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USER MANUAL KLIMA U-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

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Supplier information: Homepage: www.Klima.com The Netherlands: VDL Klima b.v. Meerenakkerweg 30 5652 AV Eindhoven Postbus 300 5600 AH Eindhoven Telephone: Telephone service: Telefax: E-mail

+31 (0)40-2981818 +31 (0)40-2981858 +31 (0)40-2981800 info@klima.com

Supplier Belgium: Klima Belgium n.v. Leuvensesteenweg 49c 1932 Zaventem Telephone: Telefax: E-mail

+32 (0)2-7206026 +32 (0)2-7203407 Klima.belgium@klima.com

Supplier Belgium: Klima warmtetechniek n.v. Buitenheide 4 3930 Hamont-Achel Supplier France: VDL Klima France s.a.r.l. Chateau Rouge - 276 Avenue de la Marne 59708 Marcq-en-Baroeul Telephone: Telefax: E-mail

+33 (0)320-65-91-65 +33 (0)320-65-91-60 Klima.france@klima.com

Publication: 27.03.2006

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Table of Contents 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

General Information...........................................................................4 1.1 Product Information ................................................................4 1.2 Installation Composition ......................................................... 5 1.3 Prohibitions to (putting into) Operation ...................................6 1.4 Guarantee ..............................................................................6 Safety ................................................................................................7 2.1 General Safety .......................................................................7 2.2 Protection: ..............................................................................8 Transport, Storage and Installation Site. ...........................................9 3.1 Instructions for Transport and Hoisting...................................9 3.2 Transport and Packaging ..................................................... 10 3.3 Storage:................................................................................ 10 3.4 Installation Siting: ................................................................. 11 Installation ....................................................................................... 12 4.1 Safety Measures and Facilities on the Heat Exchanger / Installation..................................... 12 4.2 Preparation for Installation ................................................... 13 4.3 Installation ............................................................................ 15 4.4 Tightening of the Bolts.......................................................... 15 Start-up............................................................................................ 16 5.1 Inspection before putting the unit into operation................... 16 5.2 Filling and Venting................................................................ 16 5.2.1 Filling a heat exchanger compartment with a liquid.............. 16 5.2.2 Filling a heat exchanger compartment with a gas. ............... 16 5.2.3 Filling a heat exchanger compartment with steam. .............. 17 5.3 Re-tightening of the Bolts. .................................................... 17 5.4 Inspection after Start-up: ...................................................... 17 5.5 Shut Down of the Installation:............................................... 18 Maintenance and Inspection:...........................................................19 6.1 Inspection ............................................................................. 20 6.2 Cleaning of the Heat Exchanger........................................... 20 6.2.1 Disassembly of the Heat Exchanger. ................................... 20 6.2.2 Cleaning the Heat Exchanger ..............................................21 6.2.3 Assembly of the Heat Exchanger. ........................................ 21 6.2.4 (Re)pressurizing of the Heat Exchanger. ............................. 22 Malfunctions / Trouble-Shooting Guide ........................................... 23 7.1 Identification and Correction of Malfunctions....................... 23 7.2 Safety Measures / Facilities: ................................................ 24 Customer Service: ........................................................................... 25 8.1 Ordering Spare Parts: .......................................................... 25 8.2 Complaints Procedure:......................................................... 25 Accessories / Annexes: ................................................................... 26 9.1 Instructions for Transporting and Hoisting. ........................... 26 9.2 General Information about Material and Mediums................ 26 9.3 Technical Specifications / Documentation ............................ 28 3

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General Information

Pictograms used in this manual Dangerous situation with possibility of personal injury as well as damage to the equipment. Reference to tips, comments and supplements with regard to using the equipment. The general standards apply to symbols that are applied to the installation by the owner. This manual supplies information and instructions for the correct and safe use of the device. Many accidents are the result of incorrect use. Instructions in this manual must therefore always be followed. The safety instructions must also always be observed when work is done on the equipment. The complete manual must be carefully read. If, after reading this manual, questions still exist, you must contact the supplier / contractor for more information. The installation may NOT be put into operation before all unclear issues have been resolved.

