WE MUST BE UNITED BY DESIGN IN ORDER TO CREATE GOOD design
EDUCATIONAL and INSPIRATIONAL A guide for beginner graphic designers United by Design aims to develop a design community among students, providing young graphic designers with educational and inspirational tips.
ISSUE NO. 1 OCTOBER 2012
UNITED BY DESIGN
EUSE THESE TIP S
li m i t e d ed i t i o n
WE MUST BE UNITED BY DESIGN IN ORDER TO EDUCATIONAL and INSPIRATIONAL CREATE GOOD design.
United By Design aims to develop a design community among students providing young graphic designers with...
... content towards their work and on the journey to become a graphic designer.
WE MUST BE UNITED BY DESIGN IN ORDER TO CREATE GOOD design Much of the content in this newspaper has been shared from the open source online book “Digital Foundations” produced by Xtine Burrough & Michael Mandiberg. As open source content has been written to be shared, this newspaper project aims to put great information into the hands of people who need it — Young graphic designers. “ This ambitious book teaches visual thinking and software skills together. The text leads readers step-by-step through the process of creating dynamic images using a range of powerful applications. The engaging, experimental exercises take this project well beyond the typical software guide.” ELLEN LUPTON, co-author of Graphic http://digital-foundations.net/
Imagery Vector and raster images... what the?? Colour options, mixing and meaning behind your choices. What are you communicating?
Research What can and can’t be yours. Copyright defined. Fair use and appropriation.
COLOPHON: United By Design, Issue 1 was produced by
THE METAPHOR OF GRAPHICS APPLICATIONS
Rebekah Glover in Dunedin, New Zealand and
© Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009
was printed by APN Print.
The contents were a collaboration of writers from
Adam Hyde 2009
Digital Foundations: Intro to Media Design.
Clara Jo 2009
Produced by Rebekah Glover.
Elisa de Castro Guerra 2009 Marisa Olson 2009
Patrick Davison 2009
© Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009
Xtine Burrough 2009
Modifications: Adam Hyde 2009
STOP THE MADNESS BAN COMIC SANS
Christopher Blount 2009
David Combs and Holly Combs
Marisa Olson 2009 Patrick Davison 2009
PRE PRESS DOS AND DONTS
xtine burrough 2009
Deborah Roberti, EspressoGraphics.com
FILES AND SERVERS
All other content was written by Rebekah Glover.
© Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009
The fonts used throughout are Bebus Neue, Driod
Serif, League Gothic, Bello Script, Lavanderia and
Adam Hyde 2009
Dave Mandl 2009 Marisa Olson 2009
The United By Design newspapers were printed
Patrick Davison 2009
on Royal Offset High Brite 70gsm paper printed
Xtine Burrough 2009
full process colour.
SEARCHING AND SAMPLING
3,000 copies of United By Design were printed and
© Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009
distributed free to design schools around New
Adam Hyde 2009 Clara Jo 2009
The funding of United By Design came from
Devendra Laulkar 2009
sponsorship of Otago Polytechnic, Otago
Marisa Olson 2009
Polytechnic School of Design, Innovation
Michael Mandiberg 2009
Workspace and newSplash design studios.
Fonts Awesome free font websites. Ban Comic Sans.
Pre press dos & donts Get ready to be a pre press pro with this guide of what to do and what not to do when preparing for print.
Patrick Davison 2009 Vieri Tucci 2009 Xtine Burrough 2009
Design slang Design slang.
Please support United By Design, and help designers share their ideas. http://unitedbydesigngroup.wordpress.com/
File format dictionary.
1 2 3 4 5 // 2
VECTOR VS. RASTER
MAKING IMAGES BIGGER
Computer graphics are created
graphics, as a logo has to fit easily
in one of two formats: vector or
on a business card, a website, and
bitmap. Computer files contain-
possibly a billboard or bus
ing these graphics may contain
wrapping. Inkscape, Illustrator
vectors, bitmaps, or both.
and Flash are applications most
WHAT TO LOOK OUT FOR?
Scaling raster images: This could make the images become heavily pixelated and hard to read.
often used to create and modify Vector graphics are created by
using mathematical algorithms: formulas that describe where
Bitmap or raster graphics are built
points, lines, and planes exist and
from grids of pixels. Each tiny
how these elements relate to one
pixel contains a unit of colour
another. Vector graphics can be
information. Bitmaps are used for
scaled up to any size and retain
digital photography and scanned
their smooth edges. Logos are
images. Bitmap files are not as
nearly always developed as vector
easily scalable as vector graphics.
