V10 N4 Fall 1983 The M.V. 'Erria' Burning off Astoria, 1951

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THE M.V. ERRIA BURNING OFF ASTORIA, 1951 The cargo-passenger liner Erria dropped anchor off Astoria about 1:30 a.m. on Thursday, December 20, 1951 to await calmer conditions for putting to sea, having sailed from Portland at 6:00 p.m. Wednesday. The 463-foot motorship, owned by the Ostasiatiske Kompagni (East Asiatic Company) of Copenhagen, was bound back to Europe after previous calls at Vancouver, B.C. and Puget Sound. She was laden with steel, apples, wheat, and lumber. Besides her crew of 83, she had 31 passengers aboard, most of them making a pleasure cruise, due to a scheduled call in the Virgin Islands. The Columbia River bar calmed and Captain Niels Agge was preparing to raise anchor when smoke was detected about 2:30 a.m. Agge had already sent men below to check when two waiters stuck their heads through ports and shouted that they were trapped by smoke. The captain later said, "At that time I saw smoke coming out of a companionway near hold No. 5."

He turned on a fire alarm, but stated afterward, "I thought there was no imminent danger , that the fire was only local and outside the passenger accommodations. We let the anchors go and went down to fight the fire, thinking we could put it out, but it was too hot and spreading rapidly. Then we ordered everybody off." A crewman who had been working in No. 5 hold later reported having seen sparks from an electrical cable set wheat dust ablaze . The fire roared to the upper decks so quickly that the order to abandon ship followed within ten minutes of the first alarm. Crewmen raced through passageways banging on doors and shouting for passengers to go to the lounge or boat deck. There was no panic. Borg Rittig, a steward, said he opened the lounge, turned on the lights , and saw passengers entering. He (continued on page 3}





FROM THE QUARTERDECK Passing through the galleries of the Museum one day recently, I stopped to chat with a tourist from eastern Washington. Talking with him, I was reminded once again of the importance of the Museum's location in its overall impact on its visitors. He said that before coming into the building he had stood for fifteen minutes or so at the rail of the lightship watching the river traffic. While he observed the three or four ships that were at anchor below Tongue Point, a tug went by with a log raft in tow. A Japanese automobile carrier, bound for Portland, slowed to take on a river pilot from the pilot launch that came alongside as the ship passed the Museum. The late fall commercial salmon fishing season was in full swing, and several gillnet boats, their nets set across the current, drifted in the stream. The timber-clad Washington hills surrounding Gray's Bay, so named because Captain Robert Gray anchored his ship Columbia there in 1792, formed a backdrop. Ten miles to the westward, a thin white line on the horizon marked the sometimes treacherous river entrance. Far upriver, a container vessel could be seen, headed for Asloria and the sea. Little of the activity or the surroundings he observed made sense to him at the time, he said, since he was, by his own admission, almost totally ignorant in maritime matters. But the perspective those observations provided greatly enhanced his Museum visit. After viewing the exhibits he felt he'd gained something of an understanding, not only of what he'd seen out on the river, but also of its historical context. Rolf Klep, the founder of the Museum, whose inspiration it was to build this building and to build it exactly here, used to say that there could be no better or more appropriate location anywhere for a museum that preserves the maritime history of the Columbia River and its tributaries. Looking out over the magnificent, ever changing, 30-mile panorama of the Columbia that can be seen from the windows of the Great Hall, who could disagree? Michael Naab, Director

• WATERCOLOR WORKSHOP TO BE HELD Mr. Tom Allen of Corvallis, an instructor from the LinnBenton Community College and a well known watercolorist, will teach a workshop on maritime watercolors in Astoria on Saturday, November 12, 1983. Sessions, open to the general public, will be held at the Maritime Museum and at Clatsop Community College. A fee will be charged, but the amount has not yet been finalized. Persons interested in participating should contact either Richard Fencsak at the Museum or Larry Haskell at Clatsop Community College.

As gratifying as the growth of our membership has been, it presents problems of its own in the maintenance of our mailing list. Besides the difficulty of attaining accuracy in repetitive typing, people do move and change their personal status. Most of our mailings are by third class mail, which the Post Office will not forward, so inaccuracies may result in lost membership benefits. Please give us notification of any mistake in your current address label and let us know when you move, change your name, fail to receive mailings, or have definite knowledge of deaths or moves of other members.