1.1

Product Information Product : U-tube (Shell & Tube) Heat Exchanger. Type : See Technical Specification Sheet or type plate

Heat exchangers with tube bundle encased in a shell are used in installations were heat must be exchanged between two separated substances in either gas or liquid form.

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1.2

Installation Composition

Fig. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Casing Cover Flange ring Pipe on pipe-side Pipe on casing-side Valve Connecting Flange Compensator / Dilation Joint

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1.3

Prohibitions to (putting into) Operation It is Prohibited to operate the Unit beyond Design Conditions

The equipment is designed according to the design parameters as stated in the enclosed technical specification sheet. If these parameters are exceeded then it is PROHIBITED to put the installation into operation without prior consultation with the manufacturer. Moreover all continued use in such a non-design situation is considered contrary to the regulations. The manufacturer is not liable for any material damage or personal injury that results from further use : this risk is solely the responsibility of the owner / user. Klima has advised in the choice of materials, the user remains responsible for the media used with regard to corrosion. Some information on materials and mediums that Klima has collected during many years of experience can be found in Chapter 9.2. This is purely informative. The user remains responsible for the mediums and materials that he uses.

1.4

Guarantee

Unless covered by a separate agreement, Klima guarantees the products supplied by the company to be sound and in good working order, according to the technical specifications, for a period of 6 months after being put into operation, up to a maximum of 12 months after delivery. The General Terms of Sale and Delivery can be requested from your supplier. Any damage and/or decrease in capacity due to non-observance of this user manual are not covered by the guarantee. The guarantee expires if any adaptations or changes are made to the heat exchanger. The equipment must always be inspected upon delivery for damage to the equipment during transport. The manufacturer must immediately be notified of any damage during transport.

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2.1

Safety

General Safety Physical injuries Physical injuries can be caused by: • Burning, by touching the heat exchanger or other parts of the installation. • The accidental release of a medium under pressure, which presents a risk for burns and other injuries because of the high pressure. • Contact with chemicals that are released. • Respiration of harmful gasses that are released. Damage to the equipment Damage to the equipment can be caused by: • External forces. • Corrosion. • Chemical corrosion. • Erosion. • Fatigue. • Steam shock. • Pressure / temperature too high. • Impact load. • Freezing. • Transport. For transport See: Instructions for Transport and Hoisting If handled incorrectly there is a risk for physical injury and/or damage to the equipment. Even after switching off the installation the heat exchanger surface can still be hot. The unit may only be fed with the mediums stated in the technical specification sheet. No fatigue analysis has been taken into account and therefore the unit should only be used for static load.

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A hot medium may NOT flow through the heat exchanger without a cold medium also flowing through the heat exchanger. This is to prevent damage to the heat exchanger. If a cold medium is present in the heat exchanger but is not flowing whilst a hot medium is flowing through the heat exchanger, then the cold medium may start boiling and the heat exchanger will be damaged. Sudden changes in pressure and temperature must be avoided. The values stated in the technical specification sheet must not be exceeded. This manual describes other safety instructions than those safety instructions related to the chapter in which they occur. The complete manual must therefore be read to be aware of all safety provisions and measures to be taken when using this installation. Danger of freezing. When an idle heat exchanger (filled with water or a water mixture not of an anti-freeze type) is exposed to temperatures below zero, the pipes can burst and the cover and/or the shell can be deformed. In cases where a danger of freezing may exist all of the medium must be drained from the heat exchanger.

2.2

Protection:

For the protection of others place the heat exchanger out of reach for protection, in a closed space, e.g. a boiler house, only accessible to authorized staff acquainted with the safety requirements applying to the equipment stored there. If the heat exchanger is set up close to people, presenting a risk of burns, insulation of the heat exchanger is mandatory. The user must take care to provide adequate danger signs on exposed uninsulated parts of the installation, which present risk of burns or other injury and/or damage.

