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EAST MIDLANDS: THE IRISH DIMENSION An exploration of 2001 Census Data

A report prepared for the


This report, one of a suite of twenty four, is an outcome of a research project on the Irish data in the 2001 Census. The research project was funded by the DĂ­on Committee. Publication of this report is funded by the DĂ­on Committee. First published by the Federation of Irish Societies in 2007. ISBN

978-1-906325-02-2

Copyright

Source data - 2001 Census: Crown copyright. This report: FIS copyright.

Printed by New Image Design and Print, Block D, Unit 1, Bounds Green Industrial Estate, Ring Way, London N11 2UD.

The Federation of Irish Societies is a national umbrella body representing and providing services to its affiliated organisations throughout Britain. These organisations include welfare advice agencies, day centres, community care services, clubs, social and cultural organisations and housing providers; as well as projects to meet specific needs of particular sections of the community, such as women, elders, Irish travellers and prisoners.


East Midlands: The Irish dimension An exploration of 2001 Census data

A report prepared for the Federation of Irish Societies, London


Contents: FIS Foreword

2

Introduction

3

Using the data

7

Key data

8

1. The nature of the population

9

2. Economic activity and inactivity

14

3. Types of work

19

4. Unpaid carers

24

5. Qualifications

32

6. Home tenure and accommodation type

35

7. Amenities

40

8. Health

43

1


FIS foreword We are very pleased to be able to publish the suite of reports which FIS has commissioned from Word-Works and which focus on the Irish data in the 2001 Census. This data and commentaries are presented in a comparative context at national, regional and selected local levels, and on the basis of the full sixteen categories from the 2001 Census Ethnic Group Question. These reports indicate the diversity in the performance of ethnic minority groups in Britain. They show that the statistical profile of the identified white Irish places them closer to white British and Indian in many respects than, for example, more radically marginalised groups like Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, refugees and asylum seekers. Nevertheless, Irish deficits exist, most visibly in the area of health. They extend to related areas like levels of economic activity, where limiting long-term injury and disability contribute. The specific age profile of the white Irish population, with its bias towards older people, has implications in terms of care needs, as have the high proportions of white Irish single- and two-pensioner households. At the same time, the proportions of those white Irish without qualifications and working in the building industry point to the need for training/retraining towards integration/retention in the labour market. Indeed, government initiatives around health aspects of local regeneration, extension of working life, and reengagement of those with disabilities in the labour market, increase the importance of Irish community inclusion in order to achieve targets. It is important that the duality of the performance of the Irish in Britain – that combination of high achievement and disadvantage/social exclusion, which is by no means unique to the Irish community among British ethnic minority communities – should not distract attention from issues that need to be addressed. That there are sections of the Irish population who have multiple needs, are marginalised, and have information, support and service needs which need to be addressed was clearly indicated by the data provided by the FIS/AGIY Standardised Information System, collected from our front line agencies and published between 1994 and 2003. This and other documentation with a strong local thrust (for example, the valuable L Simpson et al, Ethnic minority populations and the Labour Market: an analysis of the 1991 and 2001 Censuses (DWP 2006)), emphasise the need for good local intelligence and greater and easier access to small-area statistics. We have been disappointed by the structuring of much of the analysis of ethnicity data from the 2001 Census published to date, particularly the use of various “combined ethnic group categories” and the failure to disaggregate the White “combined group” data. These procedures ignore one of the most significant findings of T Madood et al. Ethnic Minorities in Britain: Diversity and Disadvantage (PSI 1997) with relevance to policy formation, as well as such examples of good practice as Collecting ethnic category data: Guidance and training material for implementation of the new ethnic categories (DH 2001). Increasingly, micro-decisions about delivery of services take place at a local level. Those with local responsibility under the Race Relations Acts for addressing inequalities must have the best possible local data on all significant communities (including minority ethnic communities) at their disposal, and must use it in an inclusive way to inform their policies. We thank Word-Works for providing us with this suite of reports, which we commend to our affiliates, our partners in the British voluntary sector, and to those with a responsibility for policy formation and the delivery of services. We hope they will prove useful in raising the profile of the needs of ethnic minority populations, including our own.

Mary Tilki, Chair Federation of Irish Societies May 2007

2


Author’s Introduction The Census has long been the most extensive, if not the most comprehensive, source of information about the population of England and Wales. This has not been the case for the Irish population however. Although previously asked whether they were members of other minority ethnic groups, it was not until the 2001 Census that they were asked whether they were Irish. In the 1991 Census, the Irish population was identified from a combination of country of birth data and those instances where people had taken the initiative to write in their Irish identity. The Census is based largely on a series of tick box type questions which are quick to fill in and easy to understand. This approach means that highly complex topics have to be condensed into just a few words. Ethnic origin is one area which can suffer greatly from this treatment as it is so very complex. Potential problems arising in relation to Irish identity are discussed in the reports, most comprehensively in Section 1 of England: the Irish dimension. It is important to examine the information derived from the Census to learn about the Irish population, in order to identify any specific provisions appropriate to meeting their needs. It is to assist this process that the Federation is publishing this series of commissioned reports on the Irish dimension of Census 2001. The Census has provided us with an enormous quantity of data. These reports examine key elements of that data and make comparison, where appropriate, with data relating to the white British population and other minority ethnic populations. Summary findings of the analysis of the Irish dimension of the 2001 Census are set out below and in the series of key data to be found at the beginning of each report. 1. The age of the white Irish population The white Irish population of England and Wales, indicated by the 2001 Census data, is a comparatively older population. In England, the proportion of children identified – those aged under 16 – is very low: 6% in comparison with 20% when looking at the population of England as a whole. In London and the South East, the proportion of white Irish children is slightly higher (7% and 6% respectively), whereas it is slightly smaller in the South West and the North West (both slightly under 5%). The issue of the proportion of children recorded is complicated by the fact that children born to Irish parents may not be classified in the Census as white Irish. If they have one Irish parent and one British parent, for example, they may be classified as white British or white other. At the other end of the age scale, the white Irish population has a large proportion of people who are of pensionable age. Between 20% (London) and 32% (the West Midlands) are aged 65 or older. With between a fifth and a third of the population of this age, there are consequences for the population in terms of economic activity, health and welfare. For example, when looking at the white Irish population as a whole, the level of economic activity is low – this is due at least in part to the proportion of people who are retired. The white Irish population also exhibits the highest level of people who describe themselves as being in ‘not good health’ of all the ethnic groups listed. When data is broken down by age, it can be seen that this is largely (although not solely) because the population has such a high proportion of older people, who are far more likely to describe themselves as being in ‘not good health’.

3


One of the consequences of an older population is a higher proportion of women – simply due to the greater longevity of women. In London for example, 58% of the white Irish population is female. In the South East 62% of the white Irish 65 and older population is female. In England as a whole, 53% of the white Irish population (of all ages) is female. Another related consequence of an older population is the proportion of people who are living alone – typically women who have outlived their male spouses. A fifth of white Irish households comprise a pensioner living alone. Given the older age profile of the white Irish population identified in the Census, as well as the proportion of white Irish households which are single or two pensioner households, provision of statutory and unpaid/informal care is a significant issue. The Census indicated that, in England, 4% of pensionable age white Irish men were themselves providing 50 or more hours a week of unpaid care, that 1.7% of working age white Irish men were providing the same amount of weekly care, and that 8.6% of working age white Irish women were providing 1 to 19 hours a week of unpaid care. In addition to the informal and formal care being provided in the community, 0.44% of the white Irish population are being cared for in psychiatric hospitals and homes, nursing homes and residential homes, as opposed to 0.28% of the whole population. 2. Education and qualifications The findings of the 2001 Census in this area present a mixed picture. At one level, the white Irish population performs very well, in terms of the proportion attaining the highest qualifications (levels 4/5 – degrees, PhDs, professional qualifications). Among white Irish aged 25 to 34, the proportion so qualified reached 46% - with regional variations ranging from 36% (West Midlands) to 54% (North East England), proportions, in each case, more than double that found in the equivalent white British population. Even 22% of 16 to 24 year old white Irish people in England have qualifications at this level, although some of the qualifications would be outside their age range. This pattern of relatively high attainment continues up to the age group 35 to 49. After this age, the attainment levels reduce to the levels of the white British population. One of the main reasons for the comparatively low levels of economic activity amongst white Irish 16 to 24 year olds, is the large proportion of white Irish individuals who are in full-time education. The proportion here is much greater than in the equivalent white British population, rising to 69% in the North East of England. Levels of economic activity in this group range between 4% and 10% below the level of economic activity in the white British population. The Census data suggests that, while a proportion of white Irish people in England have high level qualifications, there is also a significant proportion who have no qualifications at all. 12% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds have no qualifications (from 9% in the North East to 17% in the West Midlands). This proportion rises with age. Amongst white Irish 65 to 74 year olds 70% in England have no qualifications. This ranges from 60% in the South East to 77% in the West Midlands. In each group over the age of 49, there is a greater proportion of white Irish people with no qualifications at all than in the population as a whole. For example 62% of white Irish people in England aged between 60 and 64 have no qualifications, in comparison with 54% of the general population.

4


3. Work The 1991 and 2001 Censuses provide evidence that Irish men are commonly to be found working ‘on the buildings’. The 2001 Census found that this was true for around a fifth of white Irish men of working age. Between 13% in North East England and 22% in the West Midlands are working in construction – 20% in England as a whole. These are far higher proportions than those found in any other ethnic population. Working in construction has possible implications for other areas of life. It can have a seasonal or temporary element leaving numbers of men out of work for periods of time. It can also be dangerous and exhausting work. It is an industry which reflects the peaks and troughs of the economy. With so many white Irish people working ‘on the buildings’, there is inevitably a glut of people needing to retrain at times when there is an economic downturn or when individuals need to move on for other reasons such as age and illness. Between a quarter and a third of white Irish women are working in health and social services. This is a far greater proportion than in the white British population and on a par with the Black African and Black Caribbean populations. Much care work and nursing work, while not seasonal or temporary, can be low-paid or may involve antisocial hours. A significant proportion of white Irish men work in professional occupations. 15% of white Irish men in England are in professional occupations (compared to 12% of white British men). In some English regions, the picture is much more exaggerated. For example, in the North East, 27% of white Irish men are in professional occupations in comparison with 10% of white British men. Women show a similar, although less pronounced, pattern. 13% of white Irish women in England are in professional occupations in comparison with 11% of white British women. So again, in this area, the 2001 Census presents a mixed picture. Further, the Census data relates to a period of time in which there was relative economic prosperity for the country and its regions. Certain indicators, such as levels of longterm unemployment were thus very low. It is important to recognise that during a less prosperous time, such indicators will be higher and there may be greater disparities between some of the ethnic groups. 4. Health The Census provides data about limiting long-term illness and disability. In every region in England the proportion of white Irish men aged between 25 and 74 who are not working because of permanent illness or disability is higher than the proportion of white British men not working for the same reason. In England, 11% of white Irish men are not working because of illness or disability. There is one age group of white Irish men for whom findings in this area are exceptionally strong and consistent, men aged between 50 and 64. In this age group, between 25% (the South East) and 41% (the North West) of men have limiting long-term illness. In England as a whole, 29% of white Irish men of this age have limiting long-term illness, 4% more than amongst white British men of the same age. The Census also asked about people’s view of whether they were in good health or not. 22% of men in England aged between 50 and 64 described their health as ‘not good’. In fact, for each age group, for both men and women, the trend is for more white Irish people than white British people to indicate ‘not good health’. 5. Housing and amenities Census data relating to housing and amenities provides a complex picture in terms of the white Irish population. For example, a relatively high proportion of the population owns their own home outright (26%) but, similarly, a relatively high proportion of the white Irish population lives in social housing (21%). These proportions are relatively