NORTHWEST TRILOGY The second play of "The Northwest Trilogy: The Founding of the New Frontier," produced and performed by numerous Astoria school children, will be staged in seven area school districts in November. The project is funded by a grant obtained jointly by the Maritime Museum and the Astoria School District from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

ANNUAL MEETING, 1983 OREGON GOVERNOR, EXHIBIT PREVIEW TO HIGHLIGHT "AN EVENING AT THE MUSEUM" Oregon Governor and Mrs. Victor Atiyeh will be the guests of honor at a special Evening at the Museum on Saturday, November 5th, from 6:00 to 8:00 p.m. Light music of the 30's, 40' s, and 50' s will be played in the Great Hall while members and friends enjoy cocktails and hors d'oeuvres among the exhibits. The evening will also inaugurate a special exhibition of artifacts from the Museum's river steamer collection. Carved and painted nameboards, models, photographs, and other items will recall the heyday of steam navigation on the Columbia and its tributaries. One highlight of the exhibit will be a magnificent, newly-restored trailboard from the elegant sidewheeler T.J. Potter. The new exhibit will remain through the winter months in the Great Hall. Admission to the cocktail party and exhibit preview will be by reservation only, following a brief business meeting to be held in the Daniel Kern Room of the Museum at 5:30. Invitations, along with ballots for election of new Trustees, have been mailed to all Museum members. Reservations and ballots should be returned as soon as possible, and no later than October 28th.


ED FAULKNER Mr. & Mrs. Ronald J. Honeyman


ANTHONY FLABETICH Mr. & Mrs. Bel Schoessler

RUTH SPANDE ATWOOD Mr. & Mrs. Erling Orwick Mr. & Mrs. Anton F. Peterson Mr. & Mrs. Chris Thompson

NEIL H. GILMORE Employees of D&K Frozen Foods Mr. John C. Gilmore Mr. & Mrs. A.J . L'Amie Mrs. Ethel Lee

DEAN AYERS Mr. & Mrs . Sigfred Jensen JANE BAINER Mrs. Hannah Seeborg GEORGE FRANKLIN BEALL Mr. & Mrs. John S. Baily Mr. Jon Waldum FRED BONK Mr. & Mrs. Eino Juola Mr. & Mrs. Leonard G. Vernon HUGH N. BROWN The Bakkensen Family Mrs. Marjorie B. Dougan Mr. & Mrs. Sven Lund Ms. Mary Marquart Mr. & Mrs. l{ichard C. Paulsen Mrs. Natalie De Sassise LYDIA BUMALA Mr. & Mrs. Don Brunner Mr. & Mrs. Trygve Duoos Mr. & Mrs. W.T. McGregor Ms. Joanne Ranta Secrest Ms. Mary Thompson BETTY LOU BURGET Mrs. Donald Abbott Mr. & Mrs. Max Bigby Dr. Charles W. Browning Mrs. Edith Henningsgaard Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L' Amie Mr. & Mrs. Sven Lund Mr. & Mrs. L.F. Van Dusen HENRY S. CAMP Mr. & Mrs. Ronald J. Honeyman EVA M. CARMICHAEL Mr. & Mrs. George Fulton FRANK CONNELLY Mrs. Aili Kary Mr. & Mrs. A.J . L' Amie LORRAINE CURS Mrs. Frances Hoare Mrs. Edward Thompson JOHN H. DART Mr. & Mrs. Don Bertucci Capt. & Mrs. Jack Dart Graham Mr. & Mrs. Theodore W. Graham