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Transport, Storage and Installation Site.

3.1

Instructions for Transport and Hoisting

Fig. 2

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3.2

Transport and Packaging For transport see: Instructions for Transport and Hoisting

Always use the appropriate hoisting facilities and equipment.

Respect the prescribed safety norms and regulations. If handled incorrectly, danger for physical injury and/or damage to the equipment exists

Any packaging must be removed carefully and disposed of in an environmentally friendly way.

3.3

Storage:

The device must be stored covered and dry. Long-term storage from 2 to 24 months requires airtight sealing of the device adding an absorbent material e.g. silica-gel, or filling with inert gas. Storage longer than 6 months requires inspection of the seals and possible replacement before the device is put into operation.

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3.4

Installation Siting:

Fig. 3 We certify that the heat exchanger with the CE-sign on the type plate satisfies the EC-directives of the EC-pressure equipment 97/23/ EC. See Fig. 3

General conditions an installation siting / location should satisfy: • Sufficiently firm and level ground or construction, adapted to the load that is expected. • Sound construction and vibration-free installation of the device. • Protect if necessary against possible damage by e.g. internal transport. • See the technical specification sheet for product-related information. • Protection. For safety, see Chapter 2.2 under “Safety”. • The location where the equipment is placed must have enough space for installation, maintenance and cleaning. See the relevant chapters. • The unit is anti seismic to maximum earthquake intensity in accordance with euro code 8.

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Installation The assembly and start-up must be carried out by a suitably qualified person appointed by the buyer or by a qualified installer. The installation may only be operated, maintained and repaired by authorised, trained and instructed personnel.

4.1

Safety Measures and Facilities on the Heat Exchanger / Installation.

Installation must be carried out in such a manner that all likely risks are excluded. To achieve this, the following points must at least be observed: • The necessary fittings must be attached so that filling and emptying the equipment can take place safely. • The installation must be fitted with adequate drainage and venting facilities. • There must be sufficient valves in the supply and return pipes, close to the heat exchanger, so that the whole system does not have to be drained if work needs to be carried out. . • A pressure-limiting device must be fitted, adjusted to the maximum pressure allowed for in the design and registered on the type plate. • A temperature-limiting device must be placed in the circuit to protect against excessive temperatures. • The fitting of inspection and checking facilities such as temperature and pressure gauges. • For heat exchangers using steam as a medium one must ensure that they are fitted with a correctly functioning system for condensation drainage. advice from the suppliers. • For the choice of a steam trap and other fittings it is advisable to seek advice from the suppliers.

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4.2

Preparation for Installation

General: • Ensure that there is enough space available for the tube bundle to be fully slid out of the housing. (See Fig.4, distance X).

Fig. 4 • • • •

Remove the plastic caps from the connecting holes. Before the heat exchanger can be connected the tubes must be clean so that no pollutions can enter the unit. The gaskets used must be suitable for the medium, temperature and pressure to be applied. The bedplate, construction and mounting must be of sufficient strength and designed to deal with expansion caused by temperature changes. For this reason slotted holes have been made in the casing feet. The mounting foot on the fixed cover side must be fastened with a bolt connector. The second foot must, however, be able to slide on expansion of the heat exchanger owing to a rise in temperature. See Fig. 5

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Fig. 5 A. Y. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. •

Direction of expansion Leave this space open for expansion Foot Slide plate Fixed side Sliding side Self-locking nut Washer

Pressure impulses, pulsations and mechanical vibrations in the heat exchanger should be avoided.

The design specifications, stated in the technical specification sheet must always be respected. If the user deviates from these values, the responsibility is his.

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4.3 • • • • •

Installation The instructions for transport and hoisting must be observed when placing or moving the equipment. During assembly of the piping all pipes / flanges must be mounted stress-free to the heat exchanger. Pipes must be able to expand. If necessary compensators must be fitted to the pipes. Bolt-nut connections must be clean and lightly oiled. Gasket used: reinforced graphite gasket 1,5 mm.

