. The careful observer will find noticeable changes from one design to another . The membership decal has three-part masts, the masts on the house flag and brass insignia have but two parts. The lower line across the foremast is retained on the decal and bronze, but reverts to being a forward rail on the house flag . The sweeping diagonals

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 1

arranged in much the same manner as in Davidson's painting of 1794. In at least two details, Klep seems to have followed Cozzens, however : the jolly boat in the water at the stern of the ship, and the mizzen mast represented in three parts, rather than the two-part mizzen evident in Davidson's watercolor. The small stylized design which Rolf Klep originally drew for the CRMM envelopes in 1962 reduces all the elements to their simplest common denominators. All three masts are in two parts. The mizzen gaff is very nearly lined up with the mizzen stay, producing a strong diagonal movement echoed by the other stays. Theimage is rendered with economy of line and form The horizontal line at the base of the foremast would seem to have no particular relation to any identifiable function. As a design element it was probably derived from the forward rail evident in Cozzens and the letterhead drawing, or perhaps the heavy line from the top of the ship's boats. The point is that in this highly stylized rendition of the vessel, simplicity and strength of design far outweigh function. The mysterious little extra line forward was likely added because it provides a pleasing artistic balance to the design which would be missing without it.

The meaning of Columbia Rediviva is "Columbia Reborn," which some scholars believe indicates that the historic vessel of discovery was reconstructed from an earlier vessel called simply the Columbia In many ways, as we have seen, the connotations of rebirth are highly appropriate to the Columbia River Maritime Museum as well. The Columbia as a symbol of the Museum has been reborn and transformed several times The rich maritime heritage of the entire region has here taken on new life. The Museum itself was reborn when it moved to its new quarters in 1982. But in another sense, the Museum was also the


rebirth of Rolf Klep-the second career which allowed him to recapture the dreams of his youth, while also using the training, experience, and influence won during his first career as a marine artist, commercial illustrator, and naval officer. The Museum has benefited from the vision, hard work , and perseverance of a number of gifted individuals over the years , but none so much as the man without whom this institution would likely never have come into being As well as being the founder of the Museum, Rolf Klep served as the institution's first president, and was director from 1964 through 1981, doubling in a curatorial capacity until Michael Naab joined the Museum staff in 1971. During this entire period, not only did Rolf serve without renumeration, he devoted a goodly portion of his own financial resources to expanding the Museum ' s collections as well. It is fitting that as we gear up to celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of our founding, we take a long and appreciative lo.ok back at the life and work of Rolf Klep.


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which once represented stays later become stylized lines of equal weight to the masts and yards. Other changes have crept in over the years, particularly in the house flag, due to the manufacturers' interpretations of certain stylized elements, and shortcuts in the fabrication process . For instance, our latest batch of burgees is missing the small deckhouse immediately aft of the mainmast, which on the original represented the Columbia's galley. The rounded counter at the stern with overhanging boat davits has turned into a sweeping rake little resembling anything one would find on a vessel of the 18th century. This simply goes to say that the design has long since been transformed into an emblem, immediately recognizable even when it no longer particularly resembles the original Columbia Rediviva.

Rolf Klep passed away September 13, 1981. He never saw the final results of the years of effort and tireless fundraising which were necessary to build the new Museum fa ci li ty on Astoria's waterfront But his spirit pervades this building and the exhibits it houses, and likely always will. During the dedication ceremonies for the new facility on May 11, 1982, Bud Forrester, editor of the Daily Astorian (now retired), who was serving as Museum president at the time, had this to say about Rolf Klep: ''Looking back at the years I've known that hard-headed old Norwegian, it wouldn't surprise me at all if he walked through the door tonight and sat down to join us " And just maybe he did, too.

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-Hewitt Jacks on.

Illustration taken from a blue-tinted brownline of the Columbia and Discovery off Destruction Island, 29 April 1792. This study sketch, dated 1965, is one of several made in preparation for a painting commissioned by the late Edmund Hayes which is now in the collections of the Oregon Historical Society.

True perspective and proportion always suffer when doing this, but since an effective design is the desired end, this is thoroughly justified. To be a slave to accuracy beyond a point would be an exercise in futility Rolf evidently experimented with it until he was satisfied, then worked it over again. As far as trying to identify all the simplified structure and spars goes, it would be a waste of time.

In the background, the Discovery lays with her fore yards aback, as she is the lee [downwind ship). The reason for the difference in the set of the sails is so that both vessels will swing clear of each other when getting under way. For some reason no one completely understands, but every competent seaman knows, two vessels laying close to each other will invariably drift together. The above procedure of heaving to will prevent this.

The Cozzens paintings show her hove to with the mainyards aback to check her way This would not be suitable for getting under way as there will be little control in getting properly under sail.

