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A Bath House in the DOCKS

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Contents Page




Introduction to Baths

The Graving Docks

Proposed Design

6 7 8 10 18 20 21

Bathing as a social catalyst Scotland. The home of the loch Hydrotherapy. The healing properties of water Bathing cultures and rituals Initial precedents Response to Brief Architectural ambitions

30 31 32

History of the Docks Local context and activity Site appraisal



The Burgh of Govan

Design and Developement

22 24 26 28

37 48 50 52

History of Govan The site Integrating health and bathing Links and Transportation

Concept Development Tectonic Development Bath Development Plan Development

62 64 66 68 70 72

Design diagram Site diagram and landscaping Ground Floor plan Approach perspective Floor -1 Plan Floor -2 Plan and Section

74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82

Cross section Internal Render Section through plunge pools Internal Render Partial South Elevations and Details Environmental Concept Typical Wall Details West Elevation East Elevation


“Water is the central source of our beings. It is part of every cell and fiber in us; it is our very essence.� (Des, 2015)

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Sketch of proposed design - West facing public pathway


Introduction Bathing as a social catalyst. The history of bathing and the bath is incredibly rich, diverse, and complex. While most societies developed different ways of creating physical contact with water, incorporating the philosophy and temperament of their people and their environment, they always seemed to have the same elements in common — spiritual , hygienic, therapeutic, and social. They were institutions that reflected a holistic conception of health. The bath as we know it in contemporary culture, is therefore a great impoverishment upon this legacy. Bath culture was transformed and transgressed to a Spa culture, a leisure and passive experience from a once active experience. While the bathhouse in antiquity represented the collective, political and social aspirations of people, they were also intensely personal, sensorial and physical. A bathhouse is experienced not just through the sense of vision but also through the senses of touch, smell, taste and sound.


The social aspects of modern day living are drastically different to when the historic bathhouses were at their most popular. The Romans used their baths as areas to socialise, to interact with fellow men and to enrich their social development, and indeed, many European countries still hold on to bathing as a social catalyst where countries such as Finland and Budapest still have a prevalent sauna and bath culture. In modern day living, the internet is no substitute for face-to-face interaction, when we interact with each other we communicate with more than just words; we can read oral, visual, and olfactory reactions given off by our peers. There is a need, and an opportunity now to rethink and reintroduce the public bathhouse in the contemporary urban city, and bathhouse is a ripe typology for invention and interpretation when considered against with the trend of exclusive spas. Bathing is a unique activity that is accessible to all, it requires no equipment, unlike with some sports or other recreational functions that otherwise become increasingly exclusive. Furthermore, it doesn’t require a financial or social status. Not every member of society has had the chance to play polo, however it is fair to assume that everyone in the UK has access to baths. Most importantly bathing creates a social balance between people. Once a bather is removed from his/her clothes and dressed in the same garments as everybody else the barricades that are caused by “uniforms” are removed. Bathing helps create a social anonymity that other activities fail to produce. The removal of a persons “uniform” detaches them from any social status they may have walking down the street and instantly creates a level platform. Water and Glasgow have a much greater relationship than most other cities in the UK. The proud and prevalent ship building heritage of the Glasgow will help provide further enriching historic ties into the design.

Roman baths in Bath

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Introduction to the Bathhouse

Scotland The home of the loch Scotland has around 19,000 km of coastline, which makes up 8% of Europe’s coast. The area from the coast to our fishery limits (470,000 km2) is around six times the size of the land area of Scotland. Scotland’s water is essential for our health and prosperity. As well as being used for drinking, water is used in industry (e.g. distilling whisky and supporting fisheries), for producing energy (hydropower), and for recreational activities (such as bird-watching, angling and water sports). Scotland’s seas support a wide variety of activities, including commercial fishing and energy production. Our water supports an array of habitats and contains nationally and internationally important species of wildlife. Scotland is home to 24 species of important and rare seabirds, and boasts some of the best salmon fishing areas in Europe. Covering about 2% of Scotland’s land area, our rivers and lochs contain 90% of the UK’s surface freshwater. There are over 600 square miles of Lochs across Scotland with Loch Ness Two thirds of Scotland’s public water supply comes from man-made reservoirs, rivers and burns. The rest is taken from natural lochs, boreholes and springs. Water is inherently important to Scotland and directly effects its landscape. Scotlands water is an important factor to the identity of the country - it is then important to encourage emphasis on the landscapes connection to it’s lochs and rivers. This is already being done throughout the Scenic Routes Initiative which connects the public with the Loch Lomond national park. The summate of Ben A’an overlooking Loch Achray

The rivers of Scotland


Hydrotherapy The healing properties of water. Lately, people have been led to believe that there are remarkable virtues in certain spring waters and baths. The claim that these waters are possessed of a miraculous healing power is not true. The healing virtue is in the moist heat that is obtained from the water. Unfortunately, in the early days, the reputation of water as a remedy was injured because people such as Vincent Priesnitz used it to extremes. Such practitioners did not understand the human body, the use of hot and cold water, or the useful and powerful reactions that are produced in the body when it is properly used. People were led to believe that it was a cure-all, and that cold water was the only remedy no matter what the condition of the disease might be. Rest, pure air, nourishing and simple food, sunlight, and exercise are of equal importance to water in all cases. Even so, water is an important agent in the treatment of many ailments when it is correctly applied and used with other forms of treatment. In the early part of the nineteenth century, Vincent Priessnitz popularized the use of cold water as a curative measure. He was a peasant who lived in the Austrian part of Silesia from 1799 to 1851. In the small Austrian town where he grew up, water was used by the people to treat many ailments. When only a young man, Priessnitz suffered a severe injury. Several of his ribs were broken and his chest was caved in on the left side by a loaded wagon. The doctors who came to see him did not offer any hope for a cure. But he remembered several years before when he had successfully treated a badly crushed finger by holding it in cold water until the bleeding stopped and the pain was relieved, and he decided to treat his broken ribs in the same way. So by taking deep breaths while leaning over a chair to expand his ribs and using cold water, he was gradually completely cured. It was not long after this that Priessnitz began to use this cold water treatment on others. His success greatly encouraged him, but he met with considerable opposition from the doctors when he treated some of their patients and cured them, after the doctors had given them up. Although Priessnitz had no formal education, he developed various ways of applying cold water to the body to treat different diseases. Today he is called the father of modern hydrotherapy. Sean Yoro paints murals of women bathing over physical bodies of water.

