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EDUCATIONAL and INSPIRATIONAL A guide for beginner graphic designers United by Design aims to develop a design community among students, providing young graphic designers with educational and inspirational tips.





R E&


li m i t e d ed i t i o n



United By Design aims to develop a design community among students providing young graphic designers with...

... content towards their work and on the journey to become a graphic designer.

WE MUST BE UNITED BY DESIGN IN ORDER TO CREATE GOOD design Much of the content in this newspaper has been shared from the open source online book “Digital Foundations” produced by Xtine Burrough & Michael Mandiberg. As open source content has been written to be shared, this newspaper project aims to put great information into the hands of people who need it — Young graphic designers. “ This ambitious book teaches visual thinking and software skills together. The text leads readers step-by-step through the process of creating dynamic images using a range of powerful applications. The engaging, experimental exercises take this project well beyond the typical software guide.” ELLEN LUPTON, co-author of Graphic

Imagery Vector and raster images... what the?? Colour options, mixing and meaning behind your choices. What are you communicating?

Research What can and can’t be yours. Copyright defined. Fair use and appropriation.

COLOPHON: United By Design, Issue 1 was produced by


Rebekah Glover in Dunedin, New Zealand and

© Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009

was printed by APN Print.


The contents were a collaboration of writers from

Adam Hyde 2009

Digital Foundations: Intro to Media Design.

Clara Jo 2009

Produced by Rebekah Glover.

Elisa de Castro Guerra 2009 Marisa Olson 2009


Patrick Davison 2009

© Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009

Xtine Burrough 2009

Modifications: Adam Hyde 2009


Christopher Blount 2009

David Combs and Holly Combs

Marisa Olson 2009 Patrick Davison 2009


xtine burrough 2009

Deborah Roberti,


All other content was written by Rebekah Glover.

© Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009

The fonts used throughout are Bebus Neue, Driod


Serif, League Gothic, Bello Script, Lavanderia and

Adam Hyde 2009


Dave Mandl 2009 Marisa Olson 2009

The United By Design newspapers were printed

Patrick Davison 2009

on Royal Offset High Brite 70gsm paper printed

Xtine Burrough 2009

full process colour.


3,000 copies of United By Design were printed and

© Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009

distributed free to design schools around New



Adam Hyde 2009 Clara Jo 2009

The funding of United By Design came from

Devendra Laulkar 2009

sponsorship of Otago Polytechnic, Otago

Marisa Olson 2009

Polytechnic School of Design, Innovation

Michael Mandiberg 2009

Workspace and newSplash design studios.

Fonts Awesome free font websites. Ban Comic Sans.

Pre press dos & donts Get ready to be a pre press pro with this guide of what to do and what not to do when preparing for print.

Patrick Davison 2009 Vieri Tucci 2009 Xtine Burrough 2009

Design slang Design slang.

Please support United By Design, and help designers share their ideas.

File format dictionary.

1 2 3 4 5 // 2





Computer graphics are created

graphics, as a logo has to fit easily

in one of two formats: vector or

on a business card, a website, and

bitmap. Computer files contain-

possibly a billboard or bus

ing these graphics may contain

wrapping. Inkscape, Illustrator

vectors, bitmaps, or both.

and Flash are applications most



Scaling raster images: This could make the images become heavily pixelated and hard to read.

often used to create and modify Vector graphics are created by

vector images.

using mathematical algorithms: formulas that describe where

Bitmap or raster graphics are built

points, lines, and planes exist and

from grids of pixels. Each tiny

how these elements relate to one

pixel contains a unit of colour

another. Vector graphics can be

information. Bitmaps are used for

scaled up to any size and retain

digital photography and scanned

their smooth edges. Logos are

images. Bitmap files are not as

nearly always developed as vector

easily scalable as vector graphics.


LINE ART AND FLAT GRAPHICS No matter the weight of the line,

campaigns. Plakatstil translates

from finely etched crosshatching

from German as"poster style."

to bold marker or brush strokes,

Plakatstil is the opposite of

line art is binary: the colour is

decoration. Flat graphics are bold

either on the paper or it is not.

and minimal; often type is large. Lucian Bernhard's 1906 poster

Line art uses solid colours, and

design entry to a contest held in

does not include a continuous tonal

Berlin by the Priester Match

scale. A newspaper headline is line

Company is the first work to

art, but the photograph below the

embrace this new graphic style.

headline is not line art. Lines and

Bernhard was inspired by the

shapes form a composition with a

industrialization of city life and a

strong figure/ground and

desire for rapid communication. In

negative/positive space interplay.

posters such as Bernhard's, or Jim Fitzpatrick's poster of Che Guevara,

Line art has routinely been

the color palette is minimal, the

employed in the commercial arena.

contrast between shapes, values,

Andy Warhol blurred the border

and intensity is extreme. As a result

between the worlds of commercial

the message is bold and powerful.

and fine art by using line art and flat graphics on paintings to be

Although line art and flat graphics

shown in galleries and museums as

are often seen in commercial logo

a critique of the commercial world

and identity pieces, the outcome of

that this genre serves. Visible in

drawing a single line is as personal

Warhol's illustrations of Campbell's

as your signature. Artists such as

soup cans are thin, black lines that

Pablo Picasso and Egon Schiele are

delineate the top edges of the can

often identified by their line

and a large, flat field of red-orange

quality. Visit Schiele's work and

In the political posters such as this Che Guevara by Jim Fitzpatrick (1968), the

on the label.

notice that contrast can be

portrait is represented as a flat graphic. The combination the flat graphic and the

achieved by juxtaposing solid and

contrast between the vibrant colours is present and paper white is intense. The

Plakatstil is the original flat graphic

implied lines as well as lines of

message is quickly understood through a design that is both minimal and

style used in advertising and poster

varying thicknesses.


anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new.

— Albert Einstein

// 3

IMAGERY it’s fun to stay at the cmyk! Colour has always been

together to create any other colour

the digital file with the four

present in our natural

on the colour wheel. Complemen-

corresponding printing inks. Even

environment and in art around

tary colours are opposite, while

though it is worked on with digital

the world. From the 30,000-year-

similar colours sit side-by-side on

tools and examined via the

old Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc cave

the wheel. A surface appears

projected light of a computer

drawings in southeastern France

coloured because it reflects some

screen, this system is also subtrac-

to the Tournament of Roses

light frequencies while absorbing

tive, meaning overlapping inks

Parade on January 1, 1954, the

others. When the pure primaries

create a darker hue.

first national television broad-

are mixed together in this

cast in colour, colour has been a

subtractive system, the resulting

Television screens and computer

focus of artistic creation.

product is black because all light

monitors do not use ink or

shining on it absorbed, leaving no

paint—they use red, green, and

Artists, mathematicians, and

light to reflect back to the eye and

blue light. RGB is an additive

scientists have developed theories

convey colour.

colour model. Coloured light is

of colour since the 17th century.

mixed to create hue and value

The traditional, colour wheel

The CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow,

with red, green, and blue as the

utilizes the RYB (red-yellow-blue)

and black) colour model is specific

primary colours. When the

colour model. In this colour model,

to the print industry. Artists and

primary colours in the RGB model

red, yellow, and blue are the

designers often create art for

are mixed together, the result is

primary hues (what we think of as

high-volume printing using the


colours), which can be mixed

CMYK colour model to synchronize

Colour has a huge impact on the mood of your design. It is important to choose colours wisely. The use of blue tones creates a calming and cool mood, while the colour red gives a sense of intense emotion and/or passion. Colour in design leads the eye through the design and emphasises the key information.

IMAGE ACQUISITION AND RESOLUTION There are several ways to bring an image into the computer. The two most common are photographic in nature, that is, both methods involve exposing sensors to an item or scene in the real world. The camera or scanner then writes digital data to display that image on the screen. While the sensor technology is essentially the same, a camera Complementary colour wheel

Traditional colour wheel

is made to capture scenes with depth of field, while a scanner is made to focus on and capture just one flat plane.

THE PEN TOOL The Pen tool is predominantly

The Pen tool can be a little

drawings of the lines and shapes

used for creating flat graphics

difficult to learn, as the process

uthat will be recreated accurately

or line art. It can be used to

of using this tool sometimes feels

with the Pen tool to eliminate the

make complicated forms by

counter-intuitive. The artist has to

type of forethought that accompa-

tracing images and combining

know where her next point is

nies the use of this tool.

simple shapes. In addition to

before plotting it.

contouring and tracing, the Pen

Visualizing lines, shapes, and

With enough practice on top of

tool is often used to create

space before they exist can be

template layers, newbies are sure

shapes that are used for

challenging. The paintbrush can

to develop Pen tool intuition.


be used to create quick gesture

Avoid the use of live trace because:

1. 2. 3.

After using live trace your image is committed to vector and no longer “live,” you can see miniscule white gaps between the shapes. It can be useful for certain effects, such as stencils, silhouettes, but when applying to a photograph it will require a lot of manual clean-up using the pen tool. The outcome depends a lot on the original. If the lines of a sketch aren’t ‘clean’ enough you will have an unattractive outcome.

A photogram of algae, from the book British Algae, Anna Atkins, 1843. This is the first book composed entirely of photographic images.

// 4



Designers must be inspired by others to influence our designs. Research stuff that you are attracted to. Examine what it is you like about this stuff and ask yourself “what does the design communicate? How was it created?” SEARCHING AND SAMPLING Ctrl



The Internet is a treasure trove

England initiated what we think of

without owing anything to the

of photographic imagery. Artists

as copyright laws in the early

creator. For works created by

and designers often combine

1700s. The widespread use of the

corporations, the length was 75

media elements from this visual

printing press and an increase in

years from the date of publication.

archive in inventive ways, or use

literacy rates had resulted in

In 1998, Congress passed the Sonny

downloaded images as research

printers commonly reprinting texts

Bono Copyright Term Extension

for their own creative work.

without crediting their rightful

Act, which extended copyright by

While we admittedly live in a

authors, or paying them. Attribu-

20 years. This law was authored by

copy/paste culture, using a

tion of proprietary rights in

a musical-entertainer-turned-

downloaded image from the web

intellectual material has had

Congressman, and was heavily

has legal ramifications.

far-reaching legal and economic

lobbied for by the media industry.


The act was nicknamed the Mickey

Just because you can download an

Mouse Protection Act, as Disney

image doesn't mean you may use

Copyright durations vary by

lobbied extensively to ensure that

it! A downloaded image may be

nation. In the United States, the

the law reached back just far

protected by copyright laws.

length of a copyright used to be the

enough to protect their copyright

Copyright is a legal tool for

life of an author plus 50 years; on

over Mickey Mouse. The Act

preserving control over the use of

the 50th year after the death of an

essentially suspended public

a creative work. Books, poems,

author, their works would be

domain advancement in the United

music recordings and composi-

released into the public domain.

States as covered by fixed term

tions, photographs, paintings,

When a work is in the public

copyright regulations.

sculptures, radio and television

domain, it is not owned or

broadcasts, films, and even dances

controlled by anyone. Any person

can be copyrighted.

can use the material, in any way,


1. 2. 3.

The use qualifies as fair use. This depends on the purpose of the use, nature of the materials selected, amount of the total work used and effect of the use on the market. The image is in the public domain because the author declares it is, or because it is old enough that the copyright has expired. The author licenses it under an alternative model. Fair use is not piracy! Fair use is legitimate and legal use of copyrighted media, as protected by copyright law. Fair use is free speech. Fair use is not file sharing.

if you always do what you’ve always done you’ll get what you’ve always gotten. — Anthony Robbins

// 5

Another one of the traditional protected purposes is educational use in a classroom. Keep in mind that just because you cannot be sued for using appropriated work for assignments, you should be using it for reasons that advance your education, not just for convenience. Know that the expectations increase for work done outside of a classroom. For commercial media, your transformation of the source material should be significant. The fair use clause also does not mean you may plagiarize. Plagiarism, an ethical offense separate from copyright issues, hides the fact


that ideas or content have been copied from somewhere else. Even in cases where no legal violation has occurred, plagiarism is a serious ethical violation that undermines the academic endeavour and destroys the plagiarist's credibility.






Reproducibility is a central trait of

they are sometimes built with bits

digital media. Unlike lithographs,

and parts of copyrighted works.

vinyl records, cassette tapes,

In the digital age, new works are

videotapes, books, or photographic

often created when more than one

prints, an exact replica of digital

existing work is recombined in a

media can be made from a digital

new way, providing new visual

copy. This is true for digital

relationships and new ideas.

photograph files, CDs, MP3s, DVDs, and websites. From sampling to mashups, collage to subvertise-

Under the fair use clause of

ments, contemporary artists and

copyright law, limited copyrighted

content creators use digital files as

material can be used for a

source material for the derivation

transformative purpose, such as

of new works. These works are

commenting upon, criticizing, or

considered new and original, but

parodying the initial material.

Four key factors are:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Weighing these four factors in a copyright case is not an easy task, which is why judges have been

Appropriation is a word that is used by media artists to describe the visual or rhetorical action of taking over the meaning of something that is already known, by way of visual reference. The most commonly known and referred to example of this is Andy Warhol’s appropriation the Campbell's soup can visual identity to make large, iconic silkscreen prints. Warhol's soup cans are an interpretation of the physical object. Warhol appropriates the original Campbell's soup cans to create art that relates to popular culture in its iconic form. Appropriation is common practice of designers and falls into the category of fair use.

asked to do so. However, successful

The purpose of the original work The nature of the original content: copyright does not limit use of the facts or ideas conveyed by an original work, only the original creative expression

commercial media that takes advantage of the fair use clause include Saturday Night Live skits, The Simpsons cartoons, and Weird Al Yankovic songs. These works all make use of parody, one of the traditional protected purposes.

The amount of original work used

c h i cken n o o d le

The effect that the new work has on the potential or actual market value of the original

Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Design is knowing which ones to keep.

— Scott Adams // 6

DESIGN SCHOOL GRADUATES Hayden Raw “I knew that this wasn’t just a course of study; it was the course of my life.” “Coming into Design Studies

I knew that this wasn’t just a course

Dunedin I really had no idea what

of study; it was the course of my

I was going to do. I had a love for

life. I found a sense of purpose and

creating and was always drawing

the means to get me there.

and sketching at home. Out of Uni I’ve founded my own Over the course of my Degree and

design company Hamr Creative.

Post Graduate Diploma I got more

Through Hamr I follow my

out of my study than an industry

personal value proposition of

skill set. Design Studies helped me

informing change through creativ-

find where my passion lies.

ity. I apply my love for communica-

Creating beautiful artwork was just

tion into creative projects that

the tip of the iceberg. It was the

positively affect society, and the

culture that resonated with me.


Otago University Design Studies, Dunedin, New Zealand E-mail: Phone: +64 (03) 479-3149 or visit online at


fonts There are so many choices in fonts when it comes to designing. Choosing the right font to compliment your content and target audience is extremely important. Fonts are software too. And not too cheap either. Luckily there are

Misuse and overuse A common problem amongst design students is simply using a typeface because it is cool amongst your peers. We shouldn’t use faces because of their popularity; we should use them because the compliment the design and content. Free font websites are great for those who cannot afford to pay

money for use of fonts, but this is the cause of beautiful fonts being overused and misused. A popular font does not necessarily mean it’s a good font. No matter how cool you think a font may be and really want to use it somehow you must think of what a font should communicate about your work.

many websites with heaps of downloadable fonts free for personal use. You must be careful when using these beyond personal use, as there is existing licensing terms and condtions which will depend on the font and its designer.

Free font websites:

stop the madness ban comic sans! In 1995 Microsoft released the font Comic Sans originally designed for comic book style talk bubbles containing informational help text. Since that time the typeface has unfortunately been improperly used in countless contexts from restaurant signage to college exams to medical information. These wide- spread abuses of printed type threaten to erode the very foundations upon which

centuries of typographic history are built. The movement to ban Comic Sans is comprised of concerned individuals who desire to preserve the historical integrity of typography in its various forms. While we recognize the font may be appropriate in a few specific instances, the current position is that the only effective means of ending the epidemic of abuse is to completely ban Comic Sans.

Big thanks to Dave and Holly Combs for allowing the use of this content.

// 7

DESIGN SCHOOL GRADUATES Ange Fetalvero Ange Fetalavero graduated from

She recently moved from Method

Media Design School in 2011 and

Media to work at Ogilvy NZ, one of

currently is working as a

New Zealand’s largest advertising

graphic designer for Ogilvy NZ


Limited. “I have come across certain Within a week of finishing her

employees who were particularly

Diploma of Graphic Design in

keen on Media Design School

2012, Ange landed a three-month

graduates because we're highly

contract working as an illustrator.

trained in the technical aspect of

By the end of her contract she was

design. I was thrown in the deep

offered a full-time job as a

end on my first day on my current

magazine designer and three

job, at Methode Media, my

more freelance jobs – that’s four

training at MDS definitely helped

jobs in less than four months after

me hit the ground running and


cope with the pressure.”

Media Design School, Auckland, New Zealand Email: Phone: +64 9 303 0402 or visit online at

Joe Gallagher Joe Gallagher submitted his TV

about so I hope to be able to film

Following the completion of his

pilot about skiing to a Hawaiian

more and more projects within

degree, Joe has worked on

competition and won!

that industry.” Joe says the variety

several projects at Otago Polytech-

of courses available at Otago

nic in areas such as video produc-

The Honolulu Film Awards

Polytechnic provided the opportu-

tion, photography and graphic

recognizes outstanding achieve-

nity to explore many different


ment in filmmaking from around

areas within the design industry.

the world and as a final year

“I try and get involved with as

project, Bachelor of Design

“The course was very enjoyable

many film project opportunities

(Communications) graduate Joe

due to the large range of projects

that come along. I have worked as a

Gallagher was encouraged to

we were given. It gave me a look

Camera Assistant on the short film

submit his television pilot.

into so many areas within design. I

“Fear Tactics”, which was an

especially enjoyed the moving

awesome experience that I learnt a

Stemming from Joe’s love for the

image (Film) related papers as they

lot from.”

slopes, the episode was based on

gave me a great chance to develop

learning the basics of free skiing

my camera operating and editing

As for a future in film, Joe has his

from top end instructors. The result


sights set high. “I would love to

was a 2010 Silver Lei Award and a promising career in filmmaking.

eventually set up a small produc“The teachers were all very

tion company focusing on a range

supportive and helped me direct

of high quality film and television

“Action sports are an area I’ve

my focus in the areas I was most


always been extremely passionate

interested in.”

Otago Polytechnic School of Design, Dunedin, New Zealand Email: Freephone: 0800 762 786 or visit online at

People ignore design that ignores people.

— Frank Chimero

// 10







rules carry a notebook everywhere

d r a o b n o e tak suggestions


clean y our work space


o d u o y t love wha ners g i s e d . v a ur f know yo

and study them 5 don’t


dont stretch your images

would you like to be stretched??

little ideas become






put them into action

ideas become little




dont put your ideas on a pedestal


GIB BIG 9 Never



work like a slave

command like a king

create like a god

work hard and be nice to people 13

united by design.

// 11

student designs The Making of Te Moananui A Kiwa A Community Project: Otago Polyfest 2012, Dunedin School of Art, Design School, Otago Polytechnic Early in 2012, the Otago Polyfest

suitable for print onto large

Board proposed a joint project

banners at NewSplash studio.

with the Art and Design Schools

The result were the digital

at Otago Polytechnic to “develop

paintings that became Te

professionally designed and

Moananui A Kiwa. Reitu Cassidy,

produced banners for display at

Polyfest committee representative

the annual ‘Otago Early Child-

facilitated the artist/designer

hood and Schools Māori and

negotiation and provided oversight

Pacific Island Festival’ known

for the completion of the project.

colloquially as Otago Polyfest.” The initial team consisted of Pam

In approaching the Art and Design

McKinlay from the Dunedin

Schools, the Polyfest Committee

School of Art, graduate Tere

recognised that Otago Polytechnic

Moeroa and local artist Herama-

offered a specialised knowledge

hina Eketone.

and technical skills base in their staff and students which made a

Joining the Project team from the

valuable contribution to achieving

Design School were Caroline

the new look and enabling

McCaw and three Design students

production of the new banners.

in year 2 of Communication;

The Otago Polytechnic agreed to

Thomas Henry-Te Whaiti, Madison

sponsor the costs of printing

Henry-Ryan and Vincent Egan. Key

associated with the printing at

components in the artworks were

newSplash, in recognition of the

provided by the artists, as sketches

importance of this key

and the designers were required to

community-driven event that

interpret these key components as

celebrates Māori performing arts.

vector-based coloured designs Otago Polytechnic School of Design, Dunedin, New Zealand Email: Freephone: 0800 762 786 or visit online at design/areas-of-study/communication.html

Gareth Hemming Gareth Hemming is currently

multiplied and found in every

studying Visual Arts at Auckland

home, on every street and sold in

University. He is a second year

every city. In this work the artist

student showcasing some of his

looks at the generic and considers

beautiful photography.

its functionality and asks is there such thing a democratic object?

Like Getrude Stein’s “Rose is a rose

The work seeks to provide an

is a rose is a rose”, Hemming’s

encounter with such generic

photographs of a bucket as bucket

objects to understand how it works

are irreducibly particular; things

as a thing in the world and the

are seemingly what they are.

shifts that occur when encountered

A simple and generic object,

as a tool.

AUT School of Art and Design Auckland Phone: 0800 AUT UNI (0800 288 864) Email: Visit our website

// 12



General rules DO create and edit your text in a

get you very far. Programs such as

fonts. Inkjet printers are fine for

word processing application such

Microsoft Word are word process-


as Microsoft Word and then import

ing applications, NOT desktop

proofing and printing, but always

the text to a desktop publishing

publishing/layout programs. They

get a final printout (and proof it)

application such as Adobe where

handle font replacement differ-

from a PostScript laser printer.

you can create your page layout,

ently and often cause reflow.

format the text with graphics, etc.

DON'T assume that what you have DON'T create your page layout for

printed out and submitted as hard

DON'T use Microsoft Word as a

multi-page documents in draw

copy or see on your monitor is

desktop publishing application.

programs such as Adobe. Use

what you will get. Take a good long

Word does have many of the same

desktop publishing apps like

look at proofs supplied by the

layout features as desktop



(i.e., it can create columns, import

DO provide the printer with a hard

DO take your printer's advice.

graphics, create nice laser prints,

copy laser printout of your project,

etc.) but when it comes to commer-

as well as all of your layout files,

DON'T assume that you know

cial printing, Word is not going to

such as Adobe, and graphics and

more than the printer.

publishing apps such as Adobe

Graphics tips DO supply ALL of the graphics used

* Use EPS or .ai for line art,

different results once you project

to create your project as separate

illustrations, charts, etc.—graphics

goes to press and is printed.

files. Desktop publishing applica-

that are basically black and white

DO name your graphics with the

tions like Quark and Adobe

and were created or edited in

appropriate file extension:

InDesign link to your graphics; they

Adobe applications such as

filename.tif, filename.eps,

do not embed them in the

Illustrator or Freehand. Resolution


document. If you don't supply the

should be at least 600 dpi, 1200 dpi

graphics along with your Adobe

is the standard and creates the best

DONT rename graphics once you

documents, the printer will get a

print quality.

have placed them in your desktop publishing page layout

missing picture error, and won't be able to continue until you supply

DO most, if not all, of your image

document(s). If you do, make sure

the graphics.

editing and graphic manipulation

to go back into your document and

(i.e. lightening, darkening, etc.) in

re-link the graphics.

DO use TIFF, PSD and EPS graphic

the original program that the

file formats: * Use TIFF or PSD for

graphic was first created or edited

DO check your mode for colour

halftones: graphics that are not just

in, rather than the desktop

TIFFs and PSDs Save colour TIFFs

black and white, but rather, have

publishing, for instance, if a

and PSDs as CMYK (not RGB, never

many shades of gray or colour

Photoshop TIFF needs to be

RGB). Save black & white TIFFs and

gradation (i.e. scanned photos that

lightened or darkened, lighten or

.psds as Grayscale.

were created or edited in Adobe

darken it in Photoshop, not in

Photoshop or an image editing

InDesign. Even though InDesign

DO check with your printer to see if


will lighten or darken an image,

they charge extra for breaking any

adjust contrast, etc., you may get

of these “rules.”

Design and page layout tips

Fonts DO supply the printer with ALL of

DONT use TrueType fonts. Period.

the fonts used to create your

Always use PostScript or OpenType

project (even the symbol, fraction

and Adobe fonts (Macintosh or PC/

and dingbat fonts). Try not to use

Windows) are always a safe bet.

TrueType fonts, and for PostScript

TrueType is fine for printing to a

fonts, make sure you supply the

laser or inkjet printer, but

printer with both the screen and

TrueType fonts can cause severe

the printer font parts. Remember to problems when it comes to commercial printing. Many include fonts used to create EPS graphics, and fonts that the printer

commercial printers wont even

probably already has like

print a project that contains

Helvetica. There are many

TrueType fonts. Often, they pop.

different versions of some fonts and a “wrong” version can cause

DONT use 20 different fonts for a

reflow/repagination problems.

4-page newsletter. It makes you look like you don't know what

DONT use Bold or Italic in the style

you're doing. In design publishing,

menu or hit the Bold or Italic

consistency is everything. Use one

button when you want to bold or

font for your main body text,

italicize text in your page layout

another for your main heads,

program. Use the actual font. If you

another for photo captions, another

want to create text that is Helvetica

for sidebars, etc., but dont mix and

Bold, don't select some Helvetica

match fonts for your main body

text and then bold it. Instead, select

text or make every headline a

DO use a document setup size (i.e.

predetermined “hairline” rule.

the text and change the font itself

different font unless you're trying

your page dimensions) that is the

The width varies from program to

(not the style) from Helvetica to

to create some sort of chaotic effect

same as your trim size. For

program, and prints out differently

Helvetica Bold:

and it is your intention to confuse

instance, if you are creating a 6 by

on a laser printer than on an

9-inch book, set up your initial

imagesetter, if it prints at all. Don't

page size in the document setup for

create rules that are less than

6 by 9-inches.

.25 pt.

the reader. Too many fonts is not DO: Use Helvetica Bold font.

only considered to be bad design, but it also slows printing to a crawl.

DONT: Use Helvetica and and thicken its stroke.

DON'T create 6 by 9-inch text

DO watch for widows, orphans,

frames in a 81/2 by 11-inch

rivers, bad kerning and other

document setup and manually add

desktop publishing no-nos that will

registration marks.

make you look like an amateur. Get

DO make page elements that bleed

don't use spaces to align columns

rid of double-spaces after periods, extend at least 1/8th of an inch

(use tabs) or to create paragraph

beyond the page boundary.

indents. Know your en dash (–) from your em dash (—).

DON'T use your page layout/desktop publishing

Big thanks to Deborah Roberti for allowing the use of this content. Prepress do’s and don’ts,

Our greatest glory is not never failing but in rising up everytime we fail — Ralph Waldo Emerson

// 13




File formats It is very important that file extensions, or suffixes, remain intact. The extension assists the computer operating system. It tells the system the type of file and the application to use when opening the file. This is especially important when bringing a file from one operating system to another (such as going from a Mac to a PC).

Tip: When opening an ai. (Adobe Illustrator) file you cannot open it on another computer without having the content, such as imagery and fonts, saved on the computer you are opening it on. This will show up blank if not and fonts will be changed to the nasty default font.

Tip: Saving your finished files as a PDF is great for presentations, where you open it up and view it as a slideshow. pdfs are also the preferred way to save a file to print.

Some important file formats include: EARLY ARTISTS .svg

Scalable Vector Graphics format, the native format for Inkscape

.doc or .docx .rtf .txt .ai .psd .pdf .png

Microsoft Word document Rich Text Format, non-proprietary word processing format Text only, no formatting

Adobe Illustrator file


Colour (e.g. red, blue, green, yellow). Intensity, saturation, chroma and brilliance all refer to how much pigment is in a colour, which translates to how vivid a colour appears.


Is a fade from one colour to another.

A rendition or draft of a project. When someone talks about render, it can mean the project’s appearance: “It’s a pencil render” means it’s a sketch.


Inks that are not mixed from the four process colours. They are used for items, like logos, that need to be a consistent colour no matter how or where they are printed. Any time you add an extra ink to a print job, it increases the price. Metallic inks are also spot colours.

DPI: dots per inch PPI: pixels per inch THUMBNAIL

The more precise way to define the resolution for a file that is to be printed.

Photoshop document

Portable Document Format

Part of how you would define the resolution of an object that is screen-based.

Portable Network Graphics are the ideal web graphic file types

Small scale rough sketches of a design concept.

// 14

Join us on facebook

This QR code will take you straight to our website unitedbydesigngroup.word

We’ll keep you regularly updated with more designs. using your

Showcase your stuff

educational and inspirational

smart phone.

You can find the group United By Design on Facebook and visit our blog: A great way to promote yourself

your blog to look any way that you

or simply share you work with the

desire, plug-ins, and it is open

We are keen to see what’s up in your world of design,

world is to create a website or a

source, meaning, the source code

whether it be how your projects coming along or the final

blog. If you don't already have a

is available for augmentation and

product, amazing artists and designers who inspire you,

blog, you can get a free WordPress

manipulation. Tumblr, Blogger,

blog at WordPress

Moveable Type, and TypePad are

has a large community of users,

also good quality blog platforms.

websites worth checking out, new favourite tools or fonts. ANYTHING. United by Design aims to develop a community that will inspire and share for all who want to come join and hope

great documentation, loads of

that you will share too.

themes, where you can design

DESIGN SCHOOL GRADUATES Brad Stratton Brad Stratton works for Barnes, Catmur & Friends, Auckland. Brad Stratton had his sights set on a career in advertising after winning a poster competition for his primary school musical. For some, dreams do come true, and the Bachelor of Design (Communication) graduate is now an Art Director at Barnes, Catmur & Friends in Auckland. Their clients include brands such as Subaru, Yamaha, Southern Cross Health Society, Pams and Tourism Fiji. “I really enjoy having the opportunity to be creative every day. It’s interesting to see something you

have done out in the public eye, whether it’s in a magazine, on TV or outdoors.” Brad finds the competitive nature of the advertiing industry compelling, “I like that successful work is widely recognised. ”Some of his recent collaborative successes include Widex hearing aids (which featured in the revered Lürzer’s Archive) and NZ Pure and Carlsberg ads which feature on Otago Polytechnic School of Design, Dunedin, New Zealand Email: Freephone: 0800 762 786 or visit online at

Ahren Koreman-Smit Ahren Koreman-Smit graduated from Media Design School in 2011 and is now working at Born Digital, which is a small digital outfit specializing in web, mobile and touch screens. “My role is highly varied, which is probably why I like it so much. I'm mainly involved in the front-end development of Facebook apps, mobile websites, jQuery/javascript powered websites/modules and iPhone/Android app development. Media Design School gave me a solid foundation on which to build my skills. It gave me enough of an insight into digital production to be able to research and learn more, without the usual overwhelming feeling of looking at a wall of code. Media Design School approach to learning was extremely beneficial in setting me up for the industry, and I now know enough to confidently approach almost any project. I

have been involved in many exciting projects so far—some of them reaching over 50,000 users. Each project has been uniquely challenging, pushing me to keep learning and investigating new technologies. The most challenging so far was probably one of my first projects - an iPhone/Android app built using a JavaScript framework called Sencha Touch. The best advice I can give for graduating students is to take a job that is going to give you variation, and constantly challenge you. The web is constantly evolving, and to keep on the cutting edge, you've got to always be learning. In this industry, the study doesn't finish when you graduate.”

Media Design School, Auckland, New Zealand email: phone: +64 9 303 0402 or visit online at

“I was even lucky enough to work on one of 2009’s top ten complained about ads!”

// 15

MIND MAP THE MOST DIFFICULT PART OF BEING CREATIVE IS IDEA GENERATION. Why do you think there are so many copycats out there? Although mind mapping has been

This would usually be used in the

mind map. This mind map would

around since the 1970’s, its uses

early stages of a designs concept

work well for problem solving

and attraction is snowballing.

development. It is a very useful tool

informing you of what you may

So what is it? And how does it

for a designer to generate ideas,

need to let your thoughts stem from

apply to Graphic Design?

with a group or by communicating

mind map branches to create a

your ideas and streams of thought

solution for any design problem

Mind maps are thoughts, ideas,

to a lecturer or a client. Every

you may have.

names, words and images that

thought, whether it be a word, a

create a complex web of thoughts.

colour or an image is useful to your




Prevent reoccurence



Goals Balanced view

Follow up







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Identify causes



Explore Opinions Feelings

Issues Own





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People Materials


Resources Resources

Time Money

Web Enviroment
















School of Design Communication.

United By Design Issue One Rebekah Glover  
United By Design Issue One Rebekah Glover