5


high in comparison with both other minority ethnic populations listed in the Census and in comparison with the majority of the white British population. Significantly, in England, the white Irish population has the highest proportion (1.2%) of people in medical and care communal establishments (including psychiatric units, prison, and those we might associate with an older population, residential and nursing homes). The population also has the highest proportion of people in households comprising a lone pensioner (18%). This is true of England as a whole and each of the country’s regions. In terms of amenities, the white Irish population of England shows two interesting characteristics in comparison with the other ethnic populations listed in the Census. The first is in terms of central heating – 8% of the white Irish population has no central heating – and secondly, 40% of the white Irish population does not have a car. Both of these proportions are higher than those found in the white British population. The report The Census data is wholly descriptive and, as such, does not seek to explain particular phenomena, merely to tell us what it is. Thus, we cannot find out from Census data why a specific proportion of people live in social housing, for example. The following report attempts to describe the findings of the 2001 Census and, where appropriate, to suggest possible causes and effects. Gudrun Limbrick Word-Works May 2007

6


Using the data All the data in this report is derived from the results of the 2001 Census which attempted to include all people living in England and Wales. As such, the report and its findings are entirely dependent on the coverage achieved by the Census, the terminology used and the questions asked. The delineations used are those provided by the Census. For example, the age bands quoted are those designed by the Census. The data is represented as graphs in this report to provide an immediate visual to represent the bare figures. However, greater detail can be found in the accompanying tables of data. This report has a number of companion volumes which may provide useful comparative analysis to aid understanding. National reports:

Local reports:

England

Birmingham

Wales

Bristol Coventry Leeds

Regional reports: East England

Leicester

East Midlands

Liverpool

London

Luton

North East England

Manchester

North West England

Northampton

South East England

Nottingham

South West England

Portsmouth

West Midlands

Sheffield

Yorkshire and the Humber

Swindon

Data Source: 2001 Census, [Key Statistics for Local Authorities]. Crown copyright 2004. Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO.

7


The East Midlands: Key data

The nature of the population - 64% of the white Irish population was born in the Republic of Ireland - 28% of the white Irish population is aged 65 or older Economic activity and inactivity - 58% of white Irish people aged 25 to 74 are economically active - 11% of white Irish men are not working because of permanent sickness or disability - 49% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds are in full-time education Types of work - 19% of white Irish men are working in construction - 19% of white Irish men are managers or senior officials - 15% of white Irish men are in elementary-type occupations - 28% of white Irish women are working in health and social work Qualifications - 15% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds have no qualifications - 15% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds have qualifications at the highest levels Home tenure and accommodation type - 68% of white Irish people own their own home - 19% of white Irish people are in social housing - 8% of white Irish people are in privately rented accommodation - 19% of white Irish households are pensioners living alone Amenities - 36% of white Irish people do not own a car - 7% of the white Irish population does not have central heating - 7% of the white Irish population are living in households regarded as overcrowded Health - 12% of white Irish men aged 16 to 49 have long-term limiting illness - 28% of white Irish men aged 16 to 64 are in not good health - 26% of white Irish women aged 16 to 64 are in not good health

8


Section 1. The nature of the population of the East Midlands

_____________________________________________________________________ This section looks at the number of Irish people in the East Midlands in comparison with other ethnic groups. The place of birth of Irish people is examined, differentiating between those Irish people born in Ireland and those born elsewhere. It also examines basic demographic information such as ethnic origin, gender and age. It is this data which is of fundamental importance when understanding other data in this report such as economic activity and health.

In the East Midlands, 91% of the population classified themselves as white British 1 in the 2001 Census. In comparison, 87.0% of the population of England as a whole classify themselves as white British. The make-up of the remainder of the population is illustrated in the figure below. Figure 1. The proportion of the population in minority ethnic groups in the East Midlands 3.5% 3.0% 2.5% 2.0%

East Midlands

1.5%

England

1.0% 0.5%

M

ix ed

-W

hi

W W hi hi te t e te M - O - Ir ix an is ed th h d er -W Bl a W ck hi hi te te an Car M ib d ix b B ea ed As la n ia - W ck n A As or fri hi ia te ca As n n an As ia or n d ia As Br As n Bl i or iti an ia ac sh n As k Br -I or ia i t nd is n Bl h Br ac - P ian Bl iti k ac sh a B C rit k - B kist hi or is an ne h an B -B i se la gl c a la or k de ck Br O sh iti th i sh Car er ib Et -B be hn la an ic ck G Af ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0.0%

0.9% of the population of the East Midlands defined themselves as white Irish in the 2001 Census – lower than the proportion of the population of England as a whole (1.3%). In the region, the largest minority ethnic population is Indian – 2.9% of the population. It is probable that the proportion of Irish people recorded in the Census is an underrepresentation of the actual Irish community in the East Midlands and this issue is discussed more fully in England: the Irish dimension – an exploration of 2001 Census data. Estimates 2 suggest that the actual Irish population of the East Midlands could be between 2.5% (105,165 individuals) and 3.0% (126,198 individuals) which is smaller than the estimated proportional size of the Irish population of England (4.1%). These corrected figures would make the Irish population the largest minority ethnic population in the region.

1

In the Census questionnaire, respondents were given five options: white, mixed, Asian, Black or Chinese. Within the ‘white’ option, respondents were asked to select either British, Irish or other white. For the purposes of this report, these options have been abbreviated to ‘white British’, ‘white Irish’ and ‘white other’. 2 Using the 2.5 and 3 correctional factors of the born-in-Ireland population suggested by Hickman MJ and Walter B Discrimination and the Irish Community in Britain CRE 1997.

9


Figure 2. Proportion of population of the East Midlands born on the island of Ireland 3 1.0% 0.9% 0.8% 0.7% 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0%

Born in Northern Ireland Born in the Republic of Ireland

East Midlands

England

0.9% of the population of England was born in the Republic of Ireland in comparison with only 0.6% of the East Midlands. Of those people in the East Midlands who described themselves in the Census as white Irish, 63.7% were born in the Republic of Ireland. 11.4% were born in Northern Ireland. In total, 35.0% of those who described themselves as white Irish were born in the United Kingdom. Figure 3. Proportion of the population that is female 56% 54% 52% 50%

East Midlands

48%

England

46% 44%

Fe m al es :t W ot hi al te M ix B ed r it W is W -W h hi h t i e hi t e -I te M ris ix O an ed th h d er Bl -W W a ck hi hi te te C ar an i M b d b ix Bl ea ed As a n ia - W ck n Af As or hi r i ca te ia As n n an ia As or d n ia As As B n Bl rit ia ia or is ac n n h As k Br or ia iti I n n sh d Bl Br ac - P ian Bl iti k sh ac ak B C rit is k -B hi ta is or ne an h ni B -B se gl la ad ck la or c e Br k O sh C iti th i ar sh er i b -B Et be hn la an ck ic G Af ro r ic up an -C hi ne se

42%

50.9% of the population of the East Midlands is female. 51.1% of the white Irish population is also female – a proportion 0.2% higher than that of the white British population. The population with the lowest proportion of women is the Black African population – in which 47.1% of the population is female. Because of the greater longevity of women, populations generally have more women than men amongst their number. When populations, such as the Black African population have men outnumbering the women, we can surmise that different factors, other than general longevity, are at play – different patterns of migration between men and women, for example, or different rates of infant mortality.

3

The term island of Ireland used here includes both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

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Figure 4. The age distribution of the white Irish population in the East Midlands 40% 35% 30% 25% white Irish all

20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 0- 15

16- 24

25- 49

50- 59

60- 64

65- 74

The above chart clearly shows a disparity between the population of the East Midlands region as a whole and the white Irish element of it. With only 5.3% aged less than 16, the white Irish population is aging relative to the rest of the region. 27.8% of the region’s white Irish population is aged over 64, in comparison with 16.7% of the population as a whole. Age is arguably one of the most important factors to bear in mind when looking at characteristics of the white Irish population as defined by the 2001 Census. One factor to bear in mind is whether people in different age groups behaved differently in terms of completing and retuning the Census forms. Hickman and Walter (1997) 4 suggest that there is likely to be an under-representation of younger Irish people completing the Census and there is also an issue of second and third generation Irish people who did not define as Irish 5 in the Census. This would have an impact on the proportion of younger white Irish people counted in the Census. However, the issue of under-enumeration would not apply to those aged under 16 6 who are very poorly represented in the age distribution illustrated above. From the data the Census provides, it is not possible to say to what extent the skewed age profile above is the result of the under-count and to what extent there actually is a skewed age profile in the white Irish population.

4

Hickman MJ and Walter B Discrimination and the Irish Community in Britain CRE 1997 This is discussed in England: the Irish Dimension - an exploration of 2001 Census data. 6 A significant feature of the age distribution of white Irish people is the small proportion who are aged 0 to 15 – far smaller than in any other of the region’s white British or minority ethnic populations. One can assume that, in most cases, parents or guardians will have completed Census forms on behalf of children of this age. It is thus the parents, in the main, who are making decisions about their children’s declared ethnicity. Most of the parents of the children of this age, will themselves be in the 24 to 49 age group in figure 4 – an age group of similar proportion in the white Irish population to the population of the region as a whole. This begs the question of why parents who reporting themselves to be white Irish did not record their children as white Irish. 5

11


Figure 5. Proportion of the population aged 75 and older 12% 10% 8% East Midlands

6%

England

4% 2%

rit is W h W hi -W te hi te -I hi -O te ris M h an th ix ed er d Bl W -W ac hi k te hi C te ar an i b d be M Bl ix an ac ed As k -W ia Af n ric hi or As te an As ia an n ia d o n As As rA Br ia ia si i ti n n an sh Bl or ac Br -I A si k n i tis di an or h an Bl Br -P ac iti a sh k Bl ki Br st ac -B an iti k C sh an i or hi g ne Bl l a B se ac de la k ck sh or Br i C O iti ar th sh ib er b Et ea Bl hn ac n ic k Af G ro ric up an -C hi ne se

-B hi te

W

M ix

ed

75

an d

ol de r:

to ta l

0%

The comparatively large proportion of the white Irish population aged 75 or over is clear in the chart above. In this region, 11.1% of the white Irish population is aged 75 or older. For the white British population, the proportion is 7.9%, for the Bangladeshi and white and white and Black Caribbean populations, it is less than 1%. Figure 6. Age distribution of selected minority ethnic groups 50% 45% 40% 35% white Irish

30%

white British Indian

25%

Pakistani 20%

Black Caribbean Chinese

15% 10% 5% 0% 0-15

16-24

25-49

50-59

60-64

65-74

75 +

There is no other (majority or minority) ethnic group in the East Midlands which is structured in the same way as the white Irish population in terms of the age of its members. A relatively low proportion of under-25s (10.8%) is contrasted with a relatively high proportion in each age group over 50. In the white British population, 30.1 % of the population are aged under 25, as is 26.6% of the Black Caribbean population and 52.5% of the Pakistani population. 51.9% of the white Irish population is in the potentially economically active 25 to 59 age group, but this is not as significantly different from other ethnic groups as it is in the lower and higher age groups. For example, 54.8% of the Black Caribbean

12


population is aged between 25 and 59 as is 48.2% of the White British population. Just 40.4% of the Pakistani population is aged between 25 and 59. As the above series of graphs illustrates, in comparison with the other minority ethnic groups listed, the white Irish population is an ageing population – a larger proportion of the population is older (over 64) than is younger (under 25). A population of this structure will shrink as the numbers who die are not matched by those born, unless migration patterns change the general trend or unless there are changes in how sections of the population perceive their ethnicity 7 . Additionally, an aging population will have very different characteristics and needs in comparison to those with a younger population – more people will be retired and no longer economically active; care needs may be different and levels of ill-health and disability tend to be higher in populations which are older, for example. As suggested above (in discussion of figure 4), it is important to remember that a skewed age profile may be affected by different age groups having differing Census form return rates. This may or may not affect different ethnic groups in different ways.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary This section found that 0.9% of the region’s population reported as white Irish. However this is likely to be an under-representation of actual figures. Self-declared ethnicity is a complicated issue – the white Irish population could be as high as 3.0% of the population of the East Midlands. The reported white Irish population in the East Midlands has a relatively small number of people who are aged under 25 and a relatively large number of people who are aged 50 and older, and 75 and older.

