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EAST ENGLAND: THE IRISH DIMENSION An exploration of 2001 Census Data

A report prepared for the


This report, one of a suite of twenty four, is an outcome of a research project on the Irish data in the 2001 Census. The research project was funded by the DĂ­on Committee. Publication of this report is funded by the DĂ­on Committee. First published by the Federation of Irish Societies in 2007. ISBN

978-1-906325-20-6

Copyright

Source data - 2001 Census: Crown copyright. This report: FIS copyright.

Printed by New Image Design and Print, Block D, Unit 1, Bounds Green Industrial Estate, Ring Way, London N11 2UD.

The Federation of Irish Societies is a national umbrella body representing and providing services to its affiliated organisations throughout Britain. These organisations include welfare advice agencies, day centres, community care services, clubs, social and cultural organisations and housing providers; as well as projects to meet specific needs of particular sections of the community, such as women, elders, Irish travellers and prisoners.


East England: The Irish dimension An exploration of 2001 Census data

A report prepared for the Federation of Irish Societies, London


Contents: Foreword............................................................................................... 2 Introduction .......................................................................................... 3 Using the data ...................................................................................... 7 Key data ................................................................................................ 8 1. The nature of the population........................................................... 9 2. Economic activity and inactivity................................................... 15 3. Types of work ................................................................................. 20 4. Unpaid carers ................................................................................. 26 5. Qualifications ................................................................................. 35 6. Home tenure and accommodation type ....................................... 38 7. Amenities ........................................................................................ 45 8. Health ............................................................................................. 48

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FIS foreword We are very pleased to be able to publish the suite of reports which FIS has commissioned from Word-Works and which focus on the Irish data in the 2001 Census. This data and commentaries are presented in a comparative context at national, regional and selected local levels, and on the basis of the full sixteen categories from the 2001 Census Ethnic Group Question. These reports indicate the diversity in the performance of ethnic minority groups in Britain. They show that the statistical profile of the identified white Irish places them closer to white British and Indian in many respects than, for example, more radically marginalised groups like Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, refugees and asylum seekers. Nevertheless, Irish deficits exist, most visibly in the area of health. They extend to related areas like levels of economic activity, where limiting long-term injury and disability contribute. The specific age profile of the white Irish population, with its bias towards older people, has implications in terms of care needs, as have the high proportions of white Irish single- and two-pensioner households. At the same time, the proportions of those white Irish without qualifications and working in the building industry point to the need for training/retraining towards integration/retention in the labour market. Indeed, government initiatives around health aspects of local regeneration, extension of working life, and reengagement of those with disabilities in the labour market, increase the importance of Irish community inclusion in order to achieve targets. It is important that the duality of the performance of the Irish in Britain – that combination of high achievement and disadvantage/social exclusion, which is by no means unique to the Irish community among British ethnic minority communities – should not distract attention from issues that need to be addressed. That there are sections of the Irish population who have multiple needs, are marginalised, and have information, support and service needs which need to be addressed was clearly indicated by the data provided by the FIS/AGIY Standardised Information System, collected from our front line agencies and published between 1994 and 2003. This and other documentation with a strong local thrust (for example, the valuable L Simpson et al., Ethnic minority populations and the Labour Market: an analysis of the 1991 and 2001 Censuses (DWP 2006)), emphasise the need for good local intelligence and greater and easier access to small-area statistics. We have been disappointed by the structuring of much of the analysis of ethnicity data from the 2001 Census published to date, particularly the use of various “combined ethnic group categories” and the failure to disaggregate the White “combined group” data. These procedures ignore one of the most significant findings of T Madood et al. Ethnic Minorities in Britain: Diversity and Disadvantage (PSI 1997) with relevance to policy formation, as well as such examples of good practice as Collecting ethnic category data: Guidance and training material for implementation of the new ethnic categories (DH 2001). Increasingly, micro-decisions about delivery of services take place at a local level. Those with local responsibility under the Race Relations Acts for addressing inequalities must have the best possible local data on all significant communities (including minority ethnic communities) at their disposal, and must use it in an inclusive way to inform their policies. We thank Word-Works for providing us with this suite of reports, which we commend to our affiliates, our partners in the British voluntary sector, and to those with a responsibility for policy formation and the delivery of services. We hope they will prove useful in raising the profile of the needs of ethnic minority populations, including our own.

Dr Mary Tilki, Chair Federation of Irish Societies May 2007

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Author’s Introduction The Census has long been the most extensive, if not the most comprehensive, source of information about the population of England and Wales. This has not been the case for the Irish population however. Although previously asked whether they were members of other minority ethnic groups, it was not until the 2001 Census that they were asked whether they were Irish. In the 1991 Census, the Irish population was identified from a combination of country of birth data and those instances where people had taken the initiative to write in their Irish identity. The Census is based largely on a series of tick box type questions which are quick to fill in and easy to understand. This approach means that highly complex topics have to be condensed into just a few words. Ethnic origin is one area which can suffer greatly from this treatment as it is so very complex. Potential problems arising in relation to Irish identity are discussed in the reports, most comprehensively in Section 1 of England: the Irish dimension. It is important to examine the information derived from the Census to learn about the Irish population in order to identify any specific provisions appropriate to meeting their needs. It is to assist this process that the Federation is publishing this series of commissioned reports on the Irish dimension of Census 2001. The Census has provided us with an enormous quantity of data. These reports examine key elements of that data and make comparison, where appropriate, with data relating to the white British population and other minority ethnic populations. Summary findings of the analysis of the Irish dimension of the 2001 Census are set out below and in the series of key data to be found at the beginning of each report. 1. The age of the white Irish population The white Irish population of England and Wales, indicated by the 2001 Census data, is a comparatively older population. In England, the proportion of children identified – those aged under 16 – is very low: 6% in comparison with 20% when looking at the population of England as a whole. In London and the South East, the proportion of white Irish children is slightly higher (7% and 6% respectively), whereas it is slightly smaller in the South West and the North West (both slightly under 5%). The issue of the proportion of children recorded is complicated by the fact that children born to Irish parents may not be classified in the Census as white Irish. If they have one Irish parent and one British parent, for example, they may be classified as white British or white other. At the other end of the age scale, the white Irish population has a large proportion of people who are of pensionable age. Between 20% (London) and 32% (the West Midlands) are aged 65 or older. With between a fifth and a third of the population of this age, there are consequences for the population in terms of economic activity, health and welfare. For example, when looking at the white Irish population as a whole, the level of economic activity is low – this is due at least in part to the proportion of people who are retired. The white Irish population also exhibits the highest level of people who describe themselves as being in ‘not good health’ of all the ethnic groups listed. When data is broken down by age, it can be seen that this is largely (although not solely) because the population has such a high proportion of older people, who are far more likely to describe themselves as being in ‘not good health’.

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One of the consequences of an older population is a higher proportion of women – simply due to the greater longevity of women. In London, for example, 58% of the white Irish population is female. In the South East 62% of the white Irish 65 and older population is female. In England as a whole 53% of the white Irish population (of all ages) is female. Another related consequence of an older population is the proportion of people who are living alone – typically women who have outlived their male spouses. A fifth of white Irish households comprise a pensioner living alone. Given the older age profile of the white Irish population identified in the Census, as well as the proportion of white Irish households which are single or two pensioner households, provision of statutory and unpaid/informal care is a significant issue. The Census indicated that, in England, 4% of pensionable age white Irish men were themselves providing 50 + hours a week of unpaid care, that 1.7% of working age white Irish men were proving the same amount of weekly care, and that 8.6% of working age white Irish women were providing 1-19 hours a week of unpaid care. In addition to the informal and formal care being provided in the community 0.44% of the white Irish population are being cared for in psychiatric hospitals and homes, nursing homes and residential homes, as opposed to 0.28% of the whole population. 2. Education and qualifications The findings of the 2001 Census in this area present a mixed picture. At one level, the white Irish population performs very well, in terms of the proportion attaining the highest qualifications (levels 4/5 – degrees, PhDs, professional qualifications). Among white Irish aged 25 to 34 the proportion so qualified reached 46% - with regional variations ranging from 36% (West Midlands) to 54% (North East England), proportions, in each case, more than double that found in the equivalent white British population. Even 22% of 16 to 24 year old white Irish people in England have qualifications at this level, although some of the qualifications would be outside their age range. This pattern of relatively high attainment continues up to the age group 35 to 49. After this age, the attainment levels reduce to the levels of the white British population. One of the main reasons for the comparatively low levels of economic activity amongst white Irish 16 to 24 year olds is the large proportion of white Irish individuals who are in full-time education. The proportion here is much greater than in the equivalent white British population, rising to 69% in the North East of England. Levels of economic activity in this group range between 4% and 10% below the level of economic activity in the white British population. The Census data suggests that, while a proportion of white Irish people in England have high level qualifications, there is also a significant proportion who have no qualifications at all. 12% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds have no qualifications (from 9% in the North East to 17% in the West Midlands). This proportion rises with age. Amongst white Irish 65 to 74 year olds 70% in England have no qualifications. This ranges from 60% in the South East to 77% in the West Midlands. In each group over the age of 49, there is a greater proportion of white Irish people with no qualifications at all than in the population as a whole. For example 62% of white Irish people in England aged between 60 and 64 have no qualifications, in comparison with 54% of the general population.

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3. Work The 1991 and 2001 Censuses provide evidence that Irish men are commonly to be found working on the buildings. The 2001 Census found that this was true for around a fifth of white Irish men of working age. Between 13% in North East England and 22% in the West Midlands are working in construction – 20% in England as a whole. These are far higher proportions than those found in any other ethnic population. Working in construction has possible implications for other areas of life. It can have a seasonal or temporary element leaving numbers of men out of work for periods of time. It can also be dangerous and exhausting work. It is an industry which reflects the peaks and troughs of the economy. With so many white Irish people working ‘on the buildings’, there is inevitably a glut of people needing to retrain at times when there is an economic downturn or when individuals need to move on for other reasons such as age and illness. Between a quarter and a third of white Irish women are working in health and social services. This is a far greater proportion than in the white British population and on a par with the Black African and Black Caribbean populations. Much care work and nursing work, while not seasonal or temporary, can be low-paid or may involve antisocial hours. A significant proportion of white Irish men work in professional occupations. 15% of white Irish men in England are in professional occupations (compared to 12% of white British men). In some English regions, the picture is much more exaggerated. For example, in the North East, 27% of white Irish men are in professional occupations in comparison with 10% of white British men. Women show a similar, although less pronounced, pattern. 13% of white Irish women in England are in professional occupations in comparison with 11% of white British women. So again, in this area, the 2001 Census presents a mixed picture. Further, the Census data relates to a period of time in which there was relative economic prosperity for the country and its regions. Certain indicators, such as levels of longterm unemployment were thus very low. It is important to recognise that during a less prosperous time, such indicators will be at higher and there may be greater disparities between some of the ethnic groups. 4. Health The Census provides data about limiting long-term illness and disability. In every region in England the proportion of white Irish men aged between 25 and 74 who are not working because of permanent illness or disability is higher than the proportion of white British men not working for the same reason. In England, 11% of white Irish men are not working because of illness or disability. There is one age group of white Irish men for whom findings in this area are exceptionally strong and consistent, men aged between 50 and 64. In this age group, between 25% (the South East) and 41% (the North West) of men have limiting long-term illness. In England as a whole, 29% of white Irish men of this age have limiting long-term illness, 4% more than amongst white British men of the same age. The Census also asked about people’s view of whether they were in good health or not. 22% of men in England aged between 50 and 64 described their health as ‘not good’. In fact, for each age group, for both men and women, the trend is for more white Irish people than white British people to indicate ‘not good health’. 5. Housing and amenities Census data relating to housing and amenities provides a complex picture in terms of the white Irish population. For example, a relatively high proportion of the population owns their own home outright (26%) but, similarly, a relatively high proportion of the white Irish population lives in social housing (21%). These proportions are relatively

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high in comparison with both other minority ethnic populations listed in the census and in comparison with the majority white British population. Significantly, in England, the white Irish population has the highest proportion (1.2%) of people in medical and care communal establishments (including psychiatric units, prison, and those we might associate with an older population, residential and nursing homes). The population also has the highest proportion of people in households comprising a lone pensioner (18%). This is true of England as a whole and each of the country’s regions. In terms of amenities, the white Irish population of England shows two interesting characteristics in comparison with the other ethnic populations listed in the Census. The first is in terms of central heating – 8% of the white Irish population has no central heating – and secondly, 40% of the white Irish population does not have a car. Both of these proportions are higher than those found in the white British population. The report The Census data is wholly descriptive and, as such, does not seek to explain particular phenomena, merely to tell us what it is. Thus, we cannot find out from Census data why a specific proportion of people lives in social housing, for example. The following report attempts to describe the findings of the 2001 Census and, where appropriate, to suggest possible causes and effects. Gudrun Limbrick May 2007

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Using the data All the data in this report is derived from the results of the 2001 Census which attempted to include all people living in England and Wales. As such, the report and its findings are entirely dependent on the coverage achieved by the Census, the terminology used and the questions asked. The delineations used are those provided by the Census. For example, the age bands quoted are those designed by the Census. The data is represented as graphs in this report to provide an immediate visual to represent the bare figures. However, greater detail can be found in the accompanying tables of data. This report has a number of companion volumes which may provide useful comparative analysis to aid understanding. National reports:

Local reports:

England

Birmingham

Wales

Bristol Coventry

Regional reports:

Leeds

East England

Leicester

East Midlands

Liverpool

London

Luton

North East England

Manchester

North West England

Northampton

South East England

Nottingham

South West England

Portsmouth

West Midlands

Sheffield

Yorkshire and the Humber

Swindon

Source: 2001 Census, [Key Statistics for Local Authorities]. Crown copyright 2004. Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO

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East England: Key data

The nature of the population - 68% of the white Irish population was born in the Republic of Ireland - 25% of the white Irish population is aged 65 or older Economic activity and inactivity - 63% of white Irish people aged 25 to 74 are economically active - 11% of white Irish men are not working because of permanent sickness or disability - 38% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds are in full-time education Types of work - 22% of white Irish men are working in construction - 20% of white Irish men are managers or senior officials - 11% of white Irish men are in elementary-type occupations - 24% of white Irish women are working in health and social work Qualifications - 13% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds have no qualifications - 27% of white Irish 16 to 24 year olds have qualifications at the highest levels Home tenure and accommodation type - 55% of white Irish people own their own home - 27% of white Irish people are in social housing - 14% of white Irish people are in privately rented accommodation - 16% of white Irish households are pensioners living alone Amenities - 48% of white Irish people do not own a car - 7% of the white Irish population does not have central heating - 17% of the white Irish population are living in households regarded as overcrowded Health - 12% of white Irish men aged 16 to 49 have long-term limiting illness - 31% of white Irish men aged 16 to 64 are in not good health - 25% of white Irish women aged 16 to 64 are in not good health

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Section 1. The nature of the population of The Eastern region

_____________________________________________________________________ This section looks at the number of Irish people in the Eastern region in comparison with other ethnic groups. The place of birth of Irish people is examined, differentiating between those Irish people born in Ireland and those born elsewhere. It also examines basic demographic information such as ethnic origin, gender and age. It is this data which is of fundamental importance when understanding other data in this report such as economic activity and health.

In Eastern England, 91.5% of the population classified themselves as white British 1 in the 2001 Census. In comparison, 87.0% of the population of England as a whole classified themselves as white British. The make-up of the remainder of the population is illustrated in the figure below. Figure 1. The proportion of the minority ethnic groups in the Eastern region 3.0% 2.5% 2.0% Eastern England

1.5%

England

1.0% 0.5%

M ix ed

W -W W hi hi te hi te M te -I ix an O ris ed th h er -W dB l ac W hi hi k te te an Ca M rib d i x b B As ed ea la ia n - W ck n As A o hi fri rA ia te c n an si As an or an ia d As n Bl B A rit ia or ac si n is an k As h Br or -I ia i t is Bl n n di h Br ac Bl an -P i k ac Br tish ak k iti i C o s sh B ta rB hi ni ne - B ang la se ck la la de ck Br or sh iti O sh C a i th er - B ribb Et ea l a hn ck n ic Af G r ic ro an up -C h. ..

0.0%

1.1% of the population of Eastern England defined themselves as white Irish in the 2001 Census – a little lower than the proportion of the population of England as a whole (1.3%). In Eastern England, the largest minority ethnic population is ‘other white’ – 2.5% of the population. The white Irish population is the second largest minority ethnic population. It is probable that the proportion of Irish people recorded in the Census is an underrepresentation of the actual Irish community in the Eastern region and this issue is discussed more fully in England: the Irish dimension – an exploration of 2001 Census data. Estimates 2 suggest that the actual Irish population of the Eastern region could be between 3.2% (171,523 individuals) and 3.8% (205,827 individuals) which is higher than the estimated proportional size of the Irish population of England (4.1%). These corrected figures would make the Irish population the largest minority ethnic population in the region.

1

In the Census questionnaire, respondents were given five options: white, mixed, Asian, Black or Chinese. Within the ‘white’ option, respondents were asked to select either British, Irish or other white. For the purposes of this report, these options have been abbreviated to ‘white British’, ‘white Irish’ and ‘white other’. 2 Using the 2.5 and 3 correctional factors of the born-in-Ireland population suggested by Hickman MJ and Walter B Discrimination and the Irish Community in Britain CRE 1997

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Figure 2. Proportion of the population born on the island of Ireland 3 1.0% 0.9% 0.8% 0.7% 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0%

Born in Northern Ireland Born in the Republic of Ireland

Eastern England

England

0.94% of the population of England was born in the Republic of Ireland – 0.07% higher than the proportion of the population of Eastern England (0.87%). Of those people in Eastern England who described themselves in the Census as white Irish, 67.7% were born in the Republic of Ireland. 7.7% were born in Northern Ireland. In total, 30.5% of those who described themselves as white Irish were born in the United Kingdom. Figure 3. Proportion of the population that is female 56% 54% 52% Eastern England

50%

England

48% 46%

Fe m al e W s: t h M ite ota ix -B l ed rit -W W W is hi hi h hi te te M t e -I ix a ed O ris nd t h -W B l her ac W hi k te h ite an Ca M rib d As ixe B b ea l d ia - W ack n As n o Af hi rA ia r te ic n As s an a or ia ia As n B nd Bl n As or ac r it ia ia n i k As n B r sh or ia -I iti Bl n nd s a B h Bl c i r a i k ac n C Pa Br tish k hi iti o ne - B kis t se r Bl sh - B ang ani ac or l k l O Br ack ade th iti sh er sh C a Et rib i hn - B b ea la ic ck n G ro Af up ric - C an hi ne se

44%

51.0% of the population of Eastern England is female. 53.9% of the white Irish population is also female – nearly 3% higher than the 51.0% of the white British population that is female. The population with the lowest proportion of women is the Bangladeshi population – in which 47.5% of the population is female. Because of the greater longevity of women, populations generally have more women than men amongst their number. When populations, such as the Bangladeshi population have men outnumbering the women, we can surmise that different factors, other than general longevity, are at play – different patterns of migration between men and women, for example, or different rates of infant mortality.

3

The term island of Ireland used here includes both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

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Figure 4. The age distribution of the white Irish population in Eastern England 40% 35% 30% 25%

white Irish

20%

all

15% 10% 5% 0% 0-15

16-24 25-49 50-59 60-64 65-74

75 +

Age is arguably one of the most important factors to bear in mind when looking at the white Irish population as defined by the 2001 Census. Figure 4 above clearly demonstrates the relative age of the white Irish population in the Eastern region in comparison with the population as a whole. In particular, with only 6.1% of the population aged under 16, the white Irish population is aging relative to the rest of the region. 24.5% of the region’s white Irish population is aged over 64, in comparison with 16.4% of the population as a whole. Age is arguably one of the most important factors to bear in mind when looking at characteristics of the white Irish population as defined by the 2001 Census particularly the disparity between the proportion of the white Irish population aged between 65 and 74 and the rest of the population of that age. One factor to bear in mind is whether people in different age groups behaved differently in terms of completing and returning the Census forms. Hickman and Walter (1997) 4 suggest that there is likely to be an under-representation of younger Irish people completing the Census and there is also an issue of second and third generation Irish people who did not define as Irish 5 in the Census. This would have an impact on the proportion of younger white Irish people counted in the Census. However, the issue of under-enumeration would not apply to those aged under 16 6 who are very poorly represented in the age distribution illustrated above. From the data the Census provides, it is not possible to say to what extent the skewed age profile above is the result of the under-count and to what extent there actually is a skewed age profile in the white Irish population.

4

Hickman MJ and Walter B Discrimination and the Irish Community in Britain CRE 1997 This is discussed in England: the Irish Dimension - an exploration of 2001 Census data. 6 A significant feature of the age distribution of white Irish people is the small proportion who are aged 0 – 15 – far smaller than in any other of the region’s white British or minority ethnic populations. One can assume that, in most cases, parents or guardians will have completed Census forms on behalf of children of this age. It is thus the parents, in the main, who are making decisions about their children’s declared ethnicity. Most of the parents of the children of this age, will themselves be in the 25 – 49 age group in figure 4 – an age group of similar proportion in the white Irish population to the population of the region as a whole. This begs the question of why parents who reporting themselves to be white Irish did not record their children as white Irish. 5

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Figure 5. Proportion of the population aged 75 and older 12% 10% 8% Eastern England

6%

England

4% 2%

M ix ed

75

an d

ol d W er: hi te tota -B l -W W r W hi hi itish hi M te te te ix ed an O I - W d B th rish la e r W hi ck te an Ca hite M i d rib As xe B b d i As an - W lack ea n or ia A h n As As fri ite o c i i r a a an a Bl ac n o Asi n B nd r A an As rit k or s ia Br ish n B l ia n iti ac Bl sh - In B ac di rit k C an is Br hi k P h ne o it - B akis se r B ish t l or ack - B ang ani la la O c d th Bri tis k C es er hi h a Et r i b hn Bl ac bea ic G k n ro A up fric a -C n hi ne se

0%

In England: the Irish dimension – an exploration of 2001 Census data, there is discussion of the proportion of the population that is aged 65 or older. In England’s white Irish population, there is a significantly higher proportion of white Irish people aged older than 65 (24.9%) than in the rest of the country’s population (15.9%). The comparatively large proportion of the white Irish population in Eastern England aged 75 or over is clear in the chart above. In this region, 9.5% of the white Irish population is aged 75 or older. For the white British population, the proportion is 8.2%, whereas – at the other extreme - it is 0.7% in the Bangladeshi population. Figure 6. Age distribution of selected minority ethnic groups

60% 50% white Irish

40%

white British Indian

30%

Pakistani Black Caribbean

20%

Chinese

10% 0% 0 - 15

16 - 24

25 - 49

50 - 69

60 - 64

65 - 74

75 and older

There is no other (majority or minority) ethnic group in the Eastern region which is structured in the same way as the white Irish population in terms of the age of its members. A relatively low proportion of under-25s (12.0%) is contrasted with a relatively high proportion in each age group over 50. In the white British population,

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29.7% of the population are aged under 25, as is 42.8% of the Black Caribbean population and 57.2% of the Pakistani population. 54.4% of the white Irish population is in the potentially economically active 25 to 59 age group, but this is not as significantly different from other ethnic groups as it is in the lower and higher age groups. For example, 58.9% of the Black Caribbean population is aged between 25 and 59 as is 48.1% of the White British population. Just 38.9% of the Pakistani population is aged between 25 and 59. As the above series of graphs illustrates, in comparison with the other minority ethnic groups listed, the white Irish population is an ageing population – a larger proportion of the population is older (over 64) than is younger (under 25s). A population of this structure will shrink as the numbers who die are not matched by those born, unless migration patterns change the general trend or unless there are changes in how sections of the population perceive their ethnicity 7 . Additionally, an aging population will have very different characteristics and needs in comparison to those with a younger population – more people will be retired and no longer economically active; care needs may be different and levels of ill-health and disability tend to be higher in populations which are older, for example. As suggested above (in discussion of figure 4), it is important to remember that a skewed age profile may be affected by different age groups having differing Census form return rates. This may or may not affect different ethnic groups in different ways. Figure 6a. Proportion of the population aged 65 and older who are female 70% 60% 50% 40%

Eastern England England

30% 20% 10%

Fe m al e W s: h M ite tota ix -B l ed r it -W W W is hi hi h hi t t e M e te ix an - O Iri ed sh - W d B the rW la hi ck te hi te an Ca M r d i bb As ixe Bl ea d ia - W ack n n As o A hi ia rA fri te n c As s an or an ia ia n As Bl n Br d A ac or ia si it n k an Br ish or Asi an -I iti Bl s nd ac h Br Bl ia -P k i ac C Br tish ak n k hi iti or i ne st B Bl sh se - B ang ani or ack l l a de O Br ack th er itish Ca shi r ib Et hn - Bl be ac ic an k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0%

In the region, 57.2% of the population aged 65 and older is female. This inequality between the genders is not unexpected due to the longer life expectancy of women generally. However, for other minority ethnic communities in Eastern England, the 7

Commentators have suggested that for a variety of reasons (such as the complexities of ethnicity and identity, a confusion between ethnicity and nationality, and the construction of the ethnic group question in the Census form) a number of people born on the island of Ireland and second and third generation Irish people may not have taken the option of identifying as white Irish in the 2001 Census.

