UNITED BY DESIGN LIMITED EDITION A GUIDE FOR BEGINNER COMMUNICATION DESIGNERS
Educational and inspirational design talk united by design: United by design aims to develop a design community among students, providing young graphic designers with educational and inspirational tips
DESIGNER SUCCESSES IN THIS ISSUE: Anna Enright // Catherine deVries // Chelsea Cain-Rae // Irene van der Meer // Jarrod McCutcheon // Lauren Earl
e! e r F
Connor Ellis // // Logan Smith
Evan Thomas // // Nick Dephoff
F New Zealand F ISSUE No. 02
Holly Gaskin // // Sam Lewis
Hello DESIGNER SUCCESSES
Much of the content in this newspaper has been shared from the open source online book “Digital Foundations” written and produced by Xtine Burrough & Michael Mandiberg. As open source content has been written to be shared, this newspaper project aims to put great information into the hands of people who need it; young graphic designers.
DESIGNER TIPS AND TRICKS
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A c k no w l edgements COLOPHON: United By Design, Issue 2 was produced by Tiffany Butler in Dunedin, New Zealand and was printed by APN Print. The contents were a collaboration of writers from Digital Foundations: Intro to Media Design. Produced by Tiffany Butler
Clara Jo 2009 Elisa de Castro Guerra 2009 Marisa Olson 2009 Patrick Davison 2009 Xtine Burrough 2009
COLOR THEORY © Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009 Modifications: Adam Hyde 2009 Christopher Blount 2009 Marisa Olson 2009 Patrick Davison 2009 xtine burrough 2009
ARTICLES: About Michael Mandiberg: Giving thigs away is always hard work, Three creative case studies by Michael Madiberg. www. mandiberg.com Short Bio. Copy Your homework, by Michael Mandiberg. blog.wikimedia.org About digital Foundations: www.flossmanuals.net/digital-foundations.org www.wiki.digital-foundations.net About Floss Manuals: www.flossmanuals.org Newsplash and Innovation workspace: www.newsplash.co.nz About Font Forge: fontforge.sourceforge.net www.flossmanuals.net/fontforge/ About Scribus: www.scribus.net About Gimp: www.gimp.org About Open Publishing: www.purplebark.net About Inkscape: www.inkscape.org www.flossmanuals.net/inkscape/ About Alchemy: Experiments in interactive drawing, creativity, & serendipity, by Karl D. D. Willis and Jacob Hina.
FILES AND SERVERS © Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009 Modifications: Adam Hyde 2009 Dave Mandl 2009 Marisa Olson 2009 Patrick Davison 2009 Xtine Burrough 2009 PRE PRESS DOS AND DONTS Deborah Roberti, EspressoGraphics.com SEARCHING AND SAMPLING © Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009 Modifications: Adam Hyde 2009 Clara Jo 2009 Devendra Laulkar 2009 Marisa Olson 2009 Michael Mandiberg 2009 Patrick Davison 2009 Vieri Tucci 2009 Xtine Burrough 2009 THE METAPHOR OF GRAPHICS APPLICATIONS © Xtine Burrough And Michael Mandiberg 2009 Modifications: Adam Hyde 2009
Michael Mandiberg Digital Foundations Floss Manuals InkScape Gimp Alchemy Open Publishing NewSplash and Innovation workspace. Font Forge Scribus
OTHER CONTENT All other content was written by Tiffany Butler. The fonts used throughout are Bebus Neue, Mrs Eaves, Dince light, Dince Medium, Signerica Medium, and Wisdom Script AI. The United By Design newspapers were printed on royal offset high brite 70gsm paper using full process colour. 3,000 copies of United By Design were printed and distributed free to design schools around New Zealand. The funding of United By Design came from sponsorship of Otago Polytechnic, Innovation Workspace and newSplash design studios. If you would like to advertise in United by Design next year, please contact Otago Polytechnic: 0800 762 786
Where you can get further information about
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C O N T E N T S
T H AN K
.....Real experience .....Visual storytelling .....Typographic solution .....Urban culture .....Design to represent .....Design intergration .....Turbo nerd .....Genuine design .....Visual experiences .....Creative direction .....New boundries
File format dictionary and other helpful information.
DESIGNER SUCCESSEs: Lauren Earl Jarrod McCutcheon Sam Lewis Logan Smith Catherine deVries Evan Thomas Irene van der Meer Nick Dephoff Chelsea Cain-Rae Anna Enright Holly Gaskin
be a pre press pro with this guide of what to do and what not to do when preparing for print.
beautiful typography and font software
What can and can’t be yours. Copyright defined. Fair use and appropriation.
Vector and raster images. Colour options, mixing and meaning behind your choices. What are you communicating?