7

Commentators have suggested that for a variety of reasons (such as the complexities of ethnicity and identity, a confusion between ethnicity and nationality, and the construction of the ethnic group question in the Census form), a number of people born on the island of Ireland and second and third generation Irish people may not have taken the option of identifying as white Irish in the 2001 Census.

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Section 2. Economic activity and inactivity

_____________________________________________________________________ Any population has a bearing on the economy of the place in which it lives. This section examines the levels of economic activity of the white Irish population of the East Midlands in comparison with the rest of the region’s population. Economic activity, as an indicator, is a count of the number of individuals who are either working or are available to work. To aid our understanding, this section also looks at what the Census has to say about economic inactivity. The first figures in this section look at those people aged between 16 and 24. The later figures look at the older age group – those aged between 25 and 74.

Figure 7. Proportion of the population of the East Midlands aged 16 to 24 years old which is economically active 8 80% 70% 60% 50% East Midlands

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

Ec

M ix ed

on om

ic al ly

ac tiv e

16 -2 4

ye a

ro l W ds: hi te tota -B l -W rit W W i hi h hi M ite sh te te ix -O -I an ed - W d B the rish la rW hi ck te hi C a te M a n As ixe d B ribb d l ia - W ack ean n As or i Af As hite As an ri or ia an can Bl ian n A d ac si B or As an rit k or As ia Br ish n Bl ian i t is ac I Bl n B h d a r k i - P ia C hi ck o Br tish n it ne - B akis se r Bl ish an tan or ack - B g i la O ck lad th Brit es er is C hi ar Et h hn Bl ibb ea ac ic n k G A ro up fric a -C n hi ne se

0%

In the East Midlands, 54.9% of the white Irish population aged 16 to 24 is economically active – a little more than half. This compares with 68.0% of the region’s white British population. However, economic activity amongst the young white Irish population is still the third highest of the ethnic populations listed – behind the white British, and the white and Black Caribbean (58.3%). The proportion of economically active young people falls to 27.9% in the Chinese population – less than a third.

8

Economically active is defined as the state of being available for work or working. Thus, someone who is unemployed is still defined as economically active. Someone who is retired, for example, is not defined as economically active.

14


Figure 8. Proportion of 25-74 year olds who are economically active 80% 70% 60% 50% East Midlands

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

Ec o

no m ic

al ly

ac tiv

e

25 -7 4

ye

ar ol ds W M : h ix ite tota ed -B l -W W rit W i hi h M te hite sh ix ite ed -O an I r d -W Bl the ish rW ac hi te k an Ca hite M As ixe d B rib b d i - W lack ean As an or As ian As hite Afr an ican Bl ian or A ian ac si or Br d A a k iti n si or As s Bl ian Brit h - an ac is Bl I B n h a r k C - P dia Br itis hi ck n h ne o it - B akis se r B ish - B an tan or lac gl la O kB ad i c th er ritis k C es h h a Et hn - B ribb i la ic e a c G ro k A n up fri c - C an hi ne se

0%

As with the 16 to 24 age group examined above, the white Irish population has lower levels of economic activity in the 25 to 74 age group than the white British population. This is more marked in the East Midlands than in the country as a whole. 57.8% of the white Irish population in this age group are economically active in comparison with 67.6% of the white British population. Only the Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations (50.4% and 49.5% respectively) have lower levels. When looking at this data, it is important to remember the relative age of the white Irish population – 16.7% of the white Irish population are aged 60 to 74 and may thus be retired and no longer economically active. This compares with 8.8% of the white British population (see figure 6). Figure 9. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 16 to 24 year old men 60% 50% 40% white Irish

30%

white British

20% 10%

is a

fa m

si ck /d

an e

nt ly

rh om e/

bl ed

ily

d R et ire

af te

Pe rm

ki ng Lo o

Fu lltim

Pa rttim e

em pl oy ee e em pl oy ee Se lfem pl oy ed U ne m pl oy Fu ed lltim e st ud en t

0%

The chart above suggests that much of the disparity in economic activity between the male white British population and the male white Irish population in the East Midlands may derive from the proportion of the population who are in full-time education. 48.6% of the 16 to 24 age group who are white Irish are full-time students – in comparison with 37.2% of the male white British population. A number of factors can influence the size of a student population. These include: - the achievement of appropriate qualifications earlier in life (see section 5: Qualifications) - a community ethos which values and encourages education

15


- migration specifically to attend further or higher education establishments (the Census data does not indicate what proportion of full-time students have come to England specifically for their education and, importantly, what proportion are planning to return to their home country once that education is complete). The large proportion of people who are students may account for the fact that just 27.3% of white Irish men in this age group are in full-time employment in comparison with 45.0% of white British men. Additionally, levels of unemployment are higher amongst white Irish men – 8.7% in comparison with 7.2% of white British men. Figure 10. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 16 to 24 year old women 60% 50% 40% white Irish

30%

white British

20% 10%

an e

nt ly

si ck /d

is a

fa m

bl ed

ily

d R et ire

rh om e/

af te

Pe rm

Lo o

ki ng

Pa rttim e em Fu pl oy lltim ee e em pl oy ee Se lfem pl oy ed U ne m pl oy Fu ed lltim e st ud en t

0%

When looking at young women, the proportion of students is again higher in the white Irish population than in the white British population – 49.7% of white Irish women in comparison with 34.3% of white British women. A smaller proportion of white Irish women than white British women are in both fulltime employment and part-time employment. 28.2% of white Irish women of this age group are in full-time employment as are 34.3% of white British women. For part-time employment, the proportion of white Irish women is 4.8% and it is 9.3% amongst white British women. Figure 11. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 25 to 74 year old men 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

white Irish

af te rh Pe om rm e/ an fa en m tly ily si ck /d is ab le d

R et ire d ng

Lo ok i

Fu ll-

Pa rttim e

em pl oy ee tim e em pl oy ee Se lfem pl oy ed U ne m pl oy Fu ed lltim e st ud en t

white British

As suggested by the higher proportion of older people (see figure 6), 20.4% of the region’s male white Irish working age population is retired – in comparison with 14.6% of the white British population. Levels of full-time employment are 11.6% lower in the white Irish population than in the white British population (44.2% and 55.8% respectively) 6.7% of the male white Irish population are not working because of being permanently sick or disabled in comparison with 1.5% of the white British population.

16


Figure 12. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 25 to 74 year old women 30% 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British

10% 5%

R af et te ir e rh d om an e en /fa tly m ily si ck /d is ab le d Pe rm

Lo ok i

ng

ye d U ne m pl Fu oy ed lltim e st ud en t

m pl o

ye e

f-e

em pl o

Se l

l-t i Fu l

Pa rtt

im

e

m e

em

pl o

ye e

0%

In the female population aged between 25 and 74, it is again the proportion of retired people which presents the most marked difference between the white Irish and white British populations. 26.6% of white Irish women are retired in comparison with 19.4% of the white British women. 26.3% of white Irish women of this age are in full-time employment in comparison with 28.6% of white British women. There is again a higher proportion of people permanently sick or disabled amongst white Irish women (7.7%) than amongst the white British women (5.3%). Figure 13. Proportion of men who are long-term unemployed – including those who have never worked 14% 12% 10% 8%

East Midlands

6%

England

4% 2%

M ix ed

W hi te

To t

a -B l r it W -W is W hi h hi te hi t e te M ix I a r O is ed nd th h er -W Bl a W hi ck h te ite an Car M ib d i be xe Bl As a an d ia - W ck n A As or h f r ic ite ia As an n As an ia or n d ia A B n A Bl si rit si or an ac an is As k h Br or ia i I t nd is n Bl h Br ac Bl - P ian iti k ac s a B h C k rit hi - B kist or is ne an h Bl se - B ang i ac la or la k de ck Br O s th iti C hi sh er a Et - B ribb hn ea la ic ck n G A ro f r ic up an -C hi ne se

0%

With only two exceptions, long-term unemployment (including those who have never worked) amongst men is lower in the East Midlands than it is in England as a whole. The first exception is white and Black Caribbean men, and the second is the Black African population. White Irish men in the East Midlands have the third lowest level of long-term unemployment (3.2%) - behind white British men (2.4%) and Chinese men (2.9%).

17


Figure 14. Proportion of women who are long-term unemployed – including those who have never worked 60% 50% 40% East Midlands

30%

England

20% 10%

M ix ed

W hi te

To t - B al -W r it W W i hi h M te hite sh ix ite -O an ed I r is - W d B th la e r W h hi ck te an Ca hite M As ixe d B rib b d i - W lack ean As an or ia Af h it As As n r or ia e a ican Bl ian n n A d ac si or As an Brit k or A s ia Br ish i n a Bl i n t is ac I Bl n B h d a r k C Br itish - P ian hi ck a o ne it se r Bl ish - B kist a an a n or c Bl ac glad i O kB th er ritis k C esh ar Et h i hn Bl ibb ea ac ic G k n ro A up fric - C an hi ne se

0%

4.3% of white Irish women are long-term unemployed (including those who have never worked) – this is the same level of unemployment as is found amongst the region’s white British women. These are the lowest levels of all the ethnic populations listed. In the Pakistani and Bangladeshi female populations, long-term unemployment reaches very high levels – 40.0% and 47.7% respectively. Generally, levels of female long-term unemployment in the region are lower than in England as a whole.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary This section looked at economic activity and found a relatively low level of economic activity amongst the largest age group – 25 to 74 year olds. In the same age group, there were relatively high levels of white Irish people who were retired and people who were not working because of permanent sickness or disability. In the 16 to 24 age group, the most notable feature is the relatively high proportion of white Irish people who were in full-time education. In terms of unemployment (including those who have never worked), figures for the white Irish population are higher than those for the white British population.

18


Section 3. Types of work

_____________________________________________________________________ Having examined overall levels of economic activity in the previous section, this section concentrates on what the Census reveals about the nature of work undertaken by the population. Do different ethnic minority groups tend to do different types of work?

