Marco Antonio Zoch Souza . LSBU

MSc Digital Architecture & Robotic Construction

DESIGN PROJECT MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR MENTORS : FEDERICO ROSSI | ONUR OZKAYA

STUDIES_

I RESEARCH_ GLOBAL INFORMATION FIELDS OF INVESTIGATION SCALE OF INVESTIGATION MACRO MORPHOLOGY MICRO MORPHOLOGY

II DIGITAL & PHYSICAL ANALYSIS_ MACRO MORPHOLOGY _GEOMETRY _SCALE PROPORTIONS _MATERIAL PROPORTIONS MICRO MORPHOLOGY _FORM _MICRO STRUCTURE _POROSITY

SOFTWARE / TOOLS* COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES*

III OVERVIEW_ INITIAL SETTINGS CASE STUDIES OVERALL ANALYSIS ARCHITECTURAL POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS

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I RESEARCH_ GLOBAL INFORMATION FIELDS OF INVESTIGATION SCALE OF INVESTIGATION MACRO MORPHOLOGY MICRO MORPHOLOGY

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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POPULAR_NAMES [SILVER VASE | URN PLANT]

Kingdom_(Plantae) () { Division_(magnoliophyta); Class_(Liliopsida); Order_(Poales); Family_(Bromeliaceae); Subfamily_(Bromelioideae); Genus_(Aechmea); Subgenus_(Platyaechmea); Species_(A.Fasciata); }

_PLANT HEIGHT: 30 - 90 CM _SPREAD: < 60 CM _LEAVES: ELLIPTIC-OVAL SHAPED _LEAVES PATTERN: BASAL ROSETTE _LIGHT: PARTIAL SHADE _PROPAGATION: SEEDS / PUP _SOIL: WELL DRAINED / MOISTURE RETENTIVE / EPIPHYTE

THE AECHMEA FASCIATA - ALSO KNOW AS SILVER VASE OR URN PLANT, IS A BROMELIAD NATIVE TO BRAZIL, TYPICAL OF THE RESTINGA - ATLANTIC COAST AREA, COMMON IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO AS OTHER BROMELIADS, IT HAS A WATER TANK/ COLLECTOR IN THE CENTRE OF THE ROSETTE WHERE INSECTS AND FROGS LAY EGGS / INHABIT. THE WATER IS ABSORBED THROUGH THE LEAVES (UNIQUE IN NATURE)AND THE ROOTS ARE ONLY FOR FIXING THE PLANT IT HAS A COMMON USE AS AN ORNAMENTAL PLANT BOTH FOR INSIDE AREAS AS EXTERNAL (ON WARM WEATHER CONDITIONS + INDIRECT LIGHT).

GLOBAL INFORMATION_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

3

HABITAT

GLOBAL MORPHOLOGY

LEAVES PATTERN

WATER TANK

SMART GEOMETRY

CELL DISPOSITION STRUCTURE

THE RESEARCH FOCUS ON: _THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE WATER TANK _THE DISPOSITION OF THE TRICHOMES AND HOW THEY DIRECT WATER DROPS _THE LEAF CELLS ORGANIZATION AND HOW WATER PASSES THROUGH ITS STRUCTURE THE STUDY WILL COVER THE PATH OF THE WATER AND HOW THE PLANT MANAGE IT THROUGH ITS DESIGN: THE PATTERN OF THE LEAVES LEADING TO GEOMETRICAL OPTIMIZATION FOR WATER COLLECTION, THEIR INSIDE PERMEABLE STRUCTURE AND THEIR TRICHOMES.

FIELDS OF INVESTIGATION_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

MACRO MORPHOLOGY _ LEAVES | ROSETTE OVERALL SHAPE

GENERAL SHAPE SYMMETRY FINDER

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INTERMEDIATE _ WATER TANK SPIRAL

WATER TANK DESIGN PATH OPTIMIZATION

THE PROJECT IS SEPARATED IN 3 MODELS: GENERAL SHAPE _ TO UNDERSTAND THE PLANT WATER TANK_ FURTHER INVESTIGATING THE WATER DROP COLLECTING SYSTEM MICRO MODEL_ SHOWING HOW THE TRICHOMES DIRECT WATER AND VARIATE IN THE OVERALL STRUCTURE AND HOW THE CELLS INSIDE THE LEAVES CREATE THEIR OWN PATH FOR WATER CONSUMING

MICRO MORPHOLOGY _ TRICHOMES DISTRIBUTION AND CELL DISPOSITION

MICRO MODEL STRUCTURE

The study flong along the spine to the core. It starts with the overall symmetry of the plant and its shape, moving to its inside metadata, from the water tank generated by the leafs, to the trichomes in the celullar structure that are able to absorb water and have a distinct porosity.

SCALE OF INVESTIGATION__

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

ROSETTTE PATTERN

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REPEATING SPIRAL FROM THE SAME NODE

PHYLLOTAXIS: LEAVES WHORLED FROM THE SAME NODE REPEATING SPIRAL LEAF DISTRIBUTION - ROSETTE PATTERN ANTI-HORARY JUXTAPOSITION OF LEAVES. HIGHLY DENSE NODE. PHYLLOTAXIS ANALYSIS

RESULTING IN A WATER TANK

The rosette pattern consist of two fibonnaci number patterns in its topology, it is therefore descibred as a simple number sequences with no need for geometric calculation. The spiral phyllotaxis here presented is the most common described a divergence angle of 137.5 degrees. it is related with phi, 0,618^2*360=137,5. This whorled pattern rises from the same node moving on divergent directions.

MACRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU 70

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TOP VIEW ELEVATIONS

Mature Aechmea Fasciata

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Comparison between young Aechmea Fasciataâ€™s and mature Height growth at young age: 53 | mature: 70 Amount of Leaves increase of 3 Mature plant has a higher index of falling/heavy leaves 135 degrees , 72 degrees, rotations can be found from the center of the plant resulting in the spiral, but also standard twisting leaves for optimizing sun capture. Young Aechmea Fasciata 10

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TOP VIEW ELEVATION

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The shape of the leaf produce a double curvature guiding and repelling water.

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PROPORTION | SIZE ANALYSIS

MACRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

1. FROM HARD ROOTS THE BULB START TO GROW

2. LEAVES GROW ON A SPIRAL ANTI-HORARY ORDER, RESULTING ON A CENTRAL WATER RESERVOIR

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3. FLOWER GROWS FROM THE CENTER NODE, SAME AS THE ORIGIN OF EVERY LEAF

4. FINAL GROWTH IS AROUND 60X60 CM. THE REGULARITY OF THE AXIS MAY VARY ACCORDING TO ENVIRONMENT

GROWTH DIAGRAM

MACRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

cm

cm

8

cm

cm cm

cm

cm

cm

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5

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x

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Dispatch of an Aechmeaâ€™s Fasciata Pup. The resulting measurementes show a regular golden ratio with diverging fibonnaci results when rotating on opposite spiral (parastichies)

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Apex Ranging from same as base size to 3x base size. Ending Element is a tiny nod of diverse angles and rotations that produce the overall shape of the bromeliad.

DISPATCH | LEAF SIZE - SPREAD _ ANALYSIS

MACRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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3. 1. Regular aechmea fasciata’s leaf | 2. Twisted Natural aechmea fasciata’s leaf (sun opt.) 3. Height of Curvatures in Leaf 4 , 6 . Layers and transparency on the base of the leaf (thicker on base). 5 Water Tank and 135 degrees spiral

6.

MACRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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CUTICLE GUARD CELLS

MECHANICAL HIPODERM DETAIL

MECHANICAL HIPODERM LOWER EPIDERMIS GROUND CUTICLE TISSUE (AQUIFERS)

TRICHOME DETAIL

APEX

LYPIDS, ORG. ACIDS, CARBS, CHLOROPHYLL, STOMATA, NITROGEN BRACIFORM CELL JOINTS

BASE

VASCULAR TISSUE SUCCULENCE, TRICHOMES

LEAF DIAGRAM

LEAF FRONT SECTION

The leaf consist of a structural base, where it generally allocate structure and more trichomes to absorb water, and its apex, gradiently thinner than the start of the base. The Section above show the allocation of the storage of water area, the mechanical hipoderm and the positioning of the trichomes, on the trichomes detail, we can see how the shape is deformed.

MICRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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CUTICLE GUARD CELLS

MECHANICAL HIPODERM DETAIL

MECHANICAL HIPODERM LOWER EPIDERMIS GROUND CUTICLE TISSUE (AQUIFERS)

SCALE (CENTRAL CELLS) WING CELLS TRICHOME DETAIL

TRICHOME’S FRONT SECTION (TOP VIEW) APEX

TRICHOME SCALE (CENTRAL CELLS)

LYPIDS, ORG. ACIDS, CARBS, CHLOROPHYLL, STOMATA, NITROGEN BRACIFORM CELL JOINTS

MECHANICAL HIPODERM

BASE

SCALE’S PEDICLE

VASCULAR TISSUE

AQUIFER’S HYPODERMICS (WATER STORAGE)

SUCCULENCE, TRICHOMES

LEAF DIAGRAM

LEAF FRONT SECTION

TRICHOME’S TRANSVERSAL SECTION WING CELLS

The Leaf is shaped for water absorption optimization: The edges of the apex direct and repell water to its path;

an overall porosity, being closed on the upper area and gradiently opening on the lower sides.

In the base is where most of the trichomes are, there is an increase on width by twice the size of the apex.

The structure of the cells is composed of braciform joints that resemble a voronoi pattern.

When the water arrives in the trichomes, osmosis direct it inside the empty central cells that have

After passing through the pedicle the water is finally stored in the aqyifer’s hypodermics, where it can finally be absorbed.

MECHANICAL HIPODERM TRICHOME TRICHOME LOCATION VASCULAR TISSUE

TRICHOME’S TRANSVERSAL SECTION

MICRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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1. NATURAL POSITION

2. RAIN DROPS

3. WATER ACCESS TRICHOMES

4. STORED WATER/ CONSUMED

WATER PATH DIAGRAM 1 - WATER DROPS ARE COLLECTED BY THE LEAF 2 - THEY ARE TAKEN TO THE TRICHOMES 3 - WINGS CELLS ELEVATE (OSMOSIS & WATER PRESSURE)

4 - WATER ACCESS THE AREA AROUND CENTRAL SCALE, LIFTING ITS THICK UPPER WALLS AND SEALING THE WATER 5 - WING CELLS ON REST POSITION 6 - WATER PASS THROUGH THE PEDICLE 7 - WATER IS STORED IN AQUIFER HYPODERMIC CELLS

The water is repelled through a path that arrives in the trichomes. It then is absorbed through osmosis, where it causes the trichome wing cells to move according to the water. Thids leads the water through the pedicle where it then move to the aquifers and is stored, going back to its natural position.

MICRO MORPHOLOGY_

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II DIGITAL & PHYSICAL ANALYSIS_ MACRO MORPHOLOGY _GEOMETRY _SCALE PROPORTIONS _MATERIAL PROPORTIONS MICRO MORPHOLOGY _FORM _BEHAVIOUR _STRUCTURE

SOFTWARE / TOOLS* COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES*

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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[GEOMETRY]

FRONT

TOP

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Digital Production of the Aechmea Fasciata in 3d, using parametric software (grasshopper) with plugin Phyllomachine. It is therefore possible to see the leaf pattern and overall growth.

As can be seeing from the diagram, the whorled rosette pattern consist of 2 different spirals that appear in the 6th leaf.

MACRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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[SCALE PROPORTIONS]

Above Autodesk Maya 3d study based on accurate measurements of the dispatched aechmea fasciataâ€™s pup. Reassembled in 3d. Below Simple Autodesk Maya study of the overall plant based on eyeanalysis

MACRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

1. Voronoi 3d edges 2. Circle packing edges 3. Voronoi+Triangulation 4. Circle Packing 5. Voronoi Cell 6. Voronoi 3d Volume A. Top View B. Front Elevation

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[FORM]

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Structural Study of cell dome. Study of the possible structures contained and extracted from the plant. Due to its micro measurement it is currently impossible to measure, cells of this size only speculate, how this shapes work and are assembled.

C. Perspective

MICRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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[FORM]

Voronoi Cell

Multilayer Assemble Study

Voronoi Cell Aggregation Study.

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First attempt of understanding the geometry as a multilayered element. For rationalizing purposes, and difficulty of assemble, this shape was kept as only a study. The result wouldnâ€™t be as cost effective as architectural elements must be.

Voronoi Cell Edges

MICRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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[MICRO STRUCTURE]

SCALE (CENTRAL CELLS)

VORONOI CELL

WING CELLS

TRICHOME’S FRONT SECTION (TOP VIEW)

TRICHOME SCALE (CENTRAL CELLS) MECHANICAL HIPODERM SCALE’S PEDICLE AQUIFER’S HYPODERMICS (WATER STORAGE)

TRICHOME’S TRANSVERSAL SECTION WING CELLS

MECHANICAL HIPODERM TRICHOME TRICHOME LOCATION VASCULAR TISSUE

Trichome’s, cell, and leaf tissue digital model with explicit geometry and structure

TRICHOME’S TRANSVERSAL SECTION

With the 3d section assemble of the element it is possible to understand the structure and how the porosity of the cells might work for transfering water through the plant.

MICRO MORPHOLOGY_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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[POROSITY]

Porosity Study Based on Cast Shadow of the ‘Celll’ Structured Domes Through the porosity studies of the cast shadows, we can see how although heavily dense cells may cause a stronger shadow, the multilayered shapes may result on a more complex light path and the thinner optimized packing single layers (circle packing and voronoi diagram), bring the lightest result in overall shape and porosity.

MICRO MORPHOLOGY_

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III OVERVIEW_ INITIAL SETTINGS CASE STUDIES OVERALL ANALYSIS ARCHITECTURAL POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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Regular Packing Assemble, to extract the structural shape that position the cells in the tissue.

TRIANGULAR GRID

RATIONALIZATION

Box With Spheres

VERTICES ON GRID

JOINT ANALYSIS

GRID APPLIED TO BOX

JOINT RATIONALIZATION

Centroid interconnection

SPHERE PACKING - BOX

AGGREGATION

Negative Elements

EXTRACTION

Extraction of individual negative elements from polygonal spheres and free range aggregation assemble

RESULT

Diverse Formation

Shapes

Extraction of elements from Irregular Sphere Packing. Same negative elements geometries were found.

As strategy of design, the concept presented by the plant would work better on a framework, that consist of the juxtaposition of the cells (aggregation) it a single system. To better investigate this a series of case studies were developed to comprehend how this can be assembled.

INITIAL SETTINGS_

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MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

The Circle Packing study, will help to understand how circular rigid shapes can be assembled together on an optimal pattern. After a variety of studies are done, an analysis show a range of different solutions that may cause more edges. For this study only 3, 4 and 5 edged elements were selected. As they may have better architectural applications.

Circle Packing studies from 3 to 150 circles of three basic shapes, proportionally scaled. Resulting on negative elements varying from 3 vertices to 8 (rare), from which 3,4,5 are the most common results.

INITIAL SETTINGS_

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MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

1.a _ Shape Study of circle packing through regular 3 vertices negative element.

Study of circle packing positioning and its resulting shapes

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4. 2.a _ Shape Study of circle packing through regular 4 vertices negative element. Attempt one.

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2.b _ Shape Study of circle packing through regular 4 vertices negative element. Attempt two.

3.a _ Shape Study of circle packing through regular 4 vertices negative element. Attempt one.

1 - 4 _ Non Standard Joinery of negative elements joinery A - D _ 5 vertices Pattern Study E - H _ 4 Vertices Pattern Study I - L _ 3 Vertices Pattern Study

3.b _ Shape Study of circle packing through regular 4 vertices negative element. Attempt two.

A study of free form joinery of the 3,4,5 edged elemets is developed in panels that explicit the porosity and geometrical optimization. Then a study of their most regular approach of geometry result is done.

INITIAL SETTINGS_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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A box is populated with spheres of diferent shapes that through Kangaroo Physics search for the best packing assemble

Sphere Packing Studies result on the same joining negative spaces as in circle packing studies

Isometric View of Sphere Packing Sections study

After the irregular sphere packing of a box is develped, sections are cut from the element to demonstrate that the same patterns of the two dimensional circle packing study is found.

INITIAL SETTINGS_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

Tranversal Section

1.

Top view of Negatives

3.

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Lower Section

Mid Section

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Transversal Mid Section

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1. Rectangular Box 2. Spatial Truss Fixed Inside Box And Mirrored 3. Vertices Extracted From Spatial Truss 4. Vertices are turned into same size

spheres 5. Boundary Box covers end shape 6. Solid difference results on an intricate shape

INITIAL SETTINGS_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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1. Added joints on a circle packing of 30 different circles

2. Circle Aggregation Assemble

3. Laser cutting the circle elements studies

Study of direct connection of circles by their edges. The study shown that the geometry would have physical limitations, rigidity of shape-results and weak disposition of elements.

4. Variable Resulting Shape

CASE STUDIES_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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1. 4 vertices joint shape variation

2. Second Layer added

3. Third Layer added

2. 3 vertices joint shape variation

2. Second Layer added

3. Third Layer added

3. 5 vertices joint shape variation

2. Second Layer added

3. Third Layer added

Assemble, of the freerange assemble of the negative elements joinery in pannels. Then the addiction of the other pannels to generate a complex result of different porosities. The result shown to be interesting is weak on complexity although easy to assemble and use in archiitecture.

Initial 2d Pattern Results

CASE STUDIES_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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3 edged - Model

4 edged - Model

5 edged - Model

Initial Joints Aggregation of 5-spheres negative boundary

Aggregation of 4-spheres negative boundary

Aggregation of 3-spheres negative boundary

Study of Assemble of the same shape aggregation of the 2d negative elements study. Although the result may gain variety of possibilites with the increase of edgedcurves, the assemble might reduce connecting stability and all the elements show structural weakness.

Digital Models of Aggregation of the negative boundaries to analyze shape variability and colision.

Same Shape Aggregation Study

CASE STUDIES_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

29

Digital Model of the 3 most common elements aggregation

Mixed Aggregation of the 3 most common negative boundaries

The aggregation of mixed edged elements, brings a result that promotes major diversity in possibilites, but however still face the structural limitations of the latter regular aggregation. For such reason this study was discarded as a system solution for the project. Initial Joints

CASE STUDIES_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

1. Voronoi Cell

2. Cell Neighbors are Added

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3. Cell Aggregation on three possible sides

4. Massive Cell Aggregation

Model of the Multi-layered Voronoi Cells study The chosen result was the direct aggregsation of voronoi spheres, it uses the polygonal geometry to interligate and densify wherever needed while reducing layering on most compressed areas.

CASE STUDIES_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

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Weight Load Diagram Structural Study showing where the layers should be tinner or larger; red would be thinner layers and reduced amount of shapes and blue multi-layered with high density of voronoi spheres.

Load Distribution in a random aggregation study of the system

OVERALL ANALYSIS_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

32

4 Spherer - Negative Boundary Element Studies, Shape rationalization and relaxation

Sides Extraction, rationalization and relaxation studies

Model of the Joint to be analyzed Study of the three dimesional negative element in a 4 sided sphere regular packing system. (triangular positioning of sphere centers). After a variety of elements is done, the most apt is chosen and passes through a process of relaxation and rationalization. The result isnâ€™t exciting for its very simple aesthetics and doesnâ€™t show a nice aggregation result, reason why this attempt was discarded. Joint to be analyzed

Joint Regular Combination assembly

Joint Rotational Combination assembly

ARCHITECTURAL POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

33

Joint and Cell Aggregation study

Study of overcrowded joints

Last attempt of the aggregation studies: Negative Element and Voronoi sphere assembled together. The result seem unnecessary, as the overall impact is generated by the voronoi sphere that can be a system alone. This would only increase the cost and complexity and might reduce the structural gains and porosity possibilities that the voronoi sphere system may be able to deliver.

ARCHITECTURAL POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

34

Possible result of the mixed elements solution, where it is clearly visible that the Voronoi Sphere system can be resolved by itself without the aid of another element

ARCHITECTURAL POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS_

MARCO ANTONIO ZOCH SOUZA | MSc DARC _ LSBU

35

The final result of the chosen element of study, the voronoi spheres, were the ones who best in its aggregation described the aechmeas fasciata cell in its structure and porosity, and the element that can best be translated into an architectural element.

ARCHITECTURAL POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS_

Marco Antonio Zoch Souza MSc.Digital Architecture & Robotic Construction

MENTORS_

Federico Rossi Onur Ozkaya

LSBU

Natural Systems [Aechmea Fasciata]

Material Behavior Research developed from 2017/2018 during my Master Degree: MSc. Digital Architecture & Robotic Construction [LSBU] Marco...

Natural Systems [Aechmea Fasciata]

Published on Dec 13, 2018

Material Behavior Research developed from 2017/2018 during my Master Degree: MSc. Digital Architecture & Robotic Construction [LSBU] Marco...

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