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Blue Lagoons of Iceland

Water as an Element of Healing

Hydrotherapy The healing properties of water. The benefits don’t stop at the physical. By surrounding ourselves in the sloshiness from which we came — the womb, as well as the waters that cover more than two-thirds of our planet and make up 65 to 70 percent of our bodies — we connect to our deepest selves, to each other, and to the eternal. Think of the Jewish rite of immersion, called mikvah; of the Christian baptism; of Hindus bathing in the Ganges; of Native American warriors coming together after battle in the neutral territory of bathing; of ancient Romans gathering in neighborhood balneum and thermae to relax and gossip and do business—just as Japanese still frequent their onsen, Russians their local banya, Turks their hammam. Bathing doesn’t just clean and relax us; it gives us community and a palpable experience of the sacred.

Bathe, verb – (intransitive) to swim or paddle in a body of open water or a river, esp for pleasure – (transitive) to apply liquid to (skin, a wound, etc) in order to cleanse or soothe – to immerse or be immersed in a liquid: to bathe machine parts in oil

Ablution, noun – an act of washing oneself. “The women performed their ablutions” synonyms: washing, cleansing, bathing, showering. – a ceremonial act of washing parts of the body. “She took up water ready for the morning ablutions” – Origin, Late Middle English: from Latin ablutio(n- ), from abluere, from ab- ‘away’ + luere ‘wash’. The original use was as a term in chemistry and alchemy meaning ‘purification by using liquids’, hence purification of the body by washing’ (mid 16th century).

Depending on how we bathe, whether it be in a cold bath or a steam room, we can see numerous different benifits such a; Improving our blood circulation, lowering blood pressure and promoting relaxation, helping ensomnia, improving joint and muscle pains, weight loss and even emprove diabetic control. A study has indicated that people who suffer from diabetes and soak in a hot tub on a regular basis are able to reduce their levels of sugar and glucose in the blood. Another study saw that soaking in a hot bath for about 20-30 minutes, 6 days a week, made participants lose almost 2.5 pounds (2 kilos) a month as compared to the control group. These healing properties are at the heart of modern day homeopathy treatments and therapies. The effect of water on our body and mind is so great that current medical care often encorporates the bathing techniques of the historical bath houses. Alcohol and drug rehabilitation as well as respite centres for palliative care or mental health are now incorporating spas style therapies into their program to help aleviate symptoms and encourage good health. Dr Becker, a clinical professor of rehabilitation for 30 years puts it, warm-water immersion balances our autonomic nervous system, allowing the brain to make free-form associations, improve working memory, and foster creative thinking. Water has other feel-good properties, as the naturopath Laura Figoski explains. “Buoyancy greatly reduces the pull of gravity, helping our bones, joints, and connective tissues to expand,” she says. Without gravity pulling us down, we bob more freely. We feel more free and this in turn makes us feel more alive. Fasano hotel, Uruguay by Isay Weinfeld


Greek Bath Culture

Greece bathing with the Greeks. Bathing has been around since ancient Egypt however there is very little evidence and documentation on how and where they bathed. Ancient Greece is therefore the first recorded instance of bathing as a ritual activity. Its notable that bathing in ancient Greece went far beyond the functional necessities of washing. It was a way of socialising and escaping from daily life. Bathing lead to personal regeneration, a physically and psychologically satisfying experience. One of the earliest examples of a public bathhouse which was connected to religion is the sanctuary of Apollo in Pireaus. Dating back to the early Hellenistic period, the bathouse was curved partly into the virgin rock and situated over a sacred spring. The building consisted of a sequence of spaces primarily intended for religious and ritualistic use. Two 'tholoi', circular rooms with peripheral niches, of almost equal size are connected by a rectangular hall; the larger holds nearly thirty hip baths. This round booth, constituted the characteristic architectural element of ancient Greek baths, enclosing the greatest possible space within the smallest perimeter, giving a sense of unity and organisation to the plan. Water from a well was carried into the rooms through conduits cut into the rock. The water was heated in cauldrons over an open fireplace, and then carried to the rooms for the use of the bathers. Pits or depressed areas in the middle of the tholoi might have been used to receive red-hot stones to heat these rooms and create steam. The most important architectural strategies that I would like to use in my design are the sequence in routing, threshold points, the order of usage and gradation of temperature (from cold, tepid, to hot rooms) and lighting (from dark to light). The rituals of undressing, getting used to the temperature and light gradation play a major role in experiencing bathing as a form of contemplation.

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Roman Bath Culture

Rome bathing with the Romans. The Romans were inspired by the Greeks, but developed the concept of public bathing much further. The invention of concrete as the basic construction element improved the building methods and the design capabilities that influenced the typology of bathhouses. A Roman bathhouse consisted of at least a dressing room, a room with middle temperature baths and a room with hot tubs. Usually, these areas were next to each other, in a strict order of use. The roof domes were usually made of arched roofs. Besides several baths the bathhouse consisted of deep baths, sweat rooms, sunrooms, hotel, restaurant, sports facilities, promenades and a religious space for praying. The Romans believed in the beneficial effects of heat. Standing in front of a heater was helpful for colds and would relieve rheumatic pain. Because of the water’s beneficial effects, hygienic purposes and comfort, all farms built during three hundred BC were equipped with a dressing room (apodyterium) and one bathroom with hot water (caldarium). The symmetry and monumentality of space is the basic element I would like to keep from the roman bathhouse. These elements have been increasingly used in the design of Roman bathhouses. A beautiful example is the Thermae of Caracalla, built between 200 and 220 BC. The main room (frigidarium , tepidarium and caldaruim) is placed on a central shaft fitted with cross vaults. The caldarium had a dome-arched roof. The countless domes that the Romans have built in their bathhouses, eventually led to the most imposing dome of the time: the Pantheon in Rome. All bathing rooms were connected and for the purposes of privacy visibility they were arranged strategically around colonnades. Although the main areas used by both men and women, there was enough space for social contact between people of the same sex separately. Reception and changing rooms, outdoor areas and reading rooms were separated. By designing the man and woman areas symmetrically the equality between the two genders was supported. Around the complex there was a designed garden, with in both sides a gymnasium, library and study areas. In contrast with other cultures the Romans used the richly planted court more for meditation than for sports and games. It is notable that the Romans combined bathing with other activities such as studying, socialising, work, sports and wellness.


Islamic Bath Culture

Islam bathing with the Arabs. The Islamic bathhouse is also called Turkish bath or hamam (hammam in Arabic). The word hammam indicates that water is heated. The ablution of the body during your visit in a public bathhouse is a cultural tradition. Along with the spiritual cleaning can one get free of physical dirt. In these eastern bathhouses men and women bathe separately. The bath is visited to relax and enjoy the intimate atmosphere and breathtaking architecture. As also in the Roman bathhouses, social contact between the users of the bathhouse was of major importance. The typology of the Hamam is characterised by its dramatic low lighting and the user experience design. The powerful circular shape with natural light entering from dome are elements I would like to use in my design. One of the most famous Hamams is the cemberlita Hamam, in Istanbul. The changing rooms were situated in a dome with marble seating along the walls. One became used to the temperature in a transition area before entering the hot space. The hot space which remains the most important, was equipped with several side rooms (halvets), private cabins with various functions, for example, steam room, toilet , rest room or plunge . The main difference between the Ottoman bathhouse and earlier baths mentioned (Greeks , Romans) is the presence of a marble plateau in the middle of the hot space . The heated stone (gĂśbek taĹ&#x;Äą) was intended to rest or as a massage place..