To "heave to," a ship must have the wind abeam or well forward, preferably close hauled. The intent is to check the way of the vessel [slow or nearly stop) while retaining control. It is often executed when coming to anchor under sail, picking up a pilot, or laying to while speaking to another ship The old time whalers often hove to while cutting in or trying out. It steadied the ship and made the work much easier.

In the picture provided we see two ways of doing this In the foreground, the Columbia, being the weather (upwind) ship lays with her main sails "aback," that is with the wind on the fore side of the sail, to balance the driving force of the fore and mizzen sails to effectively slow or stop the ship.

~-~·:. ····Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No . 1

The ultimate and historical function of a letterhead or logo, or for that matter a burgee, is ready identification . This carries down from the ancient seals of kings to the signet rings of the prominent of another day, to the "chop" of the oriental. All stand for verification as well as signature.

Heave To!

As far as the simplified ship motifs are concerned, they seem to be Klep's exercise in reducing a complex pictorial subject to an effective design. For the house flag, he chose a rectangular form rather than the triangular or swallowtail form of the true burgee . There is no point in trying to pass this off as a picture of the Columbia. The basic forms of the hull, spars, and deck furniture were taken and arranged and rearranged until he was satisfied Further, it seems that everyone who manufactures the flag takes some liberties with itmainly to adapt it to the means and materials at hand.


The Columbia on the Museum's letterhead illustrates this last maneuver. She either can be coming to anchor or getting under way from an anchorage Some might feel that she was hove to while dickering with the Indians. This would not be probable as the currents in the river would discourage a prudent skipper from doing this.

''There were two ships. On the bow of one there was a statue of a big man who was nine feet tall. The other ship had a statue of a lady who was eight feet tall and had a jade hair ornament. Both statues were finely made and realistic.''

During the eleven days that the foreign ships were off Oshima Island, the local officials were unable to prevent them from landing to get water and wood for fuel. The local people thought that the Americans were quite rude to cut so many trees, and a farmer, Chiuemon of Sue, went out to the ships to protest.

Mary Malloy is an independent museum consultant and advisory curator at the Kendall Whaling Museum in Sharon, Massachusetts. Her husband, Stuart Frank, is director of the Kendall Whaling Museum. Both are widely traveled performers of traditional sea songs

It seems that a traveling Samurai named Sakamoto Tenzan took a side trip from Taiji to Oshima in 1798, and heard about the visit, seven years before, of the Lady Washington and her consort, the New York schooner Grace. He subsequently published an account of Taiji whaling in 1799, which includes a description of the two ships and their crews. Sakamoto T enzan obtained his information from the local physician, Dr. Date Rishun, who acted as a translator of sorts for the Americans (The Doctor , in fact, spoke no English; the crew spok e no Japanese, and all communication was first writtern in Chinese characters by one of the three Chinese men on board, and theri painstakingly translated from the Chinese characters by Dr. Rishun.)

With the assistance of Hatanaka Hisa yasu and Mitsunori Hamano, I provide you with the enclosed excerpt. I think the description of the figureheads is particularly important, as to my knowledge, no one else described the figurehead of the Washington. The only problem is that it is impossible to know which figurehead was on which vessel. One would think that both the Grace and the Lady Washington would have female figureheads, but as you will see, one of them clearly had an armoured soldier figure. The fishing pole in the hand of the female figurehead is also a puzzle which may never be solved It's won derful to ponder though

-Mary Malloy

When John Kendrick made a landfall off Japan in 1791, the Lady Washington became the first ship to fly the American flag there Kendrick and his men anchored near the island of Oshima in the present Wakayama Prefecture . This island is not far from the traditional whaling town of Taiji, where Stuart and I went to give a concert last spring.

There were two ships. On the bow of one there was a statue of a big man who was nine feet tall. He wore armour and had a long sword which was half drawn from its scabbard. The statue was painted gold, silver and vermilion, and the colors were reflected by the sun. He seemed brave and strong. The other ship had a statue of a lady who was eight feet tall and had a jade hair ornament. Her long hair hung down her back and her gown seemed to touch the sea. She had a fishing rod and was fishing. Both statue were finely made and realistic


From the Kinan Younou, Samurai Sakamoto Tenzan, 1799

"In 1791, two foreign ships stopped at Oshima Island At night, the foreigners fired cannon, and during the day they carried water in cotton bags into their ships They also cut the trees of Oshima Island for fuel and carried them into their ships . When I was in Shinsu, I heard a rumor about this visit from some people from Edo (now Tokyo)

The Lady Washington at Oshima Island,Japan, in 1791

-Translation by Hatanaka Hisayasu, Mitsanori Hamano, and Mary Malloy

The foreigners fired their cannon every night between 20 and 37 times, and finally sailed away on the eleventh day with a strong west wind. Two days later the soldiers from Wakayama arrived, but the ships were never seen again "