Michael Mandiberg Michael Mandiberg is an interdisciplinary artist, designer and scholar whose work employs each of these methodologies, in part, to investigate the significance of their overlap. He creates conceptual art projects, design objects, and publications that explore themes that include environmentalism, systems of exchange, pedagogy, software art, collaboration, appropriation, and Free Culture. He is also the co-author of Digital Foundations; an open source book about design process and software help. Mandiberg plays a big role within contributing to open source software and the free culture movement, which have created vibrant and thriving sharing-based online communities; these communities and individuals who contribute, like Mandiberg, have created an enormous numberof open source and free culture projects. Despite less common forms of open source material, such as media that are not code or text, or, perhaps because of this challenge, there are artists, engineers, and designers, such as Mandiberg, working to help influence the design industry. Open source publishing has been extended from code to other forms of cultural production via Creative Commons licenses and what has become known as the free-culture movement. The Creative Commons licenses provide a legal tool for applying FLOSS licensing to media other than computer code, such as: text, image, sound, video, design, and so on. It’s about the open publishing design community says Mandiberg, “the sharing of a project creates participation. And participation is the edge of the beginnings of a community.” When the ultimate goal is to change culture, the intermediary goal is to get copied, which is exactly what open source publishing is about. The practice has become so persuasive that the origins are no longer important. Participation in open source publishing breeds creative change, and creative change leads to better ideas through this collaborative process. Before Mandiberg had finished Digital Foundations, he actively worked to give all the work away by parenting with an organization, called FLOSS Manuals, to translate the book from propriety Adobe design applications like Photoshop or Illlustrator, to the FLOSS design applications like GIMP and Inkscape. They succeeded in giving the work away, and the project still continues to evolve into new transformations and uses. For Digital Foundations, they are able to make the process of sharing, into a collaborative process, and one that accesses a design community of collaborators who have a range of experiences, from expert to novice software uses, to translators for multiple languages. The community Mandiberg continues to build upon is one that will employ the minds of those designers who contribute and use open source material to expand the free culture movement. Giving thigs away is always hard work, Three creative case studies by Michael Madiberg. www.mandiberg.com Short Bio. Copy Your homework, by Michael Mandiberg. blog.wikimedia.org
T O D A Y I L E A R N E D about Digital Foundations Digital Foundations was written by two artist educators, Xtine Burrough and Michael Mandiberg. They found that their classes had a desire to learn practical aspects of software, however they also wanted to communicate and teach the value of the “visual, theoretical, and historical frameworks.” They began by teaching from the very best resources they had available to them and supplemented the functional lessons with the visual and historical material they felt was neglected. Still, Burrough and Mandiberg weren’t satisfied with the practice of educating through resources that didn’t seem to encapsulate their students, and made the decision to produce their own book which would be a perfect tool for all introductory
media design students to benefit from. “For us, a student is anyone actively engaged in learning. A student can be working towards a degree in art, communication, graphic design, illustration, and so on, in a traditional classroom setting, or a self taught setting”. Originally their book was created to by used as a kind of manual for classroom settings, and just a month after it was published, they teamed up with FLOSS Manuals to convert their manuscript into one that teaches these same design principals and synthesized historic and aesthetic foundations, so that students of any setting can learn studio exercises freely, using open source software. www.flossmanuals.net/digital-foundations.org www.wiki. digital-foundations.net
about Floss manuals The original idea for FLOSS Manuals was to distribute the means to contribute to manuals, textbooks, and teaching materials, by providing a very simple and easy-to-use interface for collaborating on the creation of comprehensive texts about Free Software, and this philosophy continues today. FLOSS Manuals is a collection of different language communities that produce original documentation about Free Software, however it is also a community. The contributors of this community include designers, readers, writers, illustrators, free software fans, editors, artists, software developers, activists, and many others just like you. Anyone can contribute to a manual – to fix a spelling mistake, add a more detailed explanation, write a new chapter, or start a whole new manual on a topic. FLOSS Manuals was launched in 2007 to remedy the deficit of good free documentation about free software. Their strategy is to develop communities to produce high quality free manuals about free software in multiple languages. As it became clear what a great tool this was, different communities of users and writers started to adopt it as their home for documentation. To keep the FLOSS Manuals community growing they need the content to come from YOU. If you see something that is out of date then you can log in and update it. If you think of a chapter you would like to add then make a start on it. FLOSS
Maunuals is there for you to use and enjoy, as a free source of information. UNITED BY DESIGN was created based upon the principals and knowledge obtained through FLOSS Manuals, however this content is just a little aspect in the scheme of what you could potentially learn from their online archive. Visit their website at www.en.flossmanuals.net
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“The real issue is not talent as an independent element, but talent in relationship to will, desire, and persistence. Talent without these things vanishes and even modest talent with those characteristics grows.” - ―Milton Glaser
imagery In Imagery tips and tricks, we cover:
~VECTOR VS. RASTER~ ~LINE ART AND FLAT GRAPHICS~ ~IMAGE ACQUISITION AND RESOLUTION~ ~THE PEN TOOL~ ~Colour~
Imagery can be a literal or metaphorical aspect to your design. It is an instant visual communicator and by choosing and using your imagery correctly, you have the power to get your message across in an instant.
aBOUT Inkscape Another amazing, open source, free tool, to help you with designing imagery, and quite underrated for the capabilities and potential ability it has to help you achieve superb imagery. Inkscape is predominantly a drawing tool to create and edit SVG graphics. It provides an interface to help with the manipulation of vector images, which in turn allows you to express yourself more freely. The constant development of Inkscape provides stability for the current software and allows for the capacity for future growth. Designers find this tool indispensible as it combines basic drawing tools with advanced functions that help you to freely create images. Inkscape means you can now manipulate through an XML editor, or, in a more intuitive fashion, through devices such as pen tablets, touch screens, or simply a mouse. Text and bitmaps can be inserted into an image, and further more, the program can preform basic editing functions with them. If you require further bitmap editing, this can be achieved through tools such as GIMP. Before and after importing them, Inkscape will reflect the changes created once the SVG file is reloaded. These characteristics make Inkscape an exemplary drawing application, especially considering its flexability and many other capabilities. Find further information about this drawing software at: www.flossmanuals.net/inkscape/
Image acquisition and resolution There are several ways to bring an image into the computer. The two most common are photographic in nature, that is, both methods involve exposing sensors to an item or scene in the real world. The camera or scanner then writes digital data to display that image on the screen. While the sensor technology is essentially the same, a camera is made to capture scenes with depth of field, while a scanner is made to focus on and capture just one flat plane.
Vector vs. raster Computer graphics are created in one of two formats: vector or bitmap. Computer files containing these graphics may contain vectors, bitmaps, or both. Vector graphics are created by using mathematical algorithms: formulas that describe where points, lines, and planes exist and how these elements relate to one another. Vector graphics can be scaled up to any size and retain their smooth edges. Logos are nearly always developed as vector graphics, as a logo has to fit easily on a business card, a website, and possibly a billboard or bus wrapping. Inkscape, Illustrator and Flash are applications most often used to create and modify vector images. Bitmap or raster graphics are built from grids of pixels. Each tiny pixel contains a unit of colour information. Bitmaps are used for digital photography and scanned images. Bitmap files are not as easily scalable as vector graphics.