LINE ART AND FLAT GRAPHICS No matter the weight of the line,
campaigns. Plakatstil translates
from finely etched crosshatching
from German as"poster style."
to bold marker or brush strokes,
Plakatstil is the opposite of
line art is binary: the colour is
decoration. Flat graphics are bold
either on the paper or it is not.
and minimal; often type is large. Lucian Bernhard's 1906 poster
Line art uses solid colours, and
design entry to a contest held in
does not include a continuous tonal
Berlin by the Priester Match
scale. A newspaper headline is line
Company is the first work to
art, but the photograph below the
embrace this new graphic style.
headline is not line art. Lines and
Bernhard was inspired by the
shapes form a composition with a
industrialization of city life and a
strong figure/ground and
desire for rapid communication. In
negative/positive space interplay.
posters such as Bernhard's, or Jim Fitzpatrick's poster of Che Guevara,
Line art has routinely been
the color palette is minimal, the
employed in the commercial arena.
contrast between shapes, values,
Andy Warhol blurred the border
and intensity is extreme. As a result
between the worlds of commercial
the message is bold and powerful.
and fine art by using line art and flat graphics on paintings to be
Although line art and flat graphics
shown in galleries and museums as
are often seen in commercial logo
a critique of the commercial world
and identity pieces, the outcome of
that this genre serves. Visible in
drawing a single line is as personal
Warhol's illustrations of Campbell's
as your signature. Artists such as
soup cans are thin, black lines that
Pablo Picasso and Egon Schiele are
delineate the top edges of the can
often identified by their line
and a large, flat field of red-orange
quality. Visit Schiele's work and
In the political posters such as this Che Guevara by Jim Fitzpatrick (1968), the
on the label.
notice that contrast can be
portrait is represented as a flat graphic. The combination the flat graphic and the
achieved by juxtaposing solid and
contrast between the vibrant colours is present and paper white is intense. The
Plakatstil is the original flat graphic
implied lines as well as lines of
message is quickly understood through a design that is both minimal and
style used in advertising and poster
anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new. http://unitedbydesigngroup.wordpress.com/
â€” Albert Einstein
IMAGERY it’s fun to stay at the cmyk! Colour has always been
together to create any other colour
the digital file with the four
present in our natural
on the colour wheel. Complemen-
corresponding printing inks. Even
environment and in art around
tary colours are opposite, while
though it is worked on with digital
the world. From the 30,000-year-
similar colours sit side-by-side on
tools and examined via the
old Chauvet-Pont-d'Arc cave
the wheel. A surface appears
projected light of a computer
drawings in southeastern France
coloured because it reflects some
screen, this system is also subtrac-
to the Tournament of Roses
light frequencies while absorbing
tive, meaning overlapping inks
Parade on January 1, 1954, the
others. When the pure primaries
create a darker hue.
first national television broad-
are mixed together in this
cast in colour, colour has been a
subtractive system, the resulting
Television screens and computer
focus of artistic creation.
product is black because all light
monitors do not use ink or
shining on it absorbed, leaving no
paint—they use red, green, and
Artists, mathematicians, and
light to reflect back to the eye and
blue light. RGB is an additive
scientists have developed theories
colour model. Coloured light is
of colour since the 17th century.
mixed to create hue and value
The traditional, colour wheel
The CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow,
with red, green, and blue as the
utilizes the RYB (red-yellow-blue)
and black) colour model is specific
primary colours. When the
colour model. In this colour model,
to the print industry. Artists and
primary colours in the RGB model
red, yellow, and blue are the
designers often create art for
are mixed together, the result is
primary hues (what we think of as
high-volume printing using the
colours), which can be mixed
CMYK colour model to synchronize
Colour has a huge impact on the mood of your design. It is important to choose colours wisely. The use of blue tones creates a calming and cool mood, while the colour red gives a sense of intense emotion and/or passion. Colour in design leads the eye through the design and emphasises the key information.