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Finnish Bath Culture

Finland bathing with the Finnish. Finland, is the land of thousands of lakes, where the sauna can no longer be indispensable from the Finnish culture. Finland has a continental climate with precipitation in all months. In the southwest summers are quite warm, but in the rest of the country, summers are cool. The cleaning of the body by means of sweating and steam plays an important role in the daily lives of many Finns. The sauna has evolved over time from a but by the river to a compact cabin which can be applied anywhere. The sauna besides its physical purposes is also a major meeting place in the Finnish society. The sauna has evolved from a stone well construction to a wooden but half sank into the ground and eventually ended as the known electrically heated saunas of today. The traditional Finnish sauna was homemade by the people of timber and ranged in size according to the needs of the people. A sauna but consisted of three areas: dressing room, laundry room and boiler room. These areas were connected to each other in this order with the laundry room also serving as a cooling shed, giving access to the outside. The public saunas from later periods had separate sections for men and women. The areas were connected to each other in the same way as the old forms of the sauna. Rooms with baths were added for cooling and relaxation. Furthermore, a public sauna consisted of several sauna rooms of different sizes to meet the number of visitors. One of the most known architectural elements of the sauna that I would like to use, is the warm wooden materialisation, which serves in both architectural and technical manners and gives a warm feeling. The intense heat of a sauna is normally taken several times with breaks to cool off by sitting outside or, when the sauna is located near a lake, to plunge into the icy waters. This is known as the hot cold cycle, it helps promote good blood flow and can help alleviate joint and muscle pains.


Thermopolis, Wyoming, US

Ahalanui, Hawaii

Beppu, Japan

Rotorua, New Zealand

Thermopolis means ‘hot city’ in Greek, and it is located in Hot Springs County, at the edge of the spectacular Wind River Canyon. This town claims the world’s largest hot springs heated by geothermal process and known for waters rich in bicarbonate, sulphate, calcium, and sodium.

‘The hot pond’, is a large, spring-fed thermal pool that is set in lava rock on the east coast of the Big Island. This brackish-water thermal pool is volcanically heated to 90 degrees as the water allows through rocks heated by magma. A small inlet leading to the ocean allows fish to swim in and out.

Located in the central part of Oita on the coast facing the sea and the Tsurumi Volcanoes in the rear. One of the most thermally active places on earth, Beppu is home to more than 70 bathing establishments, including a balneological institute connected to Kyushu University and bubbling red ‘hell pools.’

Sitting on the Paci c “Ring of Fire,” this North Island city has 35 hot mineral outdoor pools for bathing, swimming, and massage. This volcanic wonderland is known for bubbling mud pools, shooting geysers, clouds of steam, and natural hot springs, as well as showcasing Maori culture.

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Further Baths and Bathing Rituals

The ancient Mikveh baths, Syracuse, Sicily

Manikaran, Parvati Valley, India

San Miguel Hammam, Granada, Spain

Bath, Great Britain

In the Hebrew Bible, Mikveh generally means a collection of water, a ritual bath, consisting of at least one pool but perhaps several. Mikvehs are used for certain Jewish religious rituals that require immersion in ‘living water’ that ows. This is the oldest Mikveh (or mikvah or miqwa) known to survive in Europe.

At this hot springs in India, still popular as a pilgrimage site, one of Shiva’s consorts was said to have dropped an earring. After Shiva did a dance, a serpent deity returned the jewel by shooting it up through the waters.

Arabic baths bring alive an age-old tradition: the “hammam” (communal baths). They preserve the peaceful ambience and simple refinement of Al-Andalus. Aljibe de San Miguel combines tradition and relaxation through the water, massage and essential oils extracted from plants of Granada.

Bath was founded upon natural hot springs with the steaming water playing a key role throughout its history. Lying in the heart of the city the Roman Baths were constructed around 70 AD as a grand bathing and socialising complex. It is now one of the best preserved Roman remains in the world.


Spiritual bathing, historical

Bathing of the Buddha, Buddhism

Baptism, Christianity

Kumbha Mela, Hindu bathing

Since ancient times, people have engaged in spiritual bathing — a soothing and restorative practice that rejuvenates the body, mind, and soul. Spiritual baths promote health and have been proven through research and studies to aid in the treatment of anxiety, grief, insomnia, and depression.

Since ancient times, Buddhists all over the world celebrate Buddha’s birthday by using fragrant water to bathe the image of the infant Buddha. The message and true meaning is that “it’s easy to wash away physical dirt, but much more difficult to cleanse one’s inner impurity of greed, anger and ignorance”.

Baptism, as a form of ritual purification, occurs in several religions, most prominently in Christianity. Christianity also has other forms of ritual purification. In Roman Catholic churches, there are a number of lavers around the building for the laity to use as ritual symbolism of cleansing.

Kumbha Mela is a mass Hindu pilgrimage of faith in which Hindus gather to bathe in a sacred river. Spread out across several different locations, the Kumbha Mela is always performed on a river bank. Bathing in these rivers is thought to cleanse a person of all sins. The ritual is the largest peace gathering in the world and takes place once every 12 years.

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Further Baths and Bathing Rituals

お風呂 Japanese bathing

Voodoo, Bathing Ritual

Banya, Russian bathing

Wudu, Islamic Ritual

Hadaka orv Tsukiai 裸の付き合い means naked relationship or communication. Japanese bath houses look a lot like temples from the outside and in a way, they are. Sentō or onsen, as they are called in Japanese, are sacred ground which locals consider essential for strengthening friendships and family bonds.

If good luck is sought, one must bath with upward strokes to the body, if removal of evil is the intended purpose, one must bathe with downward strokes to the body. To dispose of the ritual bath water, it is to be thrown to the East before sunrise accompanied by a prayer. Ritual Baths can incorporate the use of candles, herbs, incense.

The Russian word for “bath,” banya (or banja) refers to steam baths popular throughout Eastern Europe. Those with hardy dispositions swear by platza, a treatment in which bathers are beaten with oak-tree branches while sweating in a radiant-heat oven-like room.

Islamic ritual ablution before prayer. Ghusl refers to the fuller immersion required for observant Muslims after sexual activity, giving birth, or (as administered by another) dying.