The language barried proved insurmountable without Dr. Date Rishun, and the angry Chiuemon was eventually shot at by the foreigners Though a bullet passed close by his foot, he was not hit, but he ran quickly away and the foreigners continued to cut trees at random

Now Dr. Date Rishun , the interpreter through handwriting, talked to me about the foreigners' visit The foreign ships had thirteen sails and he could see them from his house at Takamimura when they neared Oshima. The foreigners rowed out from their ships in a jolly boat which was made of copper, and they measured the depth of the inner bay using a rope with a weight at the end. The people of the village were very much surprised, but none of them could understand the foreign language or read any written script, so they hurriedly called for Dr. Date Rishun. He brought his writing paper and brush and rushed to the strange vessels.

The men who were in the ships were six feet tall and had sharp, high noses, red eyes, and long hands and legs Some fishermen who went to see the ships in their boats were invited aboard and partied with the crew Date Rishun wanted to come aboard and began to climb the ladder to board one of the ships, but he was waved off. He waited in his boat as one of the village men began to climb the ship's ladder. When he neared the top, a ferocious dog came out of the cabin and bit him on the sleeve . The dog luckily had not bitten his arm, but the man was very frightened by the attack and hurried down the ladder.

In response to the articles on the Lady Washington in the Quarterdeck Vol. 17 No 3, I thought you might be interested in the following references which were shared with me on a recent visit to Japan

Dr. Date Rishun then sent a written message to the foreigners. They answered that the ship was American, waiting for a good wind to depart. He tried to send another message but the Americans would not accept it . He backed away from the ships, watching as the crew shot some gulls flying overhead. They seemed to fire without aiming, but nonetheless hit a bird which dropped into the sea and was retrieved by the dog. The Doctor soon after was called to report on the events by the local officer.

.l\"'1 _r:-e; +t•c-v. ~4' 't'C:: _-<" \1t.o,C."''T G."-"' •N (:¢M1'1"-.'!il;"f' 49 'l""t-<-. ~•Ht:: c~~-0,,\ili, r.!'tt. ..j r- ,..:.~t,,,hl\~ _,, t ,:, T'l":e... ~w GO/\ "t' B'f ""'-·~ q•' e,ii,. ,ot ..,..,,t--"I' l-.Q' ~•t>~-----~'111.'llit l"J1'"'t U.."1'•--·~~ M.\>f\Jlj:Q,Q,:ts"':/o: •• ,,,.,,.....,.e,,,·,) ._ .., ,., ,_, :St: 1')1tS:; r :,-• 1"'- .,~ ,.4 ,.ll~Y ~, .c- ,;::.~""~"'.,, ll"O-'- 1- H.!~"• ll h"'.~ lJ1'1,;bCc~· """"~""'-~ ,'P1l."t!.t---.. '1,~~"' e,;a..;.:, .,..90.,-,..,_-.- A!t:.f'"I'.,. •rlt'f• ,-t<•~ .,.- _,;,, ""' l\l-v,I_, c ~'1'· v.,..~a.,- i/_<;, ill':'.-... • '.'- -c- ,._J "),. .<$~ • \_ \I'" _, i. .._ .,;t,,~-\ .:.--The Lady Washington at anchor off Kushimoto, Oshima Island, Japan. The rocks of Hashiku-Iwa are in the background. Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 1 11

A ~Tvc-. K1,.~;..~ KO Ye

''The foreigners rowed out from their ships in a jolly boat which was made of copper." The first question I have is "jolly boat" and the source of that for translation In American usage this would have been the smallest boat in the ship, one of little utility in transporting quantities of wood and water. The term "long boat" is used in other accounts-a large and stout craft built for such service. "Made of copper" is intriguing. Such would have been highly improbable, but it might well have been sheathed with copper, a practice that soon was to be widespread for ship's boats that were kept in the water for protracted periods. It could also be an indication that the Lady Washington had been sheathed with copper when in Chinese waters, and that this might well have been one of Kendrick's expenditures that placed him so deep in debt. The Washington as a brigantine survived for a number of years in waters infested with ship worms- Toredo Navalisthat could easily have rendered her unseaworthy if conditions had not allowed frequent careening, breaming, and replacement of plank sheathing. Coppering would have been both logical and desirable .

First, in the letter, Mary mentions "three Chinese" on board This definitely fixes the number of Capt. Kendrick's crew of Chinese shipwrights bound for the Northwest Coast I had assumed that there well may have been more The source of this number is not stated in the translation, so it would be interesting to determine this .

As I look over the letter from Mary Malloy and the accompanying translation of the Japanese account, there are a number of things new and revealing

In the second paragraph we find, ''The foreign ships had thirteen sails ." The proportions of brigantine and schooner being much the same during the period, depending on canvas and weather, each would have carried about that number.

