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REIMAGINING PARKING: ELIMINATING RUNOFF A GREEN NEW DEAL SUPERSTUDIO PROJECT

Ian Vierck, Celia Hensey, Hannah Chapin, Sabina Hagen-Botbol


LAND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are gathered on the land of the Kalapuya,who today are represented by the Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde and the Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Indians, whose relationship with this land continues to this day. As graduate students of the University of Oregon we benefit from the power, privilege, and immense resources of this institution, which are derived from the systematic oppression and disenfranchisement of Indigenous peoples. We believe that green spaces and their benefits should be available to all people - yet we cannot ignore that the spaces that are part of our studio project are not ours to give. They have been seized and stolen from the Kalapuya. Moreover, we know that in the United States, Indigenous peoples and people of color are often denied access to these kinds of spaces. Over the course of this studio, we realized that our work as future landscape architects will build wealth for those who already have power and privilege. While we believe that the outcomes of our studio project will result in direct benefits to communities, our work ultimately falls short of enacting a just world. How can we use design to move towards a more just and equitable world? How can we reconcile the aspirations of our field with the realities of economic inequity and structural racism? These are some of the questions that we have been thinking about as we moved through this studio project - we invite you to join us in reflecting on them.


INDEX OF CONTENTS The Problem......7 The Solution......37 Analysis...............55 Masterplan..........81 Application.........93 Conclusion.........127


THE PROBLEM


AMAZON BASIN Amazon Basin is the largest of Eugene’s drainage basins and the most diverse in terms of land uses, landform, and natural resources. CITY OF EUGENE STORMWATER BASIN MASTER PLAN

9

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NATURAL WATER FLOWS The Amazon Basin is 11,442 acres and its headwaters flow from the southern hills of Eugene. CITY OF EUGENE STORM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

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FORESTED WATER RUNOFF

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STORM DRAINS Eugene has a separated sewer system, which means that storm water is not treated before running off into Amazon Creek. 15

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WHERE IS RUNOFF COMING FROM?

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RUNOFF COMPARISON Runoff from urbanized areas is the leading source of water quality impairments to surveyed estuaries. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

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SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF RUNOFF Areas of the Amazon Basin that lie outside the urban growth boundary rely on groundwater for domestic use. CITY OF EUGENE STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

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THE PARKING LOT PROBLEM

It is estimated in America that there are eight parking spots for every car. Combined, that’s enough surface area to make up roughly the entire state of West Virginia. Furthermore, off-street parking is typically a requirement as part of development. MOBILITY LAB

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AMAZON BASIN: CONCERNS Impervious surface area in the urban growth boundary is projected to increase from 33% to 44% at buildout. CITY OF EUGENE STORMWATER BASIN MASTER PLAN

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AMAZON BASIN PAVEMENT Pavement - in the form of walkways, roads, and parking areas - plays a major role in transporting increased stormwater runoff and pollution to our streams, rivers, and groundwater. CITY OF EUGENE STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

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IMPERVIOUS SURFACES Over 23% of major draining facilities exceed design capacity under existing conditions. CITY OF EUGENE STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

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ABUNDANCE OF PARKING

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IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON EUGENE

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• • •

Annual precipitation will be unchanged, however, the intensity of rain and drought events will be more severe. Snowpack in the Cascades nearly gone by 2040. Rain flows in streams in near real time.

• • •

Average summer increase of 10o-12o F by 2100. Wildfire surface area increasing by 400-500% by 2040. Reduced stream flow by 40-60% in summer due to reduced snowmelt by 2040.

• Changes in disease patterns. • Population changes and climate migration.

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THE SOLUTION

Lydia Greatrix

Pete Marovich


GOALS OF GREEN NEW DEAL

1. Achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions. 2. Create millions of good, high wage jobs. 3. Invest in the infrastructure. 4. Ensure public wellbeing. 5. Secure clean air and water for all. 6. Promote justice and equity. 37

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RESPONSE TO GREEN NEW DEAL

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RADICALLY REENVISIONING PARKING LOTS

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PARKING TYPOLOGY APPROACH Using multiple approaches means that more parking lots can be transformed. 43

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TYPE C 1. Retain most of the existing parking capacity. 2. Replace impervious pavement with permeable yet drivable ground cover. 3. Add raingardens to eliminate runoff.

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TYPE B 1. Retain most of the existing parking capacity. 2. Replace impervious pavement with permeable yet drivable ground cover. 3. Add raingardens to eliminate runoff. 4. Create multifunctional community spaces. 47

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TYPE A 1. Completely eliminate impervious surfaces. 2. Add raingardens. 3. Create green spaces to strenghten community connections. 4. Link with existing green infrastructure.

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FINDING THE RIGHT FIT

Community Uses Demographics Drainage Analysis Soil & Environmental Analysis 51

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COLLABORATIVE DESIGN

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ANALYSIS


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OVERVIEW OF SITES

C

B

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A

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C SITES Walmart size lots that are heavily trafficked. Greater than 30,000 sq ft. Located near major roads. 61

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B SITES

Moderately sized lots. 3,000 to 30,000 square feet. 63

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A SITES Chosen for maximum connectivity with existing green infrastructure. 2-3 minute walk from parks, bike ways, and low traffic local roads. Not located near major roads in order to increase walkability. 65

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RANKING SYSTEM FOR LOCATION OF SITES

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DIVERSITY OF USES “It is impossible to imagine physical resilience without social, cultural and economic resilience as well.” NICHOLAS DE MONCHAUX

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HOSPITALITY

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SOCIAL

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RECREATION

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MASTER PLAN “We can listen to what the system tells us, and discover how its properties and our values can work together to bring forth something much better than could ever be produced by our will alone.” DONELLA H. MEADOWS, THINKING IN SYSTEMS: A PRIMER


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MASTERPLAN: PHASE I

Timeline: 5 years Goal: Create scaffold for future network 81

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MASTERPLAN: PHASE II

Timeline: 10 years Goal: Address areas of concern for Amazon Creek 83

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MASTERPLAN: PHASE III Timeline: 30 years Goal: Replace parking lots as they retire and create a robust green network. 85

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MASTERPLAN

PHASE 1

PHASE II

PHASE III

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APPLICATION


DESIGNING FOR TYPE C

1. Retain most of the existing parking capacity. 2. Replace impervious pavement with permeable yet drivable ground cover. 3. Add raingardens to eliminate runoff. 91

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C SITE BEFORE

93

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C SITE AFTER

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C SITE DESIGN

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ACTIONS FOR TYPE B 1. Retain most of the existing parking capacity. 2. Replace impervious pavement with permeable yet drivable ground cover. 3. Add raingardens to eliminate runoff. 4. Create multifunctional community spaces. 99

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B SITE BEFORE

101

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B SITE AFTER

103

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B SITE DESIGN

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ACTIONS FOR TYPE A

1. Completely eliminate impervious surfaces. 2. Add raingardens. 3. Create green spaces to strenghten community connections. 4. Link with existing green infrastructure. 107

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A SITE BEFORE

109

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A SITE AFTER

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TRANSITION CONTEXT

6 16

5

4 12

15

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30 14

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TRANSITION PHASE I

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TRANSITION PHASE II Retained Parking

Children’s Park

Raised Garden Bed

Bike Racks

Street Parking Carshare Parking Patio

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Rain Gardens

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A SITE DESIGN

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CONCLUSION By converting parking lots to public spaces and including local stakeholders in a collaborative design process, we can reinforce existing community connections and strengthen the network of green infrastructure in the Amazon Basin.


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SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS

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THE PATTERN REPEATS In similar cities to Eugene, runoff from impervious surfaces is also a major issue.This runoff ends up in nearby water bodies. For each of the cities below, the runoff from an average block is more than four Olympic pools per year. CORVALLIS

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SALEM

ALBANY

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Sabina Hagen-Botbol

Celia Hensey

Ian Vierck

Hannah Chapin


Profile for MAPS

EMERGENT URBAN NATURES STUDIO - REIMAGINING PARKING - UO FALL 2021 LA539  

The value of urban green infrastructure is beyond question today, and it will continue to grow exponentially in a rapidly urbanizing world....

EMERGENT URBAN NATURES STUDIO - REIMAGINING PARKING - UO FALL 2021 LA539  

The value of urban green infrastructure is beyond question today, and it will continue to grow exponentially in a rapidly urbanizing world....

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