Zumthor’s Therme Vals

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Utzon’s Can Lis and Can Feliz The Therme Vals - Peter Zumthor Peter Zumthor designed the spa/baths which opened in 1996 to pre date the existing hotel complex. The idea was to create a form of cave or quarry like structure. Working with the natural surroundings the bath rooms lay below a grass roof structure half buried into the hillside. The Therme Vals is built from layer upon layer of locally quarried Valser Quarzite slabs. This stone became the driving inspiration for the design, and is used with great dignity and respect. “Mountain, stone, water – building in the stone, building with the stone, into the mountain, building out of the mountain, being inside the mountain – how can the implications and the sensuality of the association of these words be interpreted, architecturally?” — Peter Zumthor Can Lis and Can Feliz - Jorn Utzon Although the dwellings are not directly related to bathing, they are exemplary examples of architecture and it’s relationship to water. Can Lis is a cave-like refuge that sits on the fringe of a rocky cliff looking out towards the Mediterranean sea. The interior of the design takes inspiration from the local caves which the build lies above. The deep window reveals and material purity create a tranquil and natural interior that is reflective of the local landscape. Its even possible that Zumthor could have been influenced by Utzon’s homes as they were designed well before Therme Vals and hold similar architectural ambitions to what Zumthor later produced. ““As an architect I believe that it is very important to fall in love with the nature of things instead of ghting for form and style.” — Jørn Utzon


Summary of Brief

Govan Baths a bath house in the docks This feasibility study looks into a possible future bath house development in Govan, Glasgow. The first thing to note is that the proposal aims to engage with the ongoing petitions for the site to become a ship building heritage park, It has then been assumed that the area is granted a budget for redevelopment which has been branded as, the Glasgow Docks. In the initial stages of investigating the brief, it was evident that incorporating healing and the calming properties of water would be the central ambitions of the baths opposed to creating a sports and activity style centre. This idea of healing through water was also influenced largely by the previous project, Govan House, a hospice designed as part of the regeneration of the docks in semester one; a respite centre next to a relaxing bath house with treatment and therapy rooms seemed to be a fitting and sensible solution. A park that promotes well-being.


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Govan is also home to the largest hospital in Scotland, which then creates the opportunity to integrate links between the bath house, hospice and super hospital. I then began to form my brief on the central idea of creating a bath house that can act as a sanctuary to help alleviate symptoms for patients. I envisage that the Govan Baths will have private members as well as taking on referrals from the NHS for patients who either need to rehabilitate physical injury, or just as importantly, help to manage mental health. It well become a a centre of well-being that will promote good health and social interaction. It may even help work towards a healthier Glasgow, where the ‘Glasgow Effect’ sees men not reaching the age of 60 in the deprived areas such as Govan.

Architectural Ambitions

In order for the link between health services and the bath house to remain viable and practical, the design should consider good transport and accessibility with convenient links to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Hospice.

Industrial fixtures to play on industrial landscape

Ethereal light to flood the dock walls

Create a cave-like experience

In keeping with the idea of healing and referrals from the NHS, I imagine that different illnesses will be given different recommendations on sequences. For example, someone suffering from Fibromyalgia which is a chronic pain condition that is triggered by stress, they can attend a range of activities such as aqua therapy and possibly some beauty treatments (massage, pedicure etc) to lower stress and anxiety and to help boost mental moral. The visitor can then try acupuncture to help with their pains, followed by a full progression through the hot and cold cycles to stimulate the blood flow and possibly help the pains. Receiving a blend of referrals and private members at the baths will encourage word of mouth advertisement and in turn aid the procurement of new members in light of patients relaying beneficial experiences to peers. With regards to the Glasgow Docks regeneration, I envisage that there will be substantial, quirky marketing for it as the specialist theme of industrial ship building will give the park a niche and unique quality that will appeal to the whole of Glasgow and beyond.

New bus stop to encourage traffic to the baths

Cycle routes to encourage traffic to the baths

Integrate with heritage park

As for architectural ambitions, the design will aim to create something quite raw and reflective of the site. The brief would therefore request a building that takes full use of the docks and formulate a design that creates a unique dialogue with the existing sculptural walls of Dock Nr. 3. A solitary subterranean structure that embeds itself within the dock, creating an ascetic and reserved exterior, contrasted by a sculptural interior would best fit this request. In keeping with this idea, the design should communicate a tranquil experience of bathing through an industrial, raw landscape, reflective of the nature and purpose of the docks. Large concrete beams, industrial fixtures, ominous lighting, large open volumes and rooflights that flood the existing sculptural walls in a a ethereal light. - The baths should evoke a sense of atmosphere much like the mechanical guts of a ship, like an industrial cave. The site creates an important dialogue with any architecture that accompanies it, it would be unjust to ignore the prevalent nautical history of the site. The rough, industrial landscape has therefore been an inspiration for the design of the Govan Baths.

Word of mouth through referrals


Burgh of Govan The heart of an industrial revolution. For centuries Govan has been an important place situated next to the River Clyde. Govan was an ancient settlement, once quite separate from and more important than Glasgow, originating as part of the ancient Kingdom of Strathclyde. In 1864, in recognition of its importance as a centre of commerce and industry, Govan was granted Burgh status. The former Burgh is situated in the southwest of the City, 2.5 miles west of the city centre, on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite the mouth of the River Kelvin and the district of Partick. Govan became part of the City of Glasgow in 1912.


Scotland was once the shipbuilder to the world and the heart of its industry was sited on the south bank of the River Clyde in the Glasgow district of Govan. It was the famous Fairfield shipyard founded in 1864 by William Elder, took the Upper Clyde to great heights and worldwide prominence. Under William Pearce from 1888, the company flourished, building liners, steamers and war ships for the world. At its peak the Fairfield shipyard became the biggest shipyard in the world and was part of a local industry, which directly employed 70,000 workers in 19 yards. The war years saw a gradual decline but the Clydeside’s largest shipyard still built many famous ships and during wartime. Unable to compete with new shipbuilding superpowers such as Japan, there was a swift decline after WW2, unemployment, poverty and deprivation grew rapidly leaving a bleak industrial area in dire need of regeneration. Few shipyards remain today. The original Fairfield Yard and Yarrow Shipbuilders Limited based in Scotstoun are the only large shipyards to survive on the Upper River Clyde and now form a large part of BAE Systems Surface Ships. Traditionally viewed as a lower working-class area, Govan has had a reputation for deprivation and poverty partly due to the construction of housing estates in the 1930s to relieve the overcrowded slum district of The Gorbals, following the collapse of the industrial boom. It has since been a key objective of the council and local authorities to help shake Govan’s reputation as a poverty and problem area and to restore the area to its former significance. Current regeneration activity through the Townscape Heritage Initiative and the Govan Central Action Plan focus’ on Govan Cross, the vibrant heart of the

Historic photo of Govan during it’s industrial revilution

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History of Govan

Elder Park was established in 1885 by Mrs Isabella Elder as monument to her shipbuilder husband. She wanted to give the people of Govan ‘healthful recreation by music and amusement’.

