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CATHEDRALS AND CHURCHES IN WARSAW. HISTORIC PLACES OF WORSHIP IN THE POLISH CAPITAL.

2018 © ECCLESIASTICAL HERITAGE CENTRE, BRUSSELS

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


CATHEDRALS AND CHURCHES OF WARSAW.

The historic places of worship in Warsaw tell a story of a city and a nation. A history of ruling families during the years of the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania. But also a story of war destruction and of rebuilding. A history of independence and sovereignty, and of occupation by foreign rulers. The stories of Warsaw are reflected by its sacred architecture. Warsaw began as a modest town on the river Vistula . Only a handful religious buildings can trace its origin back to the Middle Ages such as the cathedral and some monastic churches. St John’s Archcathedral dates back to the fourteenth century, when the place of worship was the main parish church of Warsaw. In 1390 a stone church dedicated to St John-the-Baptist replaced a wooden forerunner. Another church dating back to the medieval period is St Anna’s, founded in the fifteenth century as the house of worship of the Franciscan Minor Friars. In the sixteenth century destiny changed for the town on the river Vistula. The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania merged and became one state. New capital of this commonwealth became Warsaw, located between the two old principle cities of Cracow and Vilnius. This brought the ruling aristocratic families of Poland and Lithuania to Warsaw.

In the mid-seventeenth century during the Second Nordic War devastated the commonwealth and much of the old Warsaw was burned down by invading troops. This event is known in Poland as the Swedish Deluge. The destruction of the Second World War had a antecedent in the history of Warsaw. In the mid seventeenth century the Swedish Deluge had damaged much of the capital. Many religious buildings, only a handful were built in brick or stone at the time, were burned down. In the late seventeenth century these churches were rebuilt, not reconstructed, in the fashions of the period. The patronage of Polish and Lithuanian aristocratic families was important in the rebuilding of the capital. Especially the queen-consorts of the monarchs were active in promoting religious institutions. Several new monasteries were founded. Some of these houses of worship served as a memorial chapel for the family, such as the church of St Kazimierz, also known as under the name of the supportive aristocratic family Sobieski. The period in architecture coincides the transition of baroque to

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 1 The Polish Altar in Holy Cross Basilica, designed by Tylman Gamerski

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 2 Church of St Anna with its freestanding tower.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


classicism, with rare excursions to the rococo. St Joseph of the Visitationists is one of the best examples of this. St Kasimierz is an example of a classicism that has its roots in the Low Countries, were the architect came from. At the end of the eighteenth century Warsaw began to change its appearance. The new façade of St Anna’s Church, again a royal patronage, started a neoclassical transformation. In the late eighteenth century Poland lost its independence as it was partitioned between the Russian and Austrian-Habsburg empires and the Kingdom of Prussia. Eventually Warsaw became the capital of a province in the Russian empire. Neoclassicism remained dominant for Roman Catholic churches during most of the nineteenth century. An aggressive Russification in the second half of the nineteenth century, transformed the Polish capital to a Russian provincial city by building and rebuilding orthodox churches. The cathedral of St Mary Magdalen is the best example today. The typical orthodox sacred architecture was answered by the construction of roman catholic churches in a local and Polish style, such as the church of St Michael and St Florian. During the years of the First World War the Russian empire was abolished.

Figure 3 Church of All Saints on Grzybowski Square.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


In 1918 Poland regained its independence. Warsaw became the capital of this newly created

republic. The Russian orthodox cathedral of St Alexander Nevsky was pulled down and removed from the urban landscape. Russified buildings such as the church in Krasinksi Square were brought back to their original state. Today it the house of worship of the Polish Forces, the exterior recalls its appearance on eighteenth century paintings.

Many historic houses of worship in the Polish Capital are rebuilt. Several were deliberately destroyed by the Nazi’s in 1944, most were damaged during the Second World War. In the following decades these were reconstructed, during the years of the Polish People’s Republic. This reconstruction was part of legitimizing the new Socialist regime as rightful heirs of the Polish state. But it was also the rebuilding of a nation, a sovereign and confident state. These reconstructions did not recreate the versions that were destroyed, rather they are truthful interpretations of the original. Typically the interiors are simplified versions of the original. Magnificent baroque altar pieces were usually not resurrected. The Cathedral of St John received a Gothic façade for which there is no scientific evidence to consider this a reconstruction. Rather this is an interpretation and an attempt to recreate a version as it could have been, inspired by the regional Masovian sacred architecture of the period. The best example, however, is St Alexander’s Church in Three Crosses Square. The original neoclassical building by Aigner was reconstructed and not the version of the church that had been destroyed. Today this historic place of worship recalls the destruction and rebuilding of the Polish capital, as well as the Constitution of 3 May 1791.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 4 High altar of the Archcathedral prior the destructions of 1944.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