Line art and flat graphics No matter the weight of the line, from finely etched crosshatching to bold marker or brush strokes, line art is binary: the colour is either on the paper or it is not. Line art uses solid colours, and does not include a continuous tonal scale. A newspaper headline is line art, but the photograph below the headline is not line art. Lines and shapes form a composition with a strong figure/ground and negative/positive space interplay. Line art has routinely been employed in the commercial arena. Andy Warhol blurred the border between the worlds of commercial and fine art by using line art and flat graphics on paintings to be shown in galleries and museums as a critique of the commercial world that this genre serves. Visible in Warhol’s illustrations of Campbell’s soup cans are thin, black lines that delineate the top edges of the can and a large, flat field of redorange on the label. “Have no fear of perfection, you’ll never reach it.” – Salvador Dali
Plakatstil is the original flat graphic style used in advertising and poster campaigns. Plakatstil translates from German as”poster style.” Plakatstil is the opposite of decoration. Flat graphics are bold and minimal; often type is large. Lucian Bernhard’s 1906 poster design entry to a contest held in Berlin by the Priester Match Company is the first work to embrace this new graphic style. Bernhard was inspired by the industrialization of city life and a desire for rapid communication. In posters such as Bernhard’s, or Jim Fitzpatrick’s poster of Che Guevara, the color palette is minimal, the contrast between shapes, values, and intensity is extreme. As a result the message is bold and powerful.
ABOUT gimp GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is the result of three years collaborative hard work by creators Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis, which started development in 1995 at the University of California, and it has since been developed by a range of volunteers, and has also recently been released as free, open-source software. GIMP is a programme for photo re-touching, image composition, image authoring, free-form drawing, resizing, cropping, photo-montages, converting between different image formats, and more specialized tasks. The developers and maintainers of GIMP strive to create a highend free software graphics application for the editing and creation of original images, photos, icons, graphical elements of web pages, and art for user interface elements. These tools used to perform image editing can be accessed via the toolbox, through menus and dialogue windows. They include filters and brushes, as well as transformation, selection, layer and masking tools. You can find out more about this remarkable, free software, and download a free version at: www.gimp.org
Pen tool The Pen tool is predominantly used for creating flat graphics or line art. It can be used to make complicated forms by tracing images and combining simple shapes. In addition to contouring and tracing, the Pen tool is often used to create shapes that are used for masking. The Pen tool can be a little difficult to learn, as the process of using this tool sometimes feels counter-intuitive. The artist has to know where her next point is before plotting it. Visualizing lines, shapes, and space before they exist can be challenging. The paintbrush can be used to create quick gesture drawings of the lines and shapes uthat will be recreated accurately with the Pen tool to eliminate the type of forethought that accompanies the use of this tool. With enough practice on top of template layers, newbies are sure to develop Pen tool intuition.
about Alchemy The intended purpose for this free, open source software, alchemy, is for the user to return to the rudimental creative stage of producing art and design. This software application is to be used as a starting point to create from, it’s intentional basic tools allow for unintended forms, play, and creativity; Alchemy, as the name suggests, is an experimental drawing application aimed at letting users visually explore an expanded range of ideas and possibilities in a serendipitous way. Alchemy is used for a numerous aspects such as initial shapes, experimental interaction, sketches, drawings for character design, object design, and environment design, further development and the finishing or polishing of work can be continued on using conventional graphics software. Use this software as an experimental stage, or a digital sketchbook, either way its an exciting drawing technique that allows for a great number of original and inventive results. For more information visit: Experiments in interactive drawing, creativity, & serendipity, by Karl D. D. Willis and Jacob Hina.
L a u r en E a r l D esigne r S u c c ess
“The ‘Flathates Handbook’ provides a detailed, yet creative and captive, option to fill this gap of information” I am a highly motivated graphic designer with freelance and commercial experience in New Zealand and around the world. After graduating from university in 2012 I set up my own practice, trading as 949 Design where I work as a contractor and freelancer. My formal training was gained at Massey University in Wellington, where I completed a Bachelor of Design, majoring in Visual Communication
Design with First Class Honours. Over the past to enhance their overall flatting experience. year I have also focused on writing and designing a ‘Flatter’s Survival Guide’. This was initially my major project at university, formerly known as the ‘Flathate’s Handbook’ and was later snatched up Images: Flathate’s Handbook, 2013 finalist in the Best Design Awards by Awa Press, a New Zealand publishing company. Institution: Massey University in Wellington Currently, information on the topic of Course: Bachelor of Design, majoring in Visual Communication flatting provides limited answers or guidance Design with First Class Honours. to better prepare first time flatters, or to help overcomesituations which may arise in this environment. Through discussions with experienced flatters, the book has been developed to share real life situations and scenarios making the content more relatable to its readers. It uses humour and unpredictability to ensure each potential flatter is more prepared for flatting and
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“The challenge is for the graphic designer to turn data into information and information into messages of meaning.” — Katherine McCoy
Bachelor of Design (Communication) The Bachelor of Design (Communication) degree in the School of Design emphasises creative story-telling through a variety of media: text, image, sound, digital filmmaking and interactive.
V isual storytelling
“I believe that when I love what I am working on it will be projected in the final outcome.”
Much more than a graphic design course, your ideas and creativity will be extended and connected to real-world projects.
For further information: www.op.ac.nz/design 0800 726 786 www.op.design.ac.nz/debrief space and character of the venue while adding another unique and valuable addition to Mighty Mighty’s visual aesthetic. These creatures tend to be relevant with today’s pop culture and also project aspects of my own playful, emotive and cheeky personality. I enjoy actively staying in tune with current trends in all aspects of design, whilst borrowing and adapting elements from past subcultures. Whilst the majority of my work is whimsical and at times eccentric, I also enjoy taking on the challenge of telling other ‘genres’ of stories. I enjoy being able to fulfil the clients’ needs while adapting projects into something that I actively enjoy doing. When I can lose myself in a project the work seems effortless and I believe that when I love what I am working on, this will be projected in the final outcome.