In the first paragraph of the enclosure we find, ' ' They carried water in cotton bags into their ships.'' This is the first such description of watering a ship I have encountered. It was more usual to fill the larger casks and float them out to the vessel, then top them off once on board. Smaller casks were transported in the ship's boats, though that was limited by the size of the boat and the ability of the men to maul them about in adverse conditions.

The mention of the colors is revealing. There has been a great deal of debate over whether ship's figureheads were painted in bright and natural colors or were a pristine white with perhaps a bit of gilding here and there and along the trail boards.

-Hewitt Jackson

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New Revelations from the Japanese

The mention of the two figureheads adds to information on hand It has been previously established that the Lady Washington had a figure of a "mermaid with hair reaching nearly to the water." This is readily associated with '' a statue of a lady who ... had a jade hair ornament. Her long hair hung down her back and her gown seemed to touch the sea '' The first description of the Lady Washington's figurehead as a mermaid comes from Captain Douglas of the Grace, and I get the feeling this figurehead had only recently been added. By easy elimination we can place the figure of the warrior on the Grace. The height of eight or nine feet would seem proportionately large for such vessels unless they were elaborate beyond the usual custom of the day. Could the elaborate figureheads mentioned by the Japanese have been an extravagance that the captains allowed themselves in this rich trade?

Yes Sir, Captain Ma'am

Three-fourths of the steamer's business was on a barter basis, so the little Minnie Hill always returned home as loaded down as she had left. Minnie would purchase plenty of new dresses, hats and parasols, which she modeled when stopping at farms with womenfolk. Often she sold the dress right off her back. Once she succeeded in selling her entire stock, forcing her to '' jury rig'' a dress from some old flour sacks.

During their first year together on the river, Charles Hill began to tutor Minnie in the ways of the river because of the increasing unreliability of their engineer,

school. One of the boarders there was Charles Oliver Hill, 10 years her senior. On February 25, 1883, Minnie Mae Mossman married Charles Hill. It was a good match. Charles was a man of great courage and determination, qualities that his young wife also possessed. His background is worth relating here. He was born in New York City, the son of a wealthy merchant. His mother died a month after his birth. When he was still quite young, the lad was sent out to work on a farm in New Jersey by his father. Charles saw his father only once after that. Running away from the farm when he was 12, he made his way west. He mined gold in Alaska before gold rush fever hit. He tried logging around Seattle, and finally arrived in Portland in the spring of 1880. His first job in the vicinity was as deckhand on the steamer Toledo, working the Cowlitz River.


Photo of the Captains Charles 0. and Minnie Mae Mossman Hill taken in 1894. At the time this photograph was taken, she was 31 and he 41, and they were at the height of their working partnership on the river. Hayes photo.

Mossman was also an Indian fighter with Buffalo Bill Cody, and later served as coroner and deputy sheriff in Olympia, Washington. Minnie's mother, Martha Nellie Jackson, crossed the Great Plains in an ox cart to Oregon from Indiana in 1852. From her parents, Minnie Mossman inherited a determined will and strength of character that would see her through years of trials and hardship

''The 8th Wonder of the World A Female Captain A Majestic and Incomparable Heroine!" Thus read the headline in the Portland Oregonian in 1886, much to the embarrassment of the woman in question, Capt. Minnie Hill. Minnie Mae Mossman was born in 1863 in Albany, Oregon, of hardy pioneer stock. Her father, Isaac Van Dorsey Mossman, ran an express mail route from Walla Walla, Washington, to Orofino, Idaho, from 1853 to 1863. According to family records Isaac Van Dorsey

In 1882, Minnie Mossman at the age of 18 arrived at a Portland boarding house to begin a teaching career in a local

Charles Hill passed the examination to become a licensed steamboat captain on November 4, 1882, but continued to work aboard the Toledo as purser until 1885. While on a chartered run on the Cowlitz he noticed the old river sloop fehu. Arranging for the purchase of the vessel, Charles and Minnie towed her down the Cowlitz River to Monticello, the present-day site of Longview, Washington. With little outside help, the two of them cut the sloop in half, lengthened the hull ten feet and installed a small ten horsepower engine, sternwheel, and pilothouse. Minnie Hill wore overalls and learned from her husband to be an expert carpenter and seam caulker. After rechristening the little sternwheeler the Minnie Hill, they began operating her as a trading boat on the lower Columbia, loading the 40-foot steamer with cordwood for the boilers, groceries, tobacco, drygoods, and drugs. The Hills quickly learned that they had to plan the sternwheeler's trading trips with the tide, because she did not have enough power to buck against the ebb.