IMAGE ACQUISITION AND RESOLUTION There are several ways to bring an image into the computer. The two most common are photographic in nature, that is, both methods involve exposing sensors to an item or scene in the real world. The camera or scanner then writes digital data to display that image on the screen. While the sensor technology is essentially the same, a camera Complementary colour wheel
Traditional colour wheel
is made to capture scenes with depth of field, while a scanner is made to focus on and capture just one flat plane.
THE PEN TOOL The Pen tool is predominantly
The Pen tool can be a little
drawings of the lines and shapes
used for creating flat graphics
difficult to learn, as the process
uthat will be recreated accurately
or line art. It can be used to
of using this tool sometimes feels
with the Pen tool to eliminate the
make complicated forms by
counter-intuitive. The artist has to
type of forethought that accompa-
tracing images and combining
know where her next point is
nies the use of this tool.
simple shapes. In addition to
before plotting it.
contouring and tracing, the Pen
Visualizing lines, shapes, and
With enough practice on top of
tool is often used to create
space before they exist can be
template layers, newbies are sure
shapes that are used for
challenging. The paintbrush can
to develop Pen tool intuition.
be used to create quick gesture
Avoid the use of live trace because:
1. 2. 3.
After using live trace your image is committed to vector and no longer “live,” you can see miniscule white gaps between the shapes. It can be useful for certain effects, such as stencils, silhouettes, but when applying to a photograph it will require a lot of manual clean-up using the pen tool. The outcome depends a lot on the original. If the lines of a sketch aren’t ‘clean’ enough you will have an unattractive outcome.
A photogram of algae, from the book British Algae, Anna Atkins, 1843. This is the first book composed entirely of photographic images.
Designers must be inspired by others to influence our designs. Research stuff that you are attracted to. Examine what it is you like about this stuff and ask yourself “what does the design communicate? How was it created?” SEARCHING AND SAMPLING Ctrl
The Internet is a treasure trove
England initiated what we think of
without owing anything to the
of photographic imagery. Artists
as copyright laws in the early
creator. For works created by
and designers often combine
1700s. The widespread use of the
corporations, the length was 75
media elements from this visual
printing press and an increase in
years from the date of publication.
archive in inventive ways, or use
literacy rates had resulted in
In 1998, Congress passed the Sonny
downloaded images as research
printers commonly reprinting texts
Bono Copyright Term Extension
for their own creative work.
without crediting their rightful
Act, which extended copyright by
While we admittedly live in a
authors, or paying them. Attribu-
20 years. This law was authored by
copy/paste culture, using a
tion of proprietary rights in
downloaded image from the web
intellectual material has had
Congressman, and was heavily
has legal ramifications.
far-reaching legal and economic
lobbied for by the media industry.
The act was nicknamed the Mickey
Just because you can download an
Mouse Protection Act, as Disney
image doesn't mean you may use
Copyright durations vary by
lobbied extensively to ensure that
it! A downloaded image may be
nation. In the United States, the
the law reached back just far
protected by copyright laws.
length of a copyright used to be the
enough to protect their copyright
Copyright is a legal tool for
life of an author plus 50 years; on
over Mickey Mouse. The Act
preserving control over the use of
the 50th year after the death of an
essentially suspended public
a creative work. Books, poems,
author, their works would be
domain advancement in the United
music recordings and composi-
released into the public domain.
States as covered by fixed term
tions, photographs, paintings,
When a work is in the public
sculptures, radio and television
domain, it is not owned or
broadcasts, films, and even dances
controlled by anyone. Any person
can be copyrighted.
can use the material, in any way,
COPYRIGHT LAW DOES ALLOW CERTAIN TYPES OF USE OF COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL. AN IMAGE IS PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT UNLESS:
1. 2. 3.
The use qualifies as fair use. This depends on the purpose of the use, nature of the materials selected, amount of the total work used and effect of the use on the market. The image is in the public domain because the author declares it is, or because it is old enough that the copyright has expired. The author licenses it under an alternative model. Fair use is not piracy! Fair use is legitimate and legal use of copyrighted media, as protected by copyright law. Fair use is free speech. Fair use is not file sharing.
if you always do what you’ve always done you’ll get what you’ve always gotten. — Anthony Robbins
Another one of the traditional protected purposes is educational use in a classroom. Keep in mind that just because you cannot be sued for using appropriated work for assignments, you should be using it for reasons that advance your education, not just for convenience. Know that the expectations increase for work done outside of a classroom. For commercial media, your transformation of the source material should be significant. The fair use clause also does not mean you may plagiarize. Plagiarism, an ethical offense separate from copyright issues, hides the fact
E S U R I FA
that ideas or content have been copied from somewhere else. Even in cases where no legal violation has occurred, plagiarism is a serious ethical violation that undermines the academic endeavour and destroys the plagiarist's credibility.