Figure 15. The proportion of men who are managers or senior officials 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British 10%

all

5%

Pr

As

M

an ag er s

an d

se of ni es so or si ci of on at fic e al ia pr ls oc Ad of cu & m pa in te tio ch & ns se oc cr c up et a at Sk ria io lo ille ns cc d up tra Pe Sa at de rs io le on s ns s oc al & cu se cu p r st vi at Pr om ce io oc ns oc er es c s s, up er pl vi at ce an io ns t& oc cu m pa ac hi tio ne El ns em op en er at ta iv ry es oc cu pa tio ns

0%

The most significant differences between white Irish men and white British men are in professional occupations (white Irish – 13.7%, white British – 10.2%) and in skilled trades (white Irish – 17.1%, white British – 21.5%). The most common occupations for white Irish men are the managerial and senior positions (18.9%), professional occupations (13.7%), skilled trades (17.1%) and process, plant and machine operatives (15.9%). 14.7% of white Irish men work in the elementary occupations in comparison with 13.0% of white British men. Figure 16. Occupations amongst women aged 16 to 74 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British 10%

all

5%

M an ag er s

an d Pr se As of ni es or so si ci of on at fic e al ia pr ls o of Ad cc u & m p te in at ch io & ns se oc cr cu et p ar at Sk io ia ns lo ille cc d up tra Pe Sa at de rs io on le s ns s o a cc & ls u cu er p vi st at Pr ce om io ns oc oc er es c s up s, er at vi pl ce io an ns t& oc c m u pa ac tio hi ne El ns em op en er at ta iv ry es oc cu pa tio ns

0%

The most noticeable difference between white Irish women and white British women is the proportion in professional occupations and the associate professional and

19


technical occupations. Between the two, these account for 29.2% of white Irish women and 21.3% of white British women. Correspondingly, the administrative / secretarial occupations and sales / customer services engage 33.4% of white British women and 24.4% of white Irish women. The following figures look at employment in terms of what has become known as NSSEC. NS-SEC (National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification) is an attempt to look at social classification by occupation but, instead of being solely an examination of jobs, the NS-SEC is constructed using three pieces of information: occupation, employment status and the size of the establishment in which the person works. To this end, the 2001 Census form asked for a significant amount of information about each respondent’s job, place of work, role and level 9 . The picture created by the following figure will thus differ in some respects from the previous figures which were looking solely at occupation. Figure 17. Men in the East Midlands aged between 16 and 74 – by NS-SEC (excluding those who are unemployed or in full-time education) 20% 18% 16% 14% 12%

white Irish

10%

white British all

8% 6% 4% 2%

Lo w er

H ig he

rm an ag er ia l& m an pr ag of er es ia si l& on al pr of oc Sm es cu si al pa on le t io I al m nt Lo ns p e o lo rm w c c ye er u e pa di rs su at t io an pe e ns d rv oc ow is cu or n pa y ac an tio co ns d un te ch tw ni or ca Se ke lo rs m c i-r c up ou at tin io e ns oc R c up ou at tin io e ns oc cu pa tio ns

0%

When looking at occupations in the East Midlands in terms of the NS-Sec analysis, white Irish men are proportionately under-represented in each of the occupations listed when compared with the white British men – with two exceptions. The first exception is in terms of small employers and own account workers in which there is parity between the two populations at 9.9%. The second exception is in terms of higher managerial occupations. 11.1% of white Irish men are in higher managerial occupations in comparison with 10.8% of white British men. Conversely, 15.0% of white Irish men are in lower managerial occupations in comparison with 17.4% of white British men. Routine occupations include 12.5% of white Irish men, 13.3% of white British men and 13.2% of the region’s population as a whole.

9

A full description of the NS-SEC definitions is to be found in England: the Irish dimension – an exploration of 2001 Census data.

20


The reasons behind the lower levels of white Irish men in the majority of categories include the high proportion of full-time students (see figure 9). Figure 18. Women in the East Midlands aged between 16 and 74 – by NS-SEC (excluding those who are unemployed or in full-time education) 20% 18% 16% 14% 12%

white Irish

10%

white British

8%

all

6% 4% 2%

l&

ag er ia

m an

Lo w er

H ig h

er m

an ag e

ria l

&

pr of

es si on al oc pr of cu es pa si tio on Sm ns al al In oc le t e c m up rm pl at ed Lo oy io ia er w ns er te s an oc su d c pe up ow rv at n is io or ac ns y c ou an nt d te w ch or ke ni ca rs lo Se c m c u i-r pa ou tio tin ns e oc cu R pa ou tio tin ns e oc cu pa tio ns

0%

As with the situation with the men, there is parity between the white Irish and white British populations in terms of small employers, but there is a smaller proportion of white Irish women in each of the other categories. There is, however, one exception. 10.0% of white Irish women are in routine occupations in comparison with 7.9% of white British women. Again, as with white Irish men, the high proportion of students could account, in part, for the lesser proportion of women in the Ns-Sec areas. Figure 19. Industry areas of the male working population 30% 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British

10% 5%

Ag ric

ul tu

M re an ,m uf in ac in tu g rin an g d (in fis cl hi ud ng in g ut ilit W ie ho C s) le on sa st le ru ct an io d H n re ot ta Tr el s il an tra an sp Fi d de or na Pu re t n s a bl ci t n a ic al d ur se co an an ct m d ts or m pr u se of n es ic rv at ic si io es on n al (in se cl ud rv H ic in ea es g lth ed an uc d at so io n) ci al se rv ic es

0%

Looking at the figure above, it is clear that the white Irish and white British men follow broadly the same distribution in each of the industry types – with four key exceptions. These exceptions are in the wholesale and retail trade (employing 13.1% of white

21


Irish men and 17.2% of white British men), manufacturing (employing 21.3% of white Irish men and 27.3% of white British men), health and social services (employing 6.4% of white Irish men and 3.2% of white British men) and construction. 18.6% of white Irish men in the East Midlands work in construction – a larger proportion than any other ethnic group listed. There are consequences to working in the construction industry as a Mind report of 2003 10 has found: “A major disadvantage of a lifetime of work in the construction industry is that many Irish men are in poor physical health and unable to work. They have not paid insurance contributions and end up without pensions in their old age or when ill.” In the light of this, it is interesting to return to figure 11 which illustrates that 10.7% of men aged between 25 and 74 are not working because of permanent sickness or disability. This is a high proportion of men, particularly when looked at in comparison with the male white British population in which 6.7% are not working because of permanent sickness or disability. We will return to this topic in Section 8: Health. Figure 20. Industry areas of the female working population 30% 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British

10% 5%

M

Ag

ric ul tu re ,m an in uf in ac g tu an rin d g fis (in hi cl ng ud in g ut ilit ie s) W C ho on le st sa ru le ct an io n d re H ta ot il el tra Tr s an an de d sp re Fi or st na ta au Pu nc nd ra ia bl nt co la ic s m nd se m ct u p or ro ni ca fe se ss tio rv io n ic na es l ( in se cl rv ud ic es in H g ea ed lth u an ca t io d so n) ci al se rv ic es

0%

As with the men, white Irish women and white British women follow a similar pattern in each of the industry areas – with one significant exception. 27.9% of white Irish women work in health and social services, a proportion 8.9% higher than that of the white British women. Only two populations have a higher proportion of women working in this field – the Black Caribbean population (33.6%) and the Black African population (36.6%). Health and social services (also referred to as health and social care within the Census outputs) will include medicine, nursing, auxiliary nursing, care work, social work etc. Some of these jobs will be highly qualified and well paid roles such as doctors, others will require no qualifications and may well be low paid.

10

Mind: Mental health of Irish-born people in Britain, 2003

22


_____________________________________________________________________ In summary This section suggests that there is an Irish population which presents two pictures. The first presents a picture of a population which has a relatively high proportion in managerial positions and professional positions. The second presents a picture of a population in which a very high proportion of men are working in construction and a very high proportion of women are working in health and social care. These types of work can have significant effects on a population’s health, well-being and (current and future) financial well-being.

23


Section 4. Unpaid carers ___________________________________________________________________ Previous sections have examined work as well as retirement and full-time education. However, a significant form of unpaid work has so far been omitted from our discussion – caring for other people. Section 1 outlined the older nature of the white Irish population. Section 8 will look at the relatively high levels of ill health associated with this. This section examines whether these factors impact on the level of unpaid caring carried out by the white Irish population.

The Census divides unpaid care into three different levels depending on the hours an individual devotes to it: a. between 1 and 19 hours a week b. between 20 and 49 hours a week c. 50 or more hours a week People providing the very highest level of care are unlikely to be able to work at the same time which impacts on their own life as well as on the lives of their dependents. However, even the lowest level of care-giving may restrict full-time and even parttime employment opportunities. Those providing only a low level of care may not be able to work if they have, in addition, their own children to care for. Employment opportunities may also be reduced if the care has to take place at particular hours of the day. Even care which has to be given at anti-social hours (such as through the night) may impede a carer’s ability to work if they don’t have an opportunity to sleep. The Census form defines care as being ‘any help or support [given] to family members, friends, neighbours or others because of long-term physical or mental illhealth or disability; or problems related to old-age’. To get a greater understanding of levels of unpaid care, it is important to look at different elements of the population – men, women, younger people, people of pensionable age – as each has a very different picture of care. a. Between 1 and 19 hours a week of unpaid care To weave our way through this complex picture, we will take each level of care in turn, starting with those providing between 1 and 19 hours a week below. Figures 23 and 24 look at the working age carers and Figures 25 and 26 look at pensionable age carers.

24


Figure 21. Proportion of men aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 1 to 19 hours a week of unpaid care 10% 9% 8% 7% 6%

East Midlands

5%

England

4% 3% 2% 1%

M

ix ed

W hi te

To ta l

-B rit is W h hi W -W te hi t e hi Iri -O te sh M an th ix er d ed B W -W la hi ck te hi C te ar an ib b d M ea Bl ix n ac ed As k Af ia W ric n hi or an te As As an ia n ia d or n As As Br As ia ia i ti n n ia sh or n Bl B ac As I r n i k ti s di ia or an h n -P Bl Br ac i ti a sh ki k Bl st Br ac -B an iti k C an i sh or hi g -B ne Bl la de ac se la ck sh k or Br i C O iti ar th s ib h er be -B Et an la hn ck ic Af G ric ro up an -C hi ne se

0%

In the East Midlands, 6.8% of the white Irish men in this age group provided between 1 and 19 hours of unpaid care each week – a smaller proportion than amongst white British men – 8.3%. The population in which the highest proportion of men are providing this level of care is the Indian population (9.4%). The lowest proportion is the Black African population (4.0%). Figure 22. Proportion of women aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 1 to 19 hours a week of unpaid care 12% 10% 8% East Midlands

6%

England

4% 2%

hi -W hi te te hi te - O - Iri M sh an ix th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an ib M d be ix Bl an ed a As - W ck A ia n f hi ric As or te an ia As an n ia As or d n A ia As Br si n iti an ia Bl or sh n ac A B -I k s r i ia or nd tis n h Bl ia Br -P n ac iti Bl k ak sh ac Br i s k iti C ta Ba or sh hi ni ne ng Bl -B se l ac a l d a k or es ck Br hi O C iti th ar sh er i b -B be Et an hn la ck ic Af G ro ric up an -C hi ne se

-B

rit is h W

M ix ed

W

W

hi te

To

ta l

0%

On average, when looking at women rather than men in this age group, the proportion providing between 1 and 19 hours of care rises from 8.2% to 10.6%. The white British women had the highest proportion in this category – 10.8% - with the white Irish women following closely with 9.5%.

