MUMBAI/ALIBAG/NAGAON FERNANDO JIMENEZ & MARINA CARRETERO
MUMBAIanalysis The world is experiencing intense urbanisation by the hand of extensive yet uneven processes of growth and expansion. More than half of humanity now lives in cities, and 80 per cent of the Earth’s land surface has come to reflect the influence of city-based human activity. In the case of India, most of its main cities – Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and Bangalore – have been following a continuous trajectory of population growth from the start of the twentieth century. In contrast, the cities in the richest, early urbanising countries have seen population growth slow and reverse. In the 1990s, India’s population grew by a dramatic 23%, but this fast growth was outpaced in the main cities. In Delhi the number of residents jumped by 70%, although this was partly due to a boundary change, and Bangalore grew by 38%. Mumbai’s population grew by 21%, falling back slightly on its relative position. On the chart below we can see different densities of population, from the entire country of India, to the Greater Mumbai, and how this average variates. On one hand, India´s density tends to be relatively low 344pers/ sqkm, while in Greater Mumbai this density is extremely high (27,348 pers/sqkm). This high density of the city cariates the average of the metropolitan region and makes it increase up to 1080 pers/sqkm). If we look closer to one of the areas of study inside MMR (Mumbai Metropolitan Region), Raigad it is seen how its density (368 pers/sqkm) is more likely the average Indian density.
*Source: Urban Age
The spatial structure of the Indian cities reveals an intense and compact arrangement of buildings and structures, containing and compressing the open ‘white’ spaces that constitute the public realm of the city as compared with european cities like London. The central area of Buleshwar Market in Mumbai shows how dense urban blocks are arranged efficiently along main streets and side alleyways. The territorial constraints of this island city have created unusually high urban densities. Within the city limits, the average density surpasses the mark of 27,000 people per km2 – a figure on Mumbai diagram of densities that rises to well above 50,000 people per km2 (if one only takes the built-up area into account), a level higher than even the highest density peaks in New York City’s borough of Manhattan. Furthermore, it is not rare for the densest neighbourhoods of Mumbai, such as Dharavi, to accommodate as many as 100,000 residents per km2.
London figure ground
Mumbai figure ground
London diagram of densities
Mumbai diagram of densities *Source: Urban Age
Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) tooks up to four districts of Maharastra state, being this metropolitan area one of the biggest in India. These four districts, as shown in the left image, are Thane, Raigad, Mumbai Suburban and Greater Mumbai. Due to this extension, MMR has the most extensive suburban rail in the subcontinent with 300Km and transporting more than 6 million passengers each day, being also one of the most busiest railways in the world. Public transport in Mumbai involves the transport of millions of its citizens by train, road and water. Over 88% of the commuters in Mumbai use public transport (suburban trains or buses). It is the most convenient, efficient and cheap form of transport to a population largely without sufficientincome to afford cars. Mumbai has the largest organised bus transport network among major Indian cities. But the train network is constantly struggling to cope with the growing population. A train compartment is usually filled with over three times the passengers it was meant for at peak hours.
Mumbai has traditionally owed its prosperity largely to its textile mills and its seaport till the 1980s. These are now increasingly being replaced by industries employing more skilled labour such as engineering, diamond polishing, healthcare and information technology. Mumbai is also the primary financial centre for India, hosting both the major Indianstock exchanges (BSE and The National Stock Exchange), brokerages, asset management companies (including majority of the mutual fund companies), headquarters of most Indian state-owned and commercialbanks, as well as the financial & monetary regulatory authorities of India. Employment Percentage in Mumbai
Mumbai Transportation Uses
Mumbai Metropolitan Railway
Mumbai Metropolitan Railway *Source: Urban Age
As Mumbai is the state capital, government employees make up a large percentage of the city’s workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled labour population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such proletarian professions. The port and shipping industry too employs many residents directly and indirectly. Like most metropolitan cities, Mumbai also has a large influx of people from rural areas looking for employment. Most of India’s television and satellite networks are located in Mumbai, as well as the major publishing houses. The Hindi movie industry, known by some as Bollywood, is also located in Mumbai, along with the largest studios and production houses. To add to this, most major advertising companies operating in India also have their primary office in Mumbai.
Unskilled labour population
Big Industries in India, located in Mumbai
The Climate of Mumbai is a tropical wet and dry climate. Mumbai’s climate can be best described as moderate temperatures with high level of humidity. Its coastal nature and tropical location ensures moderate temperatures throughout the year, average of 27.2 °C and average precipitation of 242.2 cm (95.35 inches). The temperatures in average about 30 °C in summer and 18 °C in winter. Mumbai’s experiences 4 distinct seasons Winter: (December–Feb); Summer: (March–May); Monsoon (June–Sep) and Post Monsoon (Oct–Dec). The Indian Ocean monsoon usually occurs between June and September, and deposits more than 90% of the annual 1800 mm (70 in) of rainfall. The first monsoon showers are usually expected to reach Mumbai on the 7th of June, but there are large fluctuations in the date of onset. The monsoon is not a period of unremitting rain. More than half the rainfall is usually deposited in approximately seven days of rain during these three months. There may also be extended periods without any rain. The temperate remains in the high 20s (ie, around 75o F). Monsoon is characterized by heavy westerly winds. The sea is very rough, with extremely high waves on the western coast of the city. The harbour is calmer, but too choppy for boats and sailing.
Monsoon Day in Mumbai
MUMBAIurban projects After the high growth that the city is experiencing, some urban projects and analysis have come around. It is worth to highlight the work done by Subarna Internacional, a company that has invested in research about the future of the city. Talking about urban analysis two main projects can be highlighted, the Blue Print project. and Grim Projections. These two and other infrastructure project will be exposed below. This analysis of the projects will be helpful in order to understand Mumbai citizens´ concerns as well as necessities. Twenty years from now, Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) will need 4.35 million housing units, and consume 15,372 million litres (more than four times the current requirement) of water every day in order to meet the demands of its growing population. The only way the government can decongest the city and improve the quality of life for its citizens is to develop planned urban conglomerates in Vasai-Virar, Thane, Kalyan, Navi Mumbai Panvel and Pen, increase FSI, and reclaim land. These were just some of the many findings of a concept plan for MMR, presented in a seminar at the Sahyadri guest house on Friday. It was prepared by a Singapore-based consultant for the state government and Bombay First—a development advisory body. By 2032, Mumbai will need six business hubs like Nariman Point and Bandra Kurla Complex. The state has to double the existing road and train network. Some of the major road and rail corridors proposed in the plan included the Alibaug-Virar corridor, a coastal road around the island of Mumbai, two trans-harbour links, and a creek bridge between Kanjurmarg and Koparkhairane. The study projected that property prices in Navi Mumbai and Thane will rise faster than other parts of the MMR, with the exception of South Mumbai. To maximize available, the concept plan suggested that the government increase FSI to 15 in key business hubs. Reclamation of land was also a priority. But Djoko Prihanto of the Singapore company Surbana Urban Planning Group, stressed on the need for infrastructure to keep up with the high FSI in business areas. Mumbai’s population density—which is 40,000 people per sq km—has to be brought down to 23,000 people. To meet this target, the government will require an additional 1,300 sq km of land by 2032. Similarly, the study showed that the average living space per person should increase to at least 86 sq ft from the current average of 43- 64sq ft. The study suggested that congestion tax be introduced to tackle the problem of vehicular pollution. If no adequate measures are taken, air and water pollution levels will rise from 4.6% to 12.5% by 2052. The plan also called for setting up of wind and tidal power generation plants, developing a reservoir in Thane creek, and constructing a water storage barrage at Mahim bay. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS · Increase FSI in the island city to 5. · In Navi Mumbai and Uran FSI should be 3 and in Kalyan, Panvel Vasai and Virar FSI should be 2 · Introduce four to five major coastal or trans-harbour roads and rail corridors · Create a parking policy, ban road-side parking and make restrict movement of cars in highly congested areas. · Introduce congestion tax for car owners, whereby motorists will have to pay to enter central business districts like BKC, Nariman Point, etc · Create artificial islands in the eastern water front as mini-cities · Develop ferry services on eastern and western water fronts · Create more green lungs and parks *Source: Surbana International
Appart from these investigation and analysis projects, it is also worth mentioning two projects own by the MMRDA (Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority), Monorail Project and Skywalk Project. Monorail Project Considering the increase in population, increased travel demand in Mumbai city and narrow road networks running through congested structures, there is a need of a system which will occupy less space as well as reduce travel time. With the objective, to support public rapid transit system such as suburban rail system and metro rail system and where public rapid transit system is not available or impossible to provide such system and where widening of roads is not possible due to structures on either sides, Mono Rail system is proposed to be implemented by MMRDA/GOM. MMRDA proposes to implement a proven and established Monorail System in various parts of Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR). Implementation of about 20 kms Monorail System from Sant Gadge Maharaj Chowk - Wadala - Chembur station as a Pilot Project is under progress. The monorail had its first test run on 18 February 2012 from its yard in Wadala to a station at Bhakti Park, a distance of around a kilometre. Scomi, the Malaysian company that supplied the rakes for the project, was in charge of the trial. Once completed, it will be worldâ€™s second longest monorail corridor, the longest being Japanâ€™s Osaka Monorail corridor which is 23.8 km. Total Monorail Network of 135.21 kms is recommended for development from year 2011 to 2031 in phases and priority wise.Total cost of Monorail Master Plan (7 corridors) is Rs. 20,295 Cr. Cost of construction - Elevated Mono Rail is Rs.139 crores/km. Skywalk Project Transport interchange activities, passenger transfer between trains, buses, taxies and Private vehicles station area most congested. The problem aggravates with the road side hawking and vehicular parking. The sky elevated walk way dedicated to the pedestrians connecting the railway Station/ high concentration commercial area and points where concentration of pedestrians prevail. The purpose of the skywalks is for efficient dispersal of commercial station/ congested area to strategic locations viz. bus stops, taxi stands, shopping areas, off roads etc. and vice versa help decongest the crowded streets. Before finalizing detailed project report i.e. before preparing GAD; local people, corporators, from that area are being contacted to understand their views/ suggestions/ concurrence etc. PMC for these works have been and they are asked to co-ordinate with other concerned departments.
Monorail Project Plan
Skywalk project on execution *Source: MMRDA
RAIGAD/ALIBAGanalysis Once we get into a medium scale of analysis such as the scale of Alibag, we can start to analyze other strengths and weaknesses of the area in a much more tangible way and not so much as pure data. This area, as explained above, is part of the metropolitan region of Mumbai being Raigad one of its districts. The district is bounded by Mumbai Harbour to the northwest, Thane District to the north, Pune District to the east, Ratnagiri district to the south, and the Arabian Sea to the west. It has a population of 2,635,394, with a density of 368 inhabitants per square meter that is as said, likely to indian average density, but unlike MumbaiÂ´s. The main sector of the distric is based on services, such as tourism or commerce. It is interesting to see how as the scale gets smaller the sector and casts go to a lower level. Starting from Mumbai and to the small village of Nagaon, as we will see. Mumbai is known for being a cosmopolita and international city. Its crowded streets and stressful life make its inhabitants to have the need of taking a break from the city and move somewhere else looking for space and rest. They can find all these characteristics in the area of Alibag. During the weekends, the whole district is full of Mumbai tourist that try to isolate from the city, and to make big celebrations, such as weedings or bachelor parties. The district is well known on the central indian cost because of its beaches, being that the main reason for this area to be such a touristic attraction. As in the rest of India, this area is also famous because of the numerous forts surounding it, such as the one below, Kolaba Fort, in Alibag Beach.
Raigad perimetral area= 7148sqkm
Kolaba Fort in Alibag
Location of Alibag in Raigad
The district is bounded by Mumbai Harbour to the northwest, Thane District to the north, Pune District to the east, Ratnagiri district to the south, and the Arabian Sea to the west. It includes the large natural harbor of Pen-Mandwa, which is immediately south of Mumbai harbour, and forming a single landform with it. The northern part of the district is included in the planned metropolis of Navi Mumbai, and its port, the Jawaharlal Nehru Port. The district includes towns/ cities of Roha, Panvel, Pen, Khopoli, Kharghar, Taloja, Khalapur, Uran, Patalganga, Rasayani, Nagothana, Poladpur, Alibag, Karjat and Mahad. The biggest city both in area and population is Panvel. The district also includes the isle of Gharapuri or Elephanta, located in Uran tehasil which has ancient Hindu and Buddhist caves. The city of Alibag is the headquarters of Raigad district. It has population of 19,491 inhabitants, that increases substancially on weekends and summer holidays, due to the turism the city gets from Mumbai. It is reachable through road from Mumbai, or boat in non-monsoon seasons.
small scale NAGAONanalysis&swot The small scale area selected for the project, is located in an undersized town of Alibag, Nagaon. It is a place where all the Indian culture and heritage is very present, not only regarding urban or architectural means, but also in the inhabitants values and behaviours. Despite being only 10km away from the main town, Alibag, this village is not an easy reachable area, being the only mean of transportation oublic autoricksaw or private car. Due to the poor infrastructure in the area, the communications with bigger cities during the monsoon seasons become even worse.
Location of Nagaon in Alibag
Regarding urban infrastructure, this village -as many other small towns in India- is not properly adapted, having lacks of waste management, water supply or power demands. This weaknesses make the inhabitants responsible of all these lacks, being themselves who have to deal with them. This means that all the waste produced by the inhabitants, will later be burned by them, agraving the situation of the nature in this area. This self-waste-management leads in two consequences, the pollution of the natural environment due to the smoke provoked with the fires, and the use of the land as a dump, that is a direct pollution affecting all the inhabitants and tourists, making the area appart from stinky, full of bacteria and dirt. As said, the water supply of the area is also a weakness, this is again a problem affecting the whole India and not only the proposed area, although the contamination of the sea and river water is mainly present on this area of India, due to the large shipping industry of Mumbai port. These are few of the weaknesses of the area, (see next page for SWOT analysis), that can later lead in opportunities for the project, along with the strenghts of the area. This chart gives identity to the project, being the main generator of the project motto, 3rÂ´s: recover, revitalize and regenerate. Through this motto, and with the areaÂ´s opportinuties and trying to improve this incredible natural paradise, creating public space and new opportunities for the inhabitants. The area is located between the seaside and the tropical jungle, being these keypoints of the project. The whole area will be affected in a possitive way with the intrvention. The stakeholders that will profit the project, are besides inhabitants and tourists, local businesses, Studio Mumbai staff, fishermen, near hotels, cottages etc.
SWOT Analysis of the Area
Photographs describing the area, its strenghts and weaknesses that will be improved and taking advantage along the project.
3RÂ´S PROJECTdescription After the area analysis and taking into account the SWOT analysis results, along with the project of Design Studio we came to the urban design project. Both project have been projected as one, with the same intentions, recover, revitalize and regenerate the area. As said before, the village needs help, it needs an intervention, in order to achieve those three intentions are ment not only to help the area itself, but also its inhabitants and the stakeholders previouly described. The design studio project tries to get all the lacks of the area and reinforce them with new infrastructure for the village. The joint between design studio project and urban design, lies on the projection of new public space and leisure spaces around these small units of regeneration. This way, the new public spaces will be able to revitalize the area, making it more liveable and usefull for inhabitants and tourist. The public space appart from serving as leisure, will also be a way of making to people aware of how to take care of the nature and public spaces as this one. There have been proposed two interventions in the area, one dealing with the seaside, and other one with the jungle and most dense nature site. The first one, explained below, deals with the water cleaning and waste management recovery and tries to recover the seaside and village of Nagaon, while the second one tries to solve the problems with wildlife, at the same time that serves as a way of acknowledge for locals and tourists.
Diagram of different infrastrucutres needed and proposed to revitalize and restore the area.
The design studio project aims to solve the contamination problems of the area by a double purpose building that will clean the seaside water and will eliminate the using of nature as a dump. Here we have the opportunity to solve the relation of the project people with the locals and provide the locals with a promenade to enjoy the wonderful views that the seaside offer but are just rechable for rockclimbers and goats. The proposal will try to join the design studio waste management + water cleaning area with the natural rock protection by means of a public space that gives the chance of both, connecting people with the project idea of recovering, revitalizing and regenerating the area plus providing a public promenade so everybody can access the magnificent views of the tides from the top of this wall. People will be conscious of how to improve the waste situation by means of seeing how the water can be cleaned and both dumps and fires may help creating electricity for the building if well managed, rather than just destroying parts of this beautiful landscape. They already do the labour of picking all dirty areas but they just donâ€™t know what to do with all this waste so they wither throw it to the river or burn it in a fire. For this project we have several reference projects, the most interesting one is the regeneration of british waterfront by means of a bench. They build a huge bench that goes all along the waterfront, 324 m, following a new public promenade. Our idea is something similar but in smaller scale and also providing several viewpoints and staying points plus the connection with the design studio project, so it wont be just a promenade on the wall, but a mixture of public space within the project that will make people concious of how to improve the current situation and also help the entrepreneur to do their job.
WILDLIFEproject This proposal tries to replace the dumps by selfsuficient cultive area plus an animal resevoir also selfsuficient and carried out by the entrepreneurs helped by local people. The connection of the different spaces (points in the map) will be made by a secondary public promenade that will transform some of this points into public spaces that provide outiders with the opportunity of enjoying the wildlife and agriculture of the area while they are having a walk or resting while looking at the animals they have brought to the reservoir. For this project we have as reference the wildlife sanctuary centers as Kapawi in Ecuador or Napo Wildlife Center on which ecological public explotation of the jungle wildlife provided means to preserve and maintain it untouched. Our idea is similar but less oriented to foreign visitors and more on a selfsuficient conservation of the area by and for the people that is going to enjoy it. Of couse, turist visitors will be welcomed. This project will base the public promenades on the vernacular wooden construction, as everything in the project will be made out of vernacular architecture, materials and construction techniques. The idea is giving a secondary path for a public use of the installation providing viewing points as well as shelter areas for resting. People that bring damaged animals to be healed may want to experience the recovery of â€?hisâ€? animal, and this is encouraged as we want local people to engage and give life to this project due to the commitement that this people have with the conservation of the species of the area.
Main intervention points for the revitalization of the area.
SECTIONconvined The final result of both projects is the convination of the different needs of the area, resulting a public space where leisure and awareness and knowledge about the natural space get in touch. This project will result as profit for all the stakeholders above described. Thanks to the integration of both, infrastucture and leisure units, together with the open public spaces created, Nagaon inhabitants will be able to discover the real life of their own village.
Published on Jun 13, 2012