The Archcathedral of Saint John

Like so many historic buildings in Warsaw the cathedral was renovated several times in its history. The present cathedral is the rebuilt version of the original as interpreted by the architect Jan Zachwatowicz. A reconstruction that was needed after the intentional destruction by the Nazi’s during the Second World War. In 1944 the cathedral was first bombed and a couple of months later dynamited reducing this historic place of worship to rubble. Reconstruction began in 1947 and was completed in 1954. The history of the church dates back to at least the early fourteenth century when the house of worship dedicated to St John the Baptist was the main parish church of the town. A stone building replaced the wooden church in 1390. The church had strong connections with the Dukes of Masovia, who resided in the nearby Castle. However, the principle parish church of Warsaw St John’s did not become a cathedral until the late eighteenth century. Twenty years later in 1818 the diocese was raised to archdiocese making this Catholic house of worship an Archcathedral. In 1960 the Archcathedral was created a Basilica Minor. The present appearance of St John’s , both the interior and the exterior, is largely Gothic. Old photographs show an English inspired Gothic revival façade that was built in the nineteenth century during the Russian era. Architect Jan Zachwatowicz took the opportunity to redesign the cathedral in the tradition of Masovian Gothic. Much of the original interior was lost, there are, however, some points of interest. The Baryczka chapel contains a wooden cross from 1539 supposedly from Nuremberg. The baptismal font dates from 1631.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 5 Archcathedral of St John. The choir and high altar

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 6 The facade of St Anna's Church is considered one of the finest accomplishments of Polish neoclassical sacred architecture.

Church of Saint Anna. One of the most recognizable historic places of worship in Warsaw is the church of St Anna, located in the centre near the Royal Castle. The foundation goes back to the fifteenth century, when a Franciscan Minor Friary was established by Anna Fiodorowna, Duchess of Masovia. Later the Franciscan Minors became known as the Bernardines in the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania. Today the church of St Anna is the main place of worship of the Academic community of Warsaw. St Anna of the Academics displays the various stages of its history in the exterior of the building. The free standing tower is one the oldest parts of the architectural ensemble and dates from the late sixteenth century. A viewing platform provides views over the Old Town, the Royal Route and the river Vistula.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 7 The church of St Anna was remodelled and adapted over time resulting in the rich architectural ensemble of the building

Like so many historic buildings in Warsaw the church of St Anna was severely damaged and subsequently renovated after the Swedish Deluge of the mid seventeenth century. During the second World War the church was only slightly damaged, which explains the survival of the historic interior and the authentic character. Unlike the exterior of the building with its various additions from different periods in time, the interior displays a uniformity in an unexpected rococo style of the mid eighteenth century, when the many altar pieces were installed. The colourful murals on the ceiling depicting the life of St Ann are by the Bernardine priest Walenty Zebrowski. Noteworthy is the ornate chapel of St Ladislaw. A wonderful organ in an ornate baroque case dates from the turn of the seventeenth to eighteenth century. It was revised in 1992. The faรงade was added during the reign of Stanislas Poniatowski, the last elected monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was designed by Piotr Aigner and is considered one of the finest examples of Palladian sacred architecture in Poland.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 8 &9 Church of St Kasimierz in New Town Market Square today, above, and in 1778, below.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Church of St Kasimierz The church of St Kasimierz in New Town Market Square was built in the late seventeenth century to the designs by Tylman Gamerski. The architect from Dutch origin created a wellproportioned structure in the classical tradition. It is a centrally planned building on a Greek cross plan with a dome. The appearance of this domed church was portrayed by Bellotto in 1770. The church, like many historic churches in Warsaw, was originally the place of worship of a monastery, in this case the Benedictine sisters of the Blessed Sacrament. Benefactor of this place of worship was Queen Marie Casimire, the wife of King John III Sobieski. Several members of the Sobieski family were buried inside the church. Noteworthy is the memorial to Charlotte, Duchess of Bouillon, a granddaughter of John III Sobieksi. This memorial was reconstructed in 1961 by Szymanowski, the original was lost during the destruction of the church during the Second World War. The nuns of St Kasimierz actively assisted the wounded during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944 and it is said this prompted the Nazi’s to destroy the convent, housed in the former Kotowski Palace, and its church. Between 1947 and 1953 the church of St Kasimierz was reconstructed. The interior, however, was rebuilt in a simplified form.