The Riverside Museum is a new development for the Glasgow Museum of Transport, completed on 20 June 2011, at Pointhouse Quay in the Glasgow Harbour regeneration district of Glasgow, Scotland. It holds many ship-buidling and River Clyde themed displays.

Govan community through its history. This has lead to many new housing schemes and new urban and social design within the area to help improve its status within Greater Glasgow and Clyde. The influence of Govan’s shipbuilding industry is a profound one that is still felt today. All around Govan you may see the remains of the built heritage, the legacy of the yard owners, and the yards and docks themselves; visible reminders of the burgh’s great industrial heritage. This is especially evident within Elder Park, with its library, Lady Elder’s Statue and other monuments. The Pearce Institute still remains - the Institute was gifted to the working people of Govan by Lady Pearce in memory of her late husband, under whose guidance Fairfield Shipyards became the biggest and probably the most technically advanced shipyard in the world, putting Govan firmly on the map. The diverse history of Govan, coupled with is it’s location on the Clyde, make for an interesting site. The area creates an important dialogue with any architecture that accompanies it. It would be unjust to ignore the prevalent nautical history of Govan. The rough, industrial landscape has therefore been an inspiration for the design of the bath house.

The Institute was gifted to the working men and women of Govan by Lady Pearce in memory of her late husband, Sir William Pearce, under whose guidance Fairfield Shipyards became the biggest and probably the most technically advanced shipyard in the world. The Pierce institute has provided a social catalyst for Govan since the day it opened, holding various activities under it’s roof such as movie rooms, reading rooms and even gymnasium spaces.

The Site The dry docks in Govan were built between 1869 and 1898 in 3 stages. Several world famous ships were built in these very docks. The history, nautical engineering and archaeology makes this a very interesting site for a bath house in the city

Glasgow Science Centre is a visitor attraction located in the Clyde Waterfront Regeneration area on the south bank of the River Clyde in Glasgow, Scotland. Queen Elizabeth II opened Glasgow Science Centre on 5 June 2001. It is one of Britain’s most popular places to visit. It contains several floors of interactive science installations








Noli plan of Govan /// 1:5000

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Th e



The Graving Docks, Govan

The Site

Dock Nr. 3


Relationship between the docks and the Queen Elizabeth Hospital

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Integrating health and bathing

Healing Glasgow through the purity of water. With Scotland, and Glasgow in particular having some of the worst statistics in mental and physical health and deprivation in Europe, we know something has to change. Many cut backs within the NHS, means the government are looking for innovative and holistic ways to improve health and well-being. With poverty comes many issues, health being at the top of the list. Babies born in Glasgow are expected to live the shortest lives of any in Britain. One in four Glaswegian men won’t reach their 65th birthday. What is behind the “Glasgow Effect” and can it be prevented? Could introducing new social dynamics into the community, such as a bath house, a centre which promotes relaxation, good health, and well-being, be worth investigating to change the ‘Glasgow Effect’. Over a number of years the NHS has steadily reduced resources for the Centre for Integrative Care. Once a centre, which offered inpatient and outpatient, respite, palliative care, anxiety, stress, depression, pain control and management, through mindfulness and alternative therapies, like those of a modern day spa; including acupuncture, message, relaxation techniques, and exercise of the mind and body, however, due to limited resources currently only accommodates a small number of patients on a weekly basis. Health improvements and patient satisfaction is high at the centre however with the controversy of alternative therapies within the NHS, there is a strong argument that it is more appropriately based out with a NHS setting. Something that could work for the NHS might be a private bath house with the NHS using the centre to refer to at a subsidised rate rather than the NHS supplying the same thing themselves through the Centre of Integrative Care. This would allow for more convenience and edibility for the patient and enable availability to a much greater percentage of the population. The location of the Govan Bath House is within easy commuting throughout Glasgow, to the new Queen Elizabeth University Hospital and situated close to the Govan Hospice. With clever marketing and word of mouth this could be the answer to improved health and well-being to many of Glasgow’s citizens. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital


Existing foot bridge connecting Finnieston to Govan

Travelling through the Burgh of Govan In order to make the link between the bath house, hospice and super hospital viable, there needs to be an easy working transport system in place. Buses, such as the X19, that travel to the hospital can drop visitors off at a convenient bus stop located close to the entrance of the bath house. Parking will also be located close to the entrance whilst remaining hidden beyond a corner as to not disrupt the views of the heritage park. The local Subway station is only 5 minutes away by foot making the link to the rest of Glasgow easily accessible. A possible future clyde waterfront cycle path could see a link between People Make Glasgow cycle stations. Bus First Glasgow Hospital Connect services 15, 16, 34A and 77 directly serve the hospital, hospice and bath house. Stagecoach services X19 (Fastlink), G1 and G2 McGills services 17, 21, 23 and 26 Colchri Services H2 and 25 Rail or Subway Queen Street Station: Buchanan Street Subway to Govan or Stagecoach X19 from Renfield Street Govan Subway Station: A 5 minute walk to Govan Road entrance. The X19, 23/23A and 26 connect Govan Subway to the hospital and bath house. Local taxis also available. Cardonald Station: A 25 minute walk to Langlands Road entrance (just over 1 mile). McGill’s bus 17 and First 34a pass the station and call at the hospital and bath house.

New Bus lane and bus stops located in wedge. Existing stairs down to dock are to be refurbished and made good.

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Links and transportation

Proposed cycle lane running along the Clyde waterfront, passing through the docks connecting cycle stations

Cycle links to the super hospital

Cycle station

Proposed site Cycle station

Car parking hidden behind corner at raised road


History of the Docks

Govan Graving Docks were built by the Clyde Navigation Trust between 1869 &1898, the years when the Clyde yards led the world in the building of sophisticated merchant ships, so the complex is of architectural/historic interest in an international context, of major significance in terms of the history of the world shipbuilding. Dock No’s 1 & 3 were the deepest in Britain when built and could take the largest ships afloat, catering for the huge demand for a facility that allowed for inspection and repair of the bottom of ships during the Clyde’s shipbuilding heyday. Graving Dock No. 1, nearest the river, was constructed between 1869 & 1875, and is 551ft long, 72ft wide, with a depth of 22ft 10ins at high tide. Dock No. 1 had, until 1970, a fine steam travelling crane, the last of its type in the harbour. Graving Dock No. 2 was opened on 13 October 1886, and is 575ft long, 67ft wide, and the same depth as No. 1.