ALFRED GLASSOW Mrs. A.A. Honeyman WILLIAM SIGURD HAGA Mr . & Mrs. A.J . L' Amie Mr. & Mrs. A.W. Ostrom DAN C. HALL Miss Adeline Svenson Miss Leila Svenson Miss Medora Svenson LEMPI I. HANSELMAN Mr. & Mrs. Eino Juola Mr. & Mrs. Carl Labiske ITOL DART HEATH Mr. & Mrs. Don Bertucci Capt. & Mrs. Jack Dart Graham Mr. & Mrs. Theodore W. Graham CLARK HEDEEN Mr. & Mrs. R.C . Anderson RUTH HENSLEY Mr. & Mrs. S.C. Jensen HONEYMAN FAMILY MEMORIAL Mr. Bruce Sinkey Mrs. Carlotta Honeyman Sinkey EBBA HYDE Mr. & Mrs. Wilbur F. Hissner Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L'Amie ALVEN JOHNSON Mr. & Mrs. A.W. Ostrom HAROLD JOHNSON Mr. Fred Shaun Alfonse Ms. Hilda Andersen Mrs. Ragna M. Brown Mr. & Mrs. Don Brunner Mr. & Mrs. Allan Bue Mrs. Nora S. Bue Ms. Pearl Cornwell Mr. & Mrs. Arnold B. Curtis Mr. & Mrs. Alf Dahl Capt. & Mrs. Dale Dickinson Mr. & Mrs. Clarence Dreyer Mr. & Mrs . Trygve Duoos Mr. Fritz Fremsted Mr. & Mrs. George Fulton Mr. & Mrs. Harold Hendriksen Mr. & Mrs. Wilbur Hissner Mrs. Hanna Isaacson Friends at Johnson's Arco

Mr. & Mrs. Richard D. Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Eino Juola Mr. Bob Kankkonen Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Knutsen Mrs. Helen E. Koski Mr. & Mrs. R.E. Larson The Leathers Mr. & Mrs. E.E . Lindberg Mr. & Mrs. Sven Lund Mr. W.E. Lynch Mr. & Mrs. Armas E. Niskanen Mr. & Mrs. Ragnor Norgaard Mrs. Carol L. Nygaard Mr. & Mrs. Bill Orr Mr. & Mrs. Hugh Seppa Mr. & Mrs. Larry Snyder Mrs. Jordis Tetli Mr. & Mrs. Dan Thiel Mr. & Mrs. Leonard G. Vernon Mrs. K.W. Winters Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Wolfgram ED KAMPFER Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Cox HUBERT V. KEHOE Mr. Donald K Hawks JULIUS KISS Mr. & Mrs. Warren E. Skaggs MRS. ALAN KNOX Mr. & Mrs. Bill Van Dusen FORD KNUTSEN Dr. & Mrs. Millard Rosenblatt JACK KOSKI Mr. Wolfred V. Degernas Ms. Corinne Juniper Mr. & Mrs. Leonard Haga Mr. Einar Lundman Mr. Melvin R. Olson Mr. & Mrs. Fleming Wilson CASPER M. LEDING Mrs. Anita Kankkonen Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L' Amie Mr. Alan B. Nilsson Mr. & Mrs. C.H. Tolonen JASPER LOWE Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L' Amie Mr. & Mrs. R.E . Larson BEN MILES Mr. & Mrs. Tom Cartt Furn E. Coe Mr. & Mrs. Dick Dybvik Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd Halsan Mr. & Mrs. Einar Hjorten Ms. Sylvia Ladeas Mr. & Mrs. R.E . Larson Mr. & Mrs . Sven Lund Mr. & Mrs. Burt Mattson Mr. & Mrs. Cecil Moberg Mr. Jon Moberg Mr. & Mrs. Roger Olson Mr. & Mrs. Arnold Petersen

MEMORIAL CONTRIBUTIONS, CONTINUED Ms. Celeste Peterson Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Peterson Mr. Gus E. Peterson Mr. & Mrs. William Rehfuss Mr. & Mrs. Sam Snell Mr. & Mrs. Paul Stangeland Mrs. Barbara Tenny WARD NOLAN NICHOLS Mr. & Mrs. Victor Albertsen Mrs. Hilda Andersen Mr. Jim Archambault Astoria Marine Construction Co. Mr. Dick Baird Mr. & Mrs. Don Bess Mr. Kenneth Birdeno Mr. A.J. Conger, Jr. Mrs. Vera Craig Mr. & Mrs. Trygve Duoos Mr. & Mrs. W.C. Elder Mrs. Axel Englund Mr. Jon Englund Mr. & Mrs. George Fulton Mr. & Mrs. Charles Hansen Mr. & Mrs. Florence Hansen Mrs. Olga Henningsen Mr. & Mrs. Wilbur Hissner Mr. & Mrs. A.E. Johanson Ms. Elaine Johanson Mr. Lew Johanson Mr. Dale R. Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Ragnor 0. Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Toivo Kuivala Mrs. Margaret Lervick Mr. Ed Luoma Mr. & Mrs. Albert Luukinen Mrs. Bernice Mathre Miss Jessie Miller Mr. & Mrs. Walt Miner Mr. & Mrs. Don Nichols Mrs. Carol Nygaard Ocean Foods of Astoria, Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Dick Oja