Cathedral of Our Lady Queen of the Polish Crown The Cathedral of Our Lady was originally built in the seventeenth century, later remodelled as a Russian Orthodox church in the nineteenth century, destroyed by the Nazi’s in 1944 and reconstructed in the post-war decades. Today it functions as the cathedral of the Polish Forces. The history of Our Lady Queen of the Polish Crown dates back to 1642 when a church dedicated to the Roman Martyrs Primus and Felician was founded. John II Casimir, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, contributed to its rebuilding after the church was damaged during the war against the Swedes. The design of the present church is by the architect Jozef Fontana (1676-1739) and was completed in 1701. Fontana, an architect of Swiss origin, was an important figure and shaped the appearance of early eighteenth century Warsaw. A dramatic transformation followed of this place of worship followed after it was given to the Russian Orthodox church in the 1830s. The former monastic house of worship became the

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Cathedral of the Holy Trinity. This transition involved a redesign of the building. A painting of the church in 1830 by the Polish painter Marcin Zalenki (1796-1877) depicts the faรงade before russification. The baroque interior for the roman-catholic liturgy was removed and a new interior was installed for the orthodox liturgy, the exterior was adapted and received a Russian Orthodox appearance. The architects were Antonio Corazzi (1792-1877) and Andrej Golonzki (1799-1854). This adaptation is today seen as an example of russification of Poland during the nineteenth century.

Figure 4 Krasinski Square in the late eighteenth century

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 5 Cathedral of Our Lady Queen of Polish Crown

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


After Poland regained independence in November 1918 the cathedral became the seat of a roman Catholic bishop of the Polish Army, a position it holds until this day. In 1923 a four year remodelling of the building eradicated the Russian Orthodox appearance and was brought back to its original baroque look. The façade by Fontana was restored. During the Second World War the building was again damaged. The church was restored between 1949 and 1960 by Leon Marek Suzin (1901-1976). During the years of the Polish People’s Republic the Field Ordinariate was abolished but restored in the post-socialist period. In 1991 the church was again inaugurated as the Field Cathedral of the Polish Army, now dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary Queen of the Polish Crown. The cathedral is also a memorial. In the Katyn chapel the victims of the Katyn massacre of 1940 are commemorated.

Figure 6 Holy Trinity Cathedral, the aggressive russification of the Piarist church.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 7 Church of the Holy Spirit in New Town

Church of the Holy Spirit The present Church of the Holy Spirit is a reconstruction following the demolition of 1944 by the Nazi’s of the early eighteenth century baroque church, designed by Jozef Piola and Jozef Bellotti. This in turn was the rebuilding of the earlier house of worship of the adjacent hospital which was destroyed during the Swedish Deluge of 1654.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 8 The Capuchin Chapel of the Transfiguration of Christ.

Chapel of the Transfiguration The Chapel and Capuchin convent of the Transfiguration of Christ was founded by King John III Sobieski to commemorate the battles of Khotyn (1673) and that of Vienna (1683). During both campaigns John Sobieski had been commander of the Christian troops against the Turks. The design of the Royal chapel is attributed to Tylman Gamerski, the architect of St Kasimierz which was founded by Sobieski’s wife Queen Marie Casimire. Inside the chapel of John III a sarcophagus was placed in 1830 containing the heart of Sobieski. It is located next to the high altar. On the other side of the altar is the sarcophagus of King August the Strong.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


The Carmelite Church

The Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and of St Joseph, commonly known as the Carmelite church, was largely built in the seventeenth century. A wooden church of the Discalced Carmelite monastery was burned downs by the Swedish and Brandenburg troops in the 1650s. Between 1661 and 1681 a new church was built to the designs of Isidoro Affaita the Elder. A new faรงade was added a century later and features prominently in a painting by Bernardo Bellotto. The design by Efraim Szreger (1727-1787) of the new faรงade is considered the earliest appearance of the neoclassical style in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It is highly influenced by the French neoclassical tradition.

Figure 9 The Carmelite Church as depicted by Bernardo Bellotto in 1780

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


The interior is bright in a refined baroque style with rococo elements. An Icon of the Mother of God was presented to the church by King Jan Kazimierz in 1664 and originates from Ukraine. Unlike most other historic buildings in Warsaw the Carmelite church was only slightly damaged during the Nazi occupation. Consequently this place of worship was used as the seat of the Warsaw diocese during the reconstruction of St John’s Archcathedral.