4.4

Tightening of the Bolts

The bolts of the flange rings and the connecting flanges must be tightened with a torque wrench (for the torque and order of tightening see diagrams in Fig. 6). Tightening must be done “diagonally” in at least four steps. Bolt Steel

diameter Torque Nm

M10

Step 1 12

Step 2 23

Step 3 34

Step 4 46

M12 M16 M20 M24

20 48 100 170

40 96 200 340

60 144 300 510

79 193 400 680

Bolt diameter Stainless steel

Torque Nm Step 1

Step 2

Step 3 Step 4

M10

10

20

30

40

M12 M16 M20 M24

17 42 83 80

34 85 167 160

51 127 250 240

68 170 335 320

Fig. 6 15

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Start-up The assembly and start-up must be carried by a suitably qualified person appointed by the buyer or by a qualified installer. The installation may only be operated, maintained and repaired by authorised, trained and instructed personnel.

5.1

Inspection before putting the unit into operation

As a rule the safety devices in the system to guard against excesses in pressure and temperature must be properly adjusted and tested before startup. The entire circuit must also be inspected to check whether all connections have been properly made. All relevant safety regulations must be observed both before and during start-up. The unit has been tested by Klima in accordance with the test pressure stated on the type plate

5.2

Filling and Venting.

5.2.1 Filling a heat exchanger compartment with a liquid. Proceed as follows: • Open vent. • Slowly feed the medium. A hot medium must NOT be allowed to flow through the heat exchanger without a cold medium also flowing through the heat exchanger. This is to prevent damage to the heat exchanger. • • •

Ensure that all air has been allowed to escape from the unit. Allow the circuit to pressurize and open the return valve so the medium can flow through. Check for leakages. In case of leakage see Chapter 7.

5.2.2 Filling a heat exchanger compartment with a gas. Proceed as follows: • The cold medium must always circulate through the heat exchanger first. • Slowly feed the medium. • Allow the circuit to pressurize and open the return valve so the medium can flow through. • Check for leakages. In case of leakage see Chapter 7.

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5.2.3 Filling a heat exchanger compartment with steam. Proceed as follows: • The cold medium must always circulate through the heat exchanger first. • As soon as steam enters the cold tube a lot of condensate is formed. • When the pressure in the tubes rises too fast, the condensate is forced through the tubes, possibly leading to water hammer. Heating therefore needs to happen slowly, so the installation will heat up evenly. • Open the valves at the drainage points and let the steam enter the tube very gradually, causing the pressure to slowly rise. When the initial condensate has been drained and steam starts to escape, then shut the valves again. During the heating up phase, water hammer must not occur because it can damage the installation. • Heat exchangers using steam as a medium one must have a properly working system for condensate drainage. • Check for leakages. In case of leakage see Chapter 7.

5.3

Re-tightening of the Bolts.

The bolts must be re-tightened after the device has cooled down for the first time. Tightening must be done “diagonally” in at least four steps. See Chapter 4.4.

5.4

Inspection after Start-up:

After heating the heat exchanger for a certain period of time, all connections must be inspected for leakage. In case of leakage they must be repaired. See Chapter 7. Check whether the settings of the measuring and control devices reflect the expected values.

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5.5

Shut Down of the Installation:

To shut down the heat exchanger the supply and return flows of the circuit must be closed. First close the supply of hot medium and then, only when the heat exchanger has reached the temperature of the cold medium close the supply of the cold medium. Danger of freezing. When an idle heat exchanger (filled with water or a water mixture not of an anti-freeze type) is exposed to temperatures below zero, the pipes may burst and deformation of the cover and / or mantle may occur. If there is a danger of freezing all the medium must be drained from the heat exchanger. Danger of corrosion. When the heat exchanger (filled with a medium) is idle for over 48 hours, all the medium must be drained from the heat exchanger. Refer to chapter 3.3 for storage.