The Captains Charles 0. and Minnie Mae Mossman Hill owned 6 steamers during their dual careers on the water. The Clatsop Chief of 1857 had been cut in two in a collision with the steamship Oregon in 1881. She was bought and rebuilt by the Hills in 1881, adding 26 feet to her original length of 58 feet. She was abandoned in 1889. The 118-foot str. Tahoma was built in Portland in 1900 for Capt. C. 0. Hill. She worked as a tugboat throughout her career, until finally aban doned in 1928. Her 102-foot sister steamer, the Paloma, was built in 1902. She later was renamed the Geo. W. Bates. The last steamer in the Hill fleet was the Glenola. Originally named the G. W. Shaver, she was built in Portland in 1889 for the People's Freighting Co. In 1905 she was sold to the Hills, who renamed her the Glenola. In 1906, she was sold once again and rebuilt as the Beaver. The str. Beaver continued in active service until her loss in 1934.

The Hills continued to operate the str. Minnie Hill for another two years, sell ing her in 1889. The little vessel that bore Minnie's name became a "floating sa loon,'' causing her much consternation on seeing her name associated with such an enterprise. The following year, a careless drunk set fire to the steamer, completely destroying it, much to the relief of Minnie and Charles Hill.

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No. 1

In many ways, the story of Captains Charles and Minnie Hill is a tribute to the spirit of the Pacific Northwest. Captain Minnie Hill, in her determined effort to become recognized as a competent "riverman" symbolizes the efforts of all the women who have worked the water after her. For his part, Captain Charles Hill's working partnership with his wife indicates a relationship based on respect and equality which would be regarded as progressive even today.

who had proven to be an alcoholic. Minnie began in the engine room, learning how to fire the boiler and to see that its water level was maintained. She learned the complications of running a cantankerous steam engine. When the engineer was sober, Minnie went up to the wheelhouse, and at Charlie's elbow learned the various channels of the river, range light positions, sandbar locations, rocks and snags. She mastered the intricacies of piloting. Finally Charles Hill decided that paying a drunk to be a sometimes engineer was not good business sense. Upon arriving in Portland, he and Minnie Mae went to the U.S. Inspector's office. There Minnie Hill applied for a pilot's license, but was refused an examination. Minnie contacted the district supervising inspector, C.C. Bennis of San Francisco. Mr. Bennis wrote to the licensing board, informing them that there were no restrictions prohibiting Mrs. Hill from receiving a pilot's license, if she could pass the examination. According to Charles, the local inspection board gave Minnie an examination much more difficult than given to most men. In 1886, Minnie Hill became the first woman to receive a master's license as a steamboat pilot on the Pacific Coast. This license was restricted to the "Columbia River and its tributaries between Portland and Astoria," and limited to operation of the str. Minnie Hill alone. In November of 1887, she passed the examination for a master's license to operate any steamer on the waters of the Columbia and Willamette Rivers, so becoming the first licensed female captain on the Pacific Coast At the same time, Charlie passed the exam to qualify as an engineer, so that the two of them could operate their boat as the only two of ficers on board.

Minnie Hill, by all accounts, was an intensely private person, preferring the anonymity of the life of a homemaker to the notoriety of being the only female steamboat captain on the West Coast. Minnie was sure that the public would think she was a rough ''Tugboat Annie type,'' when in reality she was the oppo site. After her retirement, she shunned reporters wanting interviews, and from 1930 through 193 7 she turned down several proposals from Hollywood studios to film her life story. Much of the information contained in this article has been known only to family members. Special thanks is due Mrs. Luella Hill Naimo of Fresno, California, for sharing a manuscript she has been preparing about the story of her grandparents, Minnie and Charles Hill. Mr. Lawrence Barber, former marine editor of The Oregonian, has also been most helpful.

An excerpt from the diary of Capt. Minnie Hill tells her story perhaps most eloquently of all: "When you are young and eager to get ahead in the world, the impossible is accomplished simply because you haven't had the brake of experience to slow down your dreams."

In 1900, Capt. Minnie Hill "swallowed the anchor," retiring from the river to devote herself to raising a family. However, for the next two years, she was called upon to fill in during an occasional emergency. When Minnie ended her career, the Chicago World's Fair sent her an engraved invitation to be their guest for two weeks. She was also awarded an honorary membership in the New York Pilots Association. The Captains Hill subsequently sold their transportation company and bought a lumber mill in Bunker, Washington.

As this issue of the Quarterdeck went to press we learned that Larry Barber, with whom Rachel Wynne has been corresponding, has just published an article about Capt. Minnie Hill in the Freshwater News, Vol. 8 No. 11. Both articles are based upon new information recently supplied by Mrs. Luella Hill Naimo.