Figure 10 Carmelite church

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 11 Interior of the Carmelite church

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 12 Interior of the Church of St Joseph of the Visitationists.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Church of Saint Joseph of the Visitationists The Convent of the Visitationists was founded by Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga, Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania, in 1654. During the Second Nordic War (1655-1660) the church, as the Carmelite church and the Holy Cross, were burned down by the invading Swedish troops. The present church was built in the mid eighteenth century designed by the Italian Carlo (Karol) Bay, who also worked on the church of St Martin in Stare Miasto. It was completed by Ephraim Szreger. The high altar by Jan Jerzy Plersch incorporates an ebony tabernacle from France, donated by Queen Marie Louise. Plersch also made the pulpit, in the shape of a ship.Both the faรงade and the interior are the best examples of the rococo style in Warschau. Unlike many other historic buildings, the Visitationists church was not demolished during the Nazi occupation.The Visitanionists church is known from the painting by Bernardo Bellotto made in 1780. Frederik Chopin, when a student at the Warsaw Lyceum, played on the organ during Sunday masses for students in the years 1825-1826.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 13 Chapel in the Visitationists church

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Basilica of the Holy Cross

The Basilica of the Holy Cross is one of the most significant churches in Warsaw. Its history dates back to the fifteenth century, when a wooden chapel was erected. After the Swedish Deluge which had also destroyed other churches on the Royal Route, a new house of worship was erected between 1679 and 1696. The architect was Jozef Szymon Bellotti and was largely financed by the Michal Stefan Radziejowksi, Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland. In the first half of the eighteenth century the façade with its two towers was built, to the designs by Jozef Fontana, and remodelled by his son Jakub Fontana. The present building is a reconstruction following the demolition by the Nazi’s in 1944. Externally Holy Cross highly resembles the original building as depicted by Bernardo Bellotto in the late eighteenth century (note the stairs, demolished in 1794 and rebuilt by Piotr Aigner). The interior, however, was carried out in a simplified form, as was done with many reconstructed churches in Warsaw. This can partially be contributed to changes in the liturgy following the Second Vatican Council (Sacrosanctum concilium 1963). Unlike several other places of worship the historic altars of Holy Cross were resurrected. The main altar was rebuilt between 1960 and 1972. The National Altar in the transept was designed by Tylman Gamerski. These gilded altars against the white background, originally decorated with murals, create the specific atmosphere of this and several other churches in Warsaw. The significance of Holy Cross as a national shrine derives from historic events associated with Holy Cross church. King Stanislas II Poniatowski regularly attended mass at this place of worship, where he also established the Order of Saint-Stanislas. In 1792 the Polish Diet gathered in the church to commemorate the first anniversary of the Polish Constitution. During the Russian era Holy Cross was the background for several demonstrations. In 1892 the heart of Chopin, put in an urn, was placed in one of the pillars of the nave. Epitaphs of several notable Poles have been added since, including Boreslav Prus and Wladislaw Sikorski.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 14 The towers of Holy Cross Basilica as seen on Krakow Suburb street.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 15 Holy Cross Church as depicted by Bernardo Bellotto in the 1770s

In front of the entrance of the basilica stands a large statue of Christ baring a cross. The original statue made by Andrej Pruszynski and financed by Countess Zamoyski was unveiled in 1858. A few decades later it was later replaced by a copy in bronze made in Rome. A black granite pedestal was created in the staircase by Piotr Aigner. During the Nazi occupation the statue of Christ was deported in 1944 for melting it down, however, transport never reached its destination. Soon after the end of the Second World War the statue of Christ was again positioned on its original place on the stairs of the Basilica.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 16 Church of St Alexander in Three Crosses Square.