D esigne r S u c c ess
j a r r o d m c c ut c h e o n
For me, the art of storytelling is crucial. I have always spent my spare time reading, conversing, watching movies, playing video games and drawing. I believe this is where some of the imagery I use and my love for storytelling comes from. As a graphic designer and illustrator I like to weave my clients’ stories through captivating visuals. I also enjoy giving people the opportunity to craft their own stories when they view my work. Twisted illustrative, monster-like, characters usually take centre stage in my work, and is the inspiration for my work for my final year design project, Mighty Mighty; a well known and much Image: loved venue in Wellington. This work is to be Institution: mounted on the wall behind the bar. I wanted to Course: produce a piece that worked within the existing
Hand-painted installation for venue Mighty Mighty. Otago Polytechnic Bachelor of Design (Communication)
Colour Colour has a huge impact on the mood of your design, therefore it is important to choose colours wisely. The use of blue tones creates a calming and cool mood, while the colour red gives a sense of intense emotion and/or passion. Colour in design leads the eye through the design and emphasises the key information. Colour has always been present in our natural environment and in art around the world. From the 30,000-year old Chauvet-Pont-d’Arc cave drawings in southeastern France to the Tournament of Roses Parade on January 1, 1954, the first national television broad cast in colour, colour has been a focus of artistic creation. Artists, mathematicians, and scientists have developed theories of colour since the 17th century. The traditional colour wheel utilizes the RYB (red-yellow-blue) colour model. In this colour model, red, yellow, and blue are the primary hues (what we think of as colours), which can be mixed together to create any other colour on the colour wheel. Complementary colours are opposite, while similar colours sit side-by-side on the wheel. A surface appears coloured because it reflects some light frequencies while absorbing others. When the pure primaries are mixed together in this subtractive system, the resulting product is black because all light shining on it is absorbed, leaving no light to reflect back to the eye and convey colour. The CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) colour model is specific to the print and printing industry. Artists and designers often create art for high-volume printing using the CMYK colour model to synchronize the digital file with the four corresponding printing inks. Even though it is worked on with digital tools and examined via the projected light of a computer screen, this system is also subtractive, meaning overlapping inks create a darker hue. Television screens and computer monitors do not use ink or paint—they use red, green, and blue light. RGB is an additive colour model. Coloured light is mixed to create hue and value with red, green, and blue as the primary colours. When the primary colours in the RGB model are mixed together, the result is white.
“Elegance is not the abundance of simplicity. It is the absence of complexity.” — Alex White
In research tips and tricks, we cover: ~SEARCHING AND SAMPLING~ ~FAIR USE AND APPROPRIATION~
Designers must be inspired by others to influence our designs. Research aspects that you are attracted to. Examine what it is you like about these aspects , and ask yourself, “what does the design communicate? How was it created?”
Searching and sampling The Internet is a treasure trove of photographic imagery. Artists and designers often combine media elements from this online archive in inventive ways, or use downloaded images as research for their own creative work. While we live in a copy/paste culture, using a downloaded image from the web has legal ramifications. Just because you can download an image doesn’t mean you may use it! A downloaded image may be protected by copyright laws. Copyright is a legal tool for preserving control over the use of a creative work. Books, poems, music recordings and compositions, photographs, paintings, sculptures, radio and television broadcasts, films, and even dances can be copyrighted. England initiated what we think of as copyright laws in the early 1700s. The widespread use of the printing press and an increase in literacy rates had resulted in printers commonly reprinting texts without crediting their rightful authors, or paying them. Attribution of proprietary rights in intellectual material has had far-reaching legal and economic implications. Copyright durations vary by nation. In the New Zealand, n New Zealand, copyright in most works lasts until the end of the year the author dies plus 50 years, their works would be released into the public domain. When a work is in the public domain, it is not owned or controlled by anyone. Any person can use the material, in any way, without owing anything to the creator. For works created by corporations, the length was 75 years from the date of publication. In 1998, US Congress passed the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, which extended copyright by 20 years. This law was authored by a musicalentertainer-turned- Congressman, and was heavily lobbied for by the media industry. The act was nicknamed the Mickey Mouse Protection Act, as Disney lobbied extensively to ensure that the law reached back just far enough to protect their copyright over Mickey Mouse. The Act essentially suspended public domain advancement in the United States as covered by fixed term copyright regulations. For more information vist: http://creativecommons.org.nz/
An image is ABOUT Open protected by Publishing copyright unless:
Open publishing is the process of creating information that is transparent to its readers. It is nothing new; open publishing is simply a contemporary reformation of the art of story ONE The use qualifies as fair use. This depends on telling. Readers can contribute to this information the purpose of the use, nature of the materials by adding, editing, or adapting. It’s freedom of selected, amount of the total work used and effect information, freedom for software, freedom for creativity. Free software is overwhelmingly written of the use on the market. by volunteers, people like to joke about what free software and information needs to do next to TWO The image is in the public domain because the achieve world domination. author declares it is, or because it is old enough This is a revolutionary response, a liberation answer, to the privatisation of information by that the copyright has expired. multinational monopolies. Creative people are a problem for multimedia nationals, to THREE The author licenses it under an alternative model. view information we need to either pay with Fair use is not piracy! Fair use is legitimate and advertisements or with money. To produce a legal use of copyrighted media, as protected by means of information, such as the news for copyright law. Fair use is free speech. Fair use is instance, can be a very expensive process. News is not free, news is not open. It is very expensive. It not file sharing. is highly secretive. Which is the opposite to open publishing, and is why it is a competitor. Free software believes people are smart, creative, and can choose for themselves. It’s freedom of speech, it can be copied and shared; information ultimately ATTRIBUTION This licence lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and wants to be free. The Internet helps to make open build upon your work, even commercially, as long as publishing a possibility on a global scale. Open they credit you. publishing assumes the reader is smart and creative ATTRIBUTION-NONCOMMERCIAL and might want to be a writer and an editor and a This licence lets others remix, tweak, and build distributor and even a software programmer, and upon your work non-commercially with credit to may even want to help contribute to, edit, and you. expand on this information. ATTRIBUTION-SHAREALIKE There is a level of trust within the global open This licence lets others remix, tweak, and build publishing community, open publishing is not upon your work even for commercial purposes, trying to convince anyone that this is the way as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. to work, it is simply providing a space and an opportunity for people to decide for themselves ATTRIBUTION-NONCOMMERCIAL-SHAREALIKE what they believe is the best option or means This licence lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they of working. For more information visit:
credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms.