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Maintenance and Inspection: The assembly and start-up must be carried out by a suitably qualified person appointed by the buyer or by a qualified contractor.. The installation may only be operated, maintained and repaired by authorised, trained and instructed personnel. The owner must post warnings against environmental factors that can pose a threat. Preferably using pictograms and/or text. The owner must enforce the wearing of protective clothing and gloves by the personnel wherever necessary. Maintenance, cleaning etc. must only take place on a shutdown device. Special measures apply for a shutdown device. See Chapter 5.5.

Depending upon operating conditions maintenance should be carried out every 1000 hours of operation or minimally 1x per year.

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6.1

Inspection

To guarantee a high degree of operational reliability regular inspection of the equipment by the maintenance and operating personnel is necessary for the following: • Leakage. • Pressure and temperature within the permissible limits. • Presence of air in a system where a liquid medium is being used. • If applicable, the presence of adequate condensate drainage. • Fouling of the heat exchanger (drop in capacity). • Vibrations / strange noises. • General condition of the installation. • Corrosion. • Functioning of the safety devices. • Torque of the bolts.

6.2

Cleaning of the Heat Exchanger.

6.2.1

Disassembly of the Heat Exchanger.

(For Parts See Fig. 7.) Proceed as follows: • Close the supply and return flows of the circuit. Firsts close the supply of hot medium and only when the heat exchanger has reached the temperature of the cold medium close the supply of the cold medium. • • • •

Wait until the heat exchanger has cooled down! Drain the medium (vent open). Where necessary mark the position of the parts to be disassembled. Remove the supply and return pipes and disassemble (remove) the cover. Beware! The covers must be supported during disassembly due to the possible extreme weight of the covers.

Pull the tube bundle carefully out of the casing to avoid damage to the bundle. Beware! The tube bundle must be supported during disassembly due to the possible extreme weight of the tube bundle. 20

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Fig. 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Cover Gasket (pass partition gasket / T pass partition gasket) Tube bundle Gasket Casing Bolt / nut Beware! When disconnecting or disassembling the heat exchanger it is possible that residual medium may seep from the heat exchanger. To avoid damage to underlying parts or floor it is necessary to catch the medium in, for example, a drip tray.

6.2.2

Cleaning the Heat Exchanger

The heat exchanger can be cleaned by rinsing with a detergent or chemical solvent. When using chemicals we advise you to contact a company that specialises in chemical cleaning. Klima can if necessary advise you on this. If chemicals are used the equipment (material) can be affected. 6.2.3 • • • • • • •

Assembly of the Heat Exchanger.

Make sure that all gasket faces are clean and undamaged. Always use new gaskets. Slide the gasket without a pass partition over the tube bundle. Slide the bundle into the clean casing. Fit the gasket with pass partition gasket/T pass partition gasket to the other side of the tube-plate Assemble the cover on the tube-plate side (Observe the markings!). See 4.4 for Torque Specifications. For start-up see Chapter 5: “Start-up”. 21

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6.2.4

(Re)pressurizing of the Heat Exchanger.

Proceed as follows: • Close the supply and return flows of the circuit. First close the supply of hot medium and then, only when the heat exchanger has cooled to the temperature of the cold medium, close the supply of the cold medium. • • • • • • • •

Drain the heat exchanger (vents open). Remove the supply and return pipes. Blind de cover flange with blind flanges. Fill the heat exchanger through a feeder with unheated, clean medium, using the medium as specified in the technical specification sheet. Pressurize the system for 30 minutes (at room temperature) to the design pressure as specified on the type plate. Inspect for leakage. See Chapter 6.2.5. Slowly de-pressurize the heat exchanger to atmospheric pressure. For assembly, see: “Assembly of the Heat Exchanger”.

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7 7.1

Malfunctions / Trouble-Shooting Guide Identification and Correction of Malfunctions.

Malfunction

Possible cause

Correction of the malfunction

Heat exchanger has insufficient capacity.

There is air in the installation.

Inspect the pipe work for possible air pockets. - Remove any air in the liquid. - Then bleed the heat exchanger thoroughly and if necessary fill up the medium. Adjust the operating conditions to the specified / design conditions..