25


Figure 23. Proportion of men of pensionable age providing between 1 and 19 hours a week of unpaid care 10% 9% 8% 7% 6% East Midlands

5%

England

4% 3% 2% 1%

rit -W W W is hi hi h h t t i M e t e e ix a I ed O n th rish -W dB er l ac W hi k te hi C te a a M nd r ib As ixe Bl be d ac ia an k As n o - W A h r ia fri ite As n ca As or an ia n i a n d As Bl n B As ac or ia rit n ia i k n Br sh or Asi an -I i ti Bl n s ac Br h di Bl an -P k i ac C Br tish ak k hi i o t ne is r B ish B t se - B ang ani la ck or la l a d O th Brit ck C es is h er a h rib i Et hn - Bl be ac ic an k G Af ro r ic up - C an hi ne se

M

ix ed

W hi te

-B

To ta l

0%

4.4% of white Irish men of pensionable age are providing this level of care. This compares with 7.0% of white British men. In fact, none of the ethnic populations listed have a lower proportion of pensionable age men providing this level of care than the white Irish population – with one exception, the white and Black African population. Figure 24. Proportion of women of pensionable age providing between 1 and 19 hours a week of unpaid care 8% 7% 6% 5% East Midlands

4%

England

3% 2% 1%

M ix ed

W hi te

To t

a -B l r iti W -W W sh hi hi hi te te M te ix I an O ris ed th h -W dB er l a W hi c k hi te te an Ca M rib d i xe be Bl As d a an ia - W ck n As Af or h r ic ia ite As n an As an ia or ia n d As n Bl Br A or ia ac si iti n an k As Br sh or ia iti I Bl n nd sh B a Bl - P ian ac ck B ritis C a h k rit hi - B kis or is ne ta h Bl se ni - B ang ac or la la k de ck Br O sh th C er itish i a Et - B ribb hn e la an ic ck G Af ro ric up - C an hi ne se

0%

5.9% of pensionable age white Irish women provide care at this low level. This compares with 7% of white British women – the highest proportion of all the

26


populations listed. The white Irish population has a proportion in the mid-range of all the populations listed. The following charts look at those people providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care. Figures 27 and 28 look at carers aged between 16 and pensionable age and figures 29 and 30 look at carers of pensionable age. b. Between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care Figure 25. Proportion of men aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 20 to 49 hours a week of unpaid care 3.0% 2.5% 2.0% East Midlands

1.5%

England

1.0% 0.5%

M ix ed

W hi te

To t - B al -W r it W W i hi h M te hite sh ix ite -O ed an Iri - W d B th s la e r W h hi ck te an Ca hite M As ixe d B rib b d l i - W ack ean As an or Af ia h ite As n As ri or i an can Bl ian As an d ac Br or ia As k it n or As ia Br ish n B l ia n iti ac Bl sh - In B di ac rit k C is Br Pa an k hi h o it ne k se r Bl ish - Ba ist ng ani or ack - B la O ck lade th Brit er is sh C h a Et i hn - B ribb la ea ic c n k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0.0%

The chart above looks at men providing a higher level of care – between 20 and 49 hours each week. As the level of care has increased, the proportion of men involved has fallen on average by 7.1% - from 8.2% to 1.1%. Interestingly those communities in which the largest proportion of men participating are the Pakistani (2.4%), Bangladeshi (1.8%) and Indian (2.3%) populations. 1.4% of white Irish men are involved in comparison with 1.0% of white British men.

27


Figure 26. Proportion of women aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 20 to 49 hours a week of unpaid care 4.5% 4.0% 3.5% 3.0% 2.5%

East Midlands

2.0%

England

1.5% 1.0% 0.5%

M ix ed

W hi te

To ta -B l r it W -W W is hi h hi hi t e t e M te -O ix I a ris ed n th h er -W dB la W hi ck hi te te an Car M ib d i xe be Bl As d a an ia - W ck n As Af or h r ic ite ia As n an As an ia or n ia d As n Br Bl As or ia ac iti ia n As k n Br sh or ia i t I n is n Bl d h Br ac Bl - P ian iti k ac sh Br ak C k hi iti or sh - Ba ista ne Bl ni se ng -B ac la or l k de Br ack O sh th iti C s er i ar ib Et h be Bl hn a a ic ck n G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0.0%

1.7% of women aged between 16 and pensionable age are providing between 20 and 49 hours of care a week. This varies between the different minority ethnic groups – from 0.8% of Chinese women, to 3.8% of Pakistani women. 1.9% of white Irish women are involved as are 1.6% of white British women. Figure 27. Proportion of men of pensionable age providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care 9.0% 8.0% 7.0% 6.0% 5.0%

East Midlands

4.0%

England

3.0% 2.0% 1.0%

W hi te

To ta M -B l ix ed r iti W -W W sh hi hi te hi t e te M -O Iri ix an ed sh th d er -W Bl a W ck hi hi te te an Car M i d b i b x B As ed ea la n ia - W ck A As n o h f r r ite ia ic As an n As an ia or n d ia As Br n As Bl ia or iti ac ia n sh n As k Br or -I ia i t nd is n Bl h Br ac Bl - P ian i k ac Br tish a C k iti hi - B kist or sh ne an Bl se - B ang i ac l or a l k ac de Br O k sh th iti i sh Car er ib Et -B be hn la an ic ck G Af ro ric up - C an hi ne se

0.0%

1.5% of the men of this age are providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care – the same as in the white British population. The highest level is to be found in the white and Black African population (7.9%). 1.2% of white Irish men are providing care at this level.

28


Figure 28. Proportion of women of pensionable age providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care 5.0% 4.5% 4.0% 3.5% 3.0% East Midlands

2.5%

England

2.0% 1.5% 1.0% 0.5%

W

hi te

To ta l -B M rit ix is W ed h W hi -W te hi t e hi Iri -O te sh M an th ix er ed d B W -W la hi ck te hi C te a rib an d be M Bl ix an ac ed As k Af ia W n r ic hi or As an te As an ia n ia d o n As As rA Br ia ia si iti n n an sh Bl or ac -I Br A k si n i t d is an or ia h n Bl Br -P ac iti ak sh k Bl i Br s ac -B ta iti k ni sh C an or hi gl -B Bl ne a ac de la se ck k sh or Br C i O iti ar th sh i bb er ea Bl Et n ac hn k ic A G f r ro ic an up -C hi ne se

0.0%

The highest proportion of women providing care at this level is, as amongst the men, in the white and Black African population (4.8%). In the white Irish population it is 1.3% and in the white British population the proportion is just 0.1% higher. The following charts look at those people providing 50 hours or more of care a week. Figures 31 and 32 look at people aged 16 to pensionable age. Figures 33 and 34 look at people of pensionable age. c. 50 or more hours a week of unpaid care Figure 29. Proportion of men aged between 16 and pensionable age providing more than 49 hours a week of unpaid care 2.5% 2.0% 1.5%

East Midlands England

1.0% 0.5%

-B r it W is W h h h i t ite hi e te M -I ix ris O an ed th h d er -W Bl W ac hi h k te ite an Car M ib d be ix Bl ed As an a ia - W ck n Af As or hi r ic te ia As an n an As ia or d n ia A As Br n si Bl iti or ia an ac sh n As k B -I or rit ia n i n s Bl d h Br ac - P ian Bl iti k ac sh ak B C rit k is -B hi or is ne h an tani Bl se gl ac Bl ad or ac k es Br k O hi iti C th sh ar er ib -B Et b ea hn la n ck ic G A ro fri up ca n -C hi ne se

M ix ed

-W

W hi te

To t

al

0.0%

At the highest level of care provision (49 or more hours a week), a higher proportion of Irish men are involved than the rest of the population. 2.4% of white Irish men are providing 49 or more hours a week of unpaid care – more than 7 hours a day on average. In comparison, 1.6% of white British men are involved at this level.

29


Figure 30. Proportion of women aged between 16 and pensionable age providing more than 50 hours a week of unpaid care 7% 6% 5% 4%

East Midlands

3%

England

2% 1%

M ix ed

W hi te

To t

a -B l r iti W -W W sh hi hi hi te te M te -I ix an O ris ed th h er -W dB la W hi ck hi te te an Car M i d bb i x B As ed ea la ia n - W ck n As A or h f r ite ia ic As n an As an ia or n ia d A n Br Bl A s si or ia ac iti an n As k Br sh or ia i tis In n Bl d h Br ac Bl - P ian iti k ac sh Br ak C k hi iti or sh - Ba ista ne Bl ni se ng -B ac la or la k d ck Br O es th iti C hi sh er ar i Et bb -B hn ea la ic ck n G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0%

On average, 2.6% of the women of the East Midlands aged between 16 and pensionable age are providing this highest level of weekly care. The proportion of white Irish women involved is higher – 3.1%. Only the Bangladeshi, Pakistani and Indian populations have higher proportions of women involved (6.4%, 4.8% and 3.2% respectively). Figure 31. Proportion of men of pensionable age providing more than 50 hours a week of unpaid care 6% 5% 4% East Midlands

3%

England

2% 1%

-B r it W is W -W h hi hi t e hi te te M -O Iri ix an sh th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an ib M d be ix Bl ed an As a ia - W ck A n fri As hi or ca te ia As n a n i n As an or d ia A A Br n si si Bl iti an an or sh ac As Br k -I or ia iti nd sh n Bl Br ac - P ian iti Bl k sh ak ac Br is C k -B iti ta hi o s a r ni h ne n B -B gl se la a c l ac de k or Br k sh O C iti th i a s er r ib h -B Et be hn la an ck ic G Af ro ric up an -C hi ne se

M ix ed

W hi te

To t

al

0%

4.0% of white Irish men of pensionable age are providing this high level of care – this compares with 4.9% of white British men. The highest level is to be found in the Indian population (5.2%).

30


Figure 32. Proportion of women of pensionable age providing more than 50 hours a week of unpaid care 6% 5% 4% East Midlands

3%

England

2% 1%

M ix ed

W hi te

To t

a -B l r it W is -W W h hi hi t hi e t e te M I ix r an O is ed th h d er -W Bl W a ck hi hi te te an Car M ib d be ix B ed As la an ia - W ck n Af As or hi r ic te ia As an n an As ia or n d ia A A B n si Bl si rit or an ac an is h As k Br or ia i I t n is n Bl d h Br ac - P ian Bl iti k ac s a Br h C k - B kist iti hi or sh an ne an B i -B se la gl c a l or ac k de Br k O s hi iti C th sh ar er ib Et -B b ea hn la n ck ic G A ro fri up ca n -C hi ne se

0%

4.0% of white Irish men are providing this high level of care, as are 3.8% of white Irish women. By comparison, 4.1% of pensionable age white British women are providing care at this level. The highest proportion is to be found amongst Bangladeshi women – 4.8% It is important to recognise that while proportions are relatively low in comparison to, say the Bangladeshi community, the numbers may actually be higher because of the large proportion of people of pensionable age in the Irish community in the East Midlands.

The data from this section indicates that there are relatively high levels of care in the white Irish population (in comparison with the other populations listed) in the following population groups: - Working age women – 1-19 hours a week of care - Working age men – 20-49 hours a week of care - Working age women – 20-49 hours a week of care - Working age men – more than 50 hours a week of care - Working age women – more than 50 hours a week of care

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary Providing care for a family member or other person can have a significant impact not only on the person caring but also on the dependents of the carer, as the time devoted to caring may mean that taking on employment is not possible. The above analysis demonstrates a complex pattern of care amongst the minority ethnic populations in the different age bands. What is needed is an assessment of the economic and health impacts of care provision as well as the support needs of those who are caring.

31


Section 5. Qualifications

_____________________________________________________________________ This section looks at educational achievement as measured by the attainment of qualifications. While there is a whole range of educational attainment, this section examines the topics by two means – the attainment of no qualifications at all, and the attainment of the highest levels of qualifications.

Figure 33. Proportion of 16 to 24 year olds with no qualifications 30% 25% 20% East Midlands

15%

England

10% 5%

M ix ed

N o

qu al if

ic at io W ns : hi te tot -W - B al W W h M r ix ite hite hit itis ed an -O e- h -W d Ir t hi Bla her ish ck te W M As ix and Ca hite r e As ian d - Bla ibb ea As ian or A Wh ck n ite Afr or Bl ia s ic ac n o A ian a a n s k or r As ian Bri d A n ti Bl Bla ian Brit sh sian -I C c hi ack k B Brit ish nd ne i or s r Pa ian i se Bl tish h k B or ac is O k B Bl ang tan ac th i l a r er it k d Et ish Ca esh hn - B rib i ic b l G ack ea ro n A up fr - C ica hi n ne se

0%

In the East Midlands, 14.6% of the white Irish population aged between 16 and 24 have no qualifications – an increase of 2.3% on white Irish people in England. In England, 15.9% of the white British population has no qualifications. This increases to 16.9% in the East Midlands. With the exception of the Chinese population (9.5%) and the Indian population (13.2%), the white Irish population has the lowest proportion of 16 to 24 year olds with no qualifications.