Church of Saint Alexander The first plans to built a religious building commemorating the adoption of the Polish Constitution of 1791, the Temple of Divine Providence, were brutally halted by the partition of the country. After the creation of Congress Poland the new King, Alexander I of Russia, conferred the constitution. Commemorating this event grateful citizens of Warsaw founded a new church on Three Crosses Square. The designs by Christian Aigner are inspired by the original yet unexecuted plans by Kubicki for the Temple of Divine Providence. The first church of St Alexander in Three Crosses Square was consecrated in 1826. In the late nineteenth century the church was remodelled. A nave and two towers were added, the appearance of the church was altered to the renaissance revival taste of the period. Like many other churches St Alexander’s was largely destroyed during the second World War. Between 1949 and 1952 the exterior war damaged church was reconstructed by Jan Zachwatowicz following the original designs by Aigner. The interior, however, kept much of the neo-renaissance elements added in the late nineteenth century.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 17 Interior of St Alexander's Church today

Figure 18 Interior of St Alexander's Church before neo-renaissance remodelling. Author unknown

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 19 Church of St Alexander seen from Nowy Swiat

Cathedral of Mary Magdalene

The Metropolitan Cathedral of the Holy and Equal-to-the-Apostles Mary Magdalene is the main house of worship of the Polish Orthodox Church. It is located in Praga, on the right bank of the river Vistula, not far from St Florian’s cathedral. It was constructed in the mid nineteenth century as the first Orthodox church in Warsaw. The architect was Nikolai Sychev and the construction supported by Prince Vladimir Czerkawsky. Its location near a central crossing and close to the train station connecting Warsaw with St Petersburg, the capital city of Imperial Russia, was understood as symbolic for the Russian rule over Poland. The church is typical for Russian sacred architecture of the period, with a large central onion-dome surrounded by four smaller onion domes. A magnificent Iconostasis dominates the interior including several late nineteenth century icons.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


After Polish independence in 1918 a Polish Orthodox church was established and recognized in 1924. The Cathedral of Mary Magdalene became the seat of the Metropolitan of Warsaw. In 1926 an image of Our Lady of Czestochowa was added.

Figure 20The iconostasis of the Metropolitan Polish Orthodox cathedral

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Cathedral Basilica of St Michael the Archangel and St Florian, Praga.

Praga is the district on the right bank of the river Vistula. The two spires of the cathedral of St Michael and St Florian dominate the district and can be seen from many parts of the Old Town. Built between 1897 and 1904 in a neo-gothic style drawing inspiration from Polish gothic sacred architecture, the church is often regarded an example of protest against Russian occupation of Poland. In the close vicinity the monumental Russian Orthodox cathedral dedicated to May Magdalene had been built between 1867 and 1869 to the designs by Nikolai Sychev. The location and architectural style of this Orthodox place of worship, on a central crossing in Praga opposite the Vilnius train station, was comprehended as a visual symbol of Russian domination of Warsaw and of Poland. In opposition the 75 meters tall spires od the roman catholic church were erected, replacing a sixteenth century church. During the tragic destruction of Warsaw by the Nazi’s in 1944 the church of St Florian was destroyed and reduced to rubble, whereas the Orthodox church was spared. However, the church was gradually reconstructed and finally reopened in 1972. This time the tall spires representing Polish defiance of Soviet rule. After the fall of communism pope John Paul II created the new diocese of Warszawa-Praga and the church of St Florian became its cathedral, and in 1997 it was elevated to a Basilica Minor. The building was designed by Jozef Pius Dziekonski (1844-1927) in a regional version of the gothic style. St Florian’s, as the cathedral is colloquially known, is regarded by art historians as a model of Polish sacred architecture of the period.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 21 Cathedral of St Michael the Archangel and St Florian

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 22 Interior of St Saviour's church.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Church of the Holiest Saviour. Marszalkowska or Marshal Street is one of the central avenues of Warsaw. It was named after Franciszek Bielinski, the Grand Marshal of the Crown during the reign of King Augustus II. On the crossing of Marshal Street and Mokotowska Street local citizens advocated the construction of a new church in 1900. The following year construction to the designs by Jozef Dziekonski, also the architect of St Florian in Praga, began. Completion of the church followed in 1927. The style of the building can be best described as a contemporary interpretation of sixteenth and seventeenth century sacred architecture of the region. The two slender spires, however, recall St Florian’s cathedral. Already in 1939 the building was damaged by missiles. In 1944 the Nazi’s detonated the church largely destroying the building. Soon after the war had ended, however, renovation works began. Remarkable for the period the socialist regime allowed the reconstruction of the two spires in 1955. At the time spires and towers in other Socialist states were pulled down, most notably St George’s and St Peter’s in East Berlin.

Figure 23 Holiest Saviour Square with the church of the same name

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 24 Interior of Holiest Saviour's Church

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 25 Altar in the church of the Holiest Saviour

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 26 Statue of pope John Paul II outside the Church of All Saints

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Church of All Saints.