ATTRIBUTION-NO DERIVATIVES This licence allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you. ATTRIBUTION-NONCOMMERCIAL-NO DERIVATIVES This licence only allows others to download your works and share them with others as long as they credit you, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially. “Get in over your head as often and as joyfully as possible.” — Alexander Isley
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Fair use and appropriation Another one of the traditional protected purposes is educational use in a classroom. Keep in mind that just because you cannot be sued for using appropriated work for assignments, you should be using it for reasons that advance your education, not just for convenience. Know that the expectations increase for work done outside of a classroom. For commercial media, your transformation of the source material should be significant. The fair use clause also does not mean you may plagiarise. Plagiarism, an ethical offense separate from copyright issues, hides the fact that ideas or
content have been copied from somewhere else. Even in cases where no legal violation has occurred, plagiarism is a serious ethical violation that undermines the academic endeavour and destroys the plagiarist’s credibility. Reproducibility is a central trait of digital media. Unlike lithographs, vinyl records, cassette tapes, videotapes, books, or photographic prints, an exact replica of digital media can be made from a digital copy. This is true for digital photograph, music, and movie files, CDs, MP3s, DVDs, and websites. From sampling to mashups, collage to subvertisements, contemporary artists and content creators use
digital files as source material for the derivation of new works. These works are considered new and original, but they are sometimes built with bits and parts of copyrighted works. In the digital age, new works are often created when more than one existing work is recombined in a new way, providing new visual relationships and new ideas. Under the fair use clause of copyright law, limited copyrighted material can be used for a transformative purpose, such as commenting upon, criticizing, or parodying the initial material.
These are the Key four factors:
One: Weighing these four factors in a copyright case The purpose of the original work is not an easy task, which is why judges have been asked to do so. However, successful commercial media that takes advantage of the fair use clause Two: include 7 Days skits and The Fletch and Vaughan The nature of the original content: copyright show. These works all make use of parody, one of does not limit use of the facts or ideas conveyed the traditional protected purposes. by an original work, only the original creative expression.
Three: The amount of original work used.
Four: The effect that the new work has on the potential or actual market value of the original.
T ypographic solution
“I love working in a studio environment on a wide variety of projects and continuing to learn from experienced and inspirational designers around me.”
S AMA N T HA L E W I S D esigne r S u c c ess
“Inspiration is cross-pollinating.” — Marian Bantjes
I graduated from Massey University in 2012 with a Bachelor of Design with honours, majoring in Graphic Design. During my study I became interested in designing for social change, and devoted my final year to creating a typographic solution for adult learners with low literacy. My project ‘foanetiks’ is a typographic system that translates between traditional English spelling and phonetic spelling. The project won an international Red Dot Award and is a finalist in this year’s DINZ Best Awards within the student section. I discovered my passion for typography during my degree, and I like to use different media and formats for experimental designs with type. I particularly enjoy letterpress and handlettering, but also love the advantage of being able to use a combination of traditional and digital methods. Massey places a great emphasis on carrying out extensive research and design thinking to ensure that strong concepts were at the forefront of our design solutions. This approach to conceptual thinking has been valuable, and helped me to become interested in creating design projects based on wider discussions and solutions of social and language issues. In 2012 I was awarded membership to the International Society of Typographic Designers with Merit, and was a finalist for two projects in the DINZ Best Awards — Student section. I am now a designer at Base Two in Wellington and I love working in a studio environment on a wide variety of projects and continuing to learn from experienced and inspirational designers around me. I also hope to continue to pursue my project ‘foanetiks’ by making it adaptable to use in an educational environment. Images: ‘Foanetiks’ is a typographic system that translates between
traditional English spelling and phonetic spelling Massey University Bachelor of Design with honors, majoring in Graphic Design
D esigne r S u c c ess
l o g a n s m it h
NEWSPLASH AND INNOVATION WORKSPACE
U rban culture
Empowering families effected by autism, through
skateboarding. askate.org Massey University Bachelor of Design with honours, majoring in visual communication design and minoring in advertising
“Skateboarding has a massive influence on all our street and urban culture so that’s what I’m really into.” I always loved cartoons and I think that’s where it started for me. Making my own villains for Batman, Street sharks, Biker mice from Mars — all the 90’s classics. Sounds so nerdy, guess it is kinda’. I have always had a passion for drawing and hand lettering, and nothing has changed there. A lot of my design has been inspired by my enthusiasim for skateboarding; I moved to designing my own ‘pro-model’ skate graphics when I was in primary school. Skateboarding has a massive influence on all our street and urban culture so that’s what I’m really into. I studied a Bachelor of Design (honours) at Massey University in Wellington, majoring in
visual communication design and minoring in advertising. My honours project in 4th year was an advertising campaign that sought to empower families effected by autism, through skateboarding. I set out to centralize the campaign around two audiences who don’t get much publicity, or in skateboarding’s case — positive publicity. I did freelancing out of University for startup companies, street wear labels Americus and Shark Week. I am now working at Chilli, a brand engagement agency in Wellington. I would love to eventually be able to freelance fulltime with my own company ‘Smiddy’s studio’ but I’m very happy where I am now. “The ultimate inspiration is the deadline.” — Nolan Bushnell
Otago Polytechnic’s Product Realisation Group, innovation workspace and Communication Design studio, newSplash make up the collaborative commercial design and development facility that has been recognized for their applied research, entrepreneurial design, and real world design deliverables. Collectively they are a dynamic and creative team of young designers and developers mentored by industry professionals with a commercial focus. newSplash works with clients across the spectrum of design and IT disciplines and create visual resources such as graphic design, photography, illustration, motion graphics and film while employing the most promising and motivated graduates from OP. innovation workSpace has extensive project management and design capabilities and a great development workshop including water jet and lazer cutters, 3D scanners and printers. The team has knowledge and skills across many commercial sectors, perfect if you are developing new product initiative or creating user-centred business solutions. Both operations work closely with talented students, offering real world experience with industry knowledge, budgets, deadlines, and consequences, with employees moving on into some fabulous design jobs. Graduate designer, Lucinda McMeekan said “Working at newSplash for a year after finishing my Communication degree was a highly beneficial opportunity to gain hands-on experience working with real clients. It enabled me to land an awesome job as a designer at Swordfox.” Design graduate, Jess Dobson has been with innovation workSpace as a Product Design Engineer for two years and has recently received a Silver at the Best Awards for her contribution to the Powerhouse Wind Turbine. “I lead some pretty challenging projects in a competitive industry. The same opportunities elsewhere may not have presented themselves this early in my career.” The team work together to encourage those extending their design knowledge and also make a real difference in the world around them, they absolutely love design, and work to create the best outcome for their clients and their end user. Ultimately, it’s about business transformation. So, if you’re a motivated and flexible Design or IT student or graduate of OP and looking for a kick start to your career, flick Lynda or Eva your portfolio, they’d love to have a chat. newSplash
communication design studio
innovation workSpace product and prototyping
0800 762 786
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~Misuse and overus~ ~Free font websites~
There are so many choices in fonts when it comes to designing. Choosing the right font to complement your content and target audience is extremely important. Fonts are software too. And not too cheap either. Luckily there are many websites with heaps of downloadable fonts free for personal use. You must be careful when using these beyond personal use, as there is existing licensing terms and condtions which will depend on the font and its designer.
In Fonts tips and tricks, we cover:
Misuse and overuse A common problem among design students is simply using a typeface because it is cool amongst your peers. We shouldn’t use faces because of their popularity; we should use them because they complement the
design and content. Free font websites are great for those who cannot afford to paymoney for use of fonts, but this is the cause of beautiful fonts being overused and misused. A popular font does not necessarily mean it’s a
good font. No matter how cool you think a font may be and really want to use it somehow you must think of now a font should communicate your work.
D esign to represent
“It’s about putting your mark on the world and making a difference. ”
C a t h e r ine de V r ies D esigne r S u c c ess
As a graphic designer based in Wellington, I am lucky enough to be surrounded by bright designers who will keep the scene and atmosphere of progress growing and thriving forward. Massey University was amazing, the energy of always having so many talented people around you 24/7 was exciting, and the collaboration of opinions and development that comes from getting your work out there kept me going. My inspiration comes from within — ‘I design my life and my life is apart of my design.’ My works all have a piece of me represented within. Massey gave me the opportunities and my past gave me the inspiration and ambition to personalise my design to represent many variations of me. In my personal work, I always started with the chaos and then defined and pushed for order within it by breaking it down and modifying the individual parts. With the deadlines and so many all-nighters over the four years coming to a point where you are happy with the output was challenging. I’m not sure yet if I really have any defined criteria for when the work’s complete — It just snaps into place at some point and you know it works. After graduating, the challenges I now face have transformed from learning to expanding my skill set and finding a style to shape and tailor for the needs of the real world. It’s about putting your mark on the world and making a difference. I’m lucky enough to be gaining experience in the professional and beginner stages of design. Images: Institution: Course:
“Best thing about creating something is that it starts living it’s own life.” — Hristo Panayotov
Work titled: Emotionally Connected Massey University Bachelor of Design with honours
Font Forge Font Forge is an online tool to help anyone who wants to learn how to create a font, or edit an existing one. It is a fantastic platform from which to begin learning about the processes that go into developing and creating a type face. However, that being said, it is not simply for beginners, it is also continuously developing and improving for technical typographic design use. Font Forge is also used as a basic guide for assistance, it off ers general insights into designing a typeface, which can assist with you with your planning, and help to make you a more efficient designer. Font Forge can be found at en.flossmaunals.net which means that you can add and edit information to help benefit others in the community whom, like you, are learning about just another aspect of what they love; design. For more information: fontforge.sourceforge.net www.flossmanuals.net/fontforge/
Free font websites www.fontsquirrel.com www.losttype.com www.dafont.com www.myfonts.com
ev a n t h o m a s
about Scribus Scribus is a free, open source layout and page design software that was first released in 2006. It combines press-ready output, typesetting, composition tools and new approaches to page design. The software supports professional publishing features to help achieve the sharpest looking documents and designs; such as colour separations, CMYK and spot colours, ICC colour management, and versatile PDF creation. It’s a great tool for both professionals and amateurs. There is a wealth of information, including howtos, tutorials, and articles, as well as a mailing list where the team at Scribus will respond to questions and queries about the software. To get more information or download the software, vist: www.scribus.net
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D esign intergration
Fabseat bases itself within the world of digital fabrication and the parametric design process to create a highly
“Design has not so much become a means to create visually attractive products, but instead to help enrich lifestyles, and portray a story beyond an object’s direct face.”
“I have lately become attracted to the dance between the digital world and the tangible, analog format we reside in. It is the boundary where these two processes meet and the ways they both can be manipulated to play on their strengths in order to create physical representations of a world which is hidden within a monitor. Design has not so much become a means to create visually attractive products, but instead to help enrich lifestyles, and portray a story beyond an object’s direct face. If a product has a story, it
has value and I personally believe that with recent consumer cultures, design has diverted away from what users hold closest: true sentimental value. Given the exponential growth of the digital domain over the past two decades, it’s quickly becoming apparent that this is the the tool of tomorrow. As makers and designers we strive for tactile understanding and reasoning, so it is now our role to define how this will be integrated into our world correctly while offering a new and exciting next era in the design timeline.”
flexible and personally customisable chair. Massey University Industrial Design - MDes Honors
ellen lupton A must read for all typography fanatics and graphic designers, ‘Thinking with type’ is a critical guide providing examples, exercises and plenty of useful information about type. www.thinkingwithtype.com
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PRE-PRESS In pre-press tips and tricks, we cover: ~General rules~ ~Graphics tips~ ~Fonts~ ~layout~
Pre-press is an essential part of any print design. As a designer it is imperative that you follow these pre-press guidelines to ensure your documents are correctly processed. Knowing these tips an save you time and unnessary expense.
General rules do
don ’ t
Create and edit your text in a word processing application such as Microsoft Word and then import the text to a desktop publishing application such as Adobe where you can create your page layout, format the text with graphics, etc.
don ’ t
Use Microsoft Word as a desktop publishing application. Word does have many of the same layout features as desktop publishing apps such as Adobe (i.e., it can create columns, import graphics, create nice laser prints, etc.) but when it comes to commercial printing, Word is not going to get you very far. Software such as do Microsoft Word are word processing applications, Provide the printer with a hard copy laser printout NOT desktop publishing/layout applications. of your project, as well as all of your layout files, They handle font replacement differently and such as Adobe, and graphics and fonts. Inkjet often cause reflow. printers are fine for initial proofing and printing, but always get a final printout (and proof it) from a PostScript laser printer.
Assume that you know more than the printer.
don ’ t Assume that what you have printed out and submitted as hard copy or see on your monitor is what you will get. Take a good long look at proofs supplied by the printer.
do Take your printer’s advice.
“Design is my passion, it gives me freedom and a world of opportunities; I feel like I can do and create anything.” I’m a turbo-nerd, I encourage the uncomfortable and the unknown. My design style is sparkly and psychedelic; I use design to make myself happy. I always want to know more, do more and learn more. I’m very impatient so I move on quickly; always finding new things or ways to design. I create the things I want to see. During my studies I have developed a passion for animation and web design and this is what I want to do professionally. Digital design is very important to me; the computer can transform my vision into something physical. I enjoy creating glitch art and use the inspiring accidents that happen along the way to my advantage. For the future I want to keep working in the design industry. Further down the road I would like to expand my horizon and learn different skills within the design field.
The inspiration for this design came from collecting objects, images and ideas. I related the aesthetic that children’s toys, dolls, ponies and dinosaurs have to my own desgin style. Otago Polytechnic Bachelor of Design (Communication)
IRENE VAN DER MEER D esigne r S u c c ess
“All the magic, be it in code or design, starts with a clear mind, pen and a blank paper.” — Brian Wangila
Graphic tips Do Supply ALL of the graphics used to create your project as separate files. Desktop publishing applications like InDesign link to your graphics; they do not embed them in the document. If you don’t supply the graphics along with your Adobe documents, the printer will get a missing picture error, and won’t be able to continue until you supply the graphics.
do Use TIFF, PSD and EPS graphic file formats: Use TIFF or .psd for greyscale, colour, and halftones: graphics that are not just black and white, but rather, have many shades of gray or colour gradation (i.e. scanned photos that were created or edited in Adobe Photoshop, Gimp, or an image editing application) Use EPS or .Ai for line art, illustrations, charts, etc. — graphics that are basically black and white and were created or edited in vector applications such as Adobe Illustrator or Inkscape. Resolution should be at least 600 dpi, to create the best print quality.
Nick Dephoff D esigne r S u c c ess
do Most, if not all, of your image editing and graphic manipulation (i.e. lightening, darkening, etc.) in the original software that the graphic was first created or edited in, rather than the desktop publishing application. For instance, if a Photoshop TIFF needs to be lightened or darkened, lighten or darken it in Photoshop, not in InDesign. Even though InDesign will lighten or darken an image, adjust contrast, etc., you may get different results once your project goes to press and is printed.
do Name your graphics with the appropriate file extension: filename.tif, filename.eps,filename. psd.
don ’ t Rename graphics once you have placed them in your desktop publishing page layout document(s). If you do, make sure to go back into your document and re-link the graphics.
do Check your mode for colour TIFFs and .psds. For print, save colour TIFFs and .psds as CMYK (not RGB, never RGB). Save black & white TIFFs and .psds as Grayscale.
do Check with your printer to see if they charge extra for breaking any of these “rules.”
I will be heading off to Singapore at the end of October to the Red Dot Awards ceremony to “Every so often everything clicks and you find yourself meet other designers from around the world and represent New Zealand design on an international with something truly helpful” stage. With the hope of soaking up as much knowledge as I can to bring back to my own design As a hands-on interactive learner the lure of workshop; Re:Form, which I use as a platform for physical objects and the experience they can showcasing my work. provide has always captivated me. In my own naivety I have always been re-designing objects thinking Images: Second Skin, a multipurpose Emergency Protection I can improve them, pushing for a product that Blanket designed for a post-earthquake context. Massey University provides a better experience and overall a higher Institution: Course: Bachelor of Design with Honours majoring in Industrial level of satisfaction. Design Through the course of my design process I am continuously asking myself whether my designs deserve to exist, not making for the sake of making but truly crafting items that will genuinely benefit others. That is for me why designing products is the ultimate challenge, like building a puzzle that has no set number of pieces, and the ones you do have fit in multiple places. Every so often everything clicks and you find yourself with something truly helpful. The accumulation of four years of study at Massey University gave way to the creation of Second Skin, a multipurpose Emergency Protection Blanket designed for a post-earthquake context. I am very fortunate to have this received not only a Best Awards Finalist selection but also a Red Dot Concept Design Award. G enuine design
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“Honesty is the best policy, unless you work in advertising.” — Jenn Loots
“My designs endeavour to make a difference in a way that goes from boring to extraordinary.”
Typography advice do Supply the printer with ALL of the fonts used to create your project (even the symbol, fraction and dingbat fonts). Remember to include fonts used to create EPS graphics, and fonts that the printer probably already has like Helvetica. There are many different versions of some fonts and a “wrong” version can cause reflow/repagination problems.
Over the last four years the University of Otago Design Department has been my second home and studying Design as an Applied Science major and then at honours level has given me the opportunity to be involved in a spectrum of amazing projects. The best thing about these projects is the all important ‘real world’ applications, the fussy clients, tight deadlines and learning the how to capture other people’s visions. Every project offered has offered the chance to extend on my skill base and let me incorporate the things that inspire me. Studying design at tertiary level has definitely made me aware of the type of designer I am. While, I don’t like to define myself by one particular type of design I seem to gravitate back to communications, illustration, systems and children’s design whenever I get the chance. Ultimately what I really aspire to do with this
knowledge is create design and visual experiences that evoke delight. My designs endeavour to make a difference in a way that goes from boring to extraordinary. Images: Institution: Course:
Little Jack and the cookies of fortune. Childern’s book design University of Otago Design as an Applied Science major with Honours
Use Bold or Italic in the style menu or hit the Bold or Italic button when you want to bold or italicize text in your page layout program. Use the actual font. If you want to create text that is Helvetica Bold, don’t select some Helvetica text and then bold it. Instead, select the text and change the font itself (not the style) from Helvetica to Helvetica Bold.
do Use Helvetica Bold font.
don’t Use Helvetica and and thicken its stroke.
don’t Use TrueType fonts. Period. Always use PostScript or OpenType. Adobe fonts (Macintosh or PC/ Windows) are always a safe bet. TrueType is fine for printing to a laser or inkjet printer, but TrueType fonts can cause severe problems when it comes to commercial printing. Many commercial printers won’t even print a project that contains TrueType fonts. Often, they pop.
don’t Use 20 different fonts for a 4-page newsletter. It makes you look like you don’t know what you’re doing. In design publishing, consistency is everything. Use one font for your main body text, another for your main heads, another for photo captions, another for sidebars, etc., but don’t mix and match fonts for your main body text or make every headline a different font unless you’re trying to create some sort of chaotic effect and it is your intention to confuse the reader. Too many fonts is not only considered to be bad design, but it also slows printing to a crawl.