32


Figure 34. Proportion of 16 to 24 years with qualifications at level 4/5 11 30% 25% 20% East Midlands

15%

England

10% 5%

Le ve l4 /5 W M hi : to ix te t ed - B al -W W rit W h i hi M te hite sh ix ite ed an -O I ris - W d B th h e la hi ck r W te h an Ca it M As ixe d B rib e be d ia l a - W ck n As an or As ian As hite Afr i an can Bl ian or A ian ac si or Br d A a k iti n si or As s Bl ian Brit h - an ac is Bl I B n h ac r k C - P dia Br itis hi n h ne k or iti a k se Bl sh Ba ist a a or ng ck ni Bl O th Bri ack lade tis er h Ca sh Et hn - B ribb i la ic ea c G ro k A n fri up - C can hi ne se

0%

14.8% of the white Irish population of the region aged between 16 and 24 have qualifications at levels 4 or 5. Only three groups have higher proportions – ‘other white’ (21.5%), Indian (15.1%) and Chinese (20.7%). The white British population fares relatively poorly – with 8.8% attaining levels 4 or 5. While a relatively high proportion -14.8% - of the white Irish people in the East Midlands have these high level qualifications, this is a lower proportion than the equivalent percentage for England as a whole – 21.9% of the 16 to 24 year olds of England have qualifications at this level. Figure 35. The proportion of the population with no qualifications 80% 70% 60% 50%

white Irish

40%

white British

30%

all

20% 10% 0% 16 - 24 25 - 34 35 -49 50 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 74

The chart above clearly indicates how the older generations have a far greater proportion of people with no qualifications than the younger generations, reflecting changes in education. Whereas 14.6% of 16 to 24 year old white Irish people had no qualifications, this rises to 73.6% of those aged between 65 and 74. However, there are also other patterns in existence. In the 16 to 24 and the 25 to 34 age groups, a lesser proportion of the white Irish population than the white British population have no qualifications. In all other age groups, the pattern is reversed. In the 50 to 59 age group, for example, 51.9% of white Irish people in the region have no qualifications in comparison with 42.7% of the white British population.

11

Level 4/5 equates to a first degree, higher degree, NVQ levels 4-5, HNC, HND, qualified teacher status, qualified medical doctor, qualified dentist, qualified nurse, midwife, health visitor or equivalents.

33


Figure 36. The proportion of the population with qualifications at levels 4 or 5 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

white Irish white British all

16 - 24

25 - 34

35 -49

50 - 59

60 - 64

65 - 74

With the exception of the 16-24 age group many members of which may not have had time to reach higher levels of qualifications thus far, the general trend is downward as the older generations have fewer individuals with higher levels of qualifications. It is apparent that more of the white Irish population are achieving these higher levels of qualifications than the rest of the population of the East Midlands up to the 50 to 59 age group. For example, 39.5% of the white Irish population aged between 25 and 34 have higher levels of qualifications in comparison with 21.6% of the white British population. Hickman and Walter (1997) 12 notice the trend for a high proportion of the Irish population to have high level qualifications and term it a ‘brain drain’ – a tendency for some migrants to be highly qualified. They also recognise the tendency for other migrants to be ‘on the other end of the scale’ and have no qualifications at all. They create a picture of two extremes.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary Hickman and Walter (ibid) found a dual picture of Irish people in Britain. A high proportion of Irish people with high level qualifications and a high proportion of people with no qualifications. However, in terms of the younger sections of the white Irish population (those in the age bands below 35 years of age), there is a relatively small proportion of people with no qualifications at all.

12

Hickman MJ and Walter B (1997) Discrimination and the Irish Community in Britain, The Commission for Racial Equality.

34


Section 6. Home tenure and accommodation type

_____________________________________________________________________ The type of housing in which a community lives can say much about its position in society and about the impact of other community characteristics such as economic activity and income. Type and nature of housing can also impact on a community and affect how it functions in terms of, for example, health and well-being. This section looks at type of housing in broad terms – such as ownership and whether it is shared.

Figure 37. Proportion of the population which owns own home 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

East Midlands

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

O w ns

ho m e: W to hi M ta te ix ed -B l -W r it W W is hi hi hi h M te te te ix a ed Iri O nd th sh -W Bl er ac hi W te k hi te an Ca M rib As ixe d B be l d ia an - W ack n As or Af h ia i r As te n ic As an or ia an n Bl ian As d B ac or A ia r it si k n an or Asi Br ish an -I iti Bl s nd ac Br Bl h k a - P ian it C hi ck o Brit ish a ne r B ish - B kist se an an la Bl c i or gl ad ac O kB k es rit th C is er hi ar Et h hn Bl ibbe a ic a G ck A n ro f ric up - C an hi ne se

0%

73.0% of the population of the population of the East Midlands own their own home. In comparison, 69.3% of the population of England own their own home. 68.1% of the region’s white Irish population own their own home – 5.6% lower than the proportion of white British people (73.7%) but the third highest proportion over all, after the white British population and the Pakistani population (71.6%). These figures include people who own their own home outright (have no further payments to make on it) and those who own it with the help of a mortgage or other loan. The following charts give this breakdown. Figure 38. Proportion of the population which owns own home outright 35% 30% 25% 20%

East Midlands

15%

England

10% 5%

O w ns

ou tri gh t: W to hi ta te l M ix B rit ed W is W -W h hi hi te hi te te M -O I r ix an is th ed h d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an ib M d be ix B ed la an As ia - W ck n Af As hi or ric te ia As an n an ia As or d n ia A A B n si si rit Bl an an or is ac h As Br k or ia i ti In s n d Bl h Br ac - P ian i ti Bl k sh ak ac B is C rit k -B ta hi is or an ni ne h Bl g se ac Bl la de ac or k Br k sh O C iti th i ar sh er ib Et -B be hn la an ic ck G Af ro r ic up an -C hi ne se

0%

35


While the extent of home ownership is lower amongst the white Irish population than in the white British population, the extent of outright ownership is higher – 29.4% in comparison with 25.7%. This is perhaps related to the relative age of the white Irish population many of whom may have had longer to pay off any mortgage or loan associated with their original house purchase. This is not the case, however, with the Indian and Pakistani populations who have the highest levels of outright ownership (26.9% and 26.8% respectively) but are also relatively young populations. Figure 39. Proportion of the population which owns own home with a mortgage or loan 60% 50% 40% East Midlands

30%

England

20% 10%

M ix ed

O w ns

w

ith

m

or tg a W ge :t hi t o e -W - B tal W M W hi r h i ix ed te a ite hite tish - W nd - O - I t hi Bla her rish te ck W As Mix and Ca hit e r i ib e B As an d - W lac be As ian or a k hi A n Bl ia o A ac n o r A sia te a fric n a s k or r As ian Br nd A n i Bl Bla ian Bri tish sia C hi ack ck B Bri tish - In n ne ti - P dia o se r B ritis sh n a or lac h - - B kis O k B Bl ang tan th a er riti ck lad i C e Et sh hn - B ari shi ic la bbe G ck an ro up Afr - C ic a hi n ne se

0%

While 29.4% of the white Irish population of the region own their own home outright, a further 38.7% do so with the aid of a mortgage or other loan. This compares with 47.9% of the white British population. The highest level of home ownership utilising a mortgage or other loan is in the Indian population (53.1%). Figure 40. Proportion of the population in social housing 60% 50% 40% East Midlands

30%

England

20% 10%

So ci al r

en t: W to hi ta te l -B M ix r iti ed W sh W hi -W hi te te hi t I -O e M ris an ix h th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an i b d M b Bl ix ea ed a n As - W ck A ia n fri hi or As ca te As ia n an n ia d or As n As Br As ia n ia i ti ia Bl n or sh n ac Br As -I k i ti nd ia or s n h ia Bl Br n -P ac i ti Bl ak k s h ac Br is ta k C iti Ba sh hi ni or ng ne Bl -B la se ac la de k or ck sh Br O C i iti th ar sh er ib -B be Et hn an la ck ic G A fr i ro ca up n -C hi ne se

0%

15.6% of the population of the East Midlands are in social housing (including properties rented from the local council). 18.7% of the white Irish population is in social housing – 3.1% higher than the white British population (15.6%) but

36


significantly lower than some other minority ethnic groups such as the white and Black Caribbean population (43.8%). Figure 41. Proportion of the population in private rented accommodation 35% 30% 25% 20%

East Midlands

15%

England

10% 5%

Pr iv

at e

re nt ed :t W ot hi al te M ix B ed rit W is W -W h hi hi te hi te te M -O Iri ix a sh nd ed th er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an ib M d be ix B ed la As an ia - W ck n Af As or hi ric te ia As an n an ia As or d n ia A A B n si si rit Bl an or an is ac h As Br k -I or ia i ti nd s n Bl h Br ac - P ian i ti Bl k sh ak ac B C is rit k -B hi ta is or ne a ni h ng Bl -B se ac l ad la or k ck es Br O hi C th iti ar sh er i bb Et -B ea hn la n ic ck G Af ro r i up ca n -C hi ne se

0%

The highest levels of private rented accommodation are in the ‘white other’, Chinese and Black African populations – 19.2%, 20.2% and 30.0% respectively. 8.0% of the white Irish population lives in such accommodation as does 7.1% of the white British population. Figure 42. Proportion of the population in communal establishments 14% 12% 10% 8%

East Midlands

6%

England

4% 2%

Li v

M ix ed

in g

in

co

m m un al

es ta

bl is hm W en -W hi t: M te to ix hit Wh - ta ed e W ite h Br l a - W nd - ite itis hi Bl Oth - I h As Mi te a ack er rish As ia xe nd C W n d a h Bl Asia ian or - W Bla rib ite ac n o A b c k or r A sia hit k A ean e or A s f n r i a C Bla Bla sia an Br nd ica h i c c n B iti ne k k B rit sh As n se or Br rit ish - ian or Bla itis ish - P Ind O ck h - - B ak ian th B B a is er ri la ng ta Et tish ck la ni hn - C de ic Bl ari sh G ac bb i ro k ea up A n - C frica hi n ne se

0%

2.7% of the white Irish population of the East Midlands lives in communal establishments. This compares with 1.7% of the white British population. The highest proportion is found in the Chinese population (12.2%). These figures can be disaggregated into medical and care communal establishments and other communal establishments. 1.3% of the white Irish population is living in medical and care communal establishments. This is the highest proportion of all the ethnic populations listed. 0.9% of the white British population is in medical and care establishments. A further 1.3% of white Irish people are living in other communal establishments along with less than 0.9% of the white British population.

37


Figure 43a. Proportion of men in key examples of communal establishments in the East Midlands (not including staff members) – by establishment type (whole numbers are given in parenthesis, ‘neg.’ suggests number less than 20)

Psychiatric hospitals and homes Nursing homes Residential care homes Prison service establishments Probation/bail hostels

White Irish population 0.17% (30) 0.31% (54) 0.45% (78) 0.66% (114) 0.00% (neg.)

White British population 0.04% (799) 0.16% (3,034) 0.25% (4,651) 0.26% (4,873) 0.01% (94)

Whole population 0.05% (1,053) 0.19% (3,823) 0.27% (5,543) 0.30% (6,199) 0.01% (107)

Figure 43b. Proportion women in key examples of communal establishments in the East Midlands (not including staff members) – by establishment type (whole numbers are given in parenthesis, ‘neg.’ suggests number less than 20)

Psychiatric hospitals and homes Nursing homes Residential care homes Prison service establishments Probation/bail hostels

White Irish population 0.08% (neg.) 0.58% (105) 0.62% (113) 0.03% (neg.) 0% (neg.)