Mrs. Emily Olsen Mr. Larry R. Petersen Ms. Gloria D. Roland Mrs. Ruth Shaner Mr. & Mrs. Jack Smethurst Mr. & Mrs. Peter Strandberg Mr. & Mrs. Carl Swensen Mrs. Jordis Tetli Mr. & Mrs. John Viuhkola Mr. Gareth Walter Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Williams Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Wolfgram Mrs. Charles Wooley J.E. NIEMI Mrs. Ford Knutsen ALBERT P. REES Mr. & Mrs. Irving Iverson MARGARET REPANICH Mrs. Shirley Cole Mr. & Mrs. Wenzel Luthe Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Morrow GEORGE REYNOLDS Mr. & Mrs. Graham Barbey VIENO RUOTSI Mrs. Virginia Shepherd S. T. SAARIO Mr. & Mrs. Brian Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Clayton Johnson Mrs. Harold Johnson ALVIN STANGLAND Miss Adeline Svenson Miss Leila Svenson Miss Medora Svenson EDWARD THOMPSON Mr. & Mrs. R.C. Anderson

Brown & Hansen, Attorneys at Law Mr. & Mrs. Eben Carruthers Mr. & Mrs. Allen V. Cellars Mr. & Mrs. Walter Daggatt Mrs. Margaret E. Green Mrs. Edith Henningsgaard Mrs. Hector M. Hunt Mr. & Mrs. Curtiss D. Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Dale R. Johnson Brig. Gen. & Mrs. J. Wilson Johnston Mrs. Natalie W . Jones Mrs. Lyle B. Kingery Mrs. Shirley Krieske Mr. & Mrs. Reuben Kuratli Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L' Amie Dr. Michael Lukschu Mrs. Ruth Lukschu Capt. & Mrs. Kenneth McAlpin Mr. & Mrs. David T. McClean Mr. & Mrs. William F. McGregor Mr. & Mrs. N.L. Morfitt Mr. & Mrs. David Pratt Mr. & Mrs. F.E. Ross Mr. & Mrs. Tom Sandoz Mr. & Mrs. Bill Van Dusen Mr. & Mrs. Ed White DONALD TIENSON Mr. & Mrs. David T. McClean JOHANNA WESTLEY Ms. T. Violet Crussell Mrs. Anita Kankkonen Mr. & Mrs. Larry Petersen Mr. & Mrs. John Peterson DON WILKINSON Mr. & Mrs. George Joyce Mrs. Clara E. Miles ERSKINE WOOD Mr. & Mrs. J.R. Dant Mr. & Mrs. Walter Gadsby, Jr.

NEW MEMBERS, INCREASED SUPPORT(*), JULY 1 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1983 PILOT Mrs. Herbert Malarkey• Mr. William T.C. Stevens* SUSTAINING Mrs. Ernestine Bennett, Mercer Island, WA Dr. William Burget• Mr. & Mrs. Thomas F. Clark* Dr. & Mrs. Leigh C. Dolin• Mr. & Mrs. Peyton Hawes* J.C. Penney Co.• Loop-Jacobsen, Inc. Jewelers* Mr. & Mrs. Charles J. Mason* Mr. & Mrs. Charles B. Stoner* Ticor Title Insurance Co.• SUPPORTING Mr. & Mrs. Warren Bechtolt* Dr. & Mrs. Gary M. Boelling*