P O R PP
N O I T IR A
THERE IS A HUGE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BEING INFLUENCED BY OTHER PEOPLE’S DESIGN AND STRAIGHT UP STEALING THEIR WORK. THE TERM USED FOR THIS BORROWING IS CALLED APPROPRIATION
Reproducibility is a central trait of
they are sometimes built with bits
digital media. Unlike lithographs,
and parts of copyrighted works.
vinyl records, cassette tapes,
In the digital age, new works are
videotapes, books, or photographic
often created when more than one
prints, an exact replica of digital
existing work is recombined in a
media can be made from a digital
new way, providing new visual
copy. This is true for digital
relationships and new ideas.
photograph files, CDs, MP3s, DVDs, and websites. From sampling to mashups, collage to subvertise-
Under the fair use clause of
ments, contemporary artists and
copyright law, limited copyrighted
content creators use digital files as
material can be used for a
source material for the derivation
transformative purpose, such as
of new works. These works are
commenting upon, criticizing, or
considered new and original, but
parodying the initial material.
Four key factors are:
1. 2. 3. 4.
Weighing these four factors in a copyright case is not an easy task, which is why judges have been
Appropriation is a word that is used by media artists to describe the visual or rhetorical action of taking over the meaning of something that is already known, by way of visual reference. The most commonly known and referred to example of this is Andy Warhol’s appropriation the Campbell's soup can visual identity to make large, iconic silkscreen prints. Warhol's soup cans are an interpretation of the physical object. Warhol appropriates the original Campbell's soup cans to create art that relates to popular culture in its iconic form. Appropriation is common practice of designers and falls into the category of fair use.
asked to do so. However, successful
The purpose of the original work The nature of the original content: copyright does not limit use of the facts or ideas conveyed by an original work, only the original creative expression
commercial media that takes advantage of the fair use clause include Saturday Night Live skits, The Simpsons cartoons, and Weird Al Yankovic songs. These works all make use of parody, one of the traditional protected purposes.
The amount of original work used
c h i cken n o o d le
The effect that the new work has on the potential or actual market value of the original
Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Design is knowing which ones to keep. http://unitedbydesigngroup.wordpress.com/
— Scott Adams // 6
DESIGN SCHOOL GRADUATES Hayden Raw “I knew that this wasn’t just a course of study; it was the course of my life.” “Coming into Design Studies
I knew that this wasn’t just a course
Dunedin I really had no idea what
of study; it was the course of my
I was going to do. I had a love for
life. I found a sense of purpose and
creating and was always drawing
the means to get me there.
and sketching at home. Out of Uni I’ve founded my own Over the course of my Degree and
design company Hamr Creative.
Post Graduate Diploma I got more
Through Hamr I follow my
out of my study than an industry
personal value proposition of
skill set. Design Studies helped me
informing change through creativ-
find where my passion lies.
ity. I apply my love for communica-
Creating beautiful artwork was just
tion into creative projects that
the tip of the iceberg. It was the
positively affect society, and the
culture that resonated with me.
Otago University Design Studies, Dunedin, New Zealand E-mail: email@example.com Phone: +64 (03) 479-3149 or visit online at http://www.design.otago.ac.nz/
fonts There are so many choices in fonts when it comes to designing. Choosing the right font to compliment your content and target audience is extremely important. Fonts are software too. And not too cheap either. Luckily there are
Misuse and overuse A common problem amongst design students is simply using a typeface because it is cool amongst your peers. We shouldn’t use faces because of their popularity; we should use them because the compliment the design and content. Free font websites are great for those who cannot afford to pay
money for use of fonts, but this is the cause of beautiful fonts being overused and misused. A popular font does not necessarily mean it’s a good font. No matter how cool you think a font may be and really want to use it somehow you must think of what a font should communicate about your work.
many websites with heaps of downloadable fonts free for personal use. You must be careful when using these beyond personal use, as there is existing licensing terms and condtions which will depend on the font and its designer.