White British population 0.03% (550) 0.40% (7,823) 0.60% (11,649) 0.01% (175) 0% (neg.)

Whole population 0.03% (682) 0.45% (9,638) 0.64% (13,523) 0.01% (300) 0% (neg.)

Noticeably, the male white Irish population has a significantly higher proportion of people in nursing homes and residential care homes and in prison in comparison with the white British population. In terms of residential care homes and nursing homes, this is likely to be related to the relative age of the male white Irish population in comparison with the rest of the population. However, there is no other data from the Census which can offer explanations for the proportion of the white Irish population in psychiatric hospitals and prison. Discussion surrounding a high proportion of Black Caribbean people in prisons and in psychiatric units suggests that direct and indirect racism 13 has a significant role. This was the similar finding of Bracken et al 1998 14 in terms of hospital admissions for mental health issues for Irish people. They found that the neglect of the Irish community in this regard is untenable.

13

Direct racism is where a person is directly refused a service or receives physical abuse because of racism. Indirect racism is where a condition is imposed on a service which consequently means that an individual cannot achieve it. 14 Bracken P, Greenslade L, Griffin B, Smyth M, 1998, Mental health and ethnicity: an Irish dimension. British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 172 pp103-105.

38


Figure 44. Proportion of households comprising a lone pensioner 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%

East Midlands

O ne

pe n

si on e

rh

ou se ho M W lds ix hi : to ed te -W - tal W W Bri M hi h t h t ix e d e a ite - ite is h O -I - W nd r t hi Bla her ish te ck W a M As ix nd Car hite e As ian d - Bla ibbe W ck an A ian or h Bl sian or Asi ite Afri c ac A a a k or A sia n B nd an or rit n A s i si a B Bl ian Br sh C lac ack Br itish - I n n hi k i B ne or rit tish - P dia se B is - B ak n or lac h an ista B k O th Br lac gla ni er itis k d C es Et h hn - B arib hi ic b la G ck ea n ro A up fr i c - C an hi ne se

England

27.8% of the white Irish population of the East Midlands is aged over 64 (see figure 6). It is thus perhaps not surprising that a high proportion, 18.7%, of white Irish households comprise a sole pensioner. This compares to 14.3% of the white British households and far exceeds the proportion of lone pensioner households in the other minority ethnic populations listed. Figure 45. Proportion of households with more than one related pensioner 12% 10% 8% East Midlands

6%

England

4% 2%

O ne

hi te

W

M

fa m

ily

ho us eh ol ds ,a ll

pe ns io

ne rs :t

ot al -B ix r i tis ed W h W hi -W hi te te hi te Iri -O M sh an ix th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an ib d M b ea Bl ix ed ac n As k -W ia Af n ric hi or As te an As ia an n ia d or As n A B ia As si rit n an ia Bl is or n h ac Br As -I k iti nd ia or s n ia h Bl Br n -P ac iti ak Bl k sh Br ac i s -B ta iti k C sh ni or hi an ne gl Bl -B se ad ac la e k c or sh k Br O C i iti th ar sh er ib b Et e B an hn la ck ic G Af ro r ic up an -C hi ne se

0%

Again, reflecting the high proportion of people of pensionable age in the white Irish population, a high proportion are living in households in which all inhabitants are pensioners who are related to each other (such as a married couple) – 10.0%. This compares to 10% of the white British population and, the lowest proportion of the populations listed, 0.6% of the Bangladeshi population, for example.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary Housing can be very important in terms of a person’s health and well-being. The analysis of the relevant data in this section suggests that the white Irish population has a relatively high level of home ownership and, in comparison with the white British populations, a relatively high proportion of Irish people live in medical and care establishments including nursing homes, residential care homes, prison and psychiatric homes. There is a relatively high proportion of lone pensioner households in the white Irish population.

39


Section 7. Amenities

_____________________________________________________________________ There are certain measures which are used by researchers to assess the quality of life of households. In the Census these include central heating, overcrowding, bathroom sharing and car ownership.

Figure 46. Proportion of the population living without central heating 20% 18% 16% 14% 12%

East Midlands

10%

England

8% 6% 4% 2%

N o

ce

nt ra

lh ea t in g: W M h ix ite tota ed -B l -W W r it W i hi h M te hite sh ix ite -O ed an - W d B th Irish la e r hi W ck te an Ca hite M As ixe d B rib b d i - W lack ean As an or ia A h As fri n As ite or i an can Bl ian As an d ac or B ia As rit k n or As ia Br ish B l ia n i -I n ac Bl Br tish nd a k C Br itish - P ian hi ck a o ne it se r Bl ish - B kist or ack - B ang ani la la O c d th Brit er is k C esh h a Et i r i b hn Bl ac bea ic G k n ro A up fric a -C n hi ne se

0%

3.8% of the population of the East Midlands is living without central heating – in comparison with 6.5% of the population of England. Amongst the white British population, the proportion is 4.8%. This rises to 6.5% when looking at the white Irish population. The proportion of the population living without central heating is highest in the Pakistani population (8.8%). There are a number of factors which may have an impact on the different levels of central heating. These include: Expense Central heating is an expensive investment. Economic activity is comparatively low amongst both white Irish men and white Irish women (section 2: Economic activity and inactivity). This leaves a relatively high proportion of the white Irish population living on forms of income other than earnings – pensions, benefits etc. In such situations, affording central heating may not be possible. Home ownership Tenants may have no say in the type of heating provided by a landlord (private or otherwise). It is only when a home is owned by the occupier that they can make their own decisions about heating adaptations. There is a relatively high proportion of the white Irish population living in homes that they own (figure 39).

40


Figure 47. Proportion of population with an occupancy rating of –1 or less 15 60% 50% 40% East Midlands

30%

England

20% 10%

M ix ed

W hi te

To ta l

-B rit is W h W hi -W hi te te hi I t r e M is O an ix h th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an i b d M b ea Bl ix ed ac n As k -W ia A n f r hi ic or As te an As ia an n ia d or As n A Br As ia si n an iti ia Bl or sh n ac B A k r s I i nd tis ia or n h ia Bl Br n -P ac i t Bl ak is k h ac Br is ta iti k C Ba sh ni or hi ng ne Bl -B l ac a se l d a k es ck or Br hi O C iti ar th sh er ib b Et ea Bl hn ac n ic k A G f ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0%

An occupancy rating of –1 or less suggests overcrowding. In this region, 5.8% of the population are experiencing overcrowding in their home. This ranges from 4.8% amongst the white British population to 38.0% in the Bangladeshi population. In the white Irish population, the proportion is 6.9%. Figure 48. Proportion of the population living in households without sole use of shower/bath and toilet 1.4% 1.2% 1.0% 0.8%

East Midlands

0.6%

England

0.4% 0.2%

ix ed

M

w ith ou ts ol e

us e

of sh ow er /b at h

an d

to W ilet : hi te tota -B l -W W h hi Wh ritis M te it ix ite h ed an - O e I -W d Bl the rish hi rW ac te k hi an C M t a As ixe d rib e B i d b As an ea - W lac or k hi Af n As ian A t Bl ian or A sia e a rica ac n or s i n B nd k an rit As or As is B i i a an Bl rit h n Bl a In ac ck Bri ish C d hi ne k o Bri tish - Pa ian se r B tish - B ki or lac - B an stan k O Br lac glad i th k iti er e Et sh Ca shi hn - B rib b ic la ea c G ro k A n up fr i - C can hi ne se

0.0%

The highest proportion of people living without sole use of a bath/shower and toilet in their home is in the Pakistani population – 1.0%. The Irish population has the second lowest proportion – 0.1%

15

The occupancy rating in the Census assumes that every household, including one-person households, requires a minimum of two common rooms (excluding bathrooms). An occupancy rating of –1 implies that there is one room too few and that there is thus overcrowding in the household.

41


Figure 49. The proportion of the population which does not own a car or van 60% 50% 40% East Midlands

30%

England

20% 10%

W

M

W

hi te

-B rit is h ix h ed ite W hi -W te Iri hi sh -O te th an M er ix d W ed Bl hi ac -W te k hi C ar te i bb an ea d Bl M n ix a ck ed Af As -W r ic ia hi an n te or a As As n d ia ia As n n or Br ia As n As i t is ia ia h n n or Br In Bl As di iti ac an sh ia k n or -P B Bl r a i t ki ac is st h k an -B Bl Br i ac iti a sh ng k or la C -B de hi B la ne la sh ck ck se i C Br or a i rib tis O h be th -B er an Et la ck hn ic Af ric G ro an up -C hi ne se

0%

35.9% of the white Irish population of the East Midlands does not own either a car or a van. The group with the lowest level of car or van ownership is the white and Black Caribbean population (47.2% does not own one). 23.8% of the white British population does not own a car. One factor in the relatively low level of car ownership in some populations could be expense – with low levels of economic activity (section 2: Economic activity and inactivity) leaving a proportion of the population reliant on forms of income other than a salary. Hickman and Walter (1997) suggest that, in large part, such issues as car ownership could be dependent on the tendency of the Irish population to ‘cluster’ in urban areas.

__________________________________________________________________ In summary Like housing tenure, the picture provided by the Census data on amenities is a complex one. This section illustrates that the white Irish population has a relatively high proportion of the population living without central heating; a low proportion of people without sole use of bathroom facilities and a high proportion of people living in overcrowded accommodation in comparison with the white British population, although a relatively low proportion in comparison with other minority ethnic populations. A relatively high proportion of white Irish households are without a car. Each of these high proportions of ‘doing without’ may point, at least in part, towards relative poverty, although other factors will also play a part.

42


Section 8. Health

_____________________________________________________________________ This section looks at the health of the population. This is not based on medical records or hospital admissions but on questions in the Census about how people rated their own health. There are two questions – whether people have limiting long-term illness and whether people feel themselves to be in good or poor health.

Respondents were asked, in the Census form, whether they had ‘any long-term illness, health problem or disability which limits your daily activities or the work you can do’. The illnesses or disabilities that people were thinking of when answering this question must inevitably cover a very wide range of health issues including both physical and mental complaints. The key issue that the question presents is that of the long-lasting nature of the health issue or disability. The other question relating to people’s own analysis of their health, relates only to the previous twelve months. This is examined in figures 59 and 60 at the end of this section. The following figures look at the proportion of the population that said yes, they did have a limiting long-term illness. Figure 50. Proportion of 0 to 15 year old girls with limiting long-term illness 6% 5% 4% East Midlands

3%

England

2% 1%

Li m iti n

g

lo n

gte

rm

illn es s: W to hi ta te M ix -B l ed r i W tis -W W hi h hi hi te te M te ix Ir i an O ed sh th er -W dB la W hi ck hi te te an Ca M rib d i xe be Bl As d a an ia - W ck n As Af or hi r ia ic te As n an As an ia or ia n d As n Bl Br As ia or ac iti ia n k As n Br sh or ia iti In Bl n s d h B a Bl ck ri - P ian ac Br tish ak C k iti hi is o sh ne B rB ta ni se - B ang la c la or la k de ck Br O sh th iti C sh er i a Et - B ribb hn e l ac an ic k G A ro up frica n -C hi ne se

0%

In the East Midlands 3.5% of girls under 16 years old have a limiting illness. In the white Irish population, this rises to 4.8%. Only the Black Caribbean population has a higher incidence – 5.1%

43


Figure 51. Proportion of 0 to 15 year old boys with limiting long-term illness 7% 6% 5% 4%