Mr. & Mrs. Arne Bohm• Commercial Adjustment Company• Mr. & Mrs. Charles Foster* Mr. & Mrs. Peter Gearin• Mr. & Mrs. Arthur C. Hildebrand* Mr. & Mrs. Raymond G. Jubitz* The Market Place* Mr. & Mrs. Edward K. Neubauer* Pacific Printing & Office Supplies, Ilwaco, WA Mr. & Mrs. Myron Salo, Beaverton Mr. Charles L. Wood, Sr. • CONTRIBUTING Mr. & Mrs. George Abrahamsen• Mr. & Mrs. Douglas Barker* Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Barrows* Mr. & Mrs. Wayne Blake* Mrs. Margaret Bruneau• Mr. & Mrs. Jess Burtis, Seaside

Mr. & Mrs. Jim E. Capellen • Mr. Andrew D. Carlson* Co. B, 6th Eng., 4th Div. USMC, South Bend, IN Don's Doggies* Mr. & Mrs. Wm. S. Earls, Sr.• Mr. & Mrs. Winton C. Edwards* Mr. John Gilmore* Mr. Edward F. Hargreaves* Honda-Yamaha of Astoria* Mr. & Mrs. Henry C. Houser* Mr. & Mrs. Gene Jaques* Mrs. Anita Kankkonen Mr. & Mrs. James F. Kindred* Ms. Ann M. Lewis, Gearhart Mr. & Mrs. Robert S. Lovell• Mr. H.W. McCurdy* Dr. & Mrs. C.H. McKinney• Mr. & Mrs. Carl Mead• Mr. & Mrs. Allen E. Meier, Jr.• Miss Gainor 0. Minott, Cannon Beach



then went momentarily to the boat deck. When he attempted to return to the lounge, he found it already full of smoke. Within, passenger E.L.I. Blyth advised others to crawl out on their hands and knees to avoid suffocation, but several apparently did not understand him. Four of the eight lifeboats were lowered, the first filled with women and children. Mrs. Blyth's foot was caught in a line and she was being hoisted up a davit as a boat was lowered until someone jerked her free. One boat, fortunately empty, broke its falls and plunged into the river, but was righted and filled with men. Mr. Blyth, still in pajamas, went down a fortyfoot rope ladder with the man above him periodically stepping on his head. The narrowest escape was that of John Ray, 11, who became separated from his parents and wandered into the lounge. When the smoke rolled in, he only got out because he was small enough to squeeze through a little window. He later reported having seen people with their hair burning. River pilot A.T. Lowery, 66, found himself cut off on the bridge by shooting flames and smoke. Looking down, he saw John Ray hanging on the cabin deck rail. Lowery shouted for him to try to jump onto some coiled line on the main deck. The boy obeyed and Lowery then tried to climb down a wire cable, but cut his hands and fell. Lowery was knocked out, but came to, again spotted the boy frozen with fear, and helped him down a rope ladder to a pilaf launch which had come alongside. Lowery had hurt his back and the lad suffered from shock and a burned heel. They were the only survivors to require immediate hospitalization. Hugo Ray, the boy's father, was the only person to fall in the river, having tried to go down the ship's side by an unsecured line, but had been promptly rescued by a boat. Meanwhile, bar pilot Harvey J. Schroeder spotted the blaze from the pilot station and telephoned the Tongue Point Coast Guard Depot, less than a mile from the Erria, at 2:45 a.m. Commander Victor Johnson quickly reached the scene and his picket boat rescued two cabin boys who squeezed out through portholes. Fishing boats helped the Coast Guard pick up other survivors from the Erria and her lifeboats. The Coast Guard had great difficulty in persuading Captain Agge and his officers to leave their ship.

Fire damage; note missing bridge and melted plating; top windows are in the lounge.