Free font websites: http://www.fontsquirrel.com/ http://losttype.com/ http://www.dafont.com/ http://www.myfonts.com/ http://www.exljbris.com/ http://www.fontfabric.com/ http://unitedbydesigngroup.wordpress.com/
stop the madness ban comic sans! In 1995 Microsoft released the font Comic Sans originally designed for comic book style talk bubbles containing informational help text. Since that time the typeface has unfortunately been improperly used in countless contexts from restaurant signage to college exams to medical information. These wide- spread abuses of printed type threaten to erode the very foundations upon which
centuries of typographic history are built. The movement to ban Comic Sans is comprised of concerned individuals who desire to preserve the historical integrity of typography in its various forms. While we recognize the font may be appropriate in a few specific instances, the current position is that the only effective means of ending the epidemic of abuse is to completely ban Comic Sans.
Big thanks to Dave and Holly Combs for allowing the use of this content. bancomicsans.com/home
DESIGN SCHOOL GRADUATES Ange Fetalvero Ange Fetalavero graduated from
She recently moved from Method
Media Design School in 2011 and
Media to work at Ogilvy NZ, one of
currently is working as a
New Zealand’s largest advertising
graphic designer for Ogilvy NZ
Limited. “I have come across certain Within a week of finishing her
employees who were particularly
Diploma of Graphic Design in
keen on Media Design School
2012, Ange landed a three-month
graduates because we're highly
contract working as an illustrator.
trained in the technical aspect of
By the end of her contract she was
design. I was thrown in the deep
offered a full-time job as a
end on my first day on my current
magazine designer and three
job, at Methode Media, my
more freelance jobs – that’s four
training at MDS definitely helped
jobs in less than four months after
me hit the ground running and
cope with the pressure.”
Media Design School, Auckland, New Zealand Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: +64 9 303 0402 or visit online at http://www.mediadesignschool.com/
Joe Gallagher Joe Gallagher submitted his TV
about so I hope to be able to film
Following the completion of his
pilot about skiing to a Hawaiian
more and more projects within
degree, Joe has worked on
competition and won!
that industry.” Joe says the variety
several projects at Otago Polytech-
of courses available at Otago
nic in areas such as video produc-
The Honolulu Film Awards
Polytechnic provided the opportu-
tion, photography and graphic
recognizes outstanding achieve-
nity to explore many different
ment in filmmaking from around
areas within the design industry.
the world and as a final year
“I try and get involved with as
project, Bachelor of Design
“The course was very enjoyable
many film project opportunities
(Communications) graduate Joe
due to the large range of projects
that come along. I have worked as a
Gallagher was encouraged to
we were given. It gave me a look
Camera Assistant on the short film
submit his television pilot.
into so many areas within design. I
“Fear Tactics”, which was an
especially enjoyed the moving
awesome experience that I learnt a
Stemming from Joe’s love for the
image (Film) related papers as they
slopes, the episode was based on
gave me a great chance to develop
learning the basics of free skiing
my camera operating and editing
As for a future in film, Joe has his
from top end instructors. The result
sights set high. “I would love to
was a 2010 Silver Lei Award and a promising career in filmmaking.
eventually set up a small produc“The teachers were all very
tion company focusing on a range
supportive and helped me direct
of high quality film and television
“Action sports are an area I’ve
my focus in the areas I was most
always been extremely passionate
Otago Polytechnic School of Design, Dunedin, New Zealand Email: infoop.ac.nz Freephone: 0800 762 786 or visit online at www.otagopolytechnic.ac.nz/schools-departments/design/areas-of-study/communication.html
People ignore design that ignores people. http://unitedbydesigngroup.wordpress.com/
— Frank Chimero
rules carry a notebook everywhere
d r a o b n o e tak suggestions
clean y our work space
o d u o y t love wha ners g i s e d . v a ur f know yo
and study them 5 donâ€™t
dont stretch your images
would you like to be stretched??