East Midlands

3%

England

2% 1%

M ix ed

Li m

it i

ng

lo ng -

te r

m

illn e W ss: hi te tota -B l -W W hi M hi Wh ritis t ix h e d e a te - ite O -I - W nd Bl the rish hi te ack r W hi a C M te a As ix nd ed Bl ribb i a As ac n e a W k As ian or A h Af n si ite r ic Bl ian or a a A ac an n Br nd k or A sia As or n iti s s Br i ia B B la a n n it h C lac ck Br ish - In hi i d k t ne or Brit ish - Pa ian se B ish - B ki st or lac a O k B Bla ngl ani th a c er ritis k C de Et h a sh h n - B r ib i b la ic G ck ean ro A up fri - C can hi ne se

0%

Levels of limiting illness are slightly higher amongst young boys than girls – 4.7% in comparison with 3.5% of girls. Amongst the white Irish population, the proportion is 5.3% - higher than the incidence amongst white British boys – 4.7%. The highest incidence is in the white and Black Caribbean population – 6.1%. Figure 52. Proportion of 16 to 49 year old women with limiting long-term illness 2.5% 2.0% 1.5%

East Midlands England

1.0% 0.5%

Li m

i ti ng

lo ng -te rm

illn es s: W to hi ta t M e ix -B l ed r iti W -W W sh hi hi hi te te M te ix Iri an - O ed sh th d er -W Bl ac W hi hi k te an Car te M ib d i x be Bl As ed a an ia - W ck n As A or hi f r ia i te As ca n As an n ia or n ia d As Br n As Bl ia or i ac t ia i n As n k Br sh or ia i ti In n Bl s d h Br ac Bl - P ian i ti k ac sh ak Br C k hi i tis or ne Ba ista h Bl ni se ng -B ac la or l k de Br ack O sh th iti er i sh Car ib Et be Bl hn ac an ic k G Af ro ric up - C an hi ne se

0.0%

1.0% of women aged between 16 and 49 have a limiting long-term illness – in the general population in the region and in the white Irish population. Highest levels of limiting long-term illness are in the Pakistani population (2.0%). In the white British population, the proportion is 0.9%.

44


Figure 53. Proportion of 16 to 49 year old men with limiting long-term illness 14% 12% 10% 8%

East Midlands

6%

England

4% 2%

M

ix ed

Li m

it i ng

lo

ng -te

rm

il l n W es hi s: te to M Wh W - t ix i t ed e hit W Br al e a - W nd - hite itish hi Bl Oth - Ir a t As Mi e a ck er W ish As ia xe nd Ca h n d A B r it Bl sia ian or - W lac ibb e ac n or A k e h s k or A ia ite Af an or A si n an ric a B s C Bla Bla ia n B rit d an hi c c n A ne k k B riti ish sia se or Bri ritis sh - In n or Bla tish h - - P dia O ck - B ak n th B Bl an is er ri ac g ta Et tish k lad ni hn - Ca es ic Bl rib hi G ac be ro k up Af an - C rica hi n ne se

0%

Amongst men in this middle age group, limiting long-term illness rises from 1.0% of the region’s women to 9.9% of the men. Amongst the white Irish population, the percentage is 12.1% - the fourth highest proportion of all the ethnic groups listed. It may not be unreasonable to suggest at least a partial link between this high level to the high proportion of white Irish men working in the construction industry – 18.6% as it includes many hazardous roles (see figure 21). Figure 54. Proportion of 50 to 64 year old women with limiting long-term illness 60% 50% 40% East Midlands

30%

England

20% 10%

Li m

i ti ng

lo ng -te rm

illn es s: W to hi M ta te ix -B l ed r i -W W tis W hi h hi hi te te M te ix an Iri O ed sh th -W dB er la W hi c h k te ite an Ca M rib d be Bl As ixed a an ia - W ck n As Af or hi ia ric te As n an As an or ia ia n d As n Bl B As rit or ia ac ia n i k As n Br sh or ia -I i ti Bl n n s di h Br ac Bl an -P i k ac Br tish C ak k hi iti is or ne sh - B t an Bl se - B ang i ac or la l k de O Br ack th s i C tis hi er ar h Et ib be hn - B l ac an ic k G Af ro ric up - C an hi ne se

0%

26.0% of the female older population of the region has a limiting long-term illness. In the white Irish population, the proportion rises to 29.4% - higher than the proportion of white British women – 25.2%. The highest proportion is to be found in the Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations (54.9% and 54.7% respectively).

45


Figure 55. Proportion of 50 to 64 year old men with limiting long-term illness 60% 50% 40% East Midlands

30%

England

20% 10%

Li m

iti

ng

lo ng -te rm

W

illn es s: to hi ta M te ix -B l ed rit W -W W is hi h hi hi te te M te - O - Ir ix a ed n is th h -W dB er la W hi ck hi te te an Ca M rib d be Bl As ixed a an ia - W ck n As Af or hi ric ia t A e n an si As an or an ia As n Bl Br d A or ia ac s i ti ia n k As n Br sh or ia iti In Bl n s di h Br ac Bl a -P i k n ac Br tish a C k hi iti - B kis or sh ne t a Bl ni se - B ang ac la or l k de Br ack O sh th iti C sh er i a Et - B ribb hn e la a ic ck n G A ro up frica n -C hi ne se

0%

26.4% of the white British male population of this age group have limiting illness. For the equivalent white Irish population, this proportion rises to 34.3% - three men in every ten are incapacitated in this way. Two populations have higher proportions – Bangladeshi (50.7%) and Pakistani (46.5%). Figure 56. Proportion of women aged 65 or older with limiting long-term illness 80% 70% 60% 50% East Midlands

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

Li m

i ti ng

lo ng -te rm

illn es s: W to hi ta te M ix -B l ed r iti W -W W sh hi hi hi te te M te ix Iri an O ed sh th er -W dB la W hi ck h te ite an Ca M rib d i x b B As ed ea la ia n - W ck n As Af or h ric ia ite A n an si As an or an ia As n Br d A Bl or ia si ac i ti an n As k Br sh or ia i ti In n Bl s d h Br ac Bl - P ian i ti k ac sh Br ak C k hi iti or ne sh - Ba ista Bl ni se ng -B ac or la l k de O Br ack sh th iti er sh Ca rib i Et be hn - B l ac an ic k G Af ro r up ic - C an hi ne se

0%

53.7% of the female population of the East Midlands who are aged 65 or older have a limiting, long-term illness. This proportion rises to 68.6% in the Indian population. White Irish women have the lowest proportion (49.5%) of each of the ethnic groups with the exception of white and Black African women (47.3%), white and Asian women (48.8%) and Chinese women (48.9%).

46


Figure 57. Proportion of men aged 65 or over with limiting long-term illness 80% 70% 60% 50%

East Midlands

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

Li m

i ti ng

lo ng -te rm

illn es s: W to hi ta M te ix -B l ed r i -W W tis W hi h hi hi te te M te ix an Iri O ed sh th -W dB er la W hi c h k te ite an Ca M rib d be Bl As ixed a an ia - W ck n As Af or h ia ric i t A e n an si As an or an ia As n Bl Br d A or ia s ac i ti ia n As k n Br sh or ia -I i ti n Bl n s d h B a i Bl an ck ri -P ac Br tish C ak k hi iti or ne sh - Ba ista Bl se ni ng -B ac or la l k de O Br ack th sh iti er sh Ca rib i Et be hn Bl ac an ic k G Af ro ric up - C an hi ne se

0%

Whereas in younger age groups, white Irish men have fared comparatively badly relative to the other ethnic groups listed, in this oldest age group white Irish men have a very similar level of limiting illness than the other ethnic groups listed (50%). Overall, 18.4% of the population of all ages, and both genders, in the East Midlands have a limiting long-term illness, along with 17.9% of the population of England as a whole. The white Irish population is the ethnic group, of those listed, with the highest level – 27.8%. The ethnic groups with the next highest level are the Black Caribbean population (20.0%) and the white British population (18.7%). The high proportion amongst the white Irish population when looking at it over all ages and both genders lies largely in the large proportion of the white Irish population who are aged 65 and over where limiting long-term illnesses are more common, regardless of ethnic group. Figure 58. Women not in good health 30% 25% 20%

white Irish

15%

white British all

10% 5% 0% 0-15

16-49

50-64

65 +

It is clear from the data that being in not good health increases with age as we would expect. What is interesting is that there is a greater experience of being in not good health amongst white Irish women between the ages of 16 and 64 – working age than amongst white British women. 26.3% of white Irish women in the region and 19.3% of white British women aged between 16 and 64 are in not good health. 26.3% of white Irish women aged 65 or older are in not good health in comparison with 24.8% of white British women.

47


Figure 59. Men not in good health 30% 25% 20%

white Irish

15%

white British all

10% 5% 0% 0-15

16-49

50-64

65 +

The pattern is repeated amongst the men of the East Midlands. 27.6% of white Irish men aged between 16 and 64 are in not good health along with 19.8% of white British men. The disparity continues into the 65 and over age group. 26.5% of white Irish men aged 65 or older are in not good health in comparison with 22.0% of white British men of the same age. The health of a population is a complex issue with many inter-linked factors at play. Relatively high rates of long-term illness amongst Irish people are discussed at some length by Hickman and Walter (1997) as well as other commentators. What is clear is that there is no single answer to the matter of why there are relatively high levels of ill-health (and mortality) amongst Irish populations. The following are some of those factors which could be at play: Poverty and housing As established earlier in this report, the white Irish population has a comparatively low level of economic activity (section 2: Economic activity and inactivity) which implies reliance on other forms of income such as pensions and benefits. Likewise a relatively high proportion of the white Irish population is living in social housing (figure 42). Both of these factors may have an impact on the health of individuals.

Socio-economic status As well as practical issues related to class, people of lower social classes may also view their own health differently bringing about reporting differences. Changes brought about by the act of migration Living in a rural setting in Ireland and moving to an inner-city area of Birmingham, for example, can represent a significant change in a person’s life which may impact on their health. Negative experiences of host country and racism Many commentators have documented racism and discrimination experienced by Irish people in England both in the past and currently. Lifestyle factors The links between excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and poor diet and poor health are now clearly established and need to be taken into consideration when looking at any population experiencing poor health. Genetics In any discussion of health, genetics may play a factor. Certain illnesses (e.g. cancers) have strong genetic components. In a single community of people this may impact on the incidence of those illnesses. Occupation It has been established that a relatively high proportion of white Irish men work in construction (figure 21) and an even higher proportion of white Irish women work in

48


health and social care (figure 22). While the Census data does not indicate the type of work undertaken in these broad fields, we know that construction includes many roles which are dangerous or cause ill-health and that many roles in health and social care involve long, anti-social hours, lifting and stress.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary The data in this section suggests that health is a particular issue for white Irish people in the region. This relates particularly to white Irish men of working age who are experiencing relatively high levels of limiting long-term illness. It also relates to men and women of working age who rate their own health as being not good.

49


FIS exists to represent and develop our members and our community


This report, one of a suite of twenty four, is an outcome of a research project on the Irish data in the 2001 Census. The data and commentaries in the suite of reports are presented in a comparative context at national, regional and selected local levels, and on the basis of the full sixteen categories from the 2001 Census Ethnic Group Question. ... there are sections of the Irish population who have multiple needs, are marginalised, and have information, support and service needs ... to be addressed. We have been disappointed by the structuring of much of the analysis of ethnicity data from the 2001 Census published todate, particularly the use of various “combined ethnic group categories” and the failure to disaggregate the White ”combined group” data. Increasingly, microdecisions about delivery of services take place at a local level. ... Those with local responsibility under the Race Relations Acts for addressing inequalities must have the best possible local data on all significant communities (including minority ethnic communities) at their disposal, and must use it in an inclusive way to inform their policies. Dr Mary Tilki Chair, Federation of Irish Societies

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East Midlands THE IRISH DIMENSION