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proportion of older women falls – to 30.0% in the Bangladeshi community for example. In the white Irish population, 58.6% of those aged 65 and older are female.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary This section found that 1.1% of East England’s population reported as white Irish. However this is likely to be an under-representation of actual figures. Self-declared ethnicity is a complicated issue – the white Irish population could be as high as 4.4% of the population of the Eastern region. The reported white Irish population in the Eastern region has a relatively small number of people who are aged under 25 and a relatively large number of people who are aged 50 and older, and 75 and older.

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Section 2. Economic activity and inactivity

_____________________________________________________________________ Any population has a bearing on the economy of the place in which it lives. This section examines the levels of economic activity of the white Irish population of the Eastern region in comparison with the rest of the region’s population. Economic activity, as an indicator, is a count of the number of individuals who are either working or are available to work. To aid our understanding, this section also looks at what the Census has to say about economic inactivity. The first figures in this section look at those people aged between 16 and 24. The later figures look at the older age group – those aged between 25 and 74.

Figure 7. Proportion of the population of the Eastern region aged 16 to 24 years old which is economically active 8 80% 70% 60% 50% Eastern England

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

M ix ed

Ec on om

ic a

lly

ac

tiv

e

16 -

24

ye ar W olds -W hi : te t M ix hit Wh W - ota Br l e d e it - W and e - hite itis h O hi Bl th - Ir As Mi te a ack er ish As ia xe nd C Wh n d a Bl Asi ian or - W Bla rib ite ac an or A b c h k k or A sia ite A ean or A si n f a r C Bla Bla sia an B Bri nd ica hi c c n rit tish As n ne k k B se or Br riti ish - ian or Bla itish sh - P Ind O ck - - B ak ian th B B a is er ri la ng ta Et tish ck lad ni hn - C a e ic Bl rib sh G ac b i ro k ea up A n - C frica hi n ne se

0%

In Eastern England, 63.2% of the white Irish population aged 16 to 24 is economically active. This compares with 73.1% of the region’s white British population. However, despite being 10% lower than in the white British population, economic activity amongst the young white Irish population is the third highest of the minority ethnic populations listed – behind the white and Black Caribbean and the Black Caribbean populations. The proportion of economically active young people falls to 29.5% in the Chinese population.

8

Economically active is defined as the state of being available for work or working. Thus, someone who is unemployed is still defined as economically active. Someone who is retired, for example, is not defined as economically active.

15


Figure 8. Proportion of the population of the Eastern region aged 25-74 who are economically active 80% 70% 60% 50% Eastern England

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

M ix ed

W hi te

To ta -B l r i W -W W tis hi h h hi M te it e - t e ix Iri an O ed sh th -W dB er la W hi ck hi te te an Ca M r d i b As ixe be Bl d ia an - W ack n As o A hi rA ia f r te ic n As si an or an an ia As d Bl n B As ac or ia rit n ia is k h Br n or Asi -I an iti Bl nd sh a B Bl ia -P ac ck B ritis n C ak k h rit hi o ne r B ish Ba ista se ni la -B ng ck or l l Br ack ade O th er itish Ca shi Et - B ribb hn ea la ic ck n G Af ro ric up - C an hi ne se

0%

As with the 16 to 24 age group examined above, the white Irish population has significantly lower levels of economic activity in the 25 to 74 age group than the white British population. 63.0% of the white Irish population in this age group is economically active in comparison with 69.1% of the white British population. Only the Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations (51.4% and 49.5% respectively) have lower levels. When looking at this data, it is important to remember the relative age of the white Irish population – 15.1% of the white Irish population is aged 65 to 74 and may thus be retired and no longer economically active. This compares with 8.9% of the white British population. Figure 9. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 16 to 24 year old men 60% 50% 40% white Irish

30%

white British

20% 10%

m e l-t i

Fu l

Pa rtt

im

e

em

pl o

ye e em pl Se oy lfem ee pl oy U ed ne m Fu p l lltim oye d e Lo st ok ud in en g t af Pe R t er et rm i r h an ed om en e/ tly fa m si ck ily /d is ab le d

0%

The chart above suggests that much of the disparity in economic activity between the male white British population and the male white Irish population in Eastern England derives from the proportion of the population who are in full-time education. 39.7% white Irish 16 to 24 years olds are full-time students – in comparison with 33.0% of the male white British population.

16


A number of factors can influence the size of a student population. These include: - the achievement of appropriate qualifications earlier in life (see section 5: Qualifications) - a community ethos which values and encourages education - migration specifically to attend further or higher education establishments (the Census data does not indicate what proportion of full-time students have come to England specifically for their education and, importantly, what proportion are planning to return to their home country once that education is complete). The large proportion of people who are students may account for the fact that just 41.8% of white Irish men in this age group are in full-time employment in comparison with 50.3% of white British men. Levels of unemployment are lower amongst white Irish men – 5.0% in comparison with 5.8% of white British men. Figure 10. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 16 to 24 year old women 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

white Irish

Pa r

t-t im Fu e e m lltim plo y e e m ee pl Se oy lfem e e pl o U ne yed m Fu pl lltim o y e d Lo e st ok ud in g en Pe a t R rm f t e r et ho ire an d m en e/ tly fa si c k mily /d is ab le d

white British

When looking at young women, the proportion of students is again high – 44.2% in the white Irish population in comparison with 35.6% of the white British population. The proportion of full-time students amongst women is significantly higher than amongst men. A smaller proportion of white Irish women than white British women are in both fulltime employment and in part-time employment. 34.6% of white Irish women of this age group are in full-time employment as are 40.8% of white British women. For parttime employment, the proportion of white Irish women is 6.1% and it is 8.5% amongst white British women.

Figure 11. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 25 to 74 year old men 60% 50% 40% white Irish

30%

white British

20% 10%

m e

l-t i Fu l

Pa rtt

im

e

em

pl oy ee em pl Se oy lfem ee pl oy U ed ne m Fu pl lltim oye d e Lo st ok ud in en g t Pe a R rm fter et ir e ho an d m en e/ tly fa si m ck ily /d is ab le d

0%

17


As suggested by the high proportion of older people (see figures 4 and 6), 17.2% of the region’s male white Irish working age population is retired – in comparison with 14.5% of the white British population. Levels of full-time employment are 6% lower in the white Irish population than in the white British population. 7.5% of the male white Irish population are not working because of being permanently sick or disabled in comparison with 4.7% of the white British population. Figure 12. Economic activity and inactivity amongst 25 to 74 year old men 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

white Irish

Pa r

t-t im Fu e e m lltim plo y e e m ee pl Se oy lfem e e pl o U ne yed m Fu pl lltim o y e d Lo e st ok ud in g en Pe a t R rm f t e r et ho ire an d m en e/ tly fa si c k mily /d is ab le d

white British

In the female population aged between 25 and 74, it is again the proportion of retired people which presents the most marked difference between the white Irish and white British populations. 23.8% of white Irish women are retired in comparison with 19.1% of the white British women. Additionally, there is again a higher proportion of people permanently sick or disabled amongst white Irish women (5.3%) than amongst the white British women (4.1%). Figure 13. Proportion of men who are long-term unemployed – including those who have never worked 12% 10% 8% Eastern England

6%

England

4% 2%

M ix ed

W hi te

To t

a -B l r it -W W W is hi h h hi te M te it e ix a Iri ed O nd sh t -W Bl her ac W hi te k hi te an Ca M As ixe d B ribb d la ea i As an o - W ck n Af ia hi rA r ic n te As s or an i a As an B nd Bl ian ac or A ia r it si n k an or Asi Br ish an -I iti Bl s nd ac Br h Bl ia -P k a iti C n a hi ck o Brit sh ne - B kis r B ish t se a an l gl ni or ack - Bl ad ac O B k e r th er itish Ca sh r ib i Et hn Bl be a ic a G ck A n ro f ric up - C an hi ne se

0%

Long-term unemployment amongst men is lower in Eastern England than it is in England as a whole. For the men of the region as a whole, long-term unemployment (including those who have never worked) stands at 1.9% - a proportion 0.2% lower than that of long-term unemployed white Irish men – 2.1%.

18


White Irish men in Eastern England have the third lowest level of long-term unemployment - behind white British men (1.7%) and Chinese men (1.9%). Figure 14. Proportion of women who are long-term unemployed – including those who have never worked 60% 50% 40% Eastern England

30%

England

20% 10%

M ix ed

W hi te

To ta -B l -W r it W W is hi hi h h te M t ix ite a e ed Iri O nd sh t -W Bl her ac hi W te k hi te an Ca M As ixe d B ribb d l e i an - W ack As an or Af ia hi A n r t As i e si or an can Bl ian A s an d B ac or As ia r it k n ia or Asi Br ish n an iti Bl I s n a Bl Br h d c a k ia -P iti C n sh hi ck o Bri a ne - B kis r B tish t se a a l n ng or ack - Bl la i ac O de th Brit k sh C is er ar i Et h hn Bl ibb ea ac ic n k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0%

3.2% of white Irish women in Eastern England are long-term unemployed including those who have never worked – a proportion 0.6% higher than that for white British women (2.6%). White British women have the lowest proportion of long-term unemployed women amongst those ethnic populations listed, white Irish women have the second lowest proportion. Levels of female long-term unemployment in the region are lower than in England for all ethnic populations except Bangladeshi (49.6%) and Black African (23.2%).

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary This section looked at economic activity and found a relatively low level of economic activity amongst the largest age group – 25 to 74 year olds. In the same age group, there were relatively high levels of white Irish people who were retired and people who were not working because of permanent sickness or disability. In the 16 to 24 age group, the most notable feature is the relatively high proportion of white Irish people who were in full-time education. In terms of unemployment (including those who have never worked), figures for the white Irish population are higher than those for the white British population.

19


Section 3. Types of work

_____________________________________________________________________ Having examined overall levels of economic activity in the previous section, this section concentrates on what the Census reveals about the nature of work undertaken by the population. Do different ethnic minority groups tend to do different types of work?

Figure 15. The proportion of men who are managers or senior officials 30% 25% 20% Eastern England

15%

England

10% 5%

ia l M

M

ix e

W

O ffi c ni or Se d an rs ge an a

hi te

s: to ta -B l d rit W -W i W sh hi hi te hi te M te - O - Ir ix a ed is n th h er -W dB la W hi ck h te ite an Ca M rib d ix b B e As ea la d n ia - W ck Af As n o ric r A hite ia a n si As an n or a d ia As n B n As Bl rit or ia ac i a i n n As k Br sh or ia iti In n Bl sh di B a an Bl rit ck -P ac is Br ak h C k iti hi or sh - Ba ista ne Bl ni ng se -B ac la or l k de Br ack O sh th iti C sh i er a Et - B ribb hn ea l a ic ck n G A ro up frica n -C hi ne se

0%

The proportion of white Irish men who are managers in the region stands at 20.6% an almost equal proportion as that in the white British population (20.3%) and in the population as a whole (20.2%). Only the ‘white other’ men (21.7%) and Indian men (24.3%) have a higher proportion in managerial roles. The population with the lowest proportion is the white and Black Caribbean population (10.7%).

Figure 16. The proportion of women working as managers or senior officials 16% 14% 12% 10% Eastern England

8%

England

6% 4% 2%

M ix ed

M an ag er s

an d

Se ni or

O

ffi c

W ial hi s: -W t e to M ix hite Wh W - B tal ed it e h r it - W and - O ite ish hi Bla the - Iri t s As Mi e a ck r W h As ia xe nd Ca hi B r te A i n d Bl sia an or - W lac ibb ac n or As h k ea k o r A s ia i te A f n o r A ia n r B a n ic s C Bla Bla ian n B riti d A an hi c ck s r B itis h sia ne k se or Brit ritis h - - In n B i s or la h h - Pa dia O ck - B Ba kis n th B er rit lac ngl tan Et ish k C ad i hn a e ic Bl rib shi G ac be ro k up Af an - C rica hi n ne se

0%

The proportion of women working as managers or senior officials is lower than that of men across the board – 11.4%. At 12.9%, the proportion of white Irish women in these top managerial roles is higher than in the population as a whole and amongst

20


white British women (11.4%). Only Indian women (13.5%) and Chinese women (13.4%) have a higher proportion working as managers or senior officials. Figure 17. Occupations amongst men aged 16 to 74 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British 10%

all

5%

M an ag er s

an d Pr As se o ni so fe or ss ci at io of e na fic pr ia l Ad o of ls c cu m & in pa te c & t io h se ns oc cr cu et p a Sk at ria io ille lo ns d c P cu tra Sa er p s d le at on es s io al & oc ns cu se c u s r Pr vi pa to ce oc m tio er es oc ns se s, cu rv pl pa ic an tio e t& ns oc cu m ac pa hi tio El ne ns em op en er ta at ry iv es oc cu pa tio ns

0%

The proportion of white Irish men in professional occupations (14.0%), process, plant and machinery (13.6%) and in elementary occupations (12.8%) exceeds the proportion of white British men in the same occupations (12.3%, 12.5% and 11.4% respectively). Any differences in the other occupations listed are not so significant. The most common occupations for white Irish men are the skilled trades; managers and senior officials; and professional occupations. Amongst white British men, they are also skilled trades and managers and senior officials but the third highest proportion is to be found in the associate and technical occupations. Figure 18. Occupations amongst women aged 16 to 74 30% 25% 20%

white Irish

15%

white British all

10% 5%

M an ag er s

an d Pr As se o ni so fe or ss ci at io of e na fic pr ia l Ad o of ls c cu m & in pa te c & t io h se ns oc cr cu et p a Sk at ria io ille lo ns d c P cu tra Sa er p s d le at on es s io al & oc ns cu se c u s r Pr vi pa to ce oc m tio er es oc ns se s, cu rv pl pa ic an tio e t& ns oc cu m ac pa hi tio El ne ns em op en er ta at ry iv es oc cu pa tio ns

0%

The pattern of occupations amongst women differs markedly from the men. The most common occupations for white Irish women are the associate professional roles; administrative and secretarial occupations and managers and senior officials. There is, however, not only a gender difference but also a significant difference in roles between white Irish women and white British women. For example, while there

21


is a relatively small difference between the proportion of the white Irish population and the proportion of the white British population in terms of managers and senior officials (see figure 16), there is a greater difference when looking at professional occupations. 11.4% of white Irish women are in professional occupations in comparison with 9.1% of white British women. 24.7% of white British women are in administrative and secretarial roles along with 19.1% of white Irish women. The following figures look at employment in terms of what has become known as NSSEC. NS-SEC (National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification) is an attempt to look at social classification by occupation but, instead of being solely an examination of jobs, the NS-SEC is constructed using three pieces of information: occupation, employment status and the size of the establishment in which the person works. To this end, the 2001 Census form asked for a significant amount of information about each respondent’s job, place of work, role and level 9 . The picture created by the following figure will thus differ in some respects from the previous figures which were looking solely at occupation. Figure 19. Men in Eastern England aged between 16 and 74 – by NS-SEC (excluding those who are unemployed or in full-time education) 25%

20%

15%

white Irish white British all

10%

5%

H ig he

rm an Lo ag w er er ia m l& an pr ag of er es ia si l& on pr al o oc Sm fe s cu si al pa on le t io In al Lo m t ns p e o w lo rm cc er ye up e su d rs at ia pe an io te rv ns d o is c ow cu or n y pa an ac t io co d ns te u nt ch w ni or ca Se ke lo m rs c i-r cu ou pa t in tio e ns oc R c up ou at t in io e ns oc cu pa tio ns

0%

When looking at occupations in the Eastern region in terms of the NS-SEC analysis, there are proportionately more white Irish men in the higher managerial and professional occupations when compared with the white British men and the male population as a whole. 14.3% of white Irish men are in higher managerial occupations in comparison with 13.2% of white British men. Conversely,17.8% of white Irish men are in lower managerial occupations in comparison with 20.4% of white British men. The only other area in which there are proportions higher in the white Irish population than in the white British population is in terms of small account workers which

9

A full description of the NS-SEC definitions is to be found in England: the Irish dimension – an exploration of 2001 Census data

22


accounts for 13.4% of the white Irish population in comparison with 11.8% of the white British population. Routine occupations include 10.4% of both white Irish men and white British men and 10.2% of the region’s population as a whole. The reasons behind the lower levels of white Irish men in the majority of categories include the high proportion of full-time students (see figure 9). Figure 20. Figure 20. Women in Eastern England aged between 16 and 74 – by NS-SEC (excluding those who are unemployed or in full-time education) 25%

20% 15%

white Irish white British all

10% 5%

H ig he

rm an Lo ag w er er ia m l& an pr ag of er es ia si l& on pr al o oc fe Sm cu ss al io pa le n t io I a n m Lo l t ns oc er pl w oy m c er up e e di su rs at at pe io an e ns rv d o cc is o or w u n pa y ac an t io co d ns te un ch tw ni or ca Se ke lo m rs cc i-r up ou at t in io e ns oc R c up ou at t in io e ns oc cu pa tio ns

0%

The pattern amongst women, in terms of NS-SEC is very different to that of men. What is interesting in the Eastern region in terms of white Irish women is that there is much greater similarity between white British and white Irish women in the higher managerial occupations. 4.3% of white Irish women are in higher managerial occupations in comparison with 4.4% of white British women. In terms of semi-routine jobs, this includes 15.1% of white Irish women and 15.4% of white British women. In routine occupations, the difference is greater - 10.4% of white Irish women and 8.9% of white British women.

23


Figure 21. Industry areas of the male working population 25%

20%

15% white Irish white British 10%

5%

Ag ric ul tu M re an ,m uf in ac in tu g rin an g d (in f is cl hi ud ng in g u til W it i ho es C le on ) sa s tru le an ct io d H n re ot Tr el ta s il an tra an sp Fi d de or na Pu re ta nc s bl ta nd ic ia ur la se co an nd ct m ts or m pr u se of ni es rv c at ic si io es on n al (in se cl ud rv H ea ic in es g lth ed an u c d at so io ci n) al se rv ic es

0%

15.3% of white Irish men in the Eastern region work in manufacturing in comparison with 20.3% of white British men. 21.5% of white Irish men work in construction – 8.7% more than the proportion of white British men (12.8%). The population with the next highest proportion working in construction is the white and Black Caribbean population – 11.3%. There is some similarity between the proportions of white Irish men and white British men in hotels and restaurants; transport and communication; financial and professional services; and public sector services. There are consequences to working in the construction industry as a Mind report of 2003 10 has found: “A major disadvantage of a lifetime of work in the construction industry is that many Irish men are in poor physical health and unable to work. They have not paid insurance contributions and end up without pensions in their old age or when ill.” In the light of this, it is interesting to return to figure 11 which illustrates that 7.5% of men aged between 25 and 74 are not working because of permanent sickness or disability. This is a high proportion of men, particularly when looked at in comparison with the male white British population in which 4.7% are not working because of permanent sickness or disability. We will return to this topic in Section 8: Health.

10

Mind: Mental health of Irish-born people in Britain, 2003

24


Figure 22. Industry areas of the female working population 30% 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British

10% 5%

Ag ric

ul tu M re an ,m uf ac in in tu g rin an g d ( in fis cl hi ud ng in g ut W ilit ho ie C le s) on sa st le ru an ct io d H n ot re Tr el ta an s i l a Fi tra sp nd na Pu de or re nc bl ta s ic ia t n a la d se ur co nd ct an or m ts p m ro se u fe rv ni ss ca ic es io tio na ( in n ls cl e u H r d v ea in ic es g lth ed an uc d at so io ci n) al se rv ic es

0%

As with white Irish men, there is a lower representation in the wholesale and retail trades amongst white Irish women than amongst white British women (12.9% and 18.8% respectively). 8.4% of white Irish women work in manufacturing as do 9.2% of white British women (much lower proportions than the equivalent male populations – see figure 21 above). 28.2% of white Irish women work in health and social services – in comparison with 17.3% of white British women. Only two populations of those listed in the Census have a higher proportion of women working in health and social services – the Black Caribbean population (29.6%) and the Black African population (38.3%). Health and social work (also referred to as health and social care within the Census outputs) will include medicine, nursing, auxiliary nursing, care work, social work etc. Some of these jobs will be highly qualified and well paid roles such as doctors, others will require no qualifications and may well be low paid.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary This section suggests that there is an Irish population which presents two pictures. The first is a picture of a population which has a relatively high proportion in managerial positions and professional positions. The second is a picture of a population in which a very high proportion of men are working in construction and a very high proportion of women are working in health and social care. These types of work can have significant effects on a population’s health, well-being and (current and future) financial well-being.

25


Section 4. Unpaid carers

_____________________________________________________________________ Previous sections have examined work as well as retirement and full-time education. However, a significant form of unpaid work has so far been omitted from our discussion – caring for other people. Section 1 outlined the older nature of the white Irish population. Section 8 will look at the relatively high levels of ill health associated with this. This section examines whether these factors impact on the level of unpaid caring carried out by the white Irish population.

The Census divides unpaid care into three different levels depending on the hours an individual devotes to it: a. between 1 and 19 hours a week b. between 20 and 49 hours a week c. 50 or more hours a week People providing the very highest level of care are unlikely to be able to work at the same time which impacts on their own life as well as on the lives of their dependents. However, even the lowest level of care-giving may restrict full-time and even parttime employment opportunities. Those providing only a low level of care may not be able to work if they have, in addition, their own children to care for. Employment opportunities may also be reduced if the care has to take place at particular hours of the day. Even care which is given at anti-social hours (such as through the night) may impede a carer’s ability to work if they don’t have sufficient opportunity to sleep. The Census form defines care as being ‘any help or support [given] to family members, friends, neighbours or others because of long-term physical or mental illhealth or disability; or problems related to old-age’. To get a greater understanding of levels of unpaid care, it is important to look at different elements of the population – men, women, younger people, people of pensionable age – as each has a very different picture of care.

26


a. Between 1 and 19 hours a week of unpaid care To weave our way through this complex picture, we will take each level of care in turn, starting with those providing between 1 and 19 hours a week below. Figures 23 and 24 look at working age carers and Figures 25 and 26 look at carers of pensionable age carers. Figure 23. Proportion of men aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 1 to 19 hours a week of unpaid care 9.00% 8.00% 7.00% 6.00% 5.00%

Eastern England

4.00%

England

3.00% 2.00% 1.00%

M ix ed

W hi te

To t - B al -W r it W W is hi hi h h M te te ix ite an - O - Ir ed - W d B the ish rW la hi ck te hi an Ca te M As ixe d B rib b d ia l e - W ack n As an or i As hite Afri As an or i an can Bl ian As an ac Br d A or i a k or Asi n B itish sia n a ri Bl ac n B tish - In B - P dia C lack k B ritis hi n h rit a o ne - B kis se r Bl ish t an a or ack - B gl ni la O ad th Brit ck er is C esh ar i Et h hn Bl ibb ea ac ic n k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0.00%

6.4% of white Eastern region Irish men in this age group provided between 1 and 19 hours of unpaid care each week – a very similar proportion to that of white Irish men in England (6.3%). The highest level of care is to be found in the Indian population (8.2%) with the white British population coming a close second (8.0%). The white Irish population provides the fourth highest level. The lowest level is in the white and Black Caribbean population (4.1%). Figure 24. Proportion of women aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 1 to 19 hours a week of unpaid care 12% 10% 8% Eastern England

6%

England

4% 2%

M ix ed

W hi te

To ta -B l -W r it W W is hi hi h h M te t ix ite a e -I ed O nd r i t sh -W Bl her ac hi W te k h ite an Ca M As ixe d B ribb d i - W lack ean As an or Af ia As hite n r ic As or ia an a i a n Bl n As n d Br ac or ia As i k n t ia or Asi Br ish a i Bl -I n ac n B tish nd Bl rit a k ia -P C is hi ck o Bri ak n ne tis h r Ba ista Bl h se n ng or ack - B l la i a O de th Brit ck sh er C is ar i Et h hn Bl ibb ea ac ic n k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0%

27


On average, when looking at women in comparison with men in the same age group, the proportion providing between 1 and 19 hours of care rises by 2%. The white British community had the highest proportion of women in this category – 10.4%. Second highest is the white British population (11.0%). The lowest level is to be found in the Chinese population (5.4%). The following figures look at the same level of care – 1 to 19 hours a week – but this time in the pensionable age group. Figure 25. Proportion of males of pensionable age providing between 1 and 19 hours a week of unpaid care 12% 10% 8% Eastern England

6%

England

4% 2%

M ix ed

W hi te

To ta -B l -W r it W W is hi h hi h te M te it e ix an - O - Ir ed i - W d B the sh rW la hi ck te hi te an Ca M As ixe d B ribb d l e i a an As an o - W ck Af ia hi rA r n te As ic si or an a Bl ian As an B nd ac or As i r a i k tis ia or Asi n B h n rit an -I Bl i s n a Bl Br h d c k ia a -P it C n hi ck o Brit ish a ne - B kis r B ish t se a an l or ack - Bl gl ni a ad O th Brit ck C esh is er a i r Et h hn Bl ibbe ac ic a n k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0%

5.1% of white Irish men of pensionable age are providing this level of care. This compares with 7.5% of white British men. In fact, only three of the ethnic populations listed has a lower proportion of pensionable age men providing this level of care Bangladeshi men (1.8%), Chinese men (3.8%) and Black African men (4.0%). The highest proportion is found in the white and Black African population (10.9%).

28


Figure 26. Proportion of females of pensionable age providing between 1 and 19 hours a week of unpaid care 9% 8% 7% 6% 5%

Eastern England

4%

England

3% 2% 1%

W

hi te

To

ta l -B M r ix iti sh ed W W hi -W te hi t -I hi e te -O ris M an h ix th ed d er B W -W la hi ck hi te C te ar an ib d be M Bl ix an ac ed As k -W ia A fri n hi ca or As te n As ia an n i an d or As A B As si ia rit an n ia is Bl or n h ac Br As -I k nd it i ia or sh n ia Bl Br n -P ac i t ak is k Bl h Br is ac ta iti Ba k C ni sh or hi ng ne -B Bl la se ac de la k ck or sh Br C O i iti ar th sh ib er be -B Et an hn la ck ic G Af ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0%

6.1% of white Irish women of pensionable age are providing unpaid care at this level (1% more than white Irish men of pensionable age). This is a lower proportion than in the white and Black African population (8.3%), the white British population (7.5%), the white other population (7.1%) and the Black Caribbean population (6.6%). The picture in the Eastern region is lower or very similar to that in England as a whole. A marked exception to this is in the white and Black African population – 8.3% of the population of the Eastern region and 4.6% of the population of England. The following charts look at those people providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care. Figures 27 and 28 look at carers aged between 16 and pensionable age and figures 29 and 30 look at carers of pensionable age.

29


b. Between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care Figure 27. Proportion of men aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 20 to 49 hours a week of unpaid care 2.5%

2.0%

1.5% Eastern England England 1.0%

0.5%

M

W To hi ta te l ix Br ed i W t -W W is hi h hi te hi te te M Iri ix a O ed sh nd th e -W Bl ac r W hi hi k te te an Car M i d b ix b B As ed ea la ia n - W ck Af As n o h rA ric ite ia an s an As n o r A ian d ia B A Bl n si rit si or ac a an is k As n B h or r i iti an In Bl s d h ac Br Bl - P ian iti k ac sh Br ak C k i hi is -B ne or B tish ta ni se - B ang la ck la la or d c B O es k rit th C hi is er a h - B ribb Et hn e la an ck ic G Af ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0.0%

The chart above looks at men providing a higher level of care – between 20 and 49 hours each week. As the level of care has increased, the proportion of men involved has fallen on average by 7% - to just 0.9%. Those communities in which the largest proportion of men participating are the Pakistani (2.0%), Bangladeshi (1.8%) and Indian (1.6%) populations. Amongst white Irish men, the proportion is 0.9%, 0.1% higher than amongst white British men (0.8%). For both men (above) and women (below), a smaller proportion of people in Eastern England provided this level of care than in the country as a whole. Figure 28. Proportion of women aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 20 to 49 hours a week of unpaid care 3.5% 3.0% 2.5% 2.0%

Eastern England

1.5%

England

1.0% 0.5%

M ix ed

W hi te

To ta -B l -W r it W W is hi hi h h M te t ix ite a e ed Iri O nd t sh -W Bl her ac hi W te k hi te an Ca M As ixe d B ribb d i - W lack ean As an or Af ia h A n As si ite a rica or a i a n n Bl n As Br d A ac n o r A ia n iti k s i sh a or Br s B l ia n it -I n ac nd Bl Br ish a k ia -P iti C s hi ck o Bri ak n ne tis h r i s Ba Bl h se t ng ani or ack - B la l a O B ck d th r er itis C esh ar i Et h hn Bl ibb ea ac ic n k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0.0%

30


1.3% of women aged between 16 and pensionable age are providing between 20 and 49 hours of care a week. This varies between the different minority ethnic groups – from 0.8% amongst the Chinese women, to 2.9% amongst the Pakistani women. 1.4% of white Irish women are providing this level of care as are 1.3% of white British women. In all the populations listed, proportions in the Eastern region are lower than that in England as a whole. Figure 29. Proportion of males of pensionable age providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care 3.0%

2.5%

2.0% Eastern England

1.5%

England

1.0%

0.5%

M

ix ed

W

hi te

To

ta l -B rit i sh W W hi -W hi te te hi t Iri -O e M sh an ix th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi k hi te C te ar an i b d M be Bl ix an ed ac As k -W ia Af n r ic hi or As te an As ia an n ia d As or n A Br ia As si n it i an Bl ia or sh n ac As Br -I k it i n or ia di sh n Bl an Br -P ac it i Bl k a s ki h Br ac s -B iti ta k C sh hi or ni an ne -B Bl gl se ac a la d k es or ck Br hi O C iti th ar sh er ib be -B Et an hn la ck ic G Af ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0.0%

1.4% of the men of this age are providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care – the same as in the white British population. The highest level is to be found amongst the Indian men (2.3%) and the lowest is to be found amongst the three populations in which a statistically negligible proportion are involved. 1.1% of white Irish men are providing care at this level – the fifth lowest proportion. Figure 30. Proportion of females of pensionable age providing between 20 and 49 hours a week of unpaid care 4.0% 3.5% 3.0% 2.5% Eastern England

2.0%

England

1.5% 1.0% 0.5%

ix ed

M

W

hi te

To

ta l

-B rit is W h W hi -W hi te t hi e t Iri -O e M sh an ix th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi k hi te C te ar an i b d M be Bl ix an ed ac As k -W ia Af n r ic hi or As te an As ia an n i a d As or n A Br ia As si n it i an ia Bl or sh n ac A B k si r I i n or t an is di h Bl an Br -P ac it i Bl k a s ki h Br ac st -B iti k C an sh hi or an i ne -B Bl gl se a ac la de k or ck s Br hi O C iti th ar sh er ib be -B Et an hn la ck ic G A fri ro ca up n -C hi ne se

0.0%

31


Overall, 1.2% of pensionable age women of Eastern England are providing this level of unpaid care. At 1.4% the proportion amongst white Irish women is the third lowest level of those listed. Only the other white population (1.3%) and the white British population (1.2%) have lower levels. The highest proportion is found in the white and Black African population (3.6%). The following charts look at those people providing 50 hours or more of care a week. Figures 31 and 32 look at people aged 16 to pensionable age. Figures 33 and 34 look at people of pensionable age. c. 50 or more hours a week of unpaid care Figure 31. Proportion of men aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 50 or more hours a week of unpaid care 2.5% 2.0% 1.5%

Eastern England England

1.0% 0.5%

M ix ed

W hi te

To ta -B l -W r it W W is hi hi h h M te t ix ite a e ed Iri O nd t sh -W Bl her ac hi W te k hi te an Ca M As ixe d B ribb d l i - W ack ean As an or Af ia h ite As n ri As or i an can Bl ian As an d B ac or As ia ri k ia or Asi n B tish n r a i Bl -I ac n B tish nd Bl r k a i i tis C Pa an hi ck o Bri h ti ne - B kis se r Bl sh an tan or ack - Bl i gl a ad O th Brit ck e sh C er is ar i Et h hn Bl ibbe ac ic a n k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0.0%

At the highest level of care provision (an average of 7 hours a day, 7 days a week) a slightly higher proportion of Irish men (1.4%) are involved than in the region’s men as a whole (1.2%). Only Pakistani men (1.5%) and Bangladeshi men (also 1.5%) have a higher proportion. However, the full range between all the populations listed is just 0.9%.

32


Figure 32. Proportion of women aged between 16 and pensionable age providing 50 or more hours a week of unpaid care 6%

5% 4% Eastern England

3%

England

2% 1%

W is W -W h hi hi te te hi te M -O Iri ix an sh th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an ib M d be i Bl an As xed a ia - W ck n Af As or hi ric te ia As an an n ia As or d n ia A A B n si si r it Bl an or an is ac h As Br k or In ia i t i n sh di Bl an Br ac -P iti Bl k sh ak ac B C i r k s i tis hi ta Ba or ne ni h ng Bl -B se ac la l or ac de k Br k sh O C th iti i ar sh er i b Et -B b ea hn la n ic ck G Af ro ric up an -C hi ne se

M ix ed

W

hi

te

-B

rit

To t

al

0%

On average, 2.2% of the women of the region aged between 16 and pensionable age are providing this highest level of weekly care. This is the same proportion as in the white Irish population. Only the Bangladeshi and Pakistani populations have higher proportions of women involved (both 4.8%). The lowest proportion is found amongst Black African women (1.2%). Figure 33. Proportion of men of pensionable age providing 50 hours or more a week of unpaid care 5.0% 4.5% 4.0% 3.5% 3.0%

Eastern England

2.5%

England

2.0% 1.5% 1.0% 0.5%

W hi -W te hi te -I hi -O te ris M h an th ix ed er d Bl W -W ac hi k hi te C te a an rib d be M Bl ix an ac ed As k -W ia Af n ric hi or As te an As ia an n ia d o n As As rA Br ia ia si iti n n an sh Bl or ac B As r I k nd iti ia or sh ia n Bl n Br -P ac i t is ak Bl k h i Br ac st -B an iti k C sh an or i hi gl ne -B Bl a ac se de l a k ck sh or Br C i O iti ar th s i h er bb -B ea Et la hn n ck ic Af G ric ro up an -C hi ne se

M

ix ed

W

hi

W

te

-B

rit

To

ta

is h

l

0.0%

4.1% of white Irish men of pensionable age are providing this high level of care – this compares with 4.3% of white British men. The highest level is to be found in the Pakistani population (4.3%). The lowest level is in the white and Black African population which has a statistically negligible percentage involved in care at this number of hours.

33


Figure 34. Proportion of women of pensionable age providing 50 hours or more a week of unpaid care 6% 5% 4% Eastern England

3%

England

2% 1%

M

W

hi te

To

ta l -B rit ix ed is W h W hi -W hi te te hi -I t ris e M O an h ix th ed d er Bl W -W ac h ite k hi C te ar an ib d be M Bl ix an ac ed As k -W ia Af n r ic hi or As te an As ia an n i a d o As n r A Br As ia si n it i an ia Bl sh or n ac B A k rit si I n or an is di h an Bl Br -P ac it i ak Bl k s h Br ac i s -B ta iti k C sh ni or hi an ne -B Bl gl se a ac l d a es k ck or Br hi O C iti ar th sh er ib be -B Et an hn la ck ic G Af ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0%

Interestingly, when looking at the higher levels of care – more than 7 hours a day – the proportion of people of pensionable age providing such care is higher than those providing 20 to 49 hours a week. 3.4% of white Irish women are providing this high level of care, a similar proportion to that amongst white British women (3.6%). The highest levels are to be found in the Pakistani population (4.2%) and the lowest are in the white and Black Caribbean population (1.7%). It is important to recognise that while proportions are relatively low in comparison to, say, the Bangladeshi community, the numbers may actually be higher because of the large proportion of people of pensionable age in the Irish community in Eastern England (see figure 6). The data from this section indicates that there are relatively high levels of care in the white Irish population (in comparison with the other populations listed) in the following population groups: - Working age women – 1-19 hours a week of care - Working age men – 50 + hours a week of care

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary Providing care for a family member or other person can have a significant impact not only on the person caring but also on the dependents of the carer, as the time devoted to caring may mean that taking on employment is not possible. The above analysis demonstrates a complex pattern of care amongst the minority ethnic populations in the different age bands. What is needed is an assessment of the economic and health impacts of care provision as well as the support needs of those who are caring.

34


Section 5. Qualifications

_____________________________________________________________________ This section looks at educational achievement as measured by the attainment of qualifications. While there is a whole range of educational attainment, this section examines the topics by two means – the attainment of no qualifications at all, and the attainment of the highest levels of qualifications.

Figure 35. Proportion of 16 to 24 year olds with no qualifications 30% 25% 20% Eastern England

15%

England

10% 5%

M ix

N o

qu

al ifi

ca ti W ons hi : t ed te ot -W - B al W W M h ix ite hite hi ritis ed te h a - W nd - O - I r t hi Bla her ish te ck W M As ix and Ca hit e r i As an d - Bl ib e b As ian or W ack ea Bl ian or As hite Af n ri ac A ia k or A sia n B and can or rit n A s ia is B si B B C lac lack n B ritis h - an hi I r h k ne o Br itis - nd se r B itis h - Pa ian ki h l B a or s O ck B - Bl ang tan th a er riti ck lad i C es Et sh hn - B ari hi ic la b b e G ck an ro up Afr i c - C an hi ne se

0%

In Eastern England, 10.9% of the white Irish population aged between 16 and 24 have no qualifications – a lower proportion than in England as a whole (12.3%). 15.2% of the region’s white British population have no qualifications. With the exception of the Indian population (9.0%), the white Irish population has the lowest proportion of 16 to 24 year olds with no qualifications. The highest proportion is to be found in the white and Black Caribbean population (23.2%).

35


Figure 36. Proportion of 16 to 24 years with qualifications at level 4/5 11 30% 25% 20% Eastern England

15%

England

10% 5%

Le ve l4 W /5: M t hi ix te ota ed -B l -W ri W W hi tish hi h M ix ite a te - te ed Ir O n - W d B the ish rW la hi ck te hi te an Ca M As ixe d B rib b d ia l e a - W ck an n As or i As hite Afri As an or i an can Bl ian A s an ac Br d A or i a k i or Asi n B tish sia an rit Bl -I n i s ac B n B h - P dia C lack k B ritis hi h rit ak n or ne -B is Bl ish se an tan or ack - B g la la i O d th Brit ck er is C esh ar i Et h hn Bl ibb ea ac ic n k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0%

19.7% of the white Irish population of the region aged between 16 and 24 have qualifications at levels 4 or 5. This is the fourth highest proportion of all the population listed in the Census, after the Chinese population (25.6%), the Indian population (23.7%) and ‘white other’ population (21.2%). The white British population fares relatively poorly – with 9.2% attaining levels 4 or 5. Figure 37. The proportion of the population with no qualifications 80% 70% 60% 50% white Irish white British

40%

all 30% 20% 10% 0% 16 - 24

25 - 34

35 -49

50 - 59

60 - 64

65 - 74

The chart above clearly indicates how the older generations have a far greater proportion of people with no qualifications than the younger generations, reflecting changes in education. While 10.9% of 16 to 24 year old white Irish people had no qualifications, this rises to 68.8% of those aged between 65 and 74. However, there are also other patterns in existence. In the 16 to 24 and the 25 to 34 age groups, a lesser proportion of the white Irish population than the white British population have no qualifications. In the older age groups, the pattern is reversed. In the 50 to 59 age group, for example, 44.1% of white Irish people in the region have no qualifications in comparison with 38.2% of the white British population. 11

Level 4/5 equates to a first degree, higher degree, NVQ levels 4-5, HNC, HND, qualified teacher status, qualified medical doctor, qualified dentist, qualified nurse, midwife, health visitor or equivalents.

36


Figure 38. The proportion of the population with qualifications at levels 4 or 5 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

white Irish white British all

16 - 24

25 - 34

35 -49

50 - 59

60 - 64

65 - 74

With the exception of the 16-24 age group many members of which may not have had time to reach higher levels of qualifications thus far, the general trend is downward as the older generations have fewer individuals with higher levels of qualifications. It is very apparent that more of the white Irish population are achieving these higher levels of qualifications than the rest of the population of the Eastern region. 39.7% of the white Irish population aged between 25 and 34 have higher levels of qualifications in comparison with 22.1% of the white British population. 31.6% of the white Irish population aged between 35 and 49 have higher levels of qualifications in comparison with 20.5% of the white British population. Hickman and Walter (1997) 12 notice the trend for a high proportion of the Irish population to have high level qualifications and term it a ‘brain drain’ – a tendency for some migrants to be highly qualified. They also recognise the tendency for other migrants to be ‘on the other end of the scale’ and have no qualifications at all. They create a picture of two extremes.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary Hickman and Walter (ibid) found a dual picture of Irish people in Britain. A high proportion of Irish people with high level qualifications and a high proportion of people with no qualifications. However, in terms of the younger sections of the white Irish population (those in the age bands below 35 years of age), there is a relatively small proportion of people with no qualifications at all.

12

Hickman MJ and Walter B (1997) Discrimination and the Irish Community in Britain, The Commission for Racial Equality

37


Section 6. Home tenure and accommodation type

_____________________________________________________________________ The type of housing in which a community lives can say much about its position in society and about the impact of other community characteristics such as economic activity and income. Type and nature of housing can also impact on a community and affect how it functions in terms of, for example, health and well-being. This section looks at type of housing in broad terms – such as ownership and whether it is shared.

Figure 39. Proportion of the population which owns own home 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

Eastern England

40%

England

30% 20% 10%

O

W

w ns

ho m e: to hi ta te l M -B ix r ed iti W sh W -W hi hi te hi te -I te M -O ris an ix h th ed d er Bl -W W ac h hi k ite te C ar an ib M d b ix Bl ea ed As a n ia - W ck A n fri As hi or ca te ia As n an n ia As or d n ia A A B n s s r Bl it i ia ia or ac sh n n As Br k -I or ia i n t i n sh di Bl B a ac -P n rit Bl k is ak ac Br h is C k i t ta hi Ba is or h ne ni ng Bl -B se ac la l a d or k ck es B O hi rit C th ar is er h ib Et -B be hn an la ic ck G Af ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0%

73.3% of the population of the population of Eastern England own their own home – 4% more than in England as a whole (69.3%). 71.2% of the region’s white Irish population own their own home – 2% lower than the proportion of white British people but the fifth highest percentage over all. The highest level of home ownership is in the Indian population (79.2%), the lowest level is in the Black African population (49.0%). These figures include people who own their own home outright (have no further payments to make on it) and those who own it with the help of a mortgage or other loan. The figures on the following pages give this breakdown.

38


Figure 40. Proportion of the population who own their own home outright 30% 25% 20% Eastern England

15%

England

10% 5%

O

w ns

ou tri gh t: W to hi ta te l M -B ix ed rit i W s W -W h hi hi te hi te te -I M r ix O an is ed th h d er Bl -W W ac hi h k i te te C ar an ib M d be ix B ed la As an ia - W ck Af As n o h r ic rA ite ia an n si an As an or d ia A As Br n Bl s ia it i or ia ac sh n n As k Br -I or ia it i n n Bl sh d B i ac an -P rit Bl k is ac ak Br h C k is i t hi i Ba ta or sh ne ni Bl ng -B se ac la la or d k ck es Br O hi C th iti ar sh er Et - B ibb e hn an la ic ck G Af ro r up ic - C an hi ne se

0%

While the extent of home ownership is lower amongst the white Irish population than in the white British population, the white Irish population has the highest proportion (27.5%) of outright home ownership than all the other populations listed in the Census. The white British population has the second highest proportion (25.4%). The lowest proportion of outright ownership is to be found in the black African population (6.4%). Figure 41. Proportion of the population who own their own home with a mortgage or loan 70% 60% 50% 40%

Eastern England England

30% 20% 10%

O

w ns

w ith

m

or tg ag e: W to hi ta te M l ix Br ed iti W -W W s hi h hi te hi te te M -I -O ix a r is ed nd th h er -W Bl ac W hi hi k te te an Car M ib d i b x B As ea ed la n ia - W ck Af As n o h rA r ic ite ia n an si As an or a ia d As n B n Bl As r o i ac it i an ia rA k n Br sh si or an it i In Bl s di h B a an ck rit Bl -P is ac Br a C h k hi iti - B kis or sh ne t an Bl se - B ang i ac la or la k de ck O Br s th i C hi tis er ar h ib Et be hn - Bl a a ic n ck G Af ro ric up - C an hi ne se

0%

While 27.5% of the white Irish population of the region own their own home outright, a further 43.7% do so with the aid of a mortgage or other loan. This compares with 48.8% of the white British population. The highest proportion of mortgaged ownership is to be found in the Pakistani population (57.5%), the lowest is in the Black African population (36.5%), the population which also has the lowest level of overall home ownership and outright ownership.

39


Figure 42. Proportion of the population in social housing 60% 50% 40% Eastern England

30%

England

20% 10%

W

M

So ci

al re nt : h ix ite tot ed - B al -W W W r h h hi itish M te ix i t e i t e ed a - W nd Oth Iris Bl e rW h hi te ack an C hite M a As ixe d Bl ribb ac As ian d ea W or k i hi Af n As an A t Bl ian or A sia e a rica n n ac n k or A sian Bri d A or tis si si B a h an Bl ri n B a Br tish - In C lac ck di iti hi k B an sh P ri ne o - B akis se r B tish l a t a or c ng an O k B B la la i th c er ritis k C des hi Et h a hn Bl ribb ic ac ea G ro k A n up fri - C can hi ne se

0%

15.1% of the population of Eastern England is in social housing (including properties rented from the local council). This is a smaller proportion to that found in England as a whole (17.6%). 15.4% of the white Irish population is in social housing. This is a proportion which falls mid-way between the proportions of the populations listed in the Census. It compares with 15.3% of the white British population. Highest levels of social housing are found in the white and Black Caribbean population (37.3%), the lowest level is in the Indian population (5.5%).

40


Figure 43. Proportion of the population in private rented accommodation 40% 35% 30% 25% Eastern England

20%

England

15% 10% 5%

Pr

iv at e

W

re nt ed :t ot hi a t e M -B l ix ed r i tis W -W W h hi hi te hi te te M -O Iri ix a sh nd ed th er Bl -W W ac hi hi k te te C ar an ib M d b ix Bl ea ed As a n ia - W ck Af As n o hi r r i ca ia te As n n an As ia or d ia As n B A n Bl rit si ia or ac an is n As k h Br or -I ia it i nd n Bl s h Br ac - P ian Bl it i k ac sh ak Br C k i hi t is or Ba ista ne h ni Bl ng se ac Bl la or ac k de Br O k sh th C iti i er ar sh Et - B ibb hn ea l a ic n ck G Af ro ric up - C an hi ne se

0%

7.8% of the population of the East region is living in privately rented accommodation. The white Irish population has one of the lowest proportions - 8.8% - with the level rising to 35.0% in the Black African population, for example. The lowest level is in the white British population (7.0%). Aside from the white British population, the only other population to have a proportion smaller than that of the white Irish population is the Black Caribbean population (8.6%). Figure 44. Proportion of the population in communal establishments 14% 12% 10% 8%

Eastern England

6%

England

4% 2%

Li

vi n

g

in

co m m

un al e

st ab lis hm en W M hi t: to ix te ed t - B al -W W r it W h h i h sh M ix ite a ite - ite ed n O - W d B th Iris h la er hi W te ck an Ca hite M r As ixe d B ib b i d As an - W lack ean or Af hi As ian A t r Bl ian or A sian e a ica n n ac o d s B r A ia k r A or si n B itish sia a B -I n Bl lac n B ritis n h ac C k rit - P dia hi B i k s ri n ne h o - B aki se r B tish - B an stan or lac k gl O i B lac a th er ritis k C des h hi Et ar h n - B ib la be ic c a G ro k A n up fri - C can hi ne se

0%

2.5% of the white Irish population of Eastern England lives in communal establishments. This compares with 1.5% of the white British population and is the fifth highest proportion after the Chinese population (11.8%), the Black African population (6.7%), the ‘white other’ population (5.2%) and the white and Black African population (3.9%). These figures are disaggregated into communal medical and care establishments and ‘other communal establishments’. 1.1% of the white Irish population is living in medical and care communal establishments – 0.3% higher than the 0.8% of the white British population in medical

41


and care establishments. This is the highest proportion in medical and care establishments than all the populations listed in the Census. A further 1.4% of the white Irish population lives in other communal establishments along with 0.7% of the white British population. Figure 45a. Proportion of the male population in key examples of communal establishments in the Eastern region (not including staff members) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; by establishment type. (whole numbers are given in parenthesis, neg. suggests <20)

Psychiatric hospitals and homes Nursing homes Residential care homes Prison service establishments Probation/bail hostels

White Irish population 0.06% (neg.) 0.12% (33) 0.33% (94) 0.52% (148) 0% (neg.)

White British population 0.04% (976) 0.10% (2,337) 0.25% (6,048) 0.10% (2,512) 0% (77)

Whole population 0.04% (1,150) 0.11% (2,829) 0.27% (7,048) 0.15% (3,837) 0% (92)

Figure 45b. Proportion of the female population in key examples of communal establishments in the Eastern region (not including staff members) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; by establishment type. (whole numbers are given in parenthesis, neg. suggests <20)

Psychiatric hospitals and homes Nursing homes Residential care homes Prison service establishments Probation/bail hostels

White Irish population 0.05% (neg.) 0.28% (94) 0.68% (224) 0.03% (neg.) 0% (neg.)

White British population 0.03% (675) 0.25% (6,222) 0.65% (16,406) 0.01% (194) 0% (neg.)

Whole population 0.03% (766) 0.27% (7,438) 0.69% (18,930) 0.01% (312) 0% (neg.)

Noticeably, the male white Irish population has a significantly higher proportion of people in nursing homes and residential care homes and in prison in comparison with the white British population. In terms of residential care homes and nursing homes, this is likely to be related to the relative age of the male white Irish population in comparison with the rest of the population. However, there is no other data from the Census which can offer explanations for the proportion of the white Irish population in psychiatric hospitals and prison. Discussion surrounding a high proportion of Black Caribbean people in prisons and in psychiatric units suggests that direct and indirect racism 13 has a significant role. This was the similar finding of Bracken et al 1998 14 in terms of 13

Direct racism is where a person is directly refused a service or receives physical abuse because of racism. Indirect racism is where a condition is imposed on a service which consequently means that an individual cannot achieve it. 14 Bracken P, Greenslade L, Griffin B, Smyth M, 1998, Mental health and ethnicity: an Irish dimension. British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 172 pp103-105

42


hospital admissions for mental health issues for Irish people. They found that the neglect of the Irish community in this regard is untenable.

Figure 46. Proportion of households comprising a lone pensioner 20% 18% 16% 14% 12%

Eastern England

10%

England

8% 6% 4% 2%

O

ne

pe ns i

on er ho us eh ol ds W hi : to M ta te ix ed -B l -W r W iti W sh M hite hite hite ix -O -I an ed r - W d B the ish rW la hi c k te hi te an Ca M r As ixe d B ibb ea la d ia n As n o - W c k Af i hi rA r ic As an te s o a an r A ian n Bl ian ac Br d A si or k it i si As an or s a Br h ia B -I n it n nd Br ish B l la c k ac i i a C t is Br P n hi k h iti ne o - B akis sh se r B t a a l ac n n or Bl k ac glad i O B th k es C er ritis hi ar h Et hn - B ibb ea la ic c n G ro k A fri up c a -C n hi ne se

0%

Almost a quarter, 24.5%, of the white Irish population in Eastern England are aged over 64 (see figure 6). It is thus perhaps not surprising that a high proportion, 16.8%, of white Irish households comprise a sole pensioner. This is the highest proportion of all the populations listed. The second highest proportion is the 14.6% of white British households. By contrast, the lowest proportion of lone pensioner households is to be found in the Bangladeshi population â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2.2%. Figure 47. Proportion of households with more than one related pensioner 12% 10% 8% Eastern England

6%

England

4% 2%

M

W hi te

To ix t ed - B al -W r W W i hi hi tish h M te te ix i t e an ed O I - W d B the rish r l a hi W ck te hi an Ca te M As ixe d B rib b d i - W lack ean As an or i As hite Afri As an or i an can Bl ian As an d ac B or i As an rit k or As ia Br ish i n a Bl i n t is ac I Bl n B h d r a k -P ia C Br itis hi ck n h a it o ne - B kis se r Bl ish ta a a n n or c Bl ac gla i O kB de th rit k er sh C is ar i Et h hn Bl ibb ea ac ic n k G A ro up fric - C an hi ne se

0%

Again, reflecting the high proportion of people of pensionable age in the white Irish population, a high proportion are living in households in which all inhabitants are pensioners who are related to each other (e.g. a married couple) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10.4%. However, unlike lone pensioner households, the proportion of white British households is

43


slightly higher (10.6%). Again, the lowest proportion is in the Bangladeshi population (0.8%).

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary Housing can be very important in terms of a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s health and well-being. The analysis of the relevant data in this section suggests that the white Irish population has a relatively high level of home ownership and, in comparison with the white British populations, a relatively high proportion living in rented accommodation (both social and private). A relatively high proportion of Irish people live in medical and care establishments including nursing homes, residential care homes, prison and psychiatric homes. There is a relatively high proportion of lone pensioner households in the white Irish population.

44


Section 7. Amenities

_____________________________________________________________________ There are certain measures which are used by researchers to assess the quality of life of households. In the Census these include central heating, overcrowding, bathroom sharing and car ownership.

Figure 48. Proportion of the population living without central heating 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% Eastern England

10%

England

8% 6% 4% 2%

N

o

ce nt ra

lh ea tin g: W to hi ta t M e ix -B l ed r iti W -W W sh hi hi hi te te te M ix Iri an O ed sh th d er -W Bl a W ck hi h te ite an Car M ib d i b x B As ea ed la n ia - W ck Af As n o h r r ite ia i c A n an si As an or a ia d As n B n Bl As rit or ia ac ia i n k As n Br sh or ia it i In Bl n s di h Br ac a Bl -P it i k n ac sh Br a C k hi iti - B kis or sh ne t a Bl ni se - B ang ac la or la k de ck O Br sh th iti er sh Car i ib Et be hn - Bl a a ic n ck G Af ro ric up - C an hi ne se

0%

4.2% of the population of Eastern England is living without central heating â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in comparison with 7.3% of the population of England. Amongst the white British and white Irish populations, the proportion is 4.1% and 4.0% respectively. The proportion of the population living without central heating is highest in the Bangladeshi population (8.5%). The population with the lowest proportion is the Indian population (2.6%). There are a number of factors which may have an impact on the different levels of central heating. These include: - Expense Central heating is an expensive investment. Economic activity is comparatively low amongst both white Irish men and white Irish women (section 2: Economic activity and inactivity). This leaves a relatively high proportion of the white Irish population living on forms of income other than earnings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; pensions, benefits etc. In such situations, affording central heating may not be possible. - Home ownership Tenants may have no say in the type of heating provided by a landlord (private or otherwise). It is only when a home is owned by the occupier that they can make their own decisions about heating adaptations. There is a relatively high proportion of the white Irish population living in homes that they own (figure 39).

45


Figure 49. Proportion of population with an occupancy rating of –1 or less 15 60% 50% 40% Eastern England

30%

England

20% 10%

To W ta hi l te M B rit ix ed is W h W hi -W hi te te hi t I e r M is O an ix h th ed d er Bl -W W ac h k ite hi C te ar an ib d M be Bl ix an ed ac As k -W ia Af n r hi or ic As te an As ia an n ia d As or n As Br ia As n ia iti ia Bl n or sh n ac As Br -I k iti n ia or d sh n ia Bl Br n -P ac iti Bl k ak sh Br ac i s iti ta k C Ba sh ni hi or ng ne -B Bl la se ac l d ac e k or sh k Br O C i iti th ar sh er ib b -B Et e an hn la ck ic G Af ro r ic up an -C hi ne se

0%

An occupancy rating of –1 or less suggests overcrowding. In this region, 6.2% of the population are experiencing overcrowding in their home. This ranges from 5.2% amongst the white British population to 42.1% in the Bangladeshi population. In the white Irish population, the proportion is 7.9%, the second lowest level of all those listed. Figure 50. Proportion of the population living in households without sole use of shower/bath and toilet 1.4% 1.2% 1.0% 0.8%

Eastern England England

0.6% 0.4% 0.2%

W

M

ix ed

W

W

hi te

To

ta l

-B rit is h hi -W hi te te hi t Iri -O e M sh an ix th ed d er Bl -W W ac hi k hi te C te ar an i b d M be Bl ix an ed ac As k -W ia Af n r ic hi or As te an As ia an n ia d As or n A Br ia As si n it i an Bl ia or sh n ac As Br -I k it i n or ia di sh n Bl an Br -P ac it i Bl k a s ki h Br ac s -B iti ta k C sh hi or ni an ne -B Bl gl se ac a la d k es or ck Br hi O C iti th ar sh er ib be -B Et an hn la ck ic G Af ro ric up an -C hi ne se

0.0%

While 0.9% of the Pakistani population does not have sole use of a bath/shower and toilet in their home, this falls to 0.2% in the white Irish population. This is the second lowest proportion after the white British population (0.1%). In all populations except most of the Asian populations, the proportion living without sole use of these basic bathroom facilities is lower in the region than in the country as a whole.

15

The occupancy rating in the Census assumes that every household, including one-person households, requires a minimum of two common rooms (excluding bathrooms). An occupancy rating of –1 implies that there is one room too few and that there is thus overcrowding in the household.

46


Figure 51. The proportion of the population which does not own a car or van 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

Eastern England

W

M ix

ed

-W

W

W hi te

-B ri hi hi tish hi M t t t e e e ix ed an - O - I - W d B the rish rW la hi ck te hi C an M ar t e d As ixe ib B be d i la c a As an or W h k A n ia ite fri As As n or i an can Bl ian As an d ac B or As ia rit k A n i ia s or s Br h n Bl ian -I iti s ac Bl nd Br h a k it - P ia C n hi ck o Bri ish ne - B akis r B tis h se t an l an or ack - B i la gla O B d c rit th k e s is er C ar h i Et h hn Bl ibb e a ic G c k A an ro up fric - C an hi ne se

England

19.0% of the white Irish population of Eastern England does not own either a car or a van. The group with the lowest level of car or van ownership is the white and Black Caribbean population (32.7% does not own one). 28.1% of the white British population does not own a car. Only two populations have higher levels of car ownership than the white Irish population – the Chinese population (18.2% doesn’t have one) and the Indian population (14.4% doesn’t have one).

__________________________________________________________________ In summary Like housing tenure, the picture provided by the Census data on amenities is a complex one. This section illustrates that the white Irish population has a low proportion of people without sole use of bathroom facilities and a high proportion of people living in overcrowded accommodation in comparison with the white British population, although a relatively low proportion in comparison with other minority ethnic populations. Each of these high proportions of ‘doing without’ may point, at least in part, towards relative poverty, although other factors will also play a part.

47


Section 8. Health

_____________________________________________________________________ This section looks at the health of the population. This is not based on medical records or hospital admissions but on questions in the Census about how people rated their own health. There are two questions – whether people have limiting long-term illness and whether people feel themselves to be in good or poor health.

Census respondents were asked whether they had ‘any long-term illness, health problem or disability which limits your daily activities or the work you can do’. The illnesses or disabilities that people were thinking of when answering this question must inevitably cover a very wide range of health issues including both physical and mental complaints. The key issue that the question presents is that of the long-lasting nature of the health issue or disability. There is a second question in the Census on this subject - relating to people’s analysis of their own health, relates only to the previous twelve months. This is examined in figures 59 and 60 at the end of this section. The following figures look at the proportion of the population that said yes, they did have a limiting long-term illness. Figure 52. Proportion of 0 to 15 year old girls with limiting long-term illness 6% 5% 4% Eastern England

3%

England

2% 1%

Li m

iti

ng

lo

ng -te rm

illn e W ss: to hi M ta t e ix -B l ed r -W iti W W sh hi hi te te M hite ix a Iri ed O n sh - W d B the rW la hi c k te h ite an Ca M ri d As ixe Bl bbe d a an ia ck As n o - W Af hi rA i ric t e As an si an or a a Bl ian As n B nd ac As or r i a i t k n i ia As or Br sh n ia -I it B n nd Br ish Bl lack ia i a t is n C Pa Br ck h hi iti o ne - B kis sh ta se r Bl an ni ac Bl gl or k ad ac O B k es th C er ritis hi ar h Et hn - B ibbe la ic a ck n G ro Af up ric - C an hi ne se

0%

In the Eastern region 3.3% of girls under 16 years old have a limiting illness. Amongst white Irish girls, this rises to 3.3% - matching the level amongst white British girls (also 3.3%). The level of long-term limiting illness amongst white Irish girls is the fifth lowest highest of those listed. The differentials between the Eastern region and England in each of the ethnic groups varies. There is not a clear pattern relating to how limiting long-term illness is experienced in this age group in the region in comparison to the country as a whole.

48


Figure 53. Proportion of 0 to 15 year old boys with limiting long-term illness 7% 6% 5% 4%

Eastern England

3%

England

2% 1%

W

M

Li

m

iti ng

lo ng -te rm

illn

es s: to hi ta t e ix -B l ed r -W iti W W sh hi hi te te M hite ix a Iri ed O n sh - W d B the rW la hi c k te h ite an Ca M ri d As ixe Bl bbe d a an ia ck As n o - W Af hi rA i r ic t e As an si an or a a Bl ian As n B nd ac As or r i a i t k n i ia As or Br sh n ia -I it B n nd Br ish Bl lack ia i a t is n C Pa Br ck h hi iti o ne - B kis sh ta se r Bl an ni ac Bl gl or k ad ac O B k es th C er ritis hi ar h Et hn - B ibbe la ic a ck n G ro Af up ric a -C n hi ne se

0%

Levels of limiting illness are slightly higher amongst young boys than girls â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 4.5%. Amongst white Irish boys the proportion is lower than the white British boys â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 4.3% and 4.6% respectively. Amongst boys, the white Irish population falls mid-way between all those populations listed in terms of the incidence of limiting long-term illness. Figure 54. Proportion of women aged 16 to 49 years old with limiting long-term illness 2.5%

2.0%

1.5% Eastern England England 1.0%

0.5%

Li

m

iti ng

W

lo ng -te rm

illn

es s: to hi M ta t e ix ed -B l r -W iti W W sh hi hi te te M hite ix a ed Iri O n sh - W d B the rW la hi c k te hi te an Ca M ri d As ixe Bl bbe d a ia a As n o - W c k A n hi rA i fri te As an c s an or ia a Bl ian As n B nd ac or As ia rit k n As ia or Br ish n ia -I it B n nd Br ish B l la c ia k i ac t C i n Pa Br sh k hi iti o ne - B kis se r Bl sh ta an n a Bl or gl i ck ad ac O B k th es C er ritis h ar i h Et hn - B ibb ea la ic c n G k ro Af up ric - C an hi ne se

0.0%

1.0% of women in the general population in Eastern England aged between 16 and 49 have a limiting long-term illness. In the white Irish population, the proportion is also 1.0%. Highest levels of limiting long-term illness are amongst Pakistani women (1.9%). Apart from the Pakistani population, the three populations with higher levels than in the white Irish population are the white and Black Caribbean population (1.5%), the Bangladeshi population (1.4%), and the Black Caribbean population (1.4%).

49


Figure 55. Proportion of men aged 16 to 49 with limiting long-term illness 14% 12% 10% 8%

Eastern England England

6% 4% 2%

W

ix ed

M

Li

m

iti ng

lo ng -te rm

illn es hi s: to te -W - B tal W M hit hi Wh ritis ix h ed e a te - ite O - W nd Bl the Irish hi te ack r W h a C M ar ite As ix nd ib e As ian d - Bla be a W ck A ian or h Af n Bl sian or Asi ite r ic a ac an an o As n k or r As ian Brit d A ia Bl Br ish sia Bl ac n it i -I n C n hi ack k B Brit sh ne - P dia is r o i h t se r B is - B ak n is or lac h B ang tan k O B la th i er riti ck lade Et sh Ca s hn - B rib hi ic b l G ack ean ro up Afr - C ica hi n ne se

0%

Amongst men in this middle age group, limiting long-term illness rises dramatically, from 1.0% of the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s women to 8.2% of men. Amongst white Irish men, the percentage is 9.0% - the fourth highest proportion of all the ethnic groups listed. It would perhaps not be unreasonable to suggest at least a partial link between this high level to the high proportion of white Irish men working in the construction industry â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 21.5% (figure 21). The lowest proportion is to be found in the Chinese population of this age group (3.0%). The differentials between the England data and the equivalent regional data do not follow a clear pattern. In some ethnic populations there is a greater prevalence of limiting long-term illness in the region rather than the country as a whole. In others, the situation is reversed. The white Irish population has the largest absolute difference between the regional situation (9.0%) and the England-wide situation (11.8%).

50


Figure 56. Proportion of women aged 50 to 64 with limiting long-term illness 60% 50% 40% Eastern England

30%

England

20% 10%

W

M

Li

m

iti ng

lo ng -te rm

illn

es s: to hi ta t e ix -B l ed r -W iti W W sh hi hi te te M hite ix a Iri ed O n sh - W d B the rW la hi c k te h ite an Ca M ri d As ixe Bl bbe d a an ia ck As n o - W Af hi rA i r ic t e As an si an or a a Bl ian As n B nd ac As or r i a i t k n i ia As or Br sh n ia -I it B n nd Br ish Bl lack ia i a t is n C Pa Br ck h hi iti o ne - B kis sh ta se r Bl an ni ac Bl gl or k ad ac O B k es th C er ritis hi ar h Et hn - B ibbe la ic a ck n G ro Af up ric a -C n hi ne se

0%

21.3% of the female older population of the region has a limiting long-term illness. In the white Irish population, the proportion rises to 24.0%. The highest proportions are to be found in the Pakistani (48.9%) and Bangladeshi (53.0%) populations. In the white British population, the proportion is 21.1%. Figure 57. Proportion of men aged 50 to 64 with limiting long-term illness 60% 50% 40% Eastern England

30%

England

20% 10%

Li

m

iti ng

W

lo ng -te rm

illn

es s: to hi ta M te ix -B l ed r iti -W W W sh hi hi te te M hite ix an Iri O ed sh th -W dB er la W hi hi te ck C an ar te M i d Bl bbe As ixed a an ia - W ck n As Af or hi ia r i te As ca n As a or ia n As n B nd A Bl ian ac or rit ia s i n k i an As or Br sh ia -I it B n nd Br ish Bl lack - P ian it i ac B sh C a k hi or ritis - B kis ne h ta Bl an se ni ac Bl gl or k a a de ck O B rit th sh C is er ar i h Et ib be hn - B la a ic ck n G Af ro ric up a -C n hi ne se

0%

20.8% of white British men in this age group have a limiting illness. For white Irish men, this proportion rises to 26.6%. Only three populations of men have higher levels than in the white Irish population â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Bangladeshi men (55.4%), Pakistani men (48.9%) and white and Asian men (28.0%).

51


Figure 58. Proportion of women aged 65 or older with limiting long-term illness 70% 60% 50% 40%

Eastern England

30%

England

20% 10%

Li

m iti ng

lo ng -te rm

illn es s: W to hi M ta te ix -B l ed r -W iti W W sh hi hi te te M hite ix an Iri O ed sh - W d B the rW la hi c k h te ite an Ca M ri d Bl bbe As ixe d ac an ia k As n o - W Af hi rA ia r i t ca n e As si a or n a B l ia n As n B nd As ac or ia rit k n ia i A s or h n Br si a -I iti Bl nd sh ac n B Bl i r an k -P ac C Br itish a k hi iti - B kis o ne sh t a se r Bl - B ang ni ac or la l k de O Br ack th sh iti er sh Car i Et ib be hn - B l ac an ic k G Af ro r ic up - C an hi ne se

0%

49.3% of the female population of Eastern England who are aged 65 or older have a limiting, long-term illness. This proportion rises to 61.3% in the Pakistani population. White Irish women have the lowest proportion (45.8%) of each of the ethnic groups with the exception of white and Black African women (43.1%) and Chinese women (45.0%). Figure 59. Proportion of men aged 65 or older with limiting long-term illness 70% 60% 50% 40%

Eastern England

30%

England

20% 10%

Li

m

iti ng

W

lo ng -te rm

illn

es s: to hi M ta te ix -B l ed r -W iti W W sh hi hi te te M hite ix a Iri O ed n sh - W d B the rW la hi c k h te ite an Ca M ri d As ixe Bl bbe d ac an ia k As n o - W Af hi rA ia r t i n e c As si an or a a Bl ian As n B nd As ac or rit ia k n i ia As or Br sh n ia -I it i Bl n nd s a B h Bl ck i r a i ac t is n Pa C Br k h hi iti o - B kis ne sh ta se r Bl a -B ni ng ac or l l k O Br ack ade th i s C tis er hi ar h Et ib hn - B be l a ic an ck G Af ro up ric - C an hi ne se

0%

In the 50 to 64 age group, there was a disparity between white Irish men’s experience of long term limiting illness and that of other ethnic groups. In this older age group, the disparity has all but disappeared. 45.4% of white Irish men aged 65 and over are affected, as are 44.9% of white British men and the region’s population as a whole. Overall, 16.2% of the population of all ages, and both genders, in Eastern England has a limiting long-term illness in comparison with 17.9% of the population of England as a whole. The white Irish population is the ethnic group, of those listed, with the highest level – 22.1%. The ethnic groups with the next highest level are the white British population (16.6%) and the Black Caribbean population (14.4%). The high proportion amongst the white Irish population when looking at it over all ages and genders lies largely in the large proportion of the population who are aged 65

52


and over (24.5%) where limiting long-term illness is more common, regardless of ethnic group. On the subject of health, the Census form also asked people if, over the previous 12 months, respondents would say that their health had been good, fairly good or not good. As health can fluctuate in a 12 month period, it is the responsibility of the respondent to find some form of average or overall feeling of health which may, of course, be affected by how the respondent was feeling, health-wise, at the time of completing the Census form. For under 16 year olds, it may be that parents are completing the Census details on their children’s behalf which means that the health rating is likely to be the parent’s assessment rather than the child’s own assessment. The following two figures look at those respondents who rated their health as being not good. Figure 60. Proportion of women in the region who rated their health as being not good 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British 10%

all

5% 0% 0-15

16-49

50-64

65 +

It is clear from the data that being in not good health increases with age as we would expect. What is interesting is that there is greater experience of being in not good health amongst white Irish women between the ages of 16 and 64 – working age. 19.6% of white Irish women in the region and 15.8% of white British women aged between 16 and 64 are in not good health. Figure 61. Proportion of men in the region who rated their health as being not good 25% 20% white Irish

15%

white British 10%

all

5% 0% 0-15

16-49

50-64

65 +

The pattern is repeated amongst the men of Eastern England. 21.8% of white Irish men aged between 16 and 64 are in not good health along with 15.3% of white British men. Unlike amongst women, however, the disparity continues into the 65 and over age group. The health of a population is a complex issue with many inter-linked factors at play. Relatively high rates of long-term illness amongst Irish people are discussed at some length by Hickman and Walter (1997) as well as other commentators. What is clear is that there is no single answer to the matter of why there are relatively high levels of ill-health (and mortality) amongst Irish populations. The following are some of those factors which could be at play:

53


Poverty and housing As established earlier in this report, the white Irish population has a comparatively low level of economic activity (section 2: Economic activity and inactivity) which implies reliance on other forms of income such as pensions and benefits. Likewise a relatively high proportion of the white Irish population is living in social housing (figure 42). Both of these factors may have an impact on the health of individuals. Socio-economic status As well as practical issues related to class, people of lower social classes may also view their own health differently bringing about reporting differences. Changes brought about by the act of migration Living in a rural setting in Ireland and moving to an inner-city area, for example, can represent a significant change in a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life which may impact on their health. Negative experiences of host country and racism Many commentators have documented racism and discrimination experienced by Irish people in England both in the past and currently. Lifestyle factors The links between excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and poor diet and poor health are now clearly established and need to be taken into consideration when looking at any population experiencing poor health. Genetics In any discussion of health, genetics may play a factor. Certain illnesses (e.g. cancers) have strong genetic components. In a single community of people this may impact on the incidence of those illnesses. Occupation It has been established that a relatively high proportion of white Irish men work in construction (figure 21) and an even higher proportion of white Irish women work in health and social care (figure 22). While the Census data does not indicate the type of work undertaken in these broad fields, we know that construction includes many roles which are dangerous or cause ill-health and that many roles in health and social care involve long, anti-social hours, lifting and stress.

_____________________________________________________________________ In summary The data in this section suggests that health is a particular issue for white Irish people in the region. This relates particularly to white Irish men of working age who are experiencing relatively high levels of limiting long-term illness. It also relates to men and women of working age who rate their own health as being not good.

54


FIS exists to represent and develop our members and our community


This report, one of a suite of twenty four, is an outcome of a research project on the Irish data in the 2001 Census. The data and commentaries in the suite of reports are presented in a comparative context at national, regional and selected local levels, and on the basis of the full sixteen categories from the 2001 Census Ethnic Group Question. ... there are sections of the Irish population who have multiple needs, are marginalised, and have information, support and service needs ... to be addressed. We have been disappointed by the structuring of much of the analysis of ethnicity data from the 2001 Census published todate, particularly the use of various “combined ethnic group categories” and the failure to disaggregate the White ”combined group” data. Increasingly, microdecisions about delivery of services take place at a local level. ... Those with local responsibility under the Race Relations Acts for addressing inequalities must have the best possible local data on all significant communities (including minority ethnic communities) at their disposal, and must use it in an inclusive way to inform their policies. Dr Mary Tilki Chair, Federation of Irish Societies

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East England THE IRISH DIMENSION