The church of All Saints in Grzybowski Square is the largest church in Warsaw. It was designed by Enrico Marconi (1792-1863) and built between 1861 and finally completed in 1892. The Italian Marconi also designed the church of St Carolus Borromeus in Warsaw – Mirów and remodelled the church of St Ann in Warsaw-Wilanów. All three places of worship were designed in a neo-renaissance style influenced by the Italian renaissance. Much of the original interior, however, was destroyed during the Nazi occupation. The church was severely damaged during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 and the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Consolidation of the ruins began soon after the war. Today the building is located in a business district and surrounded by many modern buildings. Its location close to the Palace of Culture and Science can be regarded the reason for an urban development scheme during the socialist era visually obscuring the church from view. All Saints is the largest church in Warsaw with an impressive façade, however, this place of worship can only be seen from Grzybowski Square. In 1987 pope John Paul II celebrated mass at All Saints during his third visit to Poland. Among the attendants was Mother Teresa of Calcutta. A statue of the Polish pontiff is located on the steps of All Saints Church. It was made by the Italian artist Giorgio Galetti. One of the side chapels is dedicated to Our Lady of Czestochowa. In 2017 the church of All Saints was awarded the honorary title of House of Life by the Raoul Wallenberg Foundation, on the initiative of the Jewish Community. The title is a recognition of the function the church, located on the edge of the Warsaw Ghetto, and its priest Marcel Godlewski, played during the Nazi occupation.

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 27 The interior of All Saints Church before the damages of the Second World War

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


Figure 28 Church of All Saints

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.


SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY :

Wiesław Budzyński: Śladami Baczyńskiego. Warszawa: Muzeum Historyczne m.st. Warszawy, 2009 Juliusz A. Chrościcki, Andrzej Rottermund. Atlas architektury Warszawy. Warszawa 1977 Stefan Kieniewicz, ed. Warszawa w latach 1526-1795 (in Polish). Warsaw 1984 Maria Irena Kwiatkowska, Krystyna Kozłowska . Katedra św. Jana. Warsaw 1978 Marian S. Mazgaj. Church and State in Communist Poland: A History, 1944–1989. 2010 Andrzej Majdowski: Z dziejów budowy kościoła pw. świętych Michała i Floriana [w:] Świątynie prawego brzegu. Kościół katolicki w dziejach prawobrzeżnej Warszawy. Warszawa: Muzeum Warszawskiej Pragi, 2009 Pilich M., Warszawska Praga. Przewodnik, Fundacja "Centrum Europy", Warsaw 2008 Piotr Raszkiewicz. "The Russian Orthodox Cathedral of Saint Alexander Nevsky in Warsaw". Polish Art Studies, Warsaw 1992 Ks. Sawicki D., Historia Katedry Metropolitalnej w Warszawie in Wiara i poznanie. Księga pamiątkowa dedykowana Jego Eminencji Profesorowi Sawie (Hrycuniakowi) prawosławnemu metropolicie warszawskiemu i całej Polski, University of Bialystok, Bialystok 2008 Jarosław Zawadzki, Kościół Wszystkich Świętych w Warszawie, Parafia Wszystkich Świętych, Warsaw 1997 Kościoły Warszawy. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Rady Prymasowskiej Budowy Kościołów Warszawy, Warsaw 1982 Katedra polowa Wojska Polskiego w Warszawie . Warsaw 1995 Katedra Równej Apostołom św. Marii Magdaleny. Warsaw: Warszawska Metropolia Prawosławna. 2009.

IMAGES : Figures 1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,11,13,14,16,17,18,19,20,22,23,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,34 by © Marcus van der Meulen, 4 photo author unknown, 10, 15, 21 paintings by Bernardo ‘’Canaletto II” Bellotto from 1770-1780, 10 painting by Marcin Zaleski dated 1830 (National Museum Warsaw), 12 photo author unknown 1890s, 24 painting author unknown nineteenth century (National Museum of Warsaw), 33 painting by Marcin Zaleski dated 1863 (National Museum of Warsaw)

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Cathedrals and Churches in Warsaw. Ecclesiastical Heritage Centre.

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CATHEDRALS AND CHURCHES IN WARSAW. HISTORIC PLACES OF WORSHIP IN THE POLISH CAPITAL.  

Publication about the sacred architecture of Warsaw.

CATHEDRALS AND CHURCHES IN WARSAW. HISTORIC PLACES OF WORSHIP IN THE POLISH CAPITAL.  

Publication about the sacred architecture of Warsaw.

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