little ideas become
put them into action
ideas become little
dont put your ideas on a pedestal
GIB BIG 9 Never
work like a slave
command like a king
create like a god
work hard and be nice to people 13
united by design. http://unitedbydesigngroup.wordpress.com/
student designs The Making of Te Moananui A Kiwa A Community Project: Otago Polyfest 2012, Dunedin School of Art, Design School, Otago Polytechnic Early in 2012, the Otago Polyfest
suitable for print onto large
Board proposed a joint project
banners at NewSplash studio.
with the Art and Design Schools
The result were the digital
at Otago Polytechnic to “develop
paintings that became Te
professionally designed and
Moananui A Kiwa. Reitu Cassidy,
produced banners for display at
Polyfest committee representative
the annual ‘Otago Early Child-
facilitated the artist/designer
hood and Schools Māori and
negotiation and provided oversight
Pacific Island Festival’ known
for the completion of the project.
colloquially as Otago Polyfest.” The initial team consisted of Pam
In approaching the Art and Design
McKinlay from the Dunedin
Schools, the Polyfest Committee
School of Art, graduate Tere
recognised that Otago Polytechnic
Moeroa and local artist Herama-
offered a specialised knowledge
and technical skills base in their staff and students which made a
Joining the Project team from the
valuable contribution to achieving
Design School were Caroline
the new look and enabling
McCaw and three Design students
production of the new banners.
in year 2 of Communication;
The Otago Polytechnic agreed to
Thomas Henry-Te Whaiti, Madison
sponsor the costs of printing
Henry-Ryan and Vincent Egan. Key
associated with the printing at
components in the artworks were
newSplash, in recognition of the
provided by the artists, as sketches
importance of this key
and the designers were required to
community-driven event that
interpret these key components as
celebrates Māori performing arts.
vector-based coloured designs Otago Polytechnic School of Design, Dunedin, New Zealand Email: infoop.ac.nz Freephone: 0800 762 786 or visit online at www.otagopolytechnic.ac.nz/schools-departments/ design/areas-of-study/communication.html
Gareth Hemming Gareth Hemming is currently
multiplied and found in every
studying Visual Arts at Auckland
home, on every street and sold in
University. He is a second year
every city. In this work the artist
student showcasing some of his
looks at the generic and considers
its functionality and asks is there such thing a democratic object?
Like Getrude Stein’s “Rose is a rose
The work seeks to provide an
is a rose is a rose”, Hemming’s
encounter with such generic
photographs of a bucket as bucket
objects to understand how it works
are irreducibly particular; things
as a thing in the world and the
are seemingly what they are.
shifts that occur when encountered
A simple and generic object,
as a tool.
AUT School of Art and Design Auckland Phone: 0800 AUT UNI (0800 288 864) Email: email@example.com Visit our website www.aut.ac.nz/study-at-aut/study-areas/art-design
PREPRESS DO’s and DON’Ts
General rules DO create and edit your text in a
get you very far. Programs such as
fonts. Inkjet printers are fine for
word processing application such
Microsoft Word are word process-
as Microsoft Word and then import
ing applications, NOT desktop
proofing and printing, but always
the text to a desktop publishing
publishing/layout programs. They
get a final printout (and proof it)
application such as Adobe where
handle font replacement differ-
from a PostScript laser printer.
you can create your page layout,
ently and often cause reflow.
format the text with graphics, etc.
DON'T assume that what you have DON'T create your page layout for
printed out and submitted as hard
DON'T use Microsoft Word as a
multi-page documents in draw
copy or see on your monitor is
desktop publishing application.
programs such as Adobe. Use
what you will get. Take a good long
Word does have many of the same
desktop publishing apps like
look at proofs supplied by the
layout features as desktop
(i.e., it can create columns, import
DO provide the printer with a hard
DO take your printer's advice.
graphics, create nice laser prints,
copy laser printout of your project,
etc.) but when it comes to commer-
as well as all of your layout files,
DON'T assume that you know
cial printing, Word is not going to
such as Adobe, and graphics and
more than the printer.
publishing apps such as Adobe
Graphics tips DO supply ALL of the graphics used
* Use EPS or .ai for line art,
different results once you project
to create your project as separate
illustrations, charts, etc.—graphics
goes to press and is printed.
files. Desktop publishing applica-
that are basically black and white
DO name your graphics with the
tions like Quark and Adobe
and were created or edited in
appropriate file extension:
InDesign link to your graphics; they
Adobe applications such as
do not embed them in the
Illustrator or Freehand. Resolution
document. If you don't supply the
should be at least 600 dpi, 1200 dpi
graphics along with your Adobe
is the standard and creates the best
DONT rename graphics once you
documents, the printer will get a
have placed them in your desktop publishing page layout
missing picture error, and won't be able to continue until you supply
DO most, if not all, of your image
document(s). If you do, make sure
editing and graphic manipulation
to go back into your document and
(i.e. lightening, darkening, etc.) in
re-link the graphics.
DO use TIFF, PSD and EPS graphic
the original program that the
file formats: * Use TIFF or PSD for
graphic was first created or edited
DO check your mode for colour
halftones: graphics that are not just
in, rather than the desktop
TIFFs and PSDs Save colour TIFFs
black and white, but rather, have
publishing, for instance, if a
and PSDs as CMYK (not RGB, never
many shades of gray or colour
Photoshop TIFF needs to be
RGB). Save black & white TIFFs and
gradation (i.e. scanned photos that
lightened or darkened, lighten or
.psds as Grayscale.
were created or edited in Adobe
darken it in Photoshop, not in
Photoshop or an image editing
InDesign. Even though InDesign
DO check with your printer to see if
will lighten or darken an image,
they charge extra for breaking any
adjust contrast, etc., you may get
of these “rules.”
Design and page layout tips
Fonts DO supply the printer with ALL of
DONT use TrueType fonts. Period.
the fonts used to create your
Always use PostScript or OpenType
project (even the symbol, fraction
and Adobe fonts (Macintosh or PC/
and dingbat fonts). Try not to use
Windows) are always a safe bet.
TrueType fonts, and for PostScript
TrueType is fine for printing to a
fonts, make sure you supply the
laser or inkjet printer, but
printer with both the screen and
TrueType fonts can cause severe
the printer font parts. Remember to problems when it comes to commercial printing. Many include fonts used to create EPS graphics, and fonts that the printer
commercial printers wont even
probably already has like
print a project that contains
Helvetica. There are many
TrueType fonts. Often, they pop.
different versions of some fonts and a “wrong” version can cause
DONT use 20 different fonts for a
4-page newsletter. It makes you look like you don't know what
DONT use Bold or Italic in the style
you're doing. In design publishing,
menu or hit the Bold or Italic
consistency is everything. Use one
button when you want to bold or
font for your main body text,
italicize text in your page layout
another for your main heads,
program. Use the actual font. If you
another for photo captions, another
want to create text that is Helvetica
for sidebars, etc., but dont mix and
Bold, don't select some Helvetica
match fonts for your main body
text and then bold it. Instead, select
text or make every headline a
DO use a document setup size (i.e.
predetermined “hairline” rule.
the text and change the font itself
different font unless you're trying
your page dimensions) that is the
The width varies from program to
(not the style) from Helvetica to
to create some sort of chaotic effect
same as your trim size. For
program, and prints out differently
and it is your intention to confuse
instance, if you are creating a 6 by
on a laser printer than on an
9-inch book, set up your initial
imagesetter, if it prints at all. Don't
page size in the document setup for
create rules that are less than
6 by 9-inches.
the reader. Too many fonts is not DO: Use Helvetica Bold font.
only considered to be bad design, but it also slows printing to a crawl.
DONT: Use Helvetica and and thicken its stroke.
DON'T create 6 by 9-inch text
DO watch for widows, orphans,
frames in a 81/2 by 11-inch
rivers, bad kerning and other
document setup and manually add
desktop publishing no-nos that will
make you look like an amateur. Get
DO make page elements that bleed
don't use spaces to align columns
rid of double-spaces after periods, extend at least 1/8th of an inch
(use tabs) or to create paragraph
beyond the page boundary.
indents. Know your en dash (–) from your em dash (—).
DON'T use your page layout/desktop publishing
Big thanks to Deborah Roberti for allowing the use of this content. Prepress do’s and don’ts, EspressoGraphics.com
Our greatest glory is not never failing but in rising up everytime we fail — Ralph Waldo Emerson http://unitedbydesigngroup.wordpress.com/
File formats It is very important that file extensions, or suffixes, remain intact. The extension assists the computer operating system. It tells the system the type of file and the application to use when opening the file. This is especially important when bringing a file from one operating system to another (such as going from a Mac to a PC).
Tip: When opening an ai. (Adobe Illustrator) file you cannot open it on another computer without having the content, such as imagery and fonts, saved on the computer you are opening it on. This will show up blank if not and fonts will be changed to the nasty default font.
Tip: Saving your finished files as a PDF is great for presentations, where you open it up and view it as a slideshow. pdfs are also the preferred way to save a file to print.
Some important file formats include: EARLY ARTISTS .svg
Scalable Vector Graphics format, the native format for Inkscape
.doc or .docx .rtf .txt .ai .psd .pdf .png
Microsoft Word document Rich Text Format, non-proprietary word processing format Text only, no formatting
Adobe Illustrator file
Colour (e.g. red, blue, green, yellow). Intensity, saturation, chroma and brilliance all refer to how much pigment is in a colour, which translates to how vivid a colour appears.
Is a fade from one colour to another.
A rendition or draft of a project. When someone talks about render, it can mean the project’s appearance: “It’s a pencil render” means it’s a sketch.
Inks that are not mixed from the four process colours. They are used for items, like logos, that need to be a consistent colour no matter how or where they are printed. Any time you add an extra ink to a print job, it increases the price. Metallic inks are also spot colours.
DPI: dots per inch PPI: pixels per inch THUMBNAIL
The more precise way to define the resolution for a file that is to be printed.
Portable Document Format
Part of how you would define the resolution of an object that is screen-based.
Portable Network Graphics are the ideal web graphic file types
Small scale rough sketches of a design concept.
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We are keen to see what’s up in your world of design,
world is to create a website or a
source, meaning, the source code
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blog. If you don't already have a
is available for augmentation and
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blog, you can get a free WordPress
manipulation. Tumblr, Blogger,
blog at WordPress.org. WordPress
Moveable Type, and TypePad are
has a large community of users,
also good quality blog platforms.
websites worth checking out, new favourite tools or fonts. ANYTHING. United by Design aims to develop a community that will inspire and share for all who want to come join and hope
great documentation, loads of
that you will share too.
themes, where you can design
DESIGN SCHOOL GRADUATES Brad Stratton Brad Stratton works for Barnes, Catmur & Friends, Auckland. Brad Stratton had his sights set on a career in advertising after winning a poster competition for his primary school musical. For some, dreams do come true, and the Bachelor of Design (Communication) graduate is now an Art Director at Barnes, Catmur & Friends in Auckland. Their clients include brands such as Subaru, Yamaha, Southern Cross Health Society, Pams and Tourism Fiji. “I really enjoy having the opportunity to be creative every day. It’s interesting to see something you
have done out in the public eye, whether it’s in a magazine, on TV or outdoors.” Brad finds the competitive nature of the advertiing industry compelling, “I like that successful work is widely recognised. ”Some of his recent collaborative successes include Widex hearing aids (which featured in the revered Lürzer’s Archive) and NZ Pure and Carlsberg ads which feature on bestadsontv.com. Otago Polytechnic School of Design, Dunedin, New Zealand Email: infoop.ac.nz Freephone: 0800 762 786 or visit online at www.otagopolytechnic.ac.nz/schoolsdepartments/design/areas--
Media Design School, Auckland, New Zealand email: firstname.lastname@example.org phone: +64 9 303 0402 or visit online at http://www.mediadesignschool.com/
“I was even lucky enough to work on one of 2009’s top ten complained about ads!”
MIND MAP THE MOST DIFFICULT PART OF BEING CREATIVE IS IDEA GENERATION. Why do you think there are so many copycats out there? Although mind mapping has been
This would usually be used in the
mind map. This mind map would
around since the 1970â€™s, its uses
early stages of a designs concept
work well for problem solving
and attraction is snowballing.
development. It is a very useful tool
informing you of what you may
So what is it? And how does it
for a designer to generate ideas,
need to let your thoughts stem from
apply to Graphic Design?
with a group or by communicating
mind map branches to create a
your ideas and streams of thought
solution for any design problem
Mind maps are thoughts, ideas,
to a lecturer or a client. Every
you may have.
names, words and images that
thought, whether it be a word, a
create a complex web of thoughts.
colour or an image is useful to your
Goals Balanced view
m ti o
YOUR WA Y
Explore Opinions Feelings
School of Design Communication.
Published on Jun 24, 2014