The 103 rescued persons were taken to Tongue Point and fed by the Coast Guard and Navy. Many were clad only in night clothes, so Coast Guard personnel distributed many of their own garments to those in greatest need. The local Red Cross arranged for additional clothing from Astoria merchants by 7:00 a.m. The survivors were then housed at the John Jacob Astor Hotel. Eleven persons were missing and an intensive search was conducted until all of the Erria's lifeboats were accounted for. The Coast Guard buoy tenders Ivy and Whitebush, a Navy tug, and an LCM equipped with a fire pump were fighting the fire, which blazed throughout the midship section from deep in the holds and engine room to the bridge, which was completely destroyed by heat so intense that even steel plates melted. Flames were leaping some 60 feet above the Erria. It was too risky to send firemen aboard, so Quentin Greeley, Captain of the Port, had glass knocked out of the Erria's ports to pump streams of water into her hull. This was discontinued when she threatened to capsize and her bow was pushed aground to prevent her sinking. The Erria contined to burn for days. On Friday morning, Astoria Marine Construction Company cut holes in the hull to inject carbon dioxide, using up all of their own supply and the Navy's, but a high wind fanned the flames and raised a dangerous chop on the river. That evening the famous tug Sa lvage Chief took over efforts to save the Erria. It was not until Sunday, December 23rd that the Erria cooled enough to permit a search. The bodies of eight passengers, including five women and a little girl, were found in the lounge. All but one of these victims were still seated in the remains of chairs and had apparently been overcome by smoke before the flames reached them. Two ship's laundresses were found on the promenade deck near the steps to the boat deck and a steward was in a passage near his quarters. Testimony at the investigative hearing the Coast Guard held in Astoria December 26-29 indicated that several of the dead might have survived, had they not attempted to save possessions; some had even been seen on the open boat deck. Ironically, the Columbia River bar, which has claimed so many victims over the years, actually saved lives in this case. Had it not prevented the Erria's immediate departure, from the Columbia, the fire would have occurred on the high seas, far from help, and all aboard might well have been lost. The Erria's entire crew remained in Astoria until the hearing concluded, the Red Cross arranging for them all to be entertained in private homes for Christmas. Some stayed on until the fires were finally out, the Erria refloated, towed to Portland, and the remains of her cargo landed. Insurance underwriters wrote off the Erria, valued at three million dollars, as a total constructive loss, but high replacement costs led her owners to have her rebuilt. In May, 1952 she was taken under tow by the Dutch tug Zwarte Zee for Rotterdam, where she emerged as a freighter, devoid of passenger quarters, at a cost of $ 1.5 million. She was finally scrapped at Osaka, Japan in 1962.

NEW MEMBERSHIPS (cont.) CONTRIBUTING (cont.) Mr. & Mrs. Robert O'Donnell* Dr. & Mrs. Donald Orwick* Mr. & Mrs. David Palmberg* Captain J.L. Patterson, Portland Mrs. Christine Quinn-Brintnall* Mr. & Mrs. L.M. Smith* Mr. & Mrs. Lawson Stevenson* Mr. & Mrs. Dan Thiel* Mr. & Mrs. J.L. Weigardt, Nahcotta, WA Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Wolfgram* Mr. & Mrs. Richard Zuelow, Kirkland, WA ANNUAL Mr. & Mrs. Paul Autio Mr. Alfred Aya, Jr., San Francisco Mr. & Mrs. John Berggren Mr. & Mrs. Donald Bertucci, Redding, CA Mr. Richard Bjork, Montpelier, VT Mr. George Bold, Aberdeen, WA Mr. & Mrs. John L. Christie, Jr. Mr. Paul L. Coones, Camas, WA Capt. & Mrs. J.D . Graham, Falls Church, VA Mr. & Mrs. T.W. Graham, Arcata, CA Ms. Jan D. Harrod, Warrenton Mrs. Agnes M. Jeppesen Miss Kristine Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Donald Kerr, Bend Mrs. James Larpenteur, Seaside Mrs. Vernon A. Larsen Mrs. Wilberta Lipps, Sherman Oaks, CA Mr. & Mrs. Scott McGregor Mrs. Geo. I. McKelvey, Claremont, CA Mr. & Mrs. Colin Moore, Warrenton Mr. Glen C. Morrison Mr. & Mrs. Alan Jay Oja Mr. & Mrs. Walter Pendergrass, Portland Mr. J.H. Pepper, Long Beach, WA Mr. & Mrs. Gudmund Rasmussen, Garibaldi Mr. & Mrs. Richard Rees, Lake Oswego Mrs. Hannah Seeborg Mr. & Mrs. Michael R. Zametkin






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The burned-out hulk of the Erria.



Non-Profit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

PAID Astoria, Oregon Permit No. 209

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