CH E L S E A CA I N-RA E D esigne r S u c c ess
Layout guide do
Use a document setup size (i.e. your page dimensions) that is the same as your trim size. For instance, if you are creating a 200mm x 200mm book, set up your initial page size in the document setup for 200mm x 200mm .
Watch for widows, orphans, rivers, bad kerning and other desktop publishing no-nos that will make you look like an amateur. Get rid of double-spaces after periods, don’t use spaces to align columns (use tabs) or to create paragraph indents. Know your en dash (–) from your em dash (—).
do Make page elements that bleed extend at least 3mm beyond the page boundary.
“A graphic designer is a machine that turns coffee into beautiful, functional imagery.” — Lisa Manson
DESIGNER INFO In designer info tips and tricks, we cover: ~file formats~ ~showcasing yourself~ ~colloquial lingo~
Design and technology go hand in hand, which means staying up to date with the latest design know-how is key, especially when design is such a competitive industry.
Important file formats include: .indd
Scalable Vector Graphics format, the native format for Inkscape.
.doc or .docx
Adobe Illustrator file.
Microsoft Word document.
.psd Photoshop document.
Rich Text Format, non-proprietary word processing format.
Portable Document Format.
Showcase yourself A great way to promote yourself or simply share you work with the world is to create a website or a blog. If you don’t already have a blog, you can get a free WordPress blog at WordPress.com. Word Press has a large community of users, great documentation, loads of themes, and plug-ins. It is open source, meaning, the source code is available for augmentation and manipulation. Tumblr, Blogger, Moveable Type, and TypePad are also good quality blog platforms.
.t x t
Text only, no formatting.
Portable Network Graphics are the ideal web graphic file types.
C reative direction
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Ann a en r ig h t
don’t like to limit myself to one field of design but any opportunity where I can challenge or extend myself is what I’m enthusiastic about.”
For the past four years I’ve been studying at the University of Otago. This year, after completing a Bachelor of Arts majoring in Design Studies and minoring in Marketing, I’m studying towards an Honours Degree in Applied Science majoring in Design for Technology. The fact that my course is not entirely immersive has been beneficial from my viewpoint because I have been able to study other areas of interest such as Marketing Management and Advertising. During my design studies I’ve worked on a wide range of projects, all with varying outcomes, from product and system design to communication, branding and participatory design. I’ve come to realise that design is not an insular process and while designers may possess a certain level of expertise in knowing what people want or need, it is still a collaborative process. Interacting with other people, be it designers, clients or end-users, meant that I could draw upon their knowledge and insights to produce more robust outcomes. I don’t like to limit myself to one field of design but any opportunity where I can challenge or extend myself is what I’m enthusiastic about. In terms of the future I’d love to get into creative direction and I think that my studies have prepared me well. Images: Institution: Course:
System design and art design poster University of Otago Marketing Management and Advertising
“Done is beautiful.” — Frank Chimero
File tips It is very important that file extensions, or suffixes, remain intact. The extension assists the computer operating system. It tells the system the type of file and the application to use when opening the file. This is especially important when bringing a file from one operating system to another (such as going from a Mac to a PC).
.ai Tip: When opening a file you cannot open it on another computer without having the content, such as imagery and fonts, saved on the computer you are opening it on. This will show up blank if not and fonts will be changed to the nasty default font. so include your fonts and images when transferring your illustrator files.
Tip: Saving your finished files as pdfs is great for presentations, where you can open it up and present it as a slideshow. pdfs are also the preferred way to save a file to send to print.
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Colloquial lingo HUE
Inks that are not mixed from the four spot colours. They are used for items, like logos, that need to be a consistent colour no matter how or where they are printed. Any time you add an extra ink to a print job, it increases the price. Metallic and fluro inks are also spot colours. N ew boundaries
“Find an area with enough scope to challenge you, one which you will never fully resolve the problems for, but you can consistently push new boundaries and better the ‘better’.”
Is a fade from one colour to another.
THUMBNAIL Small scale rough sketches of a design concept.
DPI (Dots Per Inch) The more precise way to define the resolution for a file that is to be printed.
PPI (Pixels Per Inch) Part of how you would define the resolution of an object that is screen-based.
RENDER A rendition or draft of a project. When someone talks about render, it can mean the project’s appearance: “It’s a pencil render” means it’s a sketch.
design journey so far. The chance to travel and
see the work of some amazing designers and architects made me appreciate the resources and materials I have access to here in New Zealand. The support and knowledge that the lecturers and tutors at Massey provide are world class. I would recommend taking the opportunity to travel and experience different cultures as hugely beneficial in seeing the big picture.
As a designer, I’d say my main influences are the things and people around me, which were the driving force for my final year honours project. Being the daughter of a farmer I found it really rewarding designing a tool that I could see the direct benefit in developing. It was a privilege to have my final product, EDU, receive an Honourable mention award from the Red Dot Design Institute. It was also a reminder that design doesn’t have to be about the radical, but practicality and constant improvement is just as vital. I guess this ties into some recent advice I was given on starting out in the industry — find an area with enough scope to challenge you, one Image: which you will never fully resolve the problems for, but you can consistently push new boundaries Institution: and better the ‘better’. Taking a year out partway through my degree Course: was one of the best decisions I’ve made in my
EDU, an Electronic Drenching Unit designed to improve the performance of sheep drenching with a focus on accuracy, usability and ergonomics Massey University Bachelor of Industrial Design, First Class Honours
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Colour (e.g. red, blue, green, yellow). Intensity, saturation, chroma and brilliance all refer to how much pigment is in a colour, which translates to how vivid a colour appears.