The operating conditions deviate from those stated in the technical specification sheet. The heat exchanger is fouled.

Heat exchanger is leaking

Clean the heat exchanger (see Chapter: Cleaning the Heat Exchanger). The connections have been Correct the connections. interchanged. Gasket faces dirtied or Clean gasket faces. In case of damaged. damaged gasket faces, contact your supplier. Defective gasket. Replace gasket. Bolt tightened insufficiently.

Inspect connections, carefully re-tighten and if necessary fill up the medium. Adjust the operating conditions to the specified / design conditions.

The operating conditions deviate from those stated in the technical specification sheet. Circuits opened or closed in Contact your supplier. incorrect order. External forces. Assemble the installation stressfree.

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Mediums becoming mixed.

Defective tube – tube plate connection. Defective tube.

External forces (expansion of pipes) on the heat exchanger. The operating conditions deviate from those stated in the technical specification sheet.

7.2

For replacing a tube or repair of the heat exchanger: contact Klima’s service department When a tube is defective it can be blocked as an emergency measure using conical plugs on the inlet and outlet sides. This can only be done after consulting and obtaining permission from Klima! Assemble pipes to be stress-free.

Adjust the operating conditions.

Safety Measures / Facilities:

Facilities must be provided (ladders, steps, cat ways etc.) to be able to safely reach all places to make adjustments and to perform maintenance and repair.

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8 8.1

Customer Service: Ordering Spare Parts:

When ordering spare parts it is important to provide the correct data. One should at least state: • Project and order number. • Complete description of product / type (See Technical Specification / type plate). • Required part (for name see documentation).

8.2

Complaints Procedure:

For complaints, requirements, or imperfections of the unit, please contact Klima, or your supplier’s, service department.

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9 9.1

Accessories / Annexes: Instructions for Transporting and Hoisting.

See Chapter 3.1

9.2

General Information about Material and Mediums

This data has been collected through years of experience and is merely indicative and for information. The user of the unit remains responsible for the mediums and materials he uses with regard to corrosion etc.

For your information Materials:

Medium velocity: Minimum Maximum 1.0 m/s 3.0 m/s 1.0 m/s 1.5 m/s 1.0 m/s 3.0 m/s 1.0 m/s 2.0 m/s 1.0 m/s 3.0 m/s

Steel Copper Stainless Steel 316L CuNi10 CuNi30

Flue gas: Combustion gasses must be free of pollutants, like a sulphur level of < 10 mg/m³ and a chloride level of < 1 mg/l. Chemical value for neutral water (fresh water). pH –value : 7< pH.< 11 Chloride level 10 - 50 mg/l at 80ºC < 250 mg/l at 40ºC Ammonium level NH4 = 0 Hardness (calcium) maximum: 40 French degrees or 22 German degrees at 40ºC -å 400 ppm 1 French degree or 0.5 German degree at 80ºC (softened water) --å 10 ppm Material value: Stainless Steel: AISI 304(L), 316(L), DIN17440 14306,14404 Danger from: -Stress corrosion by chlorides at temp. > 70ºC (maximum 10-50 mg/l Chloride) and stress in the material. -Biological corrosion from stagnant water. Copper and copper alloys: Sf-Cu, CuNi10, CuNi30, CuZn38SnAl Danger from: - Ammonium compounds - Little strength at high temperatures. - Electroplated corrosion on carbon steel.

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For more details visit www.marinemegastore.com or call 0871 8732404 Steel: St.35.8, P265GH, Danger from: -General corrosion -Pitting corrosion by oxygen 02 and CO2 -Stress corrosion (lye pH < 8) Maximum value Steel Chloride Cl.>70ยบC 0 mg/l Ammonium NH4 10 mg/l pH-value >8

Stainl.St.316L 10-50 mg/l 6-8

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Copper alloys 250 mg/l 0 mg/l 6-8

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9.3

Technical Specifications / Documentation

Technical specification sheet must be added here.

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VDL Klima - U-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER