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DIGITAL RURALISM GIS AND DRONE TECHNOLOGIES IN RURAL URBANISM Turenscape Academy Workshop Series 2017


Yu Kongjian President and Founder

Tom Verebes Provost

Xiong Ying Academic Director


STUDIO INTRO

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METHODOLOGY

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XIXINAN VILLAGE // 22 CULTURE // 24 LAYERS // 26

SITE RESEARCH

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CONTEXT ANALYSIS MODELLING PROPOSAL

WATER ACCESS

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CONTEXT // 46 ANALYSIS // 50 MODELLING // 52 PROPOSAL // 60

HERITAGE PATHS

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CONTEXT // 66 ANALYSIS // 70 MODELLING // 74 PROPOSAL // 78

PUBLIC SPACES

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CONTEXT // 84 ANALYSIS // 88 MODELLING // 94 PROPOSAL // 96

URBAN NATURES

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WORKSHOP POSTER // 04 TUTORS // 06 ASSISTANTS // 08 STUDENTS // 10 TOOLKIT // 14 PHOTOGRAMMETRY // 16 DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES // 18 GPS TRACKING // 20

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0 // STUDIO INTRO Turenscape Academy (TA) was established in 2015 with the exploration of environmental, social and cultural sustainability at the core of its beliefs and activities. Initiated and championed by Dr. Kongjian Yu, Member of The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the founder and Dean of College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture of Peking University, and the founder of Turenscape – a leading multidisciplinary design practice, the Academy pursues the concept of continuous lifelong learning. With the philosophy of Learning by Doing, TA creates an immersive educational environment for Chinese and International graduate level students, recent graduates and mid-career professionals. In offering an alternative model for education, TA aims for the advancement of comprehension of our urban and rural environments during an era of the greatest extent and speed of urbanization ever to occur, and for the amelioration of the quality and standards of design of our buildings, landscapes and cities within this accelerated context of transformation. To adequately prepare the next generation of professionals for the task of making meaningful contributions to the making of the lived environment, TA provides varied platforms and audiences for a critical and creative dialogue between design disciplines on the future of urban and rural China.

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MAPS MAPS (Methods for the Architecture of Patterns and Systems) is a design collective specialized in developing innovative design solutions for the integration of human and natural systems at all scales. Founded in 2014 by Chen Du, Mary Polites and Ignacio Lopez Buson, MAPS main office is located in Shanghai (China), with realtime collaborators in London (UK), Madrid (Spain) and the Canary Islands (Spain). MAPS network is formed by architects, urban planners and landscape designers with an expertise in digital technologies and a multi-scalar design methodology based on a scientific yet humanistic approach. MAPS main focus is to analyse the complexity of current social, economic and natural systems and articulate their logics into integral, diverse, innovative, and habitable environments. www.mapsmethods.com

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Mary Polites

Ignacio López Busón

Mary Polites is a full time professor at Shanghai’s Tongji Design & Innovation College. She teaches studios, lectures and seminars related to biomimetic and environmental design and co-directs the BiDL (Biomimetic Design Lab). Her background is in architecture with professional experience in architecture, urban and landscape architecture. She completed her master of architecture at the Architectural Association in London in Emergent Technologies and Design program (EMTECH) and has a Bachelors degree in Architecture from New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT). She has taught at Washington State University under the Weller teaching and research fellowship and currently is a tutor for units at the Architectural Association Visiting Schools in Shanghai. She also co-directs MAPS, leading research and design projects focused on articulating the complexity of current social, economic and natural systems in China.

An architect and landscape urbanist from Spain, Ignacio López Busón is the cofounder and director of MAPS (Methods for the Architecture of Patterns and Systems), a research, teaching and design initiative in Shanghai. Ignacio holds masters in Architecture and Landscape Urbanism and his work and research are focused on the intersection of environmental science with computational tools in landscape design master planning. He has international teaching experience on courses and workshops related to landscape, urbanism and digital design, including teaching and guest critic positions at the London based Architectural Association School of Architecture (AA), Shanghai AA Visiting School Program, Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD), Tongji University in Shanghai, University of Nottingham Ningbo China in Zhejiang (UNNC) and Turenscape Academy in Huangshan.

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Ziyu-Li Ziyu-Li is a landscape designer and holds a master’s in Landscape Architecture from Beijing Forestry University (2012-2016). She is currently an assistant of Turenscape Academy, where she is helping to organize many workshops both in Beijing and Huangshan. She focuses on research and site investigation, aiming to foster the potential sustainable exchanges between urban projects and landscape context. As a teaching assistant, Ziyu helps the students to communicate with the teachers, and is in charge of media support, as photographer and video recorder.

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Cathy Doa

Meizi Li

From phenomenal artist to strategic thinker, Cathy aims to embrace dynamism as a way to design and seeing the world. Her interests lie in geospatial analysis, survey and visualization. Through investigation and experimentation, she believes design is the art of problem-solving. She graduated from RMIT Melbourne and University of Hong Kong, where her work combined technical groundwork and conceptual framework. She believes to think broad and act small, so that design can be an object, a space at any scale given it is a problem-solving catalyst. Driven by a passion to address environmental problems in design, she sees herself as an artist, a designer and an urban designer, crossing these scales provide new inspirations and new solutions.

Meizi Li graduated in M.Arch Architectural Design (2015-2016) from the Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL and B.Arch Architecture (2010-2015) from Wuhan University. She is skilled in various parametric design software and digital design & fabrication technologies and practiced them through a series of workshops and academic projects. She has worked as an architect at the International Projects Department at Turenscape, and before she was a teaching assistant in AD Research Cluster 4 in the Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL. Meizi is currently a researcher in the Institute of Structure and Design at Universität Innsbruck.

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0 // STUDIO INTRO / STUDENTS

Xie Wei Wei 解维威

Li Dong Feng 李东丰

Ge Geng Wu 葛庚午

Zhang Nan 张楠

Zhang Jia 张佳

Du Wei Hao 杜炜豪

With a background in Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Urban Planning and GIS research, the Digital Ruralism workshop’s students were able to provide a unique multi-disciplinary approach to the urban and environmental challenges of Xixinan. Their openness and skills resulted in a both experimental and sensitive work merging together the possibilities of new technologies with the reinterpretation of traditional rural architecture.

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Hu Xia Bin 胡峡宾

Hong TingTing 洪婷婷

Yi Rong 易蓉

Jing Bo 荆博

Li Wan Qiang 李万强

Hu Hao 胡 灏

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1 // METHODOLOGY / TOOLKIT One of the aims of this workshop was to measure and analyse the environmental and spatial reality of Xixinan. For the sake of accuracy, and due to the limited online information about this settlement, the initial concept was to create our own dataset by means of a toolkit based on remote sensing technologies and weather instruments.

UAV BATTERIES x2

The complete inventory consisted of: - DJI Mavic Drone - Kestrel 5000 Environmental Meter - Garmin tempe™ Temperature Sensor - Garmin GPSMAP® 64s - Smart Phone

SMART PHONE

KRESTREL WEATHER STATION 14

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TEMPERATURE SENSOR

GARMIN GPS


DJI MAVIC PRO

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1 // METHODOLOGY / PHOTOGRAMMETRY

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1. Adams, C.B., 1893. Method of photogrammetry. US510758 A. 2. World War II: Information for a Soldiers Life Project timeline. [WWW Document], n.d. . Timetoast. URL https://www.timetoast.com/timelines/world-war-ii-information-for-a-soldiers-life-project (accessed 5.29.17). 3. Spies In The Skies: How Aerial Surveillance Tipped The Balance Of WWII | Gizmodo Australia [WWW Document], n.d. URL https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2014/06/spies-in-the-skies-how-aerial-surveillance-tipped-the-balance-of-wwii/ (accessed 5.29.17).

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Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs. Although its logics goes back 500 years to the creation of perspective, it was between the two world wars when the main foundations of aerial survey techniques were established. The development of photogrammetry has been explored through four main phases until today (first generation photogrammetry, analogue photogrammetry, analytical photogrammetry and digital photogrammetry), and it is tightly related to mayor breakthroughs in technology, mainly in the fields of photography, aeronautics and computers.

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Interesting articles regarding the origins of photogrammetry are History of Photogrammetry created by the Center for Photogrammetric Training (https://assets. documentcloud.org/documents/3235835/ History-of-Photogrammetry.pdf) and Introduction to Photogrammetry by T. Schenk from the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science at The Ohio State University (http:// www.mat.uc.pt/~gil/downloads/IntroPhoto. pdf).

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1 // METHODOLOGY / DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES Nowadays, in the era of digital photogrammetry, the workflow of taking photographs, 3d modelling and postprocessing the information is smoother than ever. First, smart phones are used to plan the UAV flight and properly arrange the settings for the photographs. After the flight, pictures or videos are automatically stored in the mobile device, and eventually transferred to a workstation for its processing. In this case, the software chosen for the photogrammetry process was Agisoft Photoscan (http://www.agisoft.com/). After the processing, either a point cloud or a mesh 3d model is generated, which eventually is exported to McNeel’s Rhino and Grasshopper for analysis and evaluation.

1. Orthomosac of Xixinan. MAPS, 2017 2. DEM of Xixinan. MAPS, 2017

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1 // METHODOLOGY / GPS TRACKING Experiments based on GPS tracking were used as a way of understanding the intricate fabric of the village, as well as its environmental properties. For a test involving all the students, the Strava app for iOS and Android smart phones was used to track their random excursions throughout Xixinan. Later on, their paths were downloaded from the Strava website and exported to McNeel’s Rhinoceros and visualized using Grasshopper. Additional experiments were run using the Garmin GPSMAP® 64s linked with the Garmin tempe™ Wireless Temperature Sensor.

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1. The Garmin GPSMAP® 64s. MAPS, 2017 2. Strava logo (www.strava.com). STRAVA, 2017 3. GPS information visualised in Rhinoceros. MAPS, 2017

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2 // SITE RESEARCH Xixinanzhen Turenscape Academy’s residential campus is located in Xixinan, a heritage village with a population of almost 16.000 inhabitants, situated nearby to Huangshan City and the beautiful Huangshan Mountains (Yellow Mountains), in Anhui province. Connected by daily flights to China’s largest cities, and by high speed train to Beijing, Shanghai and Hangzhou, Xixinan is an easily accessible sanctuary from urban China. Set in a tranquil landscape setting, the unique attributes of Xixinan create an important opportunity for students to gain an understanding of the village’s local life, culture and ancient fabric, within a wellpreserved ecological environment. Visiting Xixinan opens the possibility to explore and experience the nearby Yellow Mountains and vernacular Huizhou countryside, including two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, which are rich in architecture heritage, cultural landscapes, and natural beauty. However, due to its proximity to those important tourism attractors, and the on-going development of transport infrastructures, Xixinan stands also as the perfect example of a rural town facing current development pressure in China.

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2 // SITE RESEARCH / XIXINAN CULTURE

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1. Xixinan´s river branch. MAPS, 2017. 2. Street and canal system. MAPS, 2017. 3. Agriculture field in Xixinan. MAPS, 2017 4. Canal stepping platform. MAPS, 2016 5. Wu´s Family Mansion. MAPS, 2016.

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2 // SITE RESEARCH / LAYERS The complexity of Xixinan´s urban tissue is the result of the interaction of physical, social and environmental layers through time. Due to the relatively small size of the village, it is not difficult to still appreciate those layers and how they blend with each other shaping the Xixinan´s morphology and resulting sometimes into new unplanned urban elements. Four of these old and new distinctive elements of Xixinan´s built environment were chosen for their analysis, modelling and reinterpretation:

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- water access - heritage paths - public spaces - urban natures

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With more than 5 km of canals running throughout the urban fabric, sometimes exposed, sometimes underground, it is undeniable the close relationship between Xixinan and water. Assuming that these water ways were initially built for irritation purposes by taking advantage of the nearby river, the canal system is now inseparable from the village´s identity. Strategies for urban growth to adapt to this infrastructure have resulted into interesting architectural and urban prototypes that increase the spatial richness of the village, creating both visual and social value. The stepping platforms to access the water are one of those unique prototypes that demonstrate the urban intelligence of Xixinan.

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1. Street and canal system in Xixinan 2. Canal stepping platform 3. Reflection pond in front of Wu´s family mansion 4. Xixinan´s river branch 5. Canal stepping platform 6. Canal stepping platform 7. Canal stepping platform 8. Canal stepping platform

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3 // WATER ACCESS Canals and Streets Analysis Starting with the large, town scale, the aim was to evaluate the daily impact of the canals throughout the village. Due to Xixinan’s relatively small size, the physical link between urban fabric and water remains tight: no building are farther than 100m away from a canal. Besides the logical proximity analysis, the research focused mainly on the relationship between streets and canals to understand the level of interaction of the villagers with the water on a daily basis.

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3 // WATER ACCESS / ANALYSIS The main canals in Xixinan divert from the river and run parallel through the urban fabric and eventually merge back with the river. This generates a clear grid pattern resulting from the canals direction, EastWest, and the orientation of the streets people would use to access the water, North-South. Interesting enough, in all the intersection points of this grid (the crossroads between canals and roads) a stepping platform was developed to access the water. Within the urban fabric, a total of 55 access points were detected, 65% of them were on the intersections, the rest spread along the canals.

1. Proximity diagram from buildings to canals 2. Transit intensity in streets with canals 3. Location of canal stepping platforms 4. Isovist analysis from stepping platforms

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3 // WATER ACCESS Visibility Analysis Visual access was the other primary aspect taken into consideration for analysis. All the existing canal access points were evaluated according to their potential as urban lookouts; points that could be used to see and be seen. Depending on their location and properties, some of these points had better characteristics to perform in one way or the other, but obviously, those at a street intersections had greater visual influence. In addition, from this research a group of access points were shown to not be as constrained by the urban fabric as others, due to their location in urban areas. This realization was perceived as there wasn’t any connection to buildings or a direct contact with the river. The potential of these platforms was then estimated to be as landscape lookouts, as their other functions weren’t determined.

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3 // WATER ACCESS / MODELLING The 3d model created with the photogrammetry software was analysed using a contouring algorithm, which provided the students with an idea on how the reinterpret the concept of the water access points in Xixinan. Treating the context model as a continuous topography allowed them to reconsider the stepping platforms as a system of contours gradually terracing down to touch the water. These new terraces could be seamlessly integrated with the existing river embankment and could perform socially at multiple levels, for accessing the water, for landscape contemplation and gathering.

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Xie Wei Wei 解维威 Xie Weiwei graduated in Landscape Architecture from Shenyang Agriculture University. He is working for Liaoning building design and research Institute. He is now in the architectural design and Research Institute of Liaoning province. At EUD landscape studio he is the creative designer, with nearly ten years of work experience. HE is mainly engaged in urban landscape design, public building landscape design, ecological urban landscape design and waterfront landscape design as well as other fields of work. He is mainly interested in three-dimensional space modelling, landscape design, performance and BIM research, parametric design and geospatial analysis. His work has been recognized and honoured with many awards in China.

1. Contour model of selected site (pages 38, 39) 2. Isovist analysis sequence (pages 40, 41) 3. Proposal tests (pages 42, 43)

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Li Dong Feng 李东丰

Ge Geng Wu 葛庚午

Li Dong Feng graduated from Beijing Normal University in the School of Geography and Remote Sensing Science, Geographic Information System (GIS) (2006-2010). He is now engaged in tourism planning and participating in a number of domestic and foreign tourism projects. He is specialized in tourism GIS spatial analysis, aerial drones and modeling. Li Dong Feng is also interested in photography technology applied to any field, from portrait to landscape and aerial photography.

Ge Gengwu graduated in Beijing Forestry University at 2015 and studied Landscape Architecture in Yuanlin College. He is interested in visualization and 3d modelling software and technology. He is specialised in SketchUp, Rhinoceros and Photoshop, among others. At school, he worked as a trainee in Tsinghua Tongheng Urban Planning and Design Institute. After graduating, he worked as a Landscape Architect in Hangzhou Heguan Architecture Design Institute. Currently, Ge Geng Wu is working as a Model-Maker in Huanfang, for a Beijingbased company. He is interested in the use of parametric design tools to improve efficiency and productivity in 3d modelling and visualization in landscape design and architecture.

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Xixinan has nationallyrecognized architecture for its heritage value. Due to its well connected transport infrastructure (Huangshan airport and and Huangshan North speed train station), visiting Xixinan also opens the possibility to explore and experience the nearby Yellow Mountains and vernacular Huizhou countryside, including two UNESCO World Heritage Sites. All these factors make Xixinan an interesting tourism gateway. This study analyses the way all the heritage pieces of architecture in the village are connected creating potential cultural loop paths that could reinforce their value and identity.

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4 // HERITAGE PATHS / ANALYSIS

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1. Xixinan´s Middle Street 2. Xixinan´s Middle Street 3. Laowu´s Family Mansion and reflection pond 4. Facade detail 5. Lotus Hotel renovation 6. Alley perpendicular to Middle Street 7. Temple in Xixinan´s Orchard

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The large scale analysis focused firstly on the density of heritage architecture throughout the village, and secondly, on the streets that would be used if visitors were to try and visit all these buildings. The most transited segments of the network are highlighted and marked for further study of their spatial properties.

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4 // HERITAGE PATHS / MODELLING It was found that the density of heritage building was higher in Xixinan’s Zhong Street (literally Middle Street) compare to other areas of the village. Also, the network segment between the HTL hotel and Yao’s old building would host a higher transit rate than most of other paths. Consequentially, this 100m street was modelled and contoured perpendicularly to its central axis to analyse its properties in section, including width and visual perception.

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4 // HERITAGE PATHS Heritage Corridor Design The studies to the right show the section and visual range studies which inspired a “bar code” pattern that would emphasize the spatial sequence between the HTL hotel and Yao’s old building. The paving bands resemble the massive stone pavers found all over Xixinan streets (used for their visual but also structural properties) which could perform at many levels, from the pure spatial to the social. This intervention was meant to provide information for all the heritage buildings contained within this high frequency segment, as well as host art pieces of the area, thus adding an extra layer of Chinese ancient history to the path. Additional concepts for could even incorporating lighting features for night walking along this path. This heritage corridor strategy was intended to be a subtle but meaningful layer, blending past and present in Xixinan.

1. Perception studies of Xixinan street model 2. Section studies of Xixinan street model 3. Paving bands proposal plan 4. Art corridor proposal perspective

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4 // HERITAGE PATHS / TEAM

Zhang Nan 张楠 Zhang Nan graduated from Institute of Architecture at Tianjin University (20062010). His masters degree is from Shenyang University of Architecture and Planning (2003-2006). Currently he is a lecturer of Department of Architecture from Tianjin ChengJian University, teaching architectural design, architecture history and is an architectural studio tutor in the master’s program. Zhang Nan is engaged in rural settlements and urban form research focused on historical building heritage protection and related technologies. He has presided over the completion of the National Natural Science Fund.

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Zhang Jia 张佳

Du Wei Hao 杜炜豪

Dr. Zhang Jia is an urban designer and landscape architect graduated from Institute of Urban Planning and Design at Zhejiang University (2009-2014). Currently, he is associate professor in Department of Environment Design, Zhejiang University City College where he teaches landscape design studios and urban design. Dr. Zhang is interested in rural planning and heritage conservation. He has been core researcher on many research projects sponsored by Natural Science Fund and Social Science Fund of Zhejiang Province and has won more than 10 urban design and landscape design competitions in China.

Weihao Du obtained his master degree of Landscape Architecture in University of Melbourne. He is a landscape planning & design project leader in Newground, a Shenzhen based office. He has led significant public realm and residential landscape projects in Hong Kong, Taiwan, mainland China and Australia. He has practice based experience with multidisciplinary teams in green infrastructure, Sponge City design and WSUD. Weihao has a strong interest in digital technologies applied to innovative design across all stages of the project and he is specialised in a landscape design methodology that integrates seamlessly Rhino, Grasshopper, AutoCAD and SketchUp.

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The towns logics of growth shared many similarities of many other ancient villages in China, or medieval towns in Europe, where both circulation and open space systems were the result of an unplanned network. This emergent outcome of an aggregation was displayed in many of the architectural remnants of the area. From the study, unique morphological transitions occurred where the intricate and narrow openings would turn into wider spaces which were linked to institutional, religious or social buildings. Although these transition zones would often constitute the foundational social spaces of the village, they also appeared as part of the aggregative growth process. Currently these open spaces remain a relief from the the packed urban tissue, while at the same time, they keep their original intention and social value.

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1. Xixinan’s Middle Street 2. Food market 3. Daily public life in Xixinan 4. Daily public life in Xixinan 5. Daily public life in Xixinan 6. Daily public life in Xixinan 7. Daily public life in Xixinan 8. Access plaza to Xixinan’s Orchard

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5 // PUBLIC SPACES People Influx Analysis The initial research began by surveying the people presence in Xixinan in order to understand the importance of certain spaces in the villagers’ daily life. This documentation was done through an analogue survey that was translated to a digital version to visualize potential intensities. Despite the concentration of people in newer and more commercial streets or even around tourist attractors like heritage buildings, the main market plaza was still the most crowded place in the village throughout the day. From this realization the modelling and evaluation focused on that space.

1. People density survey in public spaces 2. Activity regions (page 72) 3. Walking distance to Xixinan’s market plaza (page 73)

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Open Space Redesign For the design intervention, several options were considered as an addition to the market plaza. Based on simple geometric algorithms, the proposals aim to be abstract and flexible enough to easily adapt to the irregular geometry of the space. Two final alternatives were considered. First, a ground system that would resemble the stepping accesses to buildings present in many streets in Xixinan. Second, a canopy system that could perform as a climate prototype to protect the plaza from excessive precipitation (or sun radiation) throughout the variable seasons in Huangshan area. The latter was chosen for further development.

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1. Aerial image of Xixinan’s market plaza (page 76) 2. Solar analysis of Xixinan’s market plaza (page 77) 3. Geometry extraction from UAV 3d model 4. Geometry extraction from UAV 3d model 5. Ground proposal studies 6. Floating proposal studies

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5 // PUBLIC SPACES / PROPOSAL Generallly, the location holds to a zone of temperate climate, but with very rainy summers and very dry winters. The courtyard typology appeared to be an interesting architectural mechanism that talks about the relationship of openness of people in Xixinan with climate and water. Most of these courtyards were originally designed to collect water and make it apparent for indoor spaces. The open structure of canals in Xixinan, running parallel to roads and allowing for the water to be constantly appreciated and accessed, is a valuable feature inseparable from the village’s identity. The idea of an urban prototype to cover some public spaces and make them accessible and enjoyable during rain periods seems to be coherent with Xixinan’s culture.

1. Canopy structure frame proposal 2. Half-open canopy proposal 3. Closed canopy proposal

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Yi Rong ć˜“č“‰ Yirong Yi is an urban planner and studied Environmental Art Design in Xiamen University of Technology. She currently works as senior urban planner at the Institute of Eco-City Planning and Design at Orient Landscape. Under the guidance of the ecologist Dr. Wu Yegang, she has been involved in more than 200 sustainable development planning projects of ecocities based on Public-Private Partnership mode. These projects have made great contributions to the sustainable urban development of China.

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Hong TingTing 洪婷婷

Hu Xia Bin 胡峡宾

Hong Ting Ting is a landscape architect graduated from Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University in 2013. Professionally, she has been engaged in landscape planning and design research. Currently, Hong Ting Ting is a researcher and teacher in the Landscape Architecture Department at the Fuzhou University School of Architecture. Her work and interest is focused on UAV flight technologies applied to landscape planning and design.

Xiabin Hu holds a master degree in Landscape Architecture from Suzhou University in China. He has another master degree in Landscape Urbanism from the London-based Architectural Association, where he co-authored the thesis “Littoral Negotiations”. He is currently working in Turenscape (Beijing) as a landscape architect. He has international working experience participating in several urban design projects in China and Europe, and is specialized in computational design applied to landscape design and urban planning.

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Regardless of the relatively reduced size of Xixinan village, it is remarkable how much nature is to be found within its urban tissue, either in the form of agriculture, informal vegetation or designed gardens. Obviously, the temperate climate in the regions helps, as well as the integrated system of canals constantly irrigating the village from underneath. Considering the outstanding landscape scenery around the village, it is interesting to see how Xixinan assumes and embraces nature as part of its own identity.

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1. Agriculture plot within Xixinan’s urban tissue 2. Xixinan’s forest path 3. Agriculture plot outside Xixinan’s urban tissue 4. Agriculture plot within Xixinan’s urban tissue 5. Xixinan’s Orchard 6. Pedestrian footbridge crossing Xixinan’s river branch 7. Public garden pavilion 8. Xixinan’s Orchard

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6 // URBAN NATURES / ANALYSIS Green bodies were surveyed and analyzed throughout the village, categorizing them firstly in terms of size and type (agriculture, informal or designed). Afterwards, green spaces were evaluated according to their proximity to each other in order to understand the potential for the creation of a continuous green infrastructure. Finally, natural aspects were analyzed regarding their influence on surrounding architecture.

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6 // URBAN NATURES / ANALYSIS ANALYSIS Ecological Network

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6 // URBAN NATURES / ANALYSIS ANALYSIS

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6 // URBAN NATURES / MODELLING

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6 // URBAN NATURES / MODELLING The chosen area for modelling was the green space around the Wu’s family mansion, one of the most important heritage buildings in Xixinan, and currently used as a museum space. Although North from the building a dense bamboo forest can be found, most of the green space is dedicated to agriculture and occupies several small plots facing its West facade. In this case, due to the significance of the building, the idea was to design an open garden that could mirror the water body present at the East facade of the mansion. First, parameters as entrance points and potential program spots were considered to develop a network that would seamlessly integrate the garden with the existing urban fabric. Second, the network was evaluated and put into a hierarchy to differentiate between fast and slow paths. Eventually, a solar radiation study was carried out to determine the location of green for comfort’s sake.

1. Programmatic heatmap and entrances 2. Network studies 3. Network hierarchy 4. Solar radiation studies

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Jing Bo �� Jing Bo is a landscape architect with a BA of Landscape from Shandong university and an on-going MA in Landscape from Beijing University till 2019. He is currently working for Turenscape as a landscape designer, where he has collaborated in many ecological landscape projects in China, from concept design to construction. Additionally, he has devoted himself to combine the potential of parametric design in the analysis, evaluation and development of landscapes and explore new possibilities in the protection of natural ecosystems.

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Li Wan Qiang 李万强

Hu Hao 胡 灏

Li Wanqiang comes from Xi’an, a beautiful historical city of Shaanxi province. He graduated from Xi’an Academy of Fine Arts in 2012. His major is architecture environmental art design. Li Wan Qiang has always been working in the field of landscape design since graduation. Currently, he works in Shaanxi Water Stone Unity Landscape Planning and Design Corporation, primarily in charge of urban design projects. He has over five years of experience, and firmly believes in hard work and constant learning as a way of improving.

Hao Hu is a master of M.Sc Landscape Architecture (2015-2017) in Leibniz, University of Hannover, Faculty of Architecture and Landscape Science. He has a Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (20092013) from Sichuan Agricultural University. Hao Hu has worked as a landscape architect at MEKE Group Shanghai and at Land Artitute Landscape Planning Design Office. He is currently a landscape teaching director at RAC studio in Shanghai and engaged in landscape design and architecture educational works.

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// ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

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Acknowledgements We thank all of the students for their effort and work; Yu Kongjian, Tom Verebes, and Xiong Ying for extensive support and the invitation to teach at the Turenscape Academy. This work was developed as a result of the Digital Ruralism Workshop, at Turenscape Academy as part of the Design Workshop Series 2017, on March 6th-12th 2017.

Author contributions Project images and contributions from the students are as associated per each teams bio. MAPS prepared the manuscript and collated all of the students contributions for the Digital Ruralism booklet.

How to cite work from this booklet: Lopez Buson. I and Polites M., Digital Ruralism Workshop: GIS and Drone Technologies in Rural Urbanism. Turenscape Academy 2017, Xixinan Anhui, China.

Permissions This booklet may be used for educational use only if correct citation is provided. Commercial reproduction of material in this booklet, in whole or in part is prohibited except with the written permission of the authors. To obtain permission to reproduce material from this booklet for commercial purposes please contact: info@mapsmethods.com Š2017 MAPS Š2017 Turenscape Academy DIGITAL RURALISM //

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Digital Ruralism: Turenscape Academy Workshop  

In the age of cities, the world continues unrelentingly towards urbanization. Massive migration to established cities in China, acting as hy...

Digital Ruralism: Turenscape Academy Workshop  

In the age of cities, the world continues unrelentingly towards urbanization. Massive migration to established cities in China, acting as hy...

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