Graving Dock No. 3 opened on 27 April 1898. Graving Dock No. 3 on the Govan Road side was the largest, 880ft in length, 83ft wide and 26.5ft deep, and is large enough to accommodate 2 ships. Over the past 20 years the Glasgow Graving Docks have grown increasing out of place in an area which was revitalised by the Glasgow Garden festival in 1988. Since then the site has lain derelict and desolate and time has taken its toll with many of the buildings vandalised and burnt out. The start of March 2003 saw nearly all associated buildings being demolished in preparation for the redevelopment of the site. Currently the is ground overgrown with plants and bushes. There is graffiti throughout the site and the security fencing has been breached in several places.. The timber wall of the basin is deteriorating and has partially collapsed in one section. The dock bases and the ground is surfaced with heavy-duty whinstone setts. Dock walls, stepped sides and quay edges were built to last in grey granite. Retaining walls and ramp sides are in white sandstone. To the immediate east of Pacific Quay which is now home to Glasgow Science Centre, BBC Scotland, STV, Capital Scotland and more, the Graving Docks await restoration as one of the most complete and evocative pieces of shipbuilding history on the Clyde.

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Local Context and Activity

North of Govan to the west of Glasgow City Centre is Byres Road and Patrick, Glasgow’s trendy and vibrant ‘West End.’ Here you will find good nightlife, a cinema, shops, charity shops, supermarkets, café’s, bars, boutiques, restaurants, architecture and parks. Due to the University of Glasgow being in the area you will find it caters for students in every way and it is an ideal place to advertise and market the bath house. Finnieston is a neighbourhood across the River Clyde connected to Govan by the The Clyde Arc, (Squinty Bridge) Bell’s Bridge and Millennium Bridge and has lots of bars and restaurants on offer, not to mention the Glasgow Riverside Museum, The Hydro and the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre. (SECC) You can get a haircut in the Soul Barbers with a cocktail included, visit an event or see a band, go for a quiet drink or good meal before or after your bathing experience.

Just a few minutes drive or less than a 10 minute walk from the Graving Docks is Govan centre. This is a small but up and coming centre, with a post office, cashline machine, and a small handful of retailers and food shops. With the redevlopment of the graving docks, there will become a demand for more cafes bars and restaurants in the area. There is also free car parking and the Subway and Bus Station are adjacent to the centre. The Clyde Arc is a road bridge spanning the River Clyde in Glasgow, connecting Finnieston, near the Clyde Auditorium and SECC with Pacific Quay and Glasgow Science Centre in Govan. Along with the millennium and Bells foot bridge, these are excellent ways to access the more vibrant areas north of the Clyde. This allows for residence north of the cylde to have equal access to the baths. However there have also been feasibility studies investigated a bridging to the north of the clyde through the docks site it’s self which would provide a more direct link for the bath house and the ‘west end’.

Noli plan of Govan /// 1:10,000

The River Clyde

Graving Docks

Byers Road “West End”

Public buildings

Private buildings

Finnieston Area

Govan Centre


Aerial view -

Clydeside Expressway connecting the west end of Glasgow to the city centre. The busy road will help advertise the development of the docks, commuters will be

Govan Docks and neighbouring context



Proposed site

Prevailing winds from the South West.

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis


st v



South Finnieston. A collection of unique structures comprising of venues such as The Hydro, Armadillo, SECC and The Finnieston Crane.


ise Po pollu or vie tion ws


th W est



Road bridge connecting Finnieston to Govan

Site Appraisal and Analysis

The Tall Ship and Riverside Museum Nautical archaeology

Glasgow Science Centre and IMAX

Existing pump house

Dock Nr. 01

Clyde waterfront housing development

Dock Nr. 02 Glasgow university

Finnieston Crane

Squinty Bridge


Analysis responses

— dawn — sunrise — solar noon — sunset — dusk

Summer solstice

— dawn — sunrise — solar noon — sunset — dusk

Winter solstice

Prevailing winds -

Noise pollution -

Solar path -

South westerly winds will be deflected somewhat by the elevated road which guards the bath house from the south west. The main entrance to the design should therefore face an easterly direction in order to provide maximum shelter form the winds.

Again, the elevated road wall will help defuse the hussle and bustle of Govan Road. School, shops and a fiarly busy road lie above this retaining wall which produce a substantial amount of noise. The drop in level will creat a far more tranquil atmostphere for the bath house.

The aspiration for this bath house is to create a subterranean building within the dock. This will then pose the problem of how to bring sunlight into the design. This can be solved in multiple ways. Rooflights and light ‘tunnels’ can help bring light into lower levels; Puling the southern most face away from the dock wall a couple of meters can then create a facade that is no longer in shadow; reflective surfaces can also help bounce light that may be otherwise scarce.

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Site Appraisal and Analysis

1 site 2 5

4 3

Views north west -

Views south east -

Site access-

Views will play a key part in the heritage park. A visitor should be able to come to this park and feel at the heart of Glasgow. Views to the Riverside Museum by the late Zaha Hadid and the famous ‘tall ship’ instantly convey the city of Glasgow as both are icons in the cityscape. The Graving Docks produce great vantage points for fantastic scenes. On a sunny, clear day the views up the Clyde are very engaging.

To the east of the site lies the city centre, and arguably the best views in Glasgow. At night this scenic frame is lit up with an array of colours, the hydro displays unique shapes and colours with its dynamic lighting systems, The Finnieston Crane and Arc Bridge light up indifferent colours throughout the year. The soft and slow flow of the River Clyde will also provide a therapeutic connection to the water for bathers upon arrival to the bath house.

There are 3 access points by foot, 1 by car and 1 possible cycle path. 1. Foot paths via heritage park 2. Existing stairs at new proposed bus stop [see page 14] 3. Foot paths via car park 4. Possible future cycle lane [see page 15] 5. Car Park facilities behind corner - out of view from heritage park



A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Concept Development

Foot print Development Option 1 Two structures in half of dock

Option 2 Occupying half of dock

Option 3 Occupying centre of dock

This early concept was based on the idea of having two separate buildings that would house the baths separately from the other activities. I was influenced by the idea of a chimney stack structure that acted as a spine to the build for cantilevered floors to span off of.

The second concept I produced was based on the central idea that dock nr 3 was originally separated into two docks and I proposed to occupy one half of the two docks, using the existing structures from the old gates to bridge over.

The third concept was produced after a tutorial with a tutor where it was discussed that two wings of baths would produce better circulation than one long wing. The design still utilises the existing bridging that has been left behind from the old gates between the two dock halves.


A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Preliminary Development


Option 1 development

The initial deisgn concept was based around the idea of chimney stack structures that would provide a base for a delecate contilevered roof. The chimney stacks would hold either plunge pools or steam baths. This idea proved to be awkward and tunneling between two structures didn’t respond to the sight well enough.

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Preliminary Development

Aerial perspective


Option 2 development

Option 2 was primarily considered through section, early sketches show the thought process of how the light will penetrate the subterranean levels as well as how the exposed, ground floor pavilion will be roofed. The south elevation has been pulled away from dock wall to allow for a garden and south light to enter the design. The construction of the roof and other elements has been considered from the early stages of concept design as seen throughout some sketches.

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Section of ‘floating roof’ ideas

Approach perspective

Section of rooflights

Aerial view

Preliminary Development

Aerial perspective

Garden space

Footprint diagram 1. Historically two docks

3. Occupy east half of dock

Gate 2. Reinstate divide

Early tectonic sketches

4. Push south elevation back

West facade ideas


Option 3 development Aerial view

External courtyard

Integrating brick and solar tubes

Room adjacencies After discussions with my tutor on how circulation would flow through the long plan of option 2, the idea of splitting the plan into two wings was suggested. When I gave this idea more thought, it appeared to make sense, a central social seating area with two wings of baths would be practical however I felt it didn’t respond to the sight as well as option 2. The footptint overhelms the dock.

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Preliminary Development

Aerial perspective

Perspective of atrium

Sketched section


Further development I chose to further develop option 2 as it had a more poetic and honest response to the nature of the site. The natural divide in the two docks allows for a bridging, where a building can sit bellow, with the pools spilling out into one side of the dock. Unlike option 3, where the pools spill out onto either side and occupies the whole dock, option 1 utilised the historical divide between the docks and leaves the west side open to the heritage park - only spilling into one half of the docks. The limitation to this is that the plan will therefore become long and narrow however one does not simply circulate through a bath house, it is more common to journey through one. The single long bathing wing will allow for a unique journey and progression through the baths. If designed correctly, the journey can become an enjoyable, relaxing and social experience.

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Tectonic Development


Tectonic development The construction has been a key design feature since the beginning. From the first mark on paper I knew I wanted to portray an industrial ship-like aesthetic within the dock. Concrete forms the skeleton of the structure with large cantilevered beams similar to the beams that support motorway fly-overs will provide an impressive, sculptural interior that compliments the existing dock archaeology.

Initial tectonic ambitions

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Tectonic Development

Plunge pool development

Structure development


Pool development I was influenced by the idea of a ethereal light, a somewhat cave-like aesthetic. Steps and platforms also influenced the design similar to Carlos Scarpa. Concrete beams and industrial fixtures transform the space into an engineered cave.

Ethereal cave-like light

I wish to take influence from the beautiful pools at this hotel in Thailand

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Initial sketches of how the plunge pools could be constructed and what form they would take, would they be structural? etc.

Bath Development

I wish to create a ‘Nordic waterfall’ on the outside of my bath house. A small shallow pool will contain a lever to pull and douse yourself in freezing waters, located outside of the Sauna

Platforms and planes will step down to the pools in-order to respond and play on the steps of the dock walls. There will therefore need to be strategic planning for accessibility. Perhaps hydraulic sections can lower a wheelchair otherwise easy shallow steps will be implemented to make the journey as comfortable as possible.

A small channel of water will surround the pools to give the illusion that the plunge pools and rest spaces are floating. The rest platform can also be fixed onto hydraulics to lower bathers into the water who have difficulty using steps


A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Ground floor plan Development

The development of the ground floor plan demonstrates the process of zoning and thought process around how the concrete spine / structure will house the more service style amenities like staff rooms and kitchens.


A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Sub -1 floor plan Development

The development of the first sub floor demonstrates the idea of the changing rooms being located within this service core/structural spine of the building, with the rooms located off of it. The gymnasium will overlook the baths and the treatment will overlook the remaining dock


Early sketches showing the thought process behind the heat cool cycles. With the cold and hot facilities getting more extreme as you progress along the baths until you reach the hottest and coldest baths before taking a relaxing swim back.

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Sub -2 floor plan Development

Platform and south wall development


A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Sub -2 floor plan Development

The most substantial development on this floor was the realisation that a pool above 25m had to have access along all of its sides. This then lead to the main pool being split into 3 to allow for two smaller pools to remain butt up against the dock walls yet leave space for a 25m pool to have access around the whole pool



A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Proposed Final Design


1. Dock 3 was historically divided into two halves

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

2. Divide dock back into two. Utilize one half for the building site.

3. Bridge across existing infrastructure with treatment and gym facilities below.

4.Extend pools out into dock with space for external pool

5. Extrude ground level pavilion to house public spaces. Restaurant, exhibition space etc. and create green spaces over pool roof.

6. Push south walls back to allow south-light into the pool spaces with bridging points above.


A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis


A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

The Journey In plan, the circulation diagram is very clear. The public world - with restaurant and exhibition spaces are located in a glass pavilion at ground level with a wafer thin roof cantilevering out to create a canopy surround. This is where everyone is welcome, the restaurant will be quirky and have industrial fixtures and fittings with a ship / nautical theme. Valves instead of taps, circular mental door handles etc.

Restaurant space-

Central staircase -

In keeping with the site, I envisage a restaurant area that has quirky industrial fixtures and fittings. wall lights that you could find on a ship, rustic metals and concrete all paired together with the clean Eames DSW chair for contrast.

With exposed concrete walls internally, a contrasting black staircase with a bright colour on the inside could be very inviting.

The Exhibition space will be flexible and house different exhibits set up by the heritage park. I envisage that there may be paintings from an artist who pains industrial scenes one month, where the next month may be an exhibition on a particular boat’s history. A fixed exhibition relating directly to the docks can be found in the old Pump House, however having this secondary exhibition that will change frequently, will keep locals interested and make the site something to revisit rather than try once - on a ‘seen that done that’ basis. The reception is located in front of a sculptural stair which will lead visitors down into the gym and treatment area.


A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

The JourneyCantilever pavilionI propose that the ground floor structure consist of a large cantilever that evokes a sense of excitement, “is that roof really floating!? It looks to heavy!� These are the questions I hope visitors to ask. Clean cut, minimal glazing will then wrap around the structure, set in a few meters to allow for a canopy to gather under. This creates a space for shelter, as well as dining etc.

The journey through the park will be peaceful and beautiful. The sculptural docks and remnants of the shipbuilding equipment will provide an interesting and exciting landscape to journey through. I envisage that the existing equipment will have seating and greenery applied to them to help preserve and make a feature of them.


A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

The Journey Descending into the first floor, we see two sets of changing rooms, one dry - for visitors only wishing to use the dry facilities, or one wet for those who wish to use both dry and wet facilities. There is a further set of changing rooms on the next level for visitors only using the baths. This level houses the dry facilities, the gym and treatment areas. The gymnasium overlooks the baths and will have borrowed light from the bath rooflights however the main lighting system will come from an array of industrial pendant lights. The space will also be industrial themed as well as using vintage equipment where possible. Coat hangers, taps, door handles etc. will remain to be industrial themed as on the ground floor.

Industrial gym and treatment areas I propose that this whole floor be completely industrial in aesthetic. The gym could have vintage medicine balls, old skipping ropes etc with large ducting, cable trays and pendant lighting overhead, overlooking the concrete cantilevers in the baths. Further to the industrial look, I envisage that fixtures will be recycled industrial parts where ever possible - like this coat hanger made from table clamps.

The treatment rooms, albeit calming, will have an inherently industrial theme too. The first image on the left demonstrates how the seating in the salon could look. Lastly the fire escapes will be located outside the treatment zone. The concrete core will also provide a fire “safe zone�, with sprinklers and fire rated doors fitted .


A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis


Section Bath space 1:100 Bathers will journey through this industrial cave-like space where they can progress through the hot rooms on the right and then cool down with an ice bath after heating their bodies to their desired temperature. It is then encouraged to relax and work your way back to the atrium through the spa pools on the left.

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis


Section through fire bath 1:100

Section throughaqua therapy pool 1:100

Section through cold bath 1:100

Bathers can dip in the fire bath as they progress through the steam rooms and saunas. The waters are set to a comfortable heat of 45°C, a meadium heat in the cycle. Large rooflights overhead will cast utherial light over the crystal clear waters.

Bathers can relax in the aqua therapy pool which combined with the echoing sound of water drops and LED mood lighting, create a calming enviroment that could de-stress anyone who takes a dip. 30°C. A 50% blackout blind will pass over the rooflight depending on moodlight settings

You’ve reached the cold plunge pool, by now, the visitor will have progressed to the higher heated rooms boasting temperatures of upto 65°C. After a quick dip in this cool 12°C bath, it’s time to progress to the final stage of the cycle — The sauna 90-100°C and icebaths 0-5°C

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis


A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis




South facade - Bricks and trapezoidal cladding with solar integration

1. Flashing 2. Trapezoidal Cladding - KS1000 RW 3. 50mm cavity 4. DPM 5. Green roof - soil, filter layer, dranage layer, root barier/pretection layer, waterproof membrane. 6. 150mm concrete slab 7. 300mm ridgid insulation 8. Vapor barier 9. 300mm insitu concrete 10. 150mm insitu concrete wall 11. Red brick 12. Evacuated solar tube system 13. Water resistant coating

I proposed that the south facing wall that is pulled back from the dock wall will be clad in brick, externally and internally to create a material divide between the pools and steam rooms. Instead of considering the environmental impacts last in the design, I began to integrate strategies at the beginning of the design process where I considered evacuated solar tubes being integrated into the brick facade, similar to Aalto’s brick details with radiators.




7 Evacuated solar tubes intergrated with a black trapezoidal cladding system. The solar tubes will sit in the groves of the cladding and rellay the piping back to storage heaters above the steam rooms. I envisage that a MHRV will extract the cooler (for the steamroom but warmer than standard air) air from bellow the seats of the steam rooms and saunas, and use it to transfer heat to the fresh cold air from outside.



9 3 10 13



Typical Wall Detial 1

Typical Wall Detial 2

Typical Wall Detial 3

[Internal concrete wall]

[Internal brick wall]

[Concrete exterior wall]

Water resistant coating 150mm insitu concrete wall Vapour layer 200mm rigid insulation Insulation brackets and brick ties DPM 50mm cavity Red brick

Water resistant coating Red Brick Vapour layer 150mm insitu concrete wall 200mm rigid insulation Insulation brackets and brick ties DPM 50mm cavity Red brick

Water resistant coating 150mm insitu Concrete Vapour layer 150mm insitu concrete wall 200mm rigid insulation DPM 50mm cavity 150mm Insitu concrete with vertical formwork

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

Tepidarium - 40°C

Infrared Sauna 40°C

Known as the Warm Room, the Romans named the most famous bath of antiquity the Tepidarium. A relaxing tepidarium room with a temperature of 39ºC and containing: Ceramic couches Heated contoured ceramic couches are designed to relax the guest after the Thermal Baths. The benefits of the couches are that they can be used for people who are sensitive to aggressive temperatures and this is therefore one of the most gentle ways of using heat. The tepidarium can be used by guests with blood pressure problems and deep relaxation can be achieved.

Steam is infused with eucamenthol in our lovely Indian Blossom Steam Room. The antiseptic qualities help to relieve cold symptoms, clearing congestion and doing wonders for the respiratory tract. Steam blended with jasmine at other times acts as a skin moisturiser and also lifts the spirits to give a feeling of optimism and confidence.

Himalayan salt steam room 45°C — 100% Humidity Ocean air works wonders for the respiratory system. Steam, essential oils and salt combine to create the sea atmosphere of this unique inhalation room. It is especially good for clearing congestion and helping you to breath more easily. Your body heats up slowly as you start to perspire. Relax on the heated seats and breathe in the bracing mix of Mineral Salts, Jasmine and Mint.

Caladium 50°C — 80% Humidity

Laconium 65ºC — 20% Humidity

Nordic Sauna 90°C

Based upon a Roman type steam room with vapours of moist eucalyptus seating up to ten guests, depending on design,with an optimal temperature range of 42-45ºC. The Caldarium is based on the same principles as the Laconium, however various aromatic essences with steam can be electronically injected to either stimulate or relax the bather. A Kneipp hose is available for cooling down; therefore enabling guests to extend their stay in the cabin. This bracing mix of mineral salts and mint essence closely resembles sea air and is especially good for clearing congestion and helping you to breathe more easily. Sitting on the heated seats, the automatically injected jet of steam stimulates the blood circulation and starts the purifying and detoxifying process.

A relaxing dry environment designed to recreate the atmosphere of a Roman sauna. The Laconium temperature operates around 65ºC and is capable of seating 6-8 people. Guests spend about 20 minutes enjoying the heat. The temperature of the Laconium is set specifically below the some-times aggressive temperature of a typical Finish type sauna. The purifying and detoxification process is initiated by the slow heating up of the body and after perspiring the guest washes their body with the Kneip hose, and as the body is sprayed with water the circulatory system gets a boost. The cycle is repeated after about 20 minutes. The guest can shower after enjoying the Laconium with either cold or warm water. To fully appreciate the benefits one could allow up to an hour to complete this element.

With the essence of pine and mountain herbs the traditional, wood-lined sauna, deeply cleansing as the body gets hotter and the pores open. Use it in combination with the Ice Room or with a cold shower for maximum effect.

Ice Baths and Ice fountains Ice fountains will be located in the steam rooms as well as the more extreme cold plunge pool at the last pool and ice baths outside.


West Elevation 1:200

A bath house in the docks | marcllado-hillis

East Elevation 1:200


Profile for Marc Hillis

Year 4B design project - Bath House  

Strathclyde Architecture, 4th year, semester two, Bath House in the Docks. This document showcases the development of my work in semester tw...

Year 4B design project - Bath House  

Strathclyde Architecture, 4th year, semester two, Bath House in the Docks. This document showcases the development of my work in semester tw...