-Rachel Wynne

During the next fourteen years Captain Minnie Hill worked the river with the full knowledge that her captainship was not an honorary one-she had earned it. This partnership of the two Captains Hill grew with the purchase of additional steamers and the formation of the Dalles-Portland-Astoria Navigation Co. In 1889, the Hills acquired the sternwheeler Governor Newell. Built in 1883 for the Shoalwater Bay Transportation

Co., the 111-foot Governor Newell was brought to the Columbia in 1885. In 1889, she was sold to Capt. Charles Hill, and handled for the next eight years by Capt. Minnie Hill, who for the first time had a crew to command: 2 deckhands, 2 firemen, 2 engineers, a pilot (Charlie), and a Chinese cook. With the Governor Newell, Minnie brought loaded rock barges for the first phase of construction of the Columbia River jetties from a quarry at Risley's Landing, on the Willamette River above Lake Oswego, downriver to its confluence with the Columbia. There the tow was transferred to the steamer Cascades, which continued on to Astoria. Capt. Minnie Hill specialized in handling 3 or 4 barges loaded with jetty rock at a time-a job that demanded a good deal of skill when passing the three drawbridges across the Willamette at Portland. According to Charles and Minnie Hill's son, Mr. H. W. Hill, one afternoon proved to be nearly disastrous. It was during high water and the current was running hard. Capt. Minnie Hill was in the pilot house trying to control the 3 scows she had in tow ahead of the Gov. Newell. Suddenly without warning the starboard scow overturned, dumping its load into the river and coming up almost on end. One end was below the surface while the other was nearly level with the wheelhouse. She did some instinctive maneuvering to keep control of the tow and to regain possession of the capsized scow, all the while preventing the steamer from slamming into the upper bridge. With the expertise of a seasoned skipper, she regained control and headed downriver through the remaining draw bridges without any further interruption.


Jim Howe

C:apt. Gene R. Rymes

Arthur G. Gaines

Mr. & Mrs. Owen Oja

Mr. & Mrs Onnie V. Silver Elsa Simonsen

Mr. & Mrs. Edward Whittington


Carolyn J. Homme


Terry Hahn Auto Parts, Inc.


Ron & Patti Anderson

Carl 'Bud' Johnson

Russell Dixon

Mr. & Mrs. James R. Bixler K.A. & Evelyn Bredleau Mr & Mrs. Peter M. Brockman

Judge C. Beatty, Jr.

Paul Seamons/Dee Vadnais

Northwest Natural Gas Astoria


Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Wolfgram

Mr. & Mrs. James E. Trofitter



Lee Caldwell

John Lewis Rev. Stephen G. Maling Mr. & Mrs Gene Mersereau

Bob Swanson


Mr. & Mrs. Frank M Warren

Mr. & Mrs Bruce Sinkey

Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Dahl Trygve & Aini Duoos Freda Englund


Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Hansen Alice M. Harvey Mr. & Mrs. Marsh Hoffman CDR & Mrs Richard E. Lang *

Memorial Donations - July 1 - September 30, 1991

Michael & Patricia Morrissey George & June Moskovita Richard H. Natzke, M.D. Frank & Miriam Nesbit Kathleen Sayce/Frank Wolfe

Mr. & Mrs. Roy E. Snell

Mr. & Mrs. Theodore Graham

Earl M. Dawley

Mr. & Mrs. David M. Myers


Dr. & Mrs. Jeff Leinassar

Mr. & Mrs. Alan F. Goldsmith

Barbara J. Parpala

Ann M. Lewis


Femhill Progressive Club Edward M. Grotting Ragnar & Effie Gustafson Mabel Herold Nora Johnson

William M. Hosmer

John B. Fewel

Donald V. Riswick Albert & Helen Sorkki Paul A. Stangeland

Trygve & Aini Duoos

PILOT Eliot H. Jenkins

Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Lowe

Mrs. A. Alan Honeyman

STEWARD Richard M Bressler

Mr. & Mrs. Mel Hjorten

Ardelle's Beauty Salon Jennie T. Backanen Capt. & Mrs Kenneth McAlpin

Donald J. Sterling, Jr.

Mr. & Mrs. Gene A Hill Clarence Johnson


New Members -July 1 September 30, 1991

Mr. & Mrs. Larry R. Peterson

Mr. & Mrs. L.F. Van Dusen

Mr. & Mrs. Donald M. Haskell Dorothy Kuratli, Mary Jane &Mike Evelyn Lazarus

Mr & Mrs. Toivo Kivisto Ella Koppisch Charlotte Langsev Alice Ranta Lisa Ross Hazel G. Savola

LILLIAN E. KNUDSEN Karl & Harriet Bauer Rob & Muriel Plaisance Jerry & Marian Spitzack

VIOLET J. KNUDSEN Impi M Aspen Ethel M. Berry

FAMILY Astorian Printing Company Virginia Barton Ronald L. Betts

Clyde & Bonnie Sayce C. Richard Schneider


Mr. & Mrs. John D. Karamanos


Mr. & Mrs. Ronald C. Honeyman

Susan C. Lewis

JOSEPH 1 FRENCHY 1 ARCENEAUX Rae Goforth & Buddy Hoell


Increased Memberships -July 1 - September 30, 1991



Mr. & Mrs Ronald C. Honeyman

Mr. & Mrs. Eden Carlson

Sophie Frye Bass Library/ Museum of History and Industry Cynthi Witty

Lowell & Suzanne Janson Curt & Rosemary Johnson Richard D. Kinney



Mr. & Mrs. Felix Caballero

Mr. & Mrs. Cecil C. Moberg

Paul & Helen Purvine James M. Vranizan

Mr. & Mrs. Ronald 0. Hannula

Chris Bums

Marianne & George Cooper Coos Bay Pilots Association

Paul & Louise Phillips


Wayne & Margaret Blake

Eric & Dorette Enquist Dr. & Mrs. Erik Eselius

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Boyd Dutch Cup Restaurant

Eric Ladd *


HARRISON C. CARR Ron & Joyce Honeyman

LARRY CLEIN Honeyman Sales Associates, Bill, Jeff & Ron

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Ferguson

Mr. & Mrs. Charles P. Mersereau Hester H. Nau

Hugh Patrick McCauley Douglas H. Parker Doris Ann Shannon

Rex & Pat Shelley

Capt. & Mrs. Martin E. West Kimberly A. Woodworth

Jim & Judy Capellen John E. Espey

Robert B. Leitch

Capt. & Mrs. Rod Leland

Mr. & Mrs. Alan Peterson Alice Ranta

Bill Carter

STEWARD Alan Green, Jr.

SUSTAINING Capt & Mrs. Kim T. Magnuson

Tom & Gloria Baker

Mr. & Mrs. Eino Koskela

Sam & Barbara Foster

Russell Miller

Mr. & Mrs. Clyde McIntyre

PILOT William & Georgie Hay Howard Rosenfeld Taggart Objects Conservation Mr. & Mrs. Ted Zell

Mr. & Mrs. Walter Wollenbecker Agnes Wolleson

Clara B. Johnson Mary Ristola


FRANCES A. HOARE Joyce Ahlswede Jan Meyer & Girls

Family $25 per year Sponsor $500 per year

Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Knutsen Mr. & Mrs . 'Dodo' Larson Mildred M. Larson Mr. & Mrs. Veikko A Manners Virginia Larson Moir & Family George & June Muskovita Toivo & Shirley Mustonen

Jerry & Janet Franciscovich


Supporting $50 per year Steward $1,000 per year


Life Member $5000 Single Payment or Cumulative since 1962

Mr. & Mrs. L.F. Van Dusen


Sustaining $100 per year

Eleanor Ewenson

Mr. & Mrs. Albert R. Sorkki

Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Wolfgram Benfield

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Smith

ALFRED PERRY NEWMAN Fred Antilla Ado l ph & Evelyn Benson Ron Carlson

The past two issues of the Quarterdeck have elicited much comment from our readership Our thanks to all who have taken the time to call or write. Dick Wagner, director of the Center for Wooden Boats, and Vaughan Evans from the Australian Association for Maritime History wrote to express appreciation for Vol. 17 No. 3, the Lady Washington "Bold Northwestman" commemorative issue. Thank you, gentlemen, for your support.

Mr & Mrs. Lloyd M Halsan Mr & Mrs. George Siverson

The September October issue of Wooden Boat magazine lists the Quarterdeck as one of the nation's most informative maritime museum quarterlies. Once again, thank you very much. We are honored indeed.


Mr. & Mrs Carl Labiske Mr. & Mrs. Harry L. Larson Michael & Beverly Mack Mr. & Mrs. Bob Steiner Sylvia M. Rainey

GERALD E. 'JERRY' NEWENHOF Mr & Mrs. George Fulton Mr. & Mrs L.F. Van Dusen

Anne Steiner

Mr. & Mrs. Sion Wentworth

Mr. & Mrs. W.S. Clarke


Correspondence & Corrections

Mr. & Mrs Sigfred C. Jensen Olga Kerekes

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Kairala

Gordon, Carolyn, Josie & Ashley JIM SNIDER

Mr . & Mrs. William R. King A.J L'Amie Cap t & Mrs. James R. Lessard

Paul A. Stangeland Adaline Svenson Lei la Svenson

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Kairala Elmer Raaitanen

Mr & Mrs. Paul Tolonen

Mr & Mrs. Eugene Lowe

Individual $15 per year Pilot $250 per year

Name ______________ Mailing Address City ______ State _______ Zip _____ 15


Mr. & Mrs. Victor L. Berger

DEAN SMITH Georgia L. Maki

Ron & Joyce Honeyman

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Kairala



MARY WINTERFIELD Brix Maritime Company

Several corrections have also been noted In the Spring 1991 issue, so much effort went into replicating the creative spellings of the 18th-century journals that a number of other errors crept by. Mr James Thayer, chairman of the Columbia River Bicentennial Commission, somehow was renamed Bill. Apologies were quickly rendered and graciously accepted. George Davidson, watercolorist on board the Columbia, was listed as John. The Washington and Columbia sailing in 1787 could not possibly have carried sea letters from President Washington, since he did not become president until 1789. (We knew that . )

Freda Englund Mr. & Mrs George Fulton Nora Johnson


Mr. & Mrs . George Fulton

Walter & Ruth Wulfers


Sign On!


Youth $10 per year


WESLEY "WES' SHANER Tom & Millie Edison Mr. & Mrs. Gil G Johnson A.J L'Amie Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Lowe Edwin Parker Dr. Harvey C Rones



Mr. & Mrs Jerome F. Dimick Mr. & Mrs . George P. Ducich

Quarterdeck, Vol. 18 No 1

AGNES LARSON LITTLE Mr. & Mrs. Ruben A. Mund

Mr. & Mrs. Warfield Martin

Mr. & Mrs. George Abrahamsen

In the Summer 1991 issue, Gary Schalliol of the Washington State Historical Society notes that the Eleanora may have been the first American vessel on the Northwest Coast, but that it is a matter of conjecture He also notes that most references to the owner of the King George and Queen Charlotte are spelled Etches rather than Ethias

Mr. & Mrs. Clarence 0 Dreyer Marie Gustafson


Mr. & Mrs . George Abrahamsen Mr. & Mrs Dow Beckham Gordon & Lora Childs


Mr. & Mrs. Harry Steinbock Welcome Wagon of Lake Oswego and West Linn

Gerry Henry

Mr. & Mrs. William Palmberg

Mr. & Mrs. James S. Stacy

Astoria, Oregon Permit No. 209


The holiday season is upon us, heralding the hanging of cedar boughs and festive decorations in the Museum's Great Hall. The season brings with it the annual Museum open house and music program, scheduled this year for December 15th. We like to think of this as our gift to the community. We would like to extend a special invitation to all our members to come and share in the festivities. Also, don't forget to take advantage of your 10% member's discount in the Museum Store. The Store has its shelves lined with exciting new books and gifts for all ages. For those of you who are unable to make it in, but would like to take advantage of your membership privileges anyway, we are happy to take phone orders Visa and MasterCard are gladly accepted.

New At The Museum Store



Sea Witches, by Joanne Robertson Illustrated by Laszlo Gal. Dial Books. 14.95/Members 13.46.

Peter Pan, by J.M. Barrie. Illustrated by Scott Gustafson. Viking Ariel Press. 19.95/Members 17.66.

The Great Book of Seafood Cooking, by Guiliana Bonomo. International Culinary Society. 20.00/Members 18.00.

1991 Holiday Program & Open House Scheduled for Dec. 15

Children under 6 will continue to be admitted without charge, as will all school groups from within Clatsop County. Membership rates are to stay the same, at least for the present, making Museum membership an even better bargain than ever.

Barbey, The Story of a Pioneer Columbia River Salmon Packer, by R.T. Tetlow and Graham J. Barbey. Binfords & Mort. 25.00/Members 22.50.

The Westminster Bells perform at the 1990 Holiday Program.

Adults $4 Seniors (over 65) $3 Youths(under18) $2

Admission Rates Go Up

It will come as a surprise to no one that costs of everything are on the increase, including the basic goods, supplies, and services necessary to run this Museum. As a private, non-profit corpor ation, we depend on admission fees for a substantial portion of our yearly budget. The Board of Trustees has determined that it is time for an increase in admission rates-a decision not taken lightly. The last time the rates were increased was four years ago. The new rates are:

A Gentle Reminder. . .

The Way of the Seahorse, by Jack Dant. Harbor House (West). 25.00/ Members 22.50.

A Pacific Legacy, A Century of Maritime Photography 1850-1950, by Wayne Bonnett Chronicle Books. 35 00/Members 31.50.

fake's Seafood Cookbook. McCormick & Schmick Management Co. 17.97 / Members 16.16.

ISSN 0891-2661

Non-Profit Organization U.S. POSTAGE PAID

Some of our members have relocated this past year without notifying us of their new addresses. This presents us with the problems of returned invitations, voting ballots, and issues of the Quarterdeck, not to mention bills for postage due. If you have moved or plan to move, please let us know your new address so that we can ensure you